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# 3-8

Square Roots

3-8

1. Plan
Objectives
1
2

## To find square roots

To estimate and use square
roots

Examples
1
2
3
4
5

## Simplifying Square Root

Expressions
Rational and Irrational
Square Roots
Estimating Square Roots
Approximating Square Roots
With a Calculator
Real-World Problem Solving

## To find square roots

To estimate and use square

roots

. . . And Why

1. 112 121

2. (-12)2 144

5. 0.6 2 0.36

2
6. Q 12 R 41

GO for Help
3. -(12)2 144

2
7. Q 2 23 R 49

Lesson 1-2

4. 1.5 2 2.25
2
8. Q 45 R 16
25

## New Vocabulary square root principal square root

negative square root radicand perfect squares

## To apply square roots in a

real-world situation involving
construction, as in Example 5

Part
1 1 Finding Square Roots

Math Background

## The diagram at the right shows

the relationship between squares
and square roots. Every positive
number has two square roots.

## The word radical comes from

radix, the Latin word for root.

42
(4)2

Square 4
root
of 16
4

16

Key Concepts

Denition

Resources

Example

## See p. 116E for a list of the

resources that support this lesson.
PowerPoint

## Bell Ringer Practice

Check Skills Youll Need

Square Root

A radical symbol ! indicates a square root. The expression !16 means the
positive, or principal square root of 16. The expression - !16 means the
negative square root of 16. The expression under the radical sign is a radicand.
You can use the symbol 4 to indicate both square roots.

Vocabulary Tip
root of 16. Read 4 as
plus or minus.

of Operations

EXAMPLE

a. !64 = 8
b. - !100 = -10

## Lesson 1-2: Example 1

Extra Skills and Word
Problems Practice, Ch. 1

176

## The square roots are 34 and 2 34.

e. !216 is undened.

is undened.

a. !49 7
b. 4 !36 w6

c. 2!121 11

1 1
d. 25
5

Special Needs

Below Level

L1

## Remind students of the inverse relationship between

a square and a square root. Use graph paper to
demonstrate how the area of a square is the same as
the square of the length of one side.

176

9 = 43
c. 4 16
4

d. 4 !0 = 0

Quick Check

L2

## Take a few minutes to review multiplying fractions

before students delve into this lesson.

## learning style: verbal

2. Teach

Some square roots are rational numbers and some are irrational numbers.

Vocabulary Tip

Rational: !100 = 10

4 !0.36 = 40.6

## Irrational: !10 3.16227766

In decimal form, a
rational number
terminates or repeats. In
decimal form, an
irrational number
continues without
repeating.

16 = 4
11

121

1 0.377964473

Guided Instruction

EXAMPLE

PowerPoint

## Tell whether each expression is rational or irrational.

a. 4 !81 = 49

b. 2!1.44 = -1.2

rational

c. 2!5 -2.23606798

irrational

4=2
3
e. 13 0.57735026

rational

d.

Quick Check

rational

## 1 Simplify each expression.

a. !25 5

9
b. 4 25
w35
c. - !64 8 d. !249 undefined

e.

irrational

a. !8 irrational

## b. 4 !225 rational c. - !75 irrational d.

1 rational

2
T
4

3
T
9

4
T
16

5
T
25

6
T
36

3 Between what two consecutive
integers is !28.34 ? 5 and 6

hundredth. 5.32

!9

!14.52

!14.52

T
3

## For: Square Root Activity

Use: Interactive Textbook, 3-8

!16

## 14.52 is between the two consecutive perfect

squares 9 and 16.

T
The square roots of 9 and 16 are 3 and 4, respectively.

Quick Check

EXAMPLE

Closure

## Calculator Find !14.52 to the nearest hundredth.

!14.52 < 3 . 8 1 0 5 1 1 7 7 7
< 3.81

Quick Check

14.52

## 5 The formula d = " x2 1 (3x) 2

gives the length of the diagonal
of a rectangular field that has a
length three times its width x.
Find the length of the diagonal
if x = 8 ft. about 25.3 ft

Resources
Daily Notetaking Guide 3-8 L3
Daily Notetaking Guide 3-8
L1

rational

PowerPoint

EXAMPLE

e. !7 irrational

## 2 Tell whether each expression is

rational or irrational.
a. 4 !144 rational

d.

1
T
consecutive perfect squares: 1

b. - 15 irrational
c. - !6.25 rational

Estimatingand
andUsing
UsingSquare
SquareRoots
Roots
1 2 Estimating
Part
consecutive integers:

16 4

177

## Ask students to explain what !x ,

- !x , and 4 !x represent where
x is any positive real number.
!x represents the principal, or
positive, square root of x. !x
represents the negative square
root. w !x represents the
positive and negative square
roots.

L4

## Have students investigate and explain the connection

between the formula in Example 5 and the
Pythagorean Theorem.

## Some students may have difficulty understanding the

difference between rational and irrational numbers.
Underline ratio at the start of the word rational, and
explain that rational numbers can be expressed as a
ratio of two integers.

177

3. Practice

Assignment Guide

d = "x2 1 (2x) 2

2 A B

17-25, 39-48, 52
C Challenge
53-57

2x

58-63
64-73

Quick Check

## To check students understanding

of key skills and concepts, go over
Exercises 10, 18, 41, 49, 52.

## Exercises 2637 Remind students

that every positive number has
two square roots.

## to begin by trying real numbers

greater than or equal to 1 and
then trying real numbers between
0 and 1. They will discover that
the square root of a fraction
between 0 and 1 is larger than

Practice by Example
Example 1

GO for
Help

(page 176)

(page 177)

Example 3
(page 177)

Example 4
(page 177)

Example 5
(page 178)
GPS Guided Problem Solving

L3
L4

Enrichment

L2

Reteaching

L1

Class

Date

L3

## Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.

1. d 2

2. h 6

3. 2k 8

4. s + 4 2

5. 3c - 6 3

6. 2n + 3 5

7. 3.5z 7

8. ` 23 x ` 4

13. 2n - 1 1

10. j - 2 6

11. 5 v + 2 + 3

12. 4y + 11 7

14. ` 12 x 1 1 ` 1

15. -2h - 2 -2

16. 32x 12

19. 2 12 6x - 3 2 23

## Use a calculator. Round to the nearest tenth.

5 Suppose the tower is 140 ft tall. How long is the supporting wire? Round to the
nearest tenth of a foot. 156.5 ft

For more exercises, see Extra Skill and Word Problem Practice.

21. a = 9.5

22. b = -2

23. d - 25 = -13

24. 6z + 3 = 21

25. 3c - 45 = -18

uzu
26. -2 = 2 7

27. x = -0.8

## Simplify each expression.

1. !169 13

5. !0.25 0.5

30. The mean distance of the earth from the sun is 93 million miles. The
distance varies by 1.6 million miles. Find the range of distances of the
earth from the sun.
31. Leona was in a golf tournament last week. All four of her rounds of golf
were within 2 strokes of par. If par was 72, nd the range of scores that
Leona could have shot for each round of the golf tournament.
32. Victors goal is to earn \$75 per week at his after-school job. Last month
he was within \$6.50 of his goal. Find the range of amounts that Victor
might have earned last month.
33. Members of the track team can run 400 m in an average time of 58.2 s.
The fastest and slowest times vary from the average by 6.4 s. Find the
range of times for the track team.
34. The ideal length of a particular metal rod is 25.5 cm. The measured
length may vary from the ideal length by at most 0.025 cm. Find the
range of acceptable lengths for the rod.
35. When measured on a particular scale, the weight of an object may vary
from its actual weight by at most 0.4 lb. If the reading on the scale is
125.2 lb, nd the range of actual weights of the object.
36. One poll reported that the approval rating of the job performance of
the President of the United States was 63%. The poll was said to be
accurate to within 3.8%. What is the range of actual approval ratings?

6
6. 36
49 7

10. 2"144 12

3.

1 1

9 3

7. 2!1.21 1.1
5
11. 25
16 4

4. !900 30

8. !1.96 1.4

## 12. 4 !0.01 w0.1

16 rational
13. !37 irrational 14. - !0.04 rational 15. 4 15 irrational 16. - 121

17. !35 5 and 6

## 18. !27 5 and 6

19. - !130
20. !170
13 and 14
12 and 11
Use a calculator to nd each square root to the nearest hundredth.
21. !12 3.46

## 22. - !203 14.25 23. !11,550 107.47 24. - !150 12.25

25. Sports The elasticity coefcient e of a ball relates the height r of its rebound
to the height h from which it is dropped. You can use the function e = r
h
to nd the elasticity coefcient.What is the elasticity coefcient of a
tennis ball that rebounds 3 ft after it is dropped from a height of 3.5 ft?
Round to the nearest hundredth. 0.93
Find the square root(s) of each number.
26. 400 w20

27. 0 0

9 w3
29. 49
7

1 w1
31. 81
9

64 w 8
36. 121
11

## 37. 40,804 w202

38. Critical Thinking What number other than 0 is its own square root? 1

## Write and solve an absolute value equation or inequality that represents

each situation.

29. The average number of cucumber seeds in a package is 25. The number
of seeds in the package can vary by three. Find the range of acceptable
numbers of seeds in each package.

2. !400 20

178

Simplify.

9. !0.36 0.6
Example 2

## itself. For example, 14 = 12.

Suggest to students that they
reword the statement to make
it true.

9. 9 6 + 3t

d < 26.8

EXERCISES

## Exercise 54 Encourage students

Practice 3-6

Substitute 12 for x.

d = !144 1 576
d = !720

Practiceand
andProblem
ProblemSolving
Solving
Practice

Teaching Tip

Name

d = "122 1 (2 ? 12) 2

EXERCISES

Error Prevention!

Practice

Problem Solving

Construction The formula d = "x2 1 (2x) 2 gives the length d of each wire for
the tower at the left. Find the length of the wire if x = 12 ft.

Test Prep
Mixed Review

Real-World

EXAMPLE

178

## 39. Multiple Choice The formula

d = "12,800h 1 h2 gives
the distance d in kilometers
to the horizon from a
satellite h kilometers above
Earth. Find the distance to the
horizon from a satellite
4200 km above Earth. Round
to the nearest kilometer. C
130 km
7333 km
8450 km

GO

PowerPoint

Lesson Quiz
1. Simplify each expression.
a. !196 14

4
b. 4 25
w25

## 2. Tell whether each expression is

rational, irrational, or
undefined.

11,532 km

## Find the value of each expression. If

0.98487necessary, round to the nearest hundredth.

nline

40. !441 21

Homework Help

## 43. !1.6 1.26

Visit: PHSchool.com
Web Code: ate-0308

## 46. 2!0.64 0.8

4 2
41. 2 25
5
44. 2!30 5.48
47. !41 6.40

a. 4 35 irrational

b. !225 undefined

42. !2 1.41

c. - !2.25 rational

45. 2!1089 33

## 3. Between what two consecutive

integers
is - !54 ? 8 and 7

## 48. !75 8.66

49. Writing Explain the difference between - !1 and !1. See left.
50. Open-Ended Find two integers a and b between 1 and 20 such that a 2 + b 2 is a
perfect square. Answers may vary. Sample: 3 and 4

Sample: The first
expression means
the neg. square root
of 1 and the second
expression means
the pos. square root
of 1.

51. Math in the Media In the cartoon, to what number is the golfer referring? 4

## 4. The formula s = !13.5d

estimates the speed s in miles
per hour that a car was
traveling, when it applied its
brakes and left a skid mark
d feet long on a wet road.
Estimate the speed of a car
that left a 120 foot long skid

Alternative Assessment

Challenge

## 52. Physics If you drop an object, the time t in seconds

d
GPS that it takes to fall d feet is given by the formula t = 16 .
a. Find the time it takes an object to fall 400 ft. 5 s
b. Find the time it takes an object to fall 1600 ft. 10 s
c. Critical Thinking In part (b), the object falls four times as far as in part (a).
Does it take four times as long to fall? Explain.
No; the object takes twice as long to fall.
Critical Thinking For Exercises 53 56, tell whether each statement is true or false.
If the statement is false, give a counterexample.
False; zero has one
53. Every nonnegative number has two square roots. square root.
54. The square root of a positive number is always less than the number.
false; "1 5 1
55. The square root of an even perfect square is always an even number. true

## Have students work in pairs. One

student writes an answer, such as
-12, and the other student must
come up with a square root
such as - !144 . Then, the first
student gives the second student
two consecutive integers
(negative or positive) and the
second student comes up with
a square root expression whose
value lies between them. Students
switch roles and repeat.

## 56. !p + !q = !p 1 q See margin.

57a. 4 units2

57. a. What is the total area of the large square shown at the right?
b. What is the area of each shaded triangle? 12 unit2
c. What is the area of the shaded square? 2 units2
d. What is the length of the diagonal of each 1 1 square?
"2 units

pages 178180

Exercises

Sample: "4 "9 u
"4 1 9.

## Lesson 3-8 Finding and Estimating Square Roots

68. 8 ? 7 ? 5 8 ? 5 ? 7 Comm.
Prop. of Mult.
40 ? 7
Mult.
280
Mult.

1
1
x 1

179

## 69. 14 23 56 14 56 23 Comm. Prop. of Add.

70 23
93
1
70. 16 Q 16
R 5 1 5 Inv. Prop.of Mult.
6

179

Test Prep

Test Prep
Standardized
Test Prep

## A sheet of blank grids is available

with the Test-Taking Strategies
booklet. Give this sheet to
students for practice with filling
in the grids.

Gridded Response

## 58. Find the area of the shaded

region. 128
59. Find the value of !1.69. 1.3
4. 2
60. Find the value of 81

Resources

100

16
64

whole number. 9

## For additional practice with a

variety of test item formats:
Standardized Test Prep, p. 195
Test-Taking Strategies, p. 190
Test-Taking Strategies with
Transparencies

## 62. Simplify "42 1 32 1 11. 6

256
63. The formula < = A
relates
6
the surface area A of a cube to the length of its edge <. A cube has a
surface area of 726 cm2. How many centimeters is the length of the edge?

Math Tip

11

## Exercise 59 Remind students

that 1.69 is equivalent to 169
100.
Encourage students to find the
square root using this expression.

Mixed Review
Lesson 3-7

Lesson 2-5

## Use this Checkpoint Quiz to check

students understanding of the
skills and concepts of Lessons 3-6
through 3-8.

## Find each percent of change. Describe the percent of change as an increase or

decrease. If necessary, round tothe nearest tenth.
64. \$5 to \$6
65. 40 in. to 36 in.
66. 10 m to 11 m
67. 18 to 24
20% incr.
10% decr.
10% incr.
331
3% incr.
Simplify each expression. Justify each step. 6873. See margin.
68. 8 ? 7 ? 5

69. 14 1 23 1 56

1R 15
70. 16 Q 16

## 71. (68 2 69)(11 2 11)

72. 27(3w)

73. 8m 1 145 1 4m

Resources
Grab & Go
Checkpoint Quiz 2

Checkpoint Quiz 2

## Lessons 3-6 to 3-8

1. The length of a rectangle is 5 cm more than its width. The perimeter of the
rectangle is 46 cm. What is the length of the rectangle? 14 cm
2. The sum of three consecutive odd integers is 465. Find the integers.

## 3. Marcus and Beth leave college traveling in opposite directions on a straight

road. Beth drives 13 mi/h faster than Marcus. After 4 hours, they are 452 miles
apart. Find their rates. Marcus: 63 mi/h; Beth: 50 mi/h
Find the percent error for each measurement.

5. 25 cm 0.2%

## 6. A student measures a rectangle as 14 in. 23 in. Find the minimum and

maximum possible areas for the rectangle. 303.75 cm2; 340.75 cm2
Simplify each expression.
7. 2!256 16

64 8
8. #121
11

9. 4 !0.0025 w0.05

180

## 71. (68 69)(11 11) (68 69)(11 (11)) Def. of Subtr.

(68 69)(0)
0
Mult. Prop. of Zero
72. 7(3w) (7 ? 3)w
Assoc. Prop of Mult.
(1 ? 7 ? 3)w Mult. Prop. of 1
21w
Mult.

180

## 73. 8m 145 4m 8m 4m 145 Comm. Prop. of Add.

(8 4)m 145 Distr. Prop.
12m 145