You are on page 1of 5

3-8

Finding and Estimating


Square Roots

3-8

1. Plan
Objectives
1
2

To find square roots


To estimate and use square
roots

Examples
1
2
3
4
5

Simplifying Square Root


Expressions
Rational and Irrational
Square Roots
Estimating Square Roots
Approximating Square Roots
With a Calculator
Real-World Problem Solving

What Youll Learn

Check Skills Youll Need

To find square roots


To estimate and use square

Simplify each expression.

roots

. . . And Why

1. 112 121

2. (-12)2 144

5. 0.6 2 0.36

2
6. Q 12 R 41

GO for Help
3. -(12)2 144

2
7. Q 2 23 R 49

Lesson 1-2

4. 1.5 2 2.25
2
8. Q 45 R 16
25

New Vocabulary square root principal square root


negative square root radicand perfect squares

To apply square roots in a


real-world situation involving
construction, as in Example 5

Part
1 1 Finding Square Roots

Math Background

The diagram at the right shows


the relationship between squares
and square roots. Every positive
number has two square roots.

The word radical comes from


radix, the Latin word for root.

42
(4)2

Square 4
root
of 16
4

16

More Math Background: p. 116D

Key Concepts

Denition

Lesson Planning and


Resources

The number a is a square root of b if a 2 = b.


Example

See p. 116E for a list of the


resources that support this lesson.
PowerPoint

Bell Ringer Practice


Check Skills Youll Need

Square Root

A radical symbol ! indicates a square root. The expression !16 means the
positive, or principal square root of 16. The expression - !16 means the
negative square root of 16. The expression under the radical sign is a radicand.
You can use the symbol 4 to indicate both square roots.

Vocabulary Tip
Read !16 as the square
root of 16. Read 4 as
plus or minus.

For intervention, direct students to:

Exponents and Order


of Operations

42 = 16 and (-4)2 = 16, so 4 and -4 are square roots of 16.

EXAMPLE

Simplifying Square Root Expressions

Simplify each expression.


a. !64 = 8
b. - !100 = -10

Lesson 1-2: Example 1


Extra Skills and Word
Problems Practice, Ch. 1

176

The square roots are 34 and 2 34.

e. !216 is undened.

For real numbers, the square root of a negative number


is undened.

There is only one square root of 0.

1 Simplify each expression.


a. !49 7
b. 4 !36 w6

c. 2!121 11

1 1
d. 25
5

Chapter 3 Solving Equations

Special Needs

Below Level

L1

Remind students of the inverse relationship between


a square and a square root. Use graph paper to
demonstrate how the area of a square is the same as
the square of the length of one side.

176

negative square root

9 = 43
c. 4 16
4

d. 4 !0 = 0

Quick Check

positive square root

learning style: visual

L2

Take a few minutes to review multiplying fractions


before students delve into this lesson.

learning style: verbal

2. Teach

Some square roots are rational numbers and some are irrational numbers.

Vocabulary Tip

Rational: !100 = 10

4 !0.36 = 40.6

Irrational: !10 3.16227766

In decimal form, a
rational number
terminates or repeats. In
decimal form, an
irrational number
continues without
repeating.

16 = 4
11

121

1 0.377964473

Guided Instruction

Rational and Irrational Square Roots

EXAMPLE

PowerPoint

Additional Examples

Tell whether each expression is rational or irrational.


a. 4 !81 = 49

b. 2!1.44 = -1.2

rational

c. 2!5 -2.23606798

irrational

4=2
3
e. 13 0.57735026

rational

d.

Quick Check

rational

1 Simplify each expression.

a. !25 5

9
b. 4 25
w35
c. - !64 8 d. !249 undefined

e.

irrational

2 Tell whether each expression is rational or irrational.

a. !8 irrational

b. 4 !225 rational c. - !75 irrational d.

1 rational

2
T
4

3
T
9

4
T
16

5
T
25

6
T
36

Additional Examples
3 Between what two consecutive
integers is !28.34 ? 5 and 6

4 Find !28.34 to the nearest


hundredth. 5.32

Estimating Square Roots

Estimation Between what two consecutive integers is !14.52?


!9

!14.52

!14.52

T
3

For: Square Root Activity


Use: Interactive Textbook, 3-8

!16

14.52 is between the two consecutive perfect


squares 9 and 16.

T
The square roots of 9 and 16 are 3 and 4, respectively.

!14.52 is between 3 and 4.

Quick Check

3 Between what two consecutive integers is - !105? 11 and 10

EXAMPLE

Approximating Square Roots With a Calculator

Closure

Calculator Find !14.52 to the nearest hundredth.


!14.52 < 3 . 8 1 0 5 1 1 7 7 7
< 3.81

Quick Check

Use the calculator sequence

14.52

Round to the nearest hundredth.

4 Find !17.81 to the nearest hundredth. 4.22

Lesson 3-8 Finding and Estimating Square Roots

Advanced Learners

5 The formula d = " x2 1 (3x) 2


gives the length of the diagonal
of a rectangular field that has a
length three times its width x.
Find the length of the diagonal
if x = 8 ft. about 25.3 ft

Resources
Daily Notetaking Guide 3-8 L3
Daily Notetaking Guide 3-8
L1
Adapted Instruction

You can nd the approximate value of a square root using a calculator.

rational

PowerPoint

You can estimate square roots by using perfect squares.


EXAMPLE

e. !7 irrational

The squares of integers are called perfect squares.

2 Tell whether each expression is


rational or irrational.
a. 4 !144 rational

d.

1
T
consecutive perfect squares: 1

b. - 15 irrational
c. - !6.25 rational

Estimatingand
andUsing
UsingSquare
SquareRoots
Roots
1 2 Estimating
Part
consecutive integers:

16 4

177

Ask students to explain what !x ,


- !x , and 4 !x represent where
x is any positive real number.
!x represents the principal, or
positive, square root of x. !x
represents the negative square
root. w !x represents the
positive and negative square
roots.

English Language Learners ELL

L4

Have students investigate and explain the connection


between the formula in Example 5 and the
Pythagorean Theorem.

learning style: verbal

Some students may have difficulty understanding the


difference between rational and irrational numbers.
Underline ratio at the start of the word rational, and
explain that rational numbers can be expressed as a
ratio of two integers.

learning style: verbal

177

3. Practice

Many real-world formulas involve square roots.

Assignment Guide

d = "x2 1 (2x) 2

2 A B

17-25, 39-48, 52
C Challenge
53-57

2x

58-63
64-73

Homework Quick Check

Quick Check

To check students understanding


of key skills and concepts, go over
Exercises 10, 18, 41, 49, 52.

Exercises 2637 Remind students


that every positive number has
two square roots.

to begin by trying real numbers


greater than or equal to 1 and
then trying real numbers between
0 and 1. They will discover that
the square root of a fraction
between 0 and 1 is larger than

Practice by Example
Example 1

GO for
Help

(page 176)

(page 177)

Example 3
(page 177)

Example 4
(page 177)

Example 5
(page 178)
GPS Guided Problem Solving

L3
L4

Enrichment

L2

Reteaching

L1

Adapted Practice
Class

Date

L3

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.

1. d 2

2. h 6

3. 2k 8

4. s + 4 2

5. 3c - 6 3

6. 2n + 3 5

7. 3.5z 7

8. ` 23 x ` 4

13. 2n - 1 1

10. j - 2 6

11. 5 v + 2 + 3

12. 4y + 11 7

14. ` 12 x 1 1 ` 1

15. -2h - 2 -2

16. 32x 12

19. 2 12 6x - 3 2 23

20. -23j - 8 -20

17. 3s - 4 + 21 27 18. -6w - 3 -24

Use a calculator. Round to the nearest tenth.

5 Suppose the tower is 140 ft tall. How long is the supporting wire? Round to the
nearest tenth of a foot. 156.5 ft

For more exercises, see Extra Skill and Word Problem Practice.

21. a = 9.5

22. b = -2

23. d - 25 = -13

24. 6z + 3 = 21

25. 3c - 45 = -18

uzu
26. -2 = 2 7

27. x = -0.8

28. -47 + d = -44

Simplify each expression.


1. !169 13

5. !0.25 0.5

Apply Your Skills

Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

30. The mean distance of the earth from the sun is 93 million miles. The
distance varies by 1.6 million miles. Find the range of distances of the
earth from the sun.
31. Leona was in a golf tournament last week. All four of her rounds of golf
were within 2 strokes of par. If par was 72, nd the range of scores that
Leona could have shot for each round of the golf tournament.
32. Victors goal is to earn $75 per week at his after-school job. Last month
he was within $6.50 of his goal. Find the range of amounts that Victor
might have earned last month.
33. Members of the track team can run 400 m in an average time of 58.2 s.
The fastest and slowest times vary from the average by 6.4 s. Find the
range of times for the track team.
34. The ideal length of a particular metal rod is 25.5 cm. The measured
length may vary from the ideal length by at most 0.025 cm. Find the
range of acceptable lengths for the rod.
35. When measured on a particular scale, the weight of an object may vary
from its actual weight by at most 0.4 lb. If the reading on the scale is
125.2 lb, nd the range of actual weights of the object.
36. One poll reported that the approval rating of the job performance of
the President of the United States was 63%. The poll was said to be
accurate to within 3.8%. What is the range of actual approval ratings?

6
6. 36
49 7

10. 2"144 12

3.

1 1

9 3

7. 2!1.21 1.1
5
11. 25
16 4

4. !900 30

8. !1.96 1.4

12. 4 !0.01 w0.1

16 rational
13. !37 irrational 14. - !0.04 rational 15. 4 15 irrational 16. - 121

Between what two consecutive integers is each square root?


17. !35 5 and 6

18. !27 5 and 6

19. - !130
20. !170
13 and 14
12 and 11
Use a calculator to nd each square root to the nearest hundredth.
21. !12 3.46

22. - !203 14.25 23. !11,550 107.47 24. - !150 12.25

25. Sports The elasticity coefcient e of a ball relates the height r of its rebound
to the height h from which it is dropped. You can use the function e = r
h
to nd the elasticity coefcient.What is the elasticity coefcient of a
tennis ball that rebounds 3 ft after it is dropped from a height of 3.5 ft?
Round to the nearest hundredth. 0.93
Find the square root(s) of each number.
26. 400 w20

27. 0 0

28. 625 w25

9 w3
29. 49
7

30. 1.69 w1.3

1 w1
31. 81
9

32. 729 w27

33. 2.25 w1.5

35. 0.01 w0.1

64 w 8
36. 121
11

37. 40,804 w202

38. Critical Thinking What number other than 0 is its own square root? 1

Write and solve an absolute value equation or inequality that represents


each situation.

29. The average number of cucumber seeds in a package is 25. The number
of seeds in the package can vary by three. Find the range of acceptable
numbers of seeds in each package.

2. !400 20

Tell whether each expression is rational or irrational.

34. 256 w16

Solve each equation. If there is no solution, write no solution.

178

Simplify.

The wire is about 26.8 ft long.

9. !0.36 0.6
Example 2

itself. For example, 14 = 12.


Suggest to students that they
reword the statement to make
it true.

9. 9 6 + 3t

d < 26.8

EXERCISES

Exercise 54 Encourage students

Practice 3-6

Substitute 12 for x.

d = !144 1 576
d = !720

Practiceand
andProblem
ProblemSolving
Solving
Practice

Teaching Tip

Name

d = "122 1 (2 ? 12) 2

EXERCISES

Error Prevention!

Practice

Problem Solving

Construction The formula d = "x2 1 (2x) 2 gives the length d of each wire for
the tower at the left. Find the length of the wire if x = 12 ft.

1 A B 1-16, 26-38, 49-51

Test Prep
Mixed Review

Real-World

EXAMPLE

178

Chapter 3 Solving Equations

4. Assess & Reteach

39. Multiple Choice The formula

d = "12,800h 1 h2 gives
the distance d in kilometers
to the horizon from a
satellite h kilometers above
Earth. Find the distance to the
horizon from a satellite
4200 km above Earth. Round
to the nearest kilometer. C
130 km
7333 km
8450 km

GO

PowerPoint

Lesson Quiz
1. Simplify each expression.
a. !196 14

4
b. 4 25
w25

2. Tell whether each expression is


rational, irrational, or
undefined.

11,532 km

Find the value of each expression. If


0.98487necessary, round to the nearest hundredth.

nline

40. !441 21

Homework Help

43. !1.6 1.26

Visit: PHSchool.com
Web Code: ate-0308

46. 2!0.64 0.8

4 2
41. 2 25
5
44. 2!30 5.48
47. !41 6.40

a. 4 35 irrational

b. !225 undefined

42. !2 1.41

c. - !2.25 rational

45. 2!1089 33

3. Between what two consecutive


integers
is - !54 ? 8 and 7

48. !75 8.66

49. Writing Explain the difference between - !1 and !1. See left.
50. Open-Ended Find two integers a and b between 1 and 20 such that a 2 + b 2 is a
perfect square. Answers may vary. Sample: 3 and 4

49. Answers may vary.


Sample: The first
expression means
the neg. square root
of 1 and the second
expression means
the pos. square root
of 1.

51. Math in the Media In the cartoon, to what number is the golfer referring? 4

4. The formula s = !13.5d


estimates the speed s in miles
per hour that a car was
traveling, when it applied its
brakes and left a skid mark
d feet long on a wet road.
Estimate the speed of a car
that left a 120 foot long skid
mark. about 40.25 mph

Alternative Assessment

Challenge

52. Physics If you drop an object, the time t in seconds


d
GPS that it takes to fall d feet is given by the formula t = 16 .
a. Find the time it takes an object to fall 400 ft. 5 s
b. Find the time it takes an object to fall 1600 ft. 10 s
c. Critical Thinking In part (b), the object falls four times as far as in part (a).
Does it take four times as long to fall? Explain.
No; the object takes twice as long to fall.
Critical Thinking For Exercises 53 56, tell whether each statement is true or false.
If the statement is false, give a counterexample.
False; zero has one
53. Every nonnegative number has two square roots. square root.
54. The square root of a positive number is always less than the number.
false; "1 5 1
55. The square root of an even perfect square is always an even number. true

Have students work in pairs. One


student writes an answer, such as
-12, and the other student must
come up with a square root
expression that yields the answer,
such as - !144 . Then, the first
student gives the second student
two consecutive integers
(negative or positive) and the
second student comes up with
a square root expression whose
value lies between them. Students
switch roles and repeat.

56. !p + !q = !p 1 q See margin.


57a. 4 units2

57. a. What is the total area of the large square shown at the right?
b. What is the area of each shaded triangle? 12 unit2
c. What is the area of the shaded square? 2 units2
d. What is the length of the diagonal of each 1 1 square?
"2 units

lesson quiz, PHSchool.com, Web Code: ata-0308

pages 178180

Exercises

56. False; answers may vary.


Sample: "4 "9 u
"4 1 9.

Lesson 3-8 Finding and Estimating Square Roots

68. 8 ? 7 ? 5 8 ? 5 ? 7 Comm.
Prop. of Mult.
40 ? 7
Mult.
280
Mult.

1
1
x 1

179

69. 14 23 56 14 56 23 Comm. Prop. of Add.


70 23
Add.
93
Add.
1
70. 16 Q 16
R 5 1 5 Inv. Prop.of Mult.
6
Add.

179

Test Prep

Test Prep
Standardized
Test Prep

A sheet of blank grids is available


with the Test-Taking Strategies
booklet. Give this sheet to
students for practice with filling
in the grids.

Gridded Response

58. Find the area of the shaded


region. 128
59. Find the value of !1.69. 1.3
4. 2
60. Find the value of 81

Resources

100

16
64

61. Round !80 to the nearest


whole number. 9

For additional practice with a


variety of test item formats:
Standardized Test Prep, p. 195
Test-Taking Strategies, p. 190
Test-Taking Strategies with
Transparencies

62. Simplify "42 1 32 1 11. 6

256
63. The formula < = A
relates
6
the surface area A of a cube to the length of its edge <. A cube has a
surface area of 726 cm2. How many centimeters is the length of the edge?

Math Tip

11

Exercise 59 Remind students


that 1.69 is equivalent to 169
100.
Encourage students to find the
square root using this expression.

Mixed Review
Lesson 3-7

Lesson 2-5

Use this Checkpoint Quiz to check


students understanding of the
skills and concepts of Lessons 3-6
through 3-8.

Find each percent of change. Describe the percent of change as an increase or


decrease. If necessary, round tothe nearest tenth.
64. $5 to $6
65. 40 in. to 36 in.
66. 10 m to 11 m
67. 18 to 24
20% incr.
10% decr.
10% incr.
331
3% incr.
Simplify each expression. Justify each step. 6873. See margin.
68. 8 ? 7 ? 5

69. 14 1 23 1 56

1R 15
70. 16 Q 16

71. (68 2 69)(11 2 11)

72. 27(3w)

73. 8m 1 145 1 4m

Resources
Grab & Go
Checkpoint Quiz 2

Checkpoint Quiz 2

Lessons 3-6 to 3-8


1. The length of a rectangle is 5 cm more than its width. The perimeter of the
rectangle is 46 cm. What is the length of the rectangle? 14 cm
2. The sum of three consecutive odd integers is 465. Find the integers.

2. 153, 155, 157

3. Marcus and Beth leave college traveling in opposite directions on a straight


road. Beth drives 13 mi/h faster than Marcus. After 4 hours, they are 452 miles
apart. Find their rates. Marcus: 63 mi/h; Beth: 50 mi/h
Find the percent error for each measurement.
4. 210 cm about 0.02%

5. 25 cm 0.2%

6. A student measures a rectangle as 14 in. 23 in. Find the minimum and


maximum possible areas for the rectangle. 303.75 cm2; 340.75 cm2
Simplify each expression.
7. 2!256 16

64 8
8. #121
11

9. 4 !0.0025 w0.05

10. Between what two consecutive integers is !52? 7 and 8

180

Chapter 3 Solving Equations

71. (68 69)(11 11) (68 69)(11 (11)) Def. of Subtr.


(68 69)(0)
Inv. Prop. of Add.
0
Mult. Prop. of Zero
72. 7(3w) (7 ? 3)w
Assoc. Prop of Mult.
(1 ? 7 ? 3)w Mult. Prop. of 1
21w
Mult.

180

73. 8m 145 4m 8m 4m 145 Comm. Prop. of Add.


(8 4)m 145 Distr. Prop.
12m 145
Add.