Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

MUSCLES OF

FACIAL
EXPRESSIONS

Presented by:
Harsha vardhan k.v
Department of
prosthodontics
SVSIDS

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

EMBRYOLOGY

CLASSIFICATION

ANATOMY OF FACIAL MUSCLES AND ITS PROSTHODONTIC SIGNIFICANCE

FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND CONCERNED MUSCLES

FACIAL MUSCLES DISORDERS

REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION
Face is Window of the soul. Facial expressions are a form of nonverbal
communication. Facial expression results from one or more motions or positions of the
muscles of the face. These movements convey the emotional state of the individual to
observers.
The importance of facial musculature in dentistry is emphasized, to create a desire
to learn more, and point out what information is known or felt to be of direct consequence
to the art and science of complete denture prosthodontics.
The action of muscles as prime movers of the mandible and hence as the power for
repeated occlusion of the teeth. They are active during mastication, deglutition and speech.
Has a direct or indirect influence on the peripheral extensions, shape and thickness of
denture bases, the position of the teeth both horizontally and vertically and facial
appearance.
The import of the raised eye brow, a contemplative frown or any contagious smile
is often far more a key to the individual than the spoken words which may accompany
these expressions. The fleeting and varied facial movements is responsible for personality
and are characteristics of an individual.
The modifications or loss of such characteristics has a tremendous psychologic
impact on a patient.Preservation of these important functions is necessarily the
responsibility of the dentist charged with prosthodontic treatment of the patient.

To know about various expression we should first know the anatomy of muscles of
facial expression.

The muscles of facial expression are located in the subcutaneous tissue, originating from
bone or fascia, and inserting onto the skin.

By contracting, the muscles pull on the skin and exert their effects. They are the only group
of muscles that insert into skin.

They migrate from the arch, taking their nerve supply with them.

EMBRIOLOGY
These muscles have a common embryonic origin the 2nd pharyngeal arch.

SECOND PHARYNGEAL ARCH

The cartilage of the second or hyoid arch (Reicherts cartilage) gives rise to the stapes,
styloid process of the temporal bone, stylohyoid ligament, and ventrally, the lesser horn
and upper part of the body of the hyoid bone.

Muscles of the hyoid arch are the stapedius, stylohyoid, posterior belly of the digastric,
auricular, and muscles of facial expression.

Each pharyngeal arch is supplied by its own cranial nerve.

The nerve of the second arch is supplied by the facial nerve.

CLASSIFICATION
The facial muscles can broadly be split into three groups; orbital, nasal and oral.

ORBITAL GROUP
1. ORBICULARIS OCULII
2. CORRUGATOR SUPERCILLI
3. LEVATOR PALPEBRE SUPERIORIS

NASAL GROUP
1. PROCERUS
2. COMPRESSOR NARIS
3. DILATOR NARIS
4. DEPRESSOR SEPTI

ORAL GROUP
1. ORBICULARIS ORIS
2. LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS
3. ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR
4. LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS
5. ZYGOMATICUS MINOR
6. DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS
7. DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS
8. MENTALIS
9. RISORIUS
10. BUCCINATOR

THE ORBICULARIS OCULI MUSCLE


It is Broad, flat, elliptical muscle. Surrounded by orbital opening. Spread into anterior temporal
region, infraorbital cheek region and superciliary region

This muscle, closes the lids when blinking and allows you to squint or wink your eye, is
one of the muscle that affect the functions of the lids.

The muscle has fibers that form two semicircles, one above and one below the eye.

These fibers arise on the nasal part of the frontal bone, on the frontal process of the maxilla
in front of the lacrimal goove, and on the borders of the medial canthal tendon.

Action

Palpebral part - Mediates involuntary eye closure, such as blinking.

Orbital part - Provides voluntary eyelid closure, such as a response to bright light.

Lacrimal Part - When the eyelid closes, the lacrimal portion pulls the inside corners of
the lid toward the nose and turns them inward slightly. This action positions tiny holes,
called puncta, in the most favorable position to collect tears.

BLOOD SUPPLY

Superficial temporal artery

Maxillary artery

Opthalmic artery

Facial artery

NERVE SUPPLY

Temporal and zygomatic branch of facial nerve

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

As it is the only muscle capable of closing the eyelid, disruption of the function of this
muscle produces exposure of the eyeball, requiring lubricants and possibly, surgery.

Blepharospasm is a condition in which the eyelids twitch or blink involuntarily. In cases


of blepharospasm, the orbicularis oculi muscles contract excessively.

THE CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII AND THE


PROCERUS MUSCLES

Corrugator in Latin- wrinkle.


Supercilii in Latin-hairs above the eye-lashes or the eyebrows.
Cilia in Latin lashes of the lid.
Procerus Greek, before the horn.
These are the frowning muscles.
Both have fibers that originate with the frontalis muscle and insert just above the root of
the nose.

THE AURICULARIS MUSCLES


There are three of them: anterior, superior, and posterior. The anterior muscle is in front,
the superior muscle above and the posterior muscle behind the ear.

These are very superficial muscles whose attachments are not to bone but to underlying
fascia.

Most people cannot use these muscles, but if they can, they are able to wiggle their ears

THE NASALIS MUSCLE


The nasalis muscle allows you to flare your nostrils.
One part arises from the tendinous end of the procerus muscle at the bridge of the nose,
on each side of the nose, and the other part goes from the tip and over the outside of the
nostrils.

THE DEPRESSOR SEPTI MUSCLE


The depressor septi muscle draws the nose downward.
It arises from the maxilla, just under the nose, and inserts into the septum of the nose.

THE BUCCINATOR MUSCLE

The buccinator is the muscle of the cheek which aids in chewing by holding the cheek close to the
teeth.

It arises from the outer surfaces of the maxilla, the mandible, and the superior constrictor
pharyngis muscle, and is joined to that muscle by the pterygomandibular raphe.

It inserts into the orbicularis oris and the modiolus, beneath the risorius muscle.

ACTION

Flattens cheek against gums and teeth which prevents food accumulation

Whistling muscle

BLOOD SUPPLY

Facial artery

Buccal branch of maxillary artery

NERVE SUPPLY

Buccal branch of facial nerve

PROSTHODONTIC SIGNIFICANCE
1. In lower jaw it becomes part of denture bearing area in buccal shelf region.
2. Its action is parallel to plane of occlusion.
3. Activation of masseter pushes the buccinator medially in distobuccal region, which
accommodates masseteric notch in the denture border. If not recorded properly can cause
dislodging of denture.
4. In upper jaw- its position of origin in the upper jaw determines the vertical height of distobuccal
flange of the maxillary denture.
5.

If the Distobuccal flange of the denture base is not contoured to allow freedom for this action,
the denture will be displaced.

6. Its action pulls the corner of the mouth laterally and posteriorly.

THE ORBICULARIS ORIS MUSCLE


Broad, flat, elliptical muscle Surround orbital opening Spread into anterior temporal region, infraorbital
cheek region and superciliary region
One section joins in the middle of the upper lip forming a little gutter under the nose. Another is in the
middle of the lower lip without a gutter.

This muscle is used when you to close your mouth and to pout.

It has some similarities with the orbicularis oculi muscle, discussed above, in that its fibers
encircle the mouth just as the fibers of the oculi muscle encircle the eye, and both are sphincter
muscles.

Most of these fibers go around the mouth, but unlike the fibers of the oculi muscle, they are in
four sections with some of the fibers attaching to the underside of the skin.

ACTION
1. Puckering of lip
2. Closes mouth
3. Pursing of lips
BLOOD SUPPLY
1. Superior labial artery
2. Inferior labial artery
3. Infraorbital artery
4. Mental artery
5. Transverse facial artery
NERVE SUPPLY
1. Buccal
2. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve
PROSTHODONTIC SIGNIFICANCE
1. Upper lip is supported by maxillary anterior teeth and not the denture border.
2. When teeth are in occlusion, the superior border of the lower lip is supported by incisal
third of the maxillary anterior teeth. If not so lower lip would get caught between the
anterior teeth during occlusal contacting.
3. When muscles are relaxed, lips become flaccid. This can happen with the jaws open and
is important in impression making.
4. Angle of mouth are easily irritated when an impression tray is inserted.
5. On wide opening the Orbicularis oris muscle along with the muscle of lower lip becomes
stretched and the sulcus will be narrow.
6. If the flange is thick, this would displace the mandibular denture and hence impressions
will be narrow in the anterior region.

THE LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS MUSCLE

This muscle contributes to the naso-labial fold in the cheek.

It leaves the upper lip exposing the teeth when smiling.

It originates on the maxilla just below the Infraorbital foramen and inserts into the modiolus.

THE DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS MUSCLE

The depressor anguli oris muscle of the lower lip aids in drawing the lower lip downward.

It inserts at the modiolus,


mingling its fibers with the risorius and the orbicularis oris, and arises out of the fibers of the
platysma muscle

MODIOLUS

Dense, compact, mobile, fibromuscular consisting of terminal fibres of muscles converging


towards or diverging from it.

Total of 9 muscles are attached to it.

1. orbicularis oris,
2. buccinator,
3. levator anguli oris,
4. depressor anguli oris,
5. zygomaticus major,
6. risorius,
7.

platysma,

8. levator labii superioris.


9. Mentalis

PROSTHODONTIC SIGNIFICANCE

The importance of this hub /nave region where all the radial muscles converge is recognized by
us.

Lightoller describes it as a thick mass just distal to the corner of mouth with a total vertical depth
of 3.5-4.5 mm from the exterior to the mucous membrane.

It is flattened cone shape and extreme mobile. It can be fixed instantly and moved voluntarily.

Dentures should be constructed not only to accommodate it but also to allow for its flexibility and
for its radial muscle components.

PLATYSMA

The platysma is a superficial muscle that overlaps the sternocleidomastoid

ORIGIN

Upper fibers of pectoral and deltoid fascia

INSERTION

Anterior fibers to the base of the mandible

Posterior fibers to the skin of the lower face and lips and may be continuous with the risorius

ACTION

Depresses the mandible

Pulls the angle of the mouth downwards as in horror or surprise

Releases the pressure of the skin on the subjacent veins

BLOOD SUPPLY
Branches of the Submental artery and Suprascapular artery

NERVE SUPPLY
Cervical branch of the facial nerve

FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND CONCERNED MUSCLES

LAUGHING & SMILING

Angle of the mouth is drawn upwards and laterally

Zygomaticus major.m

IMPORTANCE OF SMILE

Smile is produced by the elevation of the lips assisted by retractors and the true laughter
occurs when the Orbicularis oris is completely and involuntarily inhibited.

A prosthodontic significance of a smile is the recognition that if one part of this complex
is out of position will affect other components which make up the smile.

The lips are drawn against the teeth by the elevation of the maxillary lip and the
retraction of the corner of mouth.

So the placement of teeth become extremity important in forming the backdrop for the
smile.

If the teeth are placed too far labially, the orbicularis oris is stretched and this effect tends
to exert a dislodging effect on the maxillary denture.

If there is a lack of maxillary lip support and teeth are set on the crest of the ridge, there
is a downward cast to the smile which is similar to the expression of grief and this is one
of the pitiful prosthodontic error.

SURPRISE

Transverse wrinkles of forehead & bridge of the nose.


Frontalis.M
Procerus.M

FROWNING

Vertical wrinkles of forehead - Corrugator supercilli.m

Dilatation of anterior nasal aperture - Dilator naris.m


Depression of lower part of nasal septum - Depressor anguli oris.m

ANGER

SADNESS

Angle of the mouth drawn downwards and laterally - Depressor angulii oris.M

SORROW & GREIF

Accentuation of nasolabial furrow with elevation and eversion of upper lip.


Levator labii superioris.m
Levator anguli oris.m
Zygomaticus minor.m

GRINNING

Retraction of angle of mouth


Risorious.M

DOUBT

Puckering of skin over chin with protrution of lower lip


Mentalis.m

WHISTLING

Pressing the cheek against gum with pursing of mouth with small opening
Buccinator.M

MUSCLE DISORDERS

HEMIFACIAL SPASM

It is a disease characterized by repeated, painless, irregular, nonrhythmic, unilateral


contractures of the facial muscles.

It is caused by compression of facial nerve in the facial canal.

Begins in the periorbital muscles but soon spreads to the entire half face.

Spasms are often triggered by fatigue, tension or facial activity.

FACIAL HEMIATROPY
ParryRomberg syndrome (also known as progressive hemi facial atrophy)
Is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome

Slowly progressive wasting of subcutaneous fat skin ,cartilage, bone and muscle

Accompanied usually by contralateral Jacksonian epilepsy, trigeminal neuralgias and


changes.

Caused due to unregulated sympathetic activity

Painless cleft near midline of face

MYSTHENIA GRAVIS

Acquired autoimmune disorder characterize by weakness of skeletal muscle and


fatigability on exertion.

Antibodies against the ach receptors at neuromuscular junction

Most frequently involved muscle are that of mastication and facial muscle

Difficulty in mastication and deglutition and drooping of jaw . Speech is slow and
slurred

Diplopia and ptosis along with drooping of eyelid lead to sorrowful appearance

BELLS PALSY

Abrupt isolated unilateral peripheral facial nerve paralysis without detectable cause

Inflammation of facial nerve with resultant edema cause nerve compression while it
passes through temporal bone

Infranuclear lesion of facial nerve

Asymmetrical face draws to normal side

Wrinkles disappear from forehead

During mastication food accumulates between teeth and cheek

LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE OF MUSCLE OF FACIAL EXPRESSION

Maxillary and anterior mandibular region


- Ant. Middle and post. Submandibular nodes
- submental nodes

Anterior temporal, zygomatic and posterior mandibular region


- parotid nodes

Ear
- retroauricular and subauricular nodes

All drain into cervical lymph nodes around the jugular vein.

CONCLUSION

An understanding of all the muscles of facial expression is important to successful


complete denture construction. These muscles must be observed at work by the dentist
when he first views his patient when begins to speak.

Prosthodontic treatment must be in terms of all functions performed in mouth.

We should
1. Consider the role which the facial muscles play in expression
2. Analyze these muscles in terms of the expressions of various emotions
3. Evaluate their prosthodontic significance

REFERENCES

Bones And Muscles-an Illustrated Anatomy Written And Illustrated By Virginia


Cantarella

Human Anatomy Regional & Applied 4TH Edition- B.D.Chaurasia

Langman's Medical Embryology 8th Edition

Anand's Human Anatomy For Dental Students 3RD Edition

Anatomy of facial expression and its prosthodontic significance J.P.D 1962 12-6,1020
42

Lightoller G.S : Facial muscles: the modiolus and muscles surrounding the rima oris with
some remarks about the paniculus adiposus J.anat 60:1-85, 1925-26