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Algebra

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You are on page 1of 5

Square Roots

3-8

1. Plan

Objectives

1

2

To estimate and use square

roots

Examples

1

2

3

4

5

Expressions

Rational and Irrational

Square Roots

Estimating Square Roots

Approximating Square Roots

With a Calculator

Real-World Problem Solving

To estimate and use square

roots

. . . And Why

1. 112 121

2. (-12)2 144

5. 0.6 2 0.36

2

6. Q 12 R 41

GO for Help

3. -(12)2 144

2

7. Q 2 23 R 49

Lesson 1-2

4. 1.5 2 2.25

2

8. Q 45 R 16

25

negative square root radicand perfect squares

real-world situation involving

construction, as in Example 5

Part

1 1 Finding Square Roots

Math Background

the relationship between squares

and square roots. Every positive

number has two square roots.

radix, the Latin word for root.

42

(4)2

Square 4

root

of 16

4

16

Key Concepts

Denition

Resources

Example

resources that support this lesson.

PowerPoint

Check Skills Youll Need

Square Root

A radical symbol ! indicates a square root. The expression !16 means the

positive, or principal square root of 16. The expression - !16 means the

negative square root of 16. The expression under the radical sign is a radicand.

You can use the symbol 4 to indicate both square roots.

Vocabulary Tip

Read !16 as the square

root of 16. Read 4 as

plus or minus.

of Operations

EXAMPLE

a. !64 = 8

b. - !100 = -10

Extra Skills and Word

Problems Practice, Ch. 1

176

e. !216 is undened.

is undened.

a. !49 7

b. 4 !36 w6

c. 2!121 11

1 1

d. 25

5

Special Needs

Below Level

L1

a square and a square root. Use graph paper to

demonstrate how the area of a square is the same as

the square of the length of one side.

176

9 = 43

c. 4 16

4

d. 4 !0 = 0

Quick Check

L2

before students delve into this lesson.

2. Teach

Some square roots are rational numbers and some are irrational numbers.

Vocabulary Tip

Rational: !100 = 10

4 !0.36 = 40.6

In decimal form, a

rational number

terminates or repeats. In

decimal form, an

irrational number

continues without

repeating.

16 = 4

11

121

1 0.377964473

Guided Instruction

EXAMPLE

PowerPoint

Additional Examples

a. 4 !81 = 49

b. 2!1.44 = -1.2

rational

c. 2!5 -2.23606798

irrational

4=2

3

e. 13 0.57735026

rational

d.

Quick Check

rational

a. !25 5

9

b. 4 25

w35

c. - !64 8 d. !249 undefined

e.

irrational

a. !8 irrational

1 rational

2

T

4

3

T

9

4

T

16

5

T

25

6

T

36

Additional Examples

3 Between what two consecutive

integers is !28.34 ? 5 and 6

hundredth. 5.32

!9

!14.52

!14.52

T

3

Use: Interactive Textbook, 3-8

!16

squares 9 and 16.

T

The square roots of 9 and 16 are 3 and 4, respectively.

Quick Check

EXAMPLE

Closure

!14.52 < 3 . 8 1 0 5 1 1 7 7 7

< 3.81

Quick Check

14.52

Advanced Learners

gives the length of the diagonal

of a rectangular field that has a

length three times its width x.

Find the length of the diagonal

if x = 8 ft. about 25.3 ft

Resources

Daily Notetaking Guide 3-8 L3

Daily Notetaking Guide 3-8

L1

Adapted Instruction

rational

PowerPoint

EXAMPLE

e. !7 irrational

rational or irrational.

a. 4 !144 rational

d.

1

T

consecutive perfect squares: 1

b. - 15 irrational

c. - !6.25 rational

Estimatingand

andUsing

UsingSquare

SquareRoots

Roots

1 2 Estimating

Part

consecutive integers:

16 4

177

- !x , and 4 !x represent where

x is any positive real number.

!x represents the principal, or

positive, square root of x. !x

represents the negative square

root. w !x represents the

positive and negative square

roots.

L4

between the formula in Example 5 and the

Pythagorean Theorem.

difference between rational and irrational numbers.

Underline ratio at the start of the word rational, and

explain that rational numbers can be expressed as a

ratio of two integers.

177

3. Practice

Assignment Guide

d = "x2 1 (2x) 2

2 A B

17-25, 39-48, 52

C Challenge

53-57

2x

58-63

64-73

Quick Check

of key skills and concepts, go over

Exercises 10, 18, 41, 49, 52.

that every positive number has

two square roots.

greater than or equal to 1 and

then trying real numbers between

0 and 1. They will discover that

the square root of a fraction

between 0 and 1 is larger than

Practice by Example

Example 1

GO for

Help

(page 176)

(page 177)

Example 3

(page 177)

Example 4

(page 177)

Example 5

(page 178)

GPS Guided Problem Solving

L3

L4

Enrichment

L2

Reteaching

L1

Adapted Practice

Class

Date

L3

1. d 2

2. h 6

3. 2k 8

4. s + 4 2

5. 3c - 6 3

6. 2n + 3 5

7. 3.5z 7

8. ` 23 x ` 4

13. 2n - 1 1

10. j - 2 6

11. 5 v + 2 + 3

12. 4y + 11 7

14. ` 12 x 1 1 ` 1

15. -2h - 2 -2

16. 32x 12

19. 2 12 6x - 3 2 23

5 Suppose the tower is 140 ft tall. How long is the supporting wire? Round to the

nearest tenth of a foot. 156.5 ft

For more exercises, see Extra Skill and Word Problem Practice.

21. a = 9.5

22. b = -2

23. d - 25 = -13

24. 6z + 3 = 21

25. 3c - 45 = -18

uzu

26. -2 = 2 7

27. x = -0.8

1. !169 13

5. !0.25 0.5

30. The mean distance of the earth from the sun is 93 million miles. The

distance varies by 1.6 million miles. Find the range of distances of the

earth from the sun.

31. Leona was in a golf tournament last week. All four of her rounds of golf

were within 2 strokes of par. If par was 72, nd the range of scores that

Leona could have shot for each round of the golf tournament.

32. Victors goal is to earn $75 per week at his after-school job. Last month

he was within $6.50 of his goal. Find the range of amounts that Victor

might have earned last month.

33. Members of the track team can run 400 m in an average time of 58.2 s.

The fastest and slowest times vary from the average by 6.4 s. Find the

range of times for the track team.

34. The ideal length of a particular metal rod is 25.5 cm. The measured

length may vary from the ideal length by at most 0.025 cm. Find the

range of acceptable lengths for the rod.

35. When measured on a particular scale, the weight of an object may vary

from its actual weight by at most 0.4 lb. If the reading on the scale is

125.2 lb, nd the range of actual weights of the object.

36. One poll reported that the approval rating of the job performance of

the President of the United States was 63%. The poll was said to be

accurate to within 3.8%. What is the range of actual approval ratings?

6

6. 36

49 7

10. 2"144 12

3.

1 1

9 3

7. 2!1.21 1.1

5

11. 25

16 4

4. !900 30

8. !1.96 1.4

16 rational

13. !37 irrational 14. - !0.04 rational 15. 4 15 irrational 16. - 121

17. !35 5 and 6

19. - !130

20. !170

13 and 14

12 and 11

Use a calculator to nd each square root to the nearest hundredth.

21. !12 3.46

25. Sports The elasticity coefcient e of a ball relates the height r of its rebound

to the height h from which it is dropped. You can use the function e = r

h

to nd the elasticity coefcient.What is the elasticity coefcient of a

tennis ball that rebounds 3 ft after it is dropped from a height of 3.5 ft?

Round to the nearest hundredth. 0.93

Find the square root(s) of each number.

26. 400 w20

27. 0 0

9 w3

29. 49

7

1 w1

31. 81

9

64 w 8

36. 121

11

38. Critical Thinking What number other than 0 is its own square root? 1

each situation.

29. The average number of cucumber seeds in a package is 25. The number

of seeds in the package can vary by three. Find the range of acceptable

numbers of seeds in each package.

2. !400 20

178

Simplify.

9. !0.36 0.6

Example 2

Suggest to students that they

reword the statement to make

it true.

9. 9 6 + 3t

d < 26.8

EXERCISES

Practice 3-6

Substitute 12 for x.

d = !144 1 576

d = !720

Practiceand

andProblem

ProblemSolving

Solving

Practice

Teaching Tip

Name

d = "122 1 (2 ? 12) 2

EXERCISES

Error Prevention!

Practice

Problem Solving

Construction The formula d = "x2 1 (2x) 2 gives the length d of each wire for

the tower at the left. Find the length of the wire if x = 12 ft.

Test Prep

Mixed Review

Real-World

EXAMPLE

178

d = "12,800h 1 h2 gives

the distance d in kilometers

to the horizon from a

satellite h kilometers above

Earth. Find the distance to the

horizon from a satellite

4200 km above Earth. Round

to the nearest kilometer. C

130 km

7333 km

8450 km

GO

PowerPoint

Lesson Quiz

1. Simplify each expression.

a. !196 14

4

b. 4 25

w25

rational, irrational, or

undefined.

11,532 km

0.98487necessary, round to the nearest hundredth.

nline

40. !441 21

Homework Help

Visit: PHSchool.com

Web Code: ate-0308

4 2

41. 2 25

5

44. 2!30 5.48

47. !41 6.40

a. 4 35 irrational

b. !225 undefined

42. !2 1.41

c. - !2.25 rational

45. 2!1089 33

integers

is - !54 ? 8 and 7

49. Writing Explain the difference between - !1 and !1. See left.

50. Open-Ended Find two integers a and b between 1 and 20 such that a 2 + b 2 is a

perfect square. Answers may vary. Sample: 3 and 4

Sample: The first

expression means

the neg. square root

of 1 and the second

expression means

the pos. square root

of 1.

51. Math in the Media In the cartoon, to what number is the golfer referring? 4

estimates the speed s in miles

per hour that a car was

traveling, when it applied its

brakes and left a skid mark

d feet long on a wet road.

Estimate the speed of a car

that left a 120 foot long skid

mark. about 40.25 mph

Alternative Assessment

Challenge

d

GPS that it takes to fall d feet is given by the formula t = 16 .

a. Find the time it takes an object to fall 400 ft. 5 s

b. Find the time it takes an object to fall 1600 ft. 10 s

c. Critical Thinking In part (b), the object falls four times as far as in part (a).

Does it take four times as long to fall? Explain.

No; the object takes twice as long to fall.

Critical Thinking For Exercises 53 56, tell whether each statement is true or false.

If the statement is false, give a counterexample.

False; zero has one

53. Every nonnegative number has two square roots. square root.

54. The square root of a positive number is always less than the number.

false; "1 5 1

55. The square root of an even perfect square is always an even number. true

student writes an answer, such as

-12, and the other student must

come up with a square root

expression that yields the answer,

such as - !144 . Then, the first

student gives the second student

two consecutive integers

(negative or positive) and the

second student comes up with

a square root expression whose

value lies between them. Students

switch roles and repeat.

57a. 4 units2

57. a. What is the total area of the large square shown at the right?

b. What is the area of each shaded triangle? 12 unit2

c. What is the area of the shaded square? 2 units2

d. What is the length of the diagonal of each 1 1 square?

"2 units

pages 178180

Exercises

Sample: "4 "9 u

"4 1 9.

68. 8 ? 7 ? 5 8 ? 5 ? 7 Comm.

Prop. of Mult.

40 ? 7

Mult.

280

Mult.

1

1

x 1

179

70 23

Add.

93

Add.

1

70. 16 Q 16

R 5 1 5 Inv. Prop.of Mult.

6

Add.

179

Test Prep

Test Prep

Standardized

Test Prep

with the Test-Taking Strategies

booklet. Give this sheet to

students for practice with filling

in the grids.

Gridded Response

region. 128

59. Find the value of !1.69. 1.3

4. 2

60. Find the value of 81

Resources

100

16

64

whole number. 9

variety of test item formats:

Standardized Test Prep, p. 195

Test-Taking Strategies, p. 190

Test-Taking Strategies with

Transparencies

256

63. The formula < = A

relates

6

the surface area A of a cube to the length of its edge <. A cube has a

surface area of 726 cm2. How many centimeters is the length of the edge?

Math Tip

11

that 1.69 is equivalent to 169

100.

Encourage students to find the

square root using this expression.

Mixed Review

Lesson 3-7

Lesson 2-5

students understanding of the

skills and concepts of Lessons 3-6

through 3-8.

decrease. If necessary, round tothe nearest tenth.

64. $5 to $6

65. 40 in. to 36 in.

66. 10 m to 11 m

67. 18 to 24

20% incr.

10% decr.

10% incr.

331

3% incr.

Simplify each expression. Justify each step. 6873. See margin.

68. 8 ? 7 ? 5

69. 14 1 23 1 56

1R 15

70. 16 Q 16

72. 27(3w)

73. 8m 1 145 1 4m

Resources

Grab & Go

Checkpoint Quiz 2

Checkpoint Quiz 2

1. The length of a rectangle is 5 cm more than its width. The perimeter of the

rectangle is 46 cm. What is the length of the rectangle? 14 cm

2. The sum of three consecutive odd integers is 465. Find the integers.

road. Beth drives 13 mi/h faster than Marcus. After 4 hours, they are 452 miles

apart. Find their rates. Marcus: 63 mi/h; Beth: 50 mi/h

Find the percent error for each measurement.

4. 210 cm about 0.02%

5. 25 cm 0.2%

maximum possible areas for the rectangle. 303.75 cm2; 340.75 cm2

Simplify each expression.

7. 2!256 16

64 8

8. #121

11

9. 4 !0.0025 w0.05

180

(68 69)(0)

Inv. Prop. of Add.

0

Mult. Prop. of Zero

72. 7(3w) (7 ? 3)w

Assoc. Prop of Mult.

(1 ? 7 ? 3)w Mult. Prop. of 1

21w

Mult.

180

(8 4)m 145 Distr. Prop.

12m 145

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