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Welcome to this PTC Training Class

Prior to using the training materials in this course, you must read the
information in the following pages. This information explains how to:

Use the training materials most effectively

Download the exercise files and configure your computer for the class

Position the application windows and navigate within the exercise


instructions

How to Use this Course


The information in this Web based course is organized into modules which are
comprised of topics. Each topic is divided into one or more of the following
sections:

Lecture - The lecture portion is comprised of the following:


o Concept - This section contains the initial introduction to the topic
and is presented in the form of a slide with audio.
o Theory - This section provides detailed information introduced in
the Concept.
Demonstration - This is a recorded video that demonstrates the procedure
lab.
Labs - There two different types of labs that you will use in this course:
o Procedure - Procedures provide step-by-step instructions on how to
complete the topic within Pro/ENGINEER. Procedures are short,
focused, and simple labs that cover the specific topics to which they
apply. Not every topic has a Procedure as there are knowledge
topics that can not be exercised.
o Exercise - Exercises are longer than procedures and are typically
more involved and use more complicated models. Exercises may be
specific to a topic or may cover multiple topics, so not every topic
will have an associated exercise. You may also have Challenge
exercises and Project exercises, which are more involved and are
used to review a broader range of information.

The first module is typically a process module. In the process module, you are
introduced to the generic high-level processes used during the course and after
the course is completed. This module also typically contains an exercise.
Most courses also have a project module, which encapsulates the knowledge
gained in the course. The project will contain one or more exercises that provide

the process steps, but remove much of the detail from the procedure, task, and
detailed step levels. Thus students are encouraged to remember or reuse the
information provided in the course.
Note that not all courses have process or project modules.

Before Performing the Exercises


The exercises are performed on your installation of Pro/ENGINEER software.
Make sure that the version of Pro/ENGINEER that corresponds to the course you
are taking (e.g. Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0) is installed on your computer
before continuing. Contact your administrator to ensure that you have the
proper license to the Pro/ENGINEER software modules required to complete the
lab exercises in the course you are taking.

PTC does not provide Pro/ENGINEER software for Web-based Training or


Virtual Classes.
Installing the Pro/ENGINEER model files

1. Download the model files.


o Locate the appropriate link from the Lab and Demo Files download
page to download either the Commercial or Training Edition lab
files. Unless you are working on Student Edition or Training Edition
Pro/ENGINEER software, you will need the Commercial lab files.
Save the zip file to your desktop, or your preferred location.
2. Extract the zip file to a location on your hard drive.
o If you do not have Winzip installed on your computer, you can
download an evaluation copy from www.winzip.com.
o Double-click on the zip file to open it.
o Click Extract, and specify a plain drive letter (for example, C:\ or
D:\ ).
The C:\ drive is used for this example, and in the exercise
instructions.
o Make sure the Use folder names option is checked, as shown below.

o Click Extract and close WinZip when finished.


3. Browse to the folder created by the zip file.
o For example: C:\users\student\WF5_Update
Creating a Special Startup Command for Pro/ENGINEER

1. If Pro/ENGINEER is already running, exit before performing the steps


below.
2. Locate the Pro/ENGINEER shortcut (from the Start menu or your
desktop).
o Right-click the shortcut and select Copy.
o Right-click on your desktop and select Paste Shortcut.
3. Right-click the newly pasted shortcut and select Properties.
o If necessary, select the Shortcut tab.
o For the Start in: field, type (or paste in) the full path to the course
folder.
For example: C:\users\student\WF5_Update
4. Start Pro/ENGINEER using the newly configured shortcut.
o It is VERY IMPORTANT that you start Pro/ENGINEER this way so
that the required configuration settings are applied prior to starting
the exercise

Using the Exercise Instructions


Positioning the Exercise Instructions and Pro/ENGINEER windows

Resize the instructions to approximately 3" wide.

Resize the Pro/ENGINEER window to approximately 3" narrower than the


default.

You can position the Pro/ENGINEER window so it spans to the far right of
the screen if you wish.
Position the instructions on the left of the Pro/ENGINEER window as
shown in the following figure. This will enable you to easily view the
instructions window while working.
It is recommended that you maximize the amount of working area on
your screen by setting your monitor to the highest resolution setting, for
example 1600x1200.

Running the Procedures and Exercises

To make the labs as concise as possible, each begins with a header. The header
lists the name of the lab and a brief scenario. The header lists the working
directory, the file you are to open, and the initial datum display.
An example of a Procedure is shown below, but Exercises follow the same
general rules:

The following gives a brief description of the items highlighted above:


1. Procedure/Exercise Name - This is the name of the lab.
2. Scenario - This briefly describes what will be done in the lab.
3. Close Windows/Erase Not Displayed - This indicates that you should close
any open files and erase them from memory. Click theClose
Window icon until the icon is disabled and then click the Erase Not
Displayed icon and click OK. These icons have been added to the left
side of the main toolbar.
4. Folder Name - This is the working directory for the lab. Lab files are
stored on a module by module basis. Within each module, you will find
subdirectories for each lab. In this example, Extrude_Features is the
working directory. To set the working directory, select the folder from the
browser, right-click and select Set Working Directory
5. Model to Open - This is the file to be opened from the working directory
(extrude.prt for example). In the browser, right-click on the file and
select Open. The model could be a part, drawing, assembly, etc. Also, if
you are expected to create a model, you will see Create New here.
6. Datum Display Setting - The initial datum display is shown here. For
example,

means that you should display datum planes but

not display datum axes, datum points and datum coordinate systems.
Before beginning the lab, set the icons in the datum display toolbar to
match those shown in the header.
7. Task Name - Labs are broken into distinct tasks. There may be one or
more tasks within a lab.
8. Lab Steps - These are the individual steps required to complete a task.
Other items of note for labs:

Saving - Saving your work after completing a lab is optional, unless


otherwise stated.
Erasing models from memory - You should always erase models from
memory when a lab is complete.
There are several conventions used when working with Pro/ENGINEER:
o The "picks and clicks" are shown in Bold.
o Text that you type is shown in Bold.
o Icons and their names are shown inline with the text.
o Names of models are shown in CAPS.
o Keyboard keys are shown in CAPS.

Procedure: Student Preface Using the Header


Scenario
In this exercise, you learn how to use the header to set up the Pro/ENGINEER
working environment for each lab in the course.
Topic1_Folder

1.

extrude_1.prt

Step 1. Configure Pro/ENGINEER to ensure the system is set up to run


the lab exercises properly.

Perform this task only if you are running the labs on a computer
outside of a training center, otherwise proceed to Task 2.

2. 1. Extract the zipped class files to a root level drive such as C: or D:.

The extracted ZIP will create the default course folder path
automatically, such as C:/users/student/course_folder.
2. Locate your existing Pro/ENGINEER shortcut.

Copy and paste the shortcut to your desktop.

Right-click the newly pasted shortcut and select Properties.

Select the Shortcut tab and set the Start In location to be the
same as the course folder, for
exampleC:/users/student/course_folder.

3. Start Pro/ENGINEER using the newly configured shortcut.

1.

The configuration files specific to the course are loaded.


The default working directory is set to the course folder. You can
then navigate easily to the module and topic folders.

Step 2. Close all open windows and erase all objects from memory to
avoid any possible conflicts.
1. Notice the two icons indicated in the header.
2. Click Close Window
grays out.

from the main toolbar as necessary until the icon

3. Click Erase Not Displayed

1.

from the main toolbar.

Click OK if the Erase Not Displayed dialog box appears.

Step 3. Browse to and expand the module folder for this procedure and
set the folder indicated in the header as the Pro/ENGINEER working directory.
1. Notice the folder indicated in the header.
2. If necessary, select theFolder Browser

tab from the navigator.

Click Working Directory


to view the current working directory
folder in the browser.
Click Folder Tree to expand it from the bottom of the navigator.
Navigate to
the users/student/Course_Folder/Module1_Folder/Topic1_Folder
by clicking the + next to each folder.

3. Right-click the Topic1_Folder folder and select Set Working Directory.


4. Click the Topic1_Folder folder to display its contents in the browser.

Alternatively you can use the cascading folder path in the browser to
navigate to the topic folder, and then right-click and select Set
Working Directory from the browser.

1.

Step 4. Open the file for this procedure and set the initial datum display
according to the icons shown in the header.
1. Notice the lab model is specified in the header.

Double-click extrude_1.prt in the browser to open it.

2. Notice the initial datum display is specified in the header.

Click Plane Display

Click Axis Display

Click Point Display

Click Csys Display

to enable their display.


to disable their display.
to disable their display.
to enable their display.

3. You are now ready to begin the first task in the lab:

Read the first task.

Perform the first step.

Perform the remaining steps.


Remember to perform all the above tasks based on the header
contained in subsequent procedures.

This completes the procedure.

Introduction to the Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire


Sheetmetal Design Process
Module Overview
In this module, you learn about the sheetmetal design process that is typically
used to build a sheetmetal model in Pro/ENGINEER. The process is supported
throughout the course modules and again followed in a course project.
This module also introduces you to some of the basic sheetmetal features that
can be used to capture your design intent for a sheetmetal model.

Objectives
After successfully completing this module, you will be able to:

Create a primary flat wall as the base feature for a Pro/ENGINEER


sheetmetal design.
Create some simple secondary walls.

Add a predefined notch and a predefined form to a sheetmetal model.

Create a flat state for a Pro/ENGINEER sheetmetal model design.

Create a drawing of the formed and flat state of a sheetmetal design.

Procedure: Process Exercise


Objectives
After successfully completing this exercise, you will be able to:

Understand the basic process used when modeling sheetmetal designs in


Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire.
Create a primary flat wall feature to use as the base feature for a
sheetmetal design.
Create secondary flat wall and flange wall features.

Create notch and form features.

Create a flat state for a sheetmetal design.

Create a drawing to detail both the formed and flat states of sheetmetal
design.
Create a bend order table and add it to a drawing along with associative
notes.

Create automatic ordinate dimensions for the flat state of a sheetmetal


design.

Scenario
In this exercise, you create an enclosure for an electronic device that contains
walls, bends, notches, and forms. You will create the model, add a flat state and
a bend order table to it, and then create a drawing to document both the
formed and flat states of the model.
Process

1.

Create New

Step 1. Create a new Pro/ENGINEER sheetmetal model.


1. Click New

from the main toolbar.

2. Type ENCLOSURE in the Name field.


3. Select Sheetmetal as the Sub-type in the dialog box.
4. Click OK to create the new part.

1.

Step 2. Create a primary flat wall 200 mm x 100 mm x .5 mm thick.


1. Click Flat

from the feature toolbar.

2. Right-click anywhere in the main display area and select Define Internal
Sketch.
3. Select the TOP datum plane from the model tree as the Sketch Plane
reference.
4. Verify that the Reference field defaults to the RIGHT datum plane and that
the Orientation field defaults to Right and clickSketch.
5. Right-click and select Rectangle.

Sketch and dimension a rectangle, as shown.

Click Done Section

6. In the dashboard for the primary flat wall, type 0.50 in the thickness field
and click Complete Feature .
7. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

1.

Step 3. Create a secondary flat wall with a trapezoidal shape.


1. Click Flat

from the feature toolbar.

2. Zoom in and select the lower edge on the right side of the model as the
reference for the flat wall.

3. Select Trapezoid from the Shape drop-down menu to override the Flat
default.
4. Double-click the wall height dimension, type 50 and press ENTER.

Alternatively, you can drag the drag handle to a height of 50.

5. In the radius field type 2.0 and press ENTER. The model should now
appear, as shown.

6. Click Complete Feature

1.

from the dashboard.

Step 4. Create a secondary flange wall with an 'I profile.


1. Click Flange

from the feature toolbar.

2. Zoom in and select the lower edge on the front of the model as the
reference for the flat wall.

3. Press SHIFT and select the surface as shown to select the surface loop.

4. The surface loop appears, as shown.

Double-click the 0.50 Inside dimension, type 5.0, and press


ENTER.

5. Double-click the wall height dimension and type 50 and press ENTER.

6. Click Complete Feature

from the dashboard.

1.

Step 5. Create points and pattern them to use as references for notch
features.
1. Rotate the model approximately as shown in the figure.

2. Click Datum Point Tool

from the feature toolbar.

3. Select the surface, as shown.

4. Right-click and select Offset References.


5. Press CTRL and select datum planes TOP and FRONT from the model tree
as the offset references.

6. Double-click the vertical dimension and type 20.0 and press ENTER.
7. Double-click the horizontal dimension and type 25.0 and press ENTER.
8. Click OK from the DATUM POINT dialog box.

9. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

10. Right-click PNTO and select Pattern.


11. Select the 25 dimension, and press ENTER to accept the default value
of 25.00.
12. Type 3 as the number of pattern members in the first direction, and
click Complete Feature
from the pattern dashboard.

1.

Step 6. Create three sheetmetal notch features using the points you
created in the previous task as references.
1. Click Punch

from the feature toolbar.

2. Select CIRC_NOTCH_20MM_W_TABS.GPH and click Open.


3. Verify that Advanced reference configuration is enabled and
click OK from the Insert User-Defined Feature dialog box.
4. In the User-Defined Feature Placement dialog box, notice that the
first SURFACE reference is selected and select datum plane RIGHT from
the model tree.
5. Select the second SURFACE reference and select the FRONT datum plane
from the model tree.
6. Select the POINT reference, and select PNT0 from the model.
7. Select the Adjustments tab. Select Direction: EXTRUDE_1 and
click Flip.
8. Click Accept Settings

9. Right-click Group CIRC_NOTCH_20MM_W_TABS in the model tree and


select Pattern.
10. Click Complete Feature
reference pattern.

1.

from the pattern dashboard to create a

Step 7. Create a sheetmetal punch form feature.


1. Click Punch Form

from the feature toolbar.

2. Click Open Punch Model

from the dashboard.

3. Select BOSS_FORM.PRT and click Open.


4. Select the Options tab in the dashboard.

Click in the Excluded punch model surfaces collector.

Press CTRL and select the three surfaces, as shown.

5. Select the Placement tab, and select the first reference from the form
model.

6. Select the second reference from the sheetmetal model.

7. Click Plane Display

to enable their display.

8. Click New Constraint from the placement tab. Select the FRONT datum
plane from the form model and the TOP datum plane from the sheetmetal
model. Select Mate as the constraint type.
9. Click New Constraint from the placement tab. Select the RIGHT datum
plane from the form model and the RIGHT datum plane from the
sheetmetal model. Select Mate as the constraint type.
10. Click Plane Display

and Point Display

to disable their display.

11. Drag the offset handle to 30 as shown.

12. Click Complete Feature

from the dashboard.

1.

Step 8. Create a flat state of the model to use later in a drawing.


1. Click Edit > Setup from the main menu.
2. Click Flat State > Create from the menu manager.
3. Accept the default ENCLOSURE_FLAT1 name for the Flat Pattern instance
by pressing ENTER.
4. Click Fully Formed from the menu manager.
5. When prompted to select a reference for the Fixed Geom element, select
the flat bottom surface inside the box, as shown.

6. Click OK from the dialog box to create the flat state.


7. Click Show > ENCLOSURE_FLAT1 from the menu manager to preview
the flat state of the model.

Note that the form feature was not flattened automatically. You will
need to complete this task manually in the next step.

8. Click Flatten Form

from the sheetmetal feature toolbar.

9. In the FLATTEN Feature Creation dialog box, click Form > Define.
10. Select the top surface of the form feature, as shown.

11. Click Done Refs from the menu manager and click OK from the
FLATTEN dialog box to complete the Flatten Form feature.

12. Click File > Close Window from the main menu.

Note how the form is not flattened in the original model. This is
because the Flatten Form feature was added in the ENCLOSURE_FLAT1
file when you had it open. The feature was added as an item in a
family table for the model and was set to Yes in the instance and No in
the generic.

1.

Step 9. Create a bend order table.


1. Click Edit > Setup from the main menu.
2. Click Bend Order > Show/Edit from the menu manager.
3. When prompted for a plane or edge to remain fixed while
unbending/bending back, select the surface shown.

4. When prompted to select a bend to add to the current sequence, select


the bend surface on the left end of the model, as shown.

5. Click Next in the menu manager.


6. When prompted for a plane or edge to remain fixed, select the flat
surface, as shown.

7. When prompted to select a bend to add to the current sequence, select


the bend surface toward the back of the model, as shown.

8. Click Next in the menu manager.


9. When prompted for a plane or edge to remain fixed, select the large flat
surface, as shown.

10. When prompted to select a bend to add to the current sequence, select
the bend surface near the front of the model, as shown.

11. Click Next in the menu manager.

12. When prompted for a plane or edge to remain fixed, select the flat
surface, as shown.

13. When prompted to select a bend to add to the current sequence, select
the bend surface on the right end of the model, as shown.

14. Click Next in the menu manager.


15. When prompted for a plane or edge to remain fixed, select the large flat
surface, as shown.
16. Click Done in the menu manager.

17. Click Info in the menu manager to review the finished bend order table.

18. When you are finished reviewing the bend order table, click Close to
close the information window.
19. Click Done/Return > Done/Return from the menu manager.
20. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

21. Click File > Close Window from the main menu.
1.

Step 10. Begin creating a new drawing to document the formed and flat
state for the ENCLOSURE.PRT.
1. Click New

from the main toolbar.

2. Select Drawing as the type, in the dialog box.


3. Type ENCLOSURE_C_DRW in the name field.
4. Click OK.

5. The New Drawing dialog box appears. Notice the default template is set to
a0_drawing.

Click Browse in the Template area of the dialog box.


Note that there are two Browse buttons in this dialog box. You need to
click the lower one in the Template section.

6. In the Open dialog box, select PTC_C_DRAWING.DRW and click Open.


7. Click OK from the New Drawing dialog box to create the drawing.
8. The Select Instance dialog box appears. Select The generic instance and
click Open.

The drawing is be populated with views and dimensions. In a


production drawing, the next step would be to clean up the
placement of the dimensions and add any other drawing elements
needed to document the model. Since this is just an educational
example, you can leave this sheet as is and move on to the next task.

1.

Step 11. Continue the drawing creation process by adding a second sheet
to document the flat state of the model.

1. Select the Layout tab in the Drawing ribbon.


2. Click New Sheet

from the Document group.

3. Click Drawing Models

from the Document group.

4. Click Add Model from the menu manager.


5. Select ENCLOSURE.PRT from the Open dialog box and click Open.
6. Select ENCLOSURE_FLAT1 from the Select Instance dialog box and
click Open.
7. Right-click anywhere in the display area and select Insert General View.
8. When prompted to select CENTER POINT for a drawing view, click in the
center of the display area.
9. In the Drawing View dialog box, select the TOP model view name.
10. Click Apply.
11. Select Scale from the Categories menu.
12. Select Custom Scale and type 1.0 as the Custom Scale.
13. Click Apply.
14. Select View Display from the Categories menu.
15. Select No Hidden as the Display Style.
16. Click OK to complete the drawing view.

1.

Step 12. Add the bend order table, bend notes, and auto ordinate
dimensions to the drawing.
1. Select the Annotate tab in the Drawing ribbon.
2. Click Show Annotations
3. Select the Datums Tab
Click Select All

from the Insert group, and select the view.


from the Show Model Annotations dialog box.

to select all the Datum Axes.

Note the appearance of the bend axes for each of the bends.

4. Select the Note Tab


Click Select All

from the Show Model Annotations dialog box.

and de-select Note_7 that indicates the datum points.

Click OK.
Note that the bend notes are associative. The note leader for each is
attached to the corresponding bend axis for each bend.

5. Select the Annotate tab in the Drawing ribbon.

6. Click Auto Ordinate Dimension


the Insert group.

from the ordinate dimension flyout in

7. When prompted to select one or more surfaces for ordinate dimension


creation, click and drag a box around all of the surfaces in the drawing
view, as shown.

8. Click OK in the Select dialog box.


9. Click Select Base Line from the menu manager and select the far left
edge of the model's geometry, as shown.

Note the resulting ordinate dimensions.

10. Click Select Base Line from the menu manager and select the bottom
most edge of the model's geometry, as shown.

11. Click Done/Return from the menu manager.

In a production drawing, the next step would be to clean up the


resultant ordinate dimension and keep only the ones you needed to
document the model. However, it is generally more convenient to have
Pro/ENGINEER create the ordinate dimensions for you and then to
delete the ones you do not want, as opposed to creating each of the
ones you do want individually.

1.

Step 13. Save the models and erase them from memory.

1. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

2. Click File > Close Window from the main menu.


3. Click File > Erase > Not Displayed > OK to erase the models from
memory.
This completes the procedure.

Sheetmetal Model Fundamentals


Module Overview
Before exploring the different aspects of sheetmetal modeling in depth, it is
necessary to understand some of the fundamentals of how sheetmetal models
are handled, calculated, displayed, and created in Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire.

Objectives
After successfully completing this module, you will be able to:

Understand the thickness of a Pro/ENGINEER sheetmetal model, and how


it is calculated from a driving surface.
Describe how the wireframe display of a Pro/ENGINEER sheetmetal
model's driving and driven surfaces are displayed.
Define, understand, and change developed lengths in Pro/ENGINEER
sheetmetal model designs.
Control developed lengths with a K-factor, Y-factor, or a bend table.

Create new sheetmetal models in part or assembly mode.

Create a new sheetmetal model by converting a solid model into a


sheetmetal model.

Sheetmetal Model Fundamentals


It is important to understand some fundamental
characteristics of the Sheetmetal mode in Pro/ENGINEER
Wildfire.

Constant thickness

Driving (green) and offset


(white) sides
Formed or flat

Developed length

Formed State

Wireframe Display of Driving (Green)


and Offset (White) Sides

Flat State

if you prefer to read Lecture Notes, Cl

Sheetmetal Model Fundamentals

Sheetmetal models are solid parametric models that have a constant thickness throughout. Therefore, they do not
represent real world models that undergo deep drawing forming operations or other manufacturing processes that
large amounts of plastic deformation of the material during formation.

Sheetmetal models have a driving side and an offset side. When displayed as a wire frame, the driving side of the
shown in green and the offset (or driven side) is shown in white. The side surfaces of sheetmetal models are form
after the driving and offset surfaces have been regenerated. You can see and example of this in the figure on the l
the slide.

Sheetmetal models can be displayed in either the formed design state (bent into the final shape used in the design
state (unbent to show the "blank" of metal needed prior to bending). An example of the formed state is shown in
on the upper right side of the slide, while an example of the flat state for the same models can be seen in the figur
lower right side of the slide.

Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire can accurately calculate the developed length of most bends in a sheetmetal model. Th
you to design the model in its formed state. If you unbend it later to form the flat state, you can apply the develop
to each of the bends in the model so that an accurate flat model can also be generated for manufacturing.
Best Practices

Because of the general thinness of a sheetmetal part, you should select flat surfaces as references when placing a
a flat surface is not applicable, edges are more convenient than side surfaces. When you orient a sheetmetal part,
selection must be a planar surface or a datum plane and the second selection may be an edge. This is contrary to o
non-sheetmetal solid parts (where it is recommended that the second reference be a surface instead of an edge). E
often references in sheetmetal models.

Understanding Developed Length


Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire can automatically calculate the
developed length of most sheetmetal bends.

Developed Length (Bend Allowance) can be determined by:

System Equation (Y/K Factor)

Provided Bend Tables (soft, medium and hard materials)

User-defined Bend Tables

Entered Value

Applied to whole part or to individual features as necessary.

Before Bend
N is the Neutral Axis
L = (/2 x R + y x T) /90

L= Developed Length

R = Inside Radius

T = Material Thickness

= Bend Angle (measured as angle of deflection)

y = (/2) * K

K = /T
After Bend

if you prefer to read Lecture Notes, C

Defining Developed Length

Accurate developed length calculations (often referred to as bend allowances) enable you to capture your design
the solid model while also developing a precise flattened model that manufacturers can use when developing the
product. Physical sheetmetal parts are often manufactured by taking a flat piece of sheetmetal material and bendi
the finished part. This final shape is often referred to as the developed or formed model. When you bend or form
sheetmetal, the material on the outside of the neutral bend axis stretches while the material on the inside of the ne
axis compresses. The neutral bend axis itself remains the same before and after the bend because it is neither stre
compressed. You can account for this material behavior by establishing appropriate material descriptions and for
accurately calculating the bend allowance. It is very helpful to be able to provide the manufacturers of your shee
models with the overall dimensions of the flat stock (often referred to as the blank) that they need to begin the
manufacturing process. Pro/ENGINEER can create a blank that incorporates the developed lengths of the formed
the flat model.

Calculating Developed Length

The developed length of a bend depends on the thickness, bend radii, bend angles, and other material properties (
the hardness of the material). The developed length calculation compensates for stretching in the area of a bend.
The developed length of a bend is determined in Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire using one of four methods:

System Equation (default)

Entered Value

Provided Bend Tables

User-defined (Customized) Bend Tables

Bend Tables are covered in a separate topic.


System Default Equation

By default, Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire uses a default bend formula to calculate the developed length that uses y-fa
factor values.

The equation, shown in the figures here, is stated as L = (/2 x R + y x T) /90 Where: L = developed length. R =
radius. T = material thickness. = bend angle (deflection angle, in ) and y = y-factor.

Note that the bend angle is measured as the angle of deflection, and not the inside an
For example if a flat wall section was bent 30, the bend angle () is 30, not 150.

The y-factors and k-factors are part constants defined by the location of the sheetmetal material's neutral bend lin
largely based on the hardness of the material. The k-factor is a value that expresses a parameterized location of th
bend axis. It is calculated as k = /T. In the figure, you can see that is the distance away from the inside radius w
neutral bend axis lies. Therefore, a value of k = 0 would indicate that the neutral bend axis is on the innermost su
bend, while a value of k = 1 would indicate that the neutral bend axis is located on the outermost surface of the b

Both the k-factors and y-factors increase as the hardness of the material increases. Therefore, harder materials ha
developed lengths than softer materials.
The y-factor is calculated with the equation y = k * /2. The default value for the y-factor is 0.50.
Entered Values

Another way to control the developed length of a given bend is to override whatever value is given to the bend (b

table or the default equation) with a user supplied value. This approach can be useful when the developed length
heuristically from some source (such as a manufacturing vendor) and just needs to be incorporated in the model.
Best Practices

Before beginning the development of sheetmetal models in Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire, determine how the develo
will be calculated. Accurate developed length calculations will enable you to capture your design intent in the so
and to create accurate flat models that manufacturers can use to develop the actual product.

Procedure: Understanding Developed Length


Scenario
Explore various methods of controlling the developed length of a sheetmetal
bend.
DevLength

1.

widget.prt

Task 1. Examine and modify the developed length of a bend by changing


the y-factor.
1. Right-click the FIRST WALL feature in the model tree and select Edit.

Note that the value for the developed length of the bend is currently
4.14 (highlighted in red in the image).

2. From the main menu, click Edit > Setup > Bend Allow > Y-factor >
Enter.

Type .70 when prompted to type a new y-factor and click Accept
Value .

3. When prompted, click Yes to confirm full part regeneration.


4. Right-click the FIRST WALL feature in the model tree and select Edit.

Note that the value for the developed length of the bend is now 4.54
(highlighted in red in the image).

1.

Task 2. Unbend the model and measure the length of the flat model.
1. Click Unbend

from the feature toolbar.

2. Verify that Regular is selected in the menu manger and click Done.
3. Click Unbend All > Done > OK.
4. From the main menu, click Analysis > Measure > Distance. Select the
edges shown in the figure (highlighted in red) as the From and To
references.

Note the resulting distance of 71.5416.

5. Click Accept
1.

to close the Distance dialog box.

Task 3. Override the calculated developed length with a user-defined


value and measure the length of the flat model again.
1. Right-click the FIRST WALL feature in the model tree and select Edit.
2. Select the 4.54 DEV.L dimension, right-click and select Value.
3. Type 5.12 and press ENTER.

4. Click Regenerate

to regenerate the part.

5. Click Analysis > Measure > Distance from the main menu. Measure
the distance between the same two edges you measured in the previous
task.

Note that the distance measured is now 72.1200. This is because the
user-defined value for the developed length of the bend is now being
used to drive the flat length of the model instead of the y-factor
calculated value.

6. Click Accept
7. Click Save

to close the Distance dialog box.


from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

8. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.
This completes the procedure.

Creating a New Sheetmetal Part in Assembly


Mode
There are three methods for creating a new sheetmetal
model. One method is to create a new sheetmetal part in
Assembly mode.

Creating a New Component in an Assembly

if you prefer to read Lecture N

Creating a New Sheetmetal Part in Assembly Mode


You can create a new sheetmetal model in Assembly mode. When you are working inside of an existing assembly,
you can click the Create Component
icon to open the Component Create dialog box. Once in the Component Create
must then select the Sheetmetal radio button, type a part name, and click OK. The Creation Options dialog box appears,
and you can select the Copy from Existing radio button and then browse for the template file you wish to use.

Procedure: Creating a New Sheetmetal Part in


Assembly Mode
Scenario
Create a new sheetmetal part in Assembly mode.
NewInAssembly

1.

machine.asm

Task 1. Create and assemble a new sheetmetal part in the MACHINE.ASM.


1. Click Create Component

from the assembly toolbar.

2. In the Component Create dialog box, select Part as the Type, if


necessary, and select Sheetmetal as the Sub-type.
3. Type front_enclosure in the Name field and click OK.

4. In the Creation Options dialog box, verify that the Copy From
Existing radio button is selected.

Note that the default template in the Copy From field is for a solid part
not a sheetmetal part. While in Assembly mode, Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire
does not discriminate between solid and sheetmetal parts. Therefore,
you will select a sheetmetal template in the next step.

5. Click Browse and double-click the templates folder.


6. Select PTC_MM_KG_SEC_SHEET.PRT from the Choose Template dialog box
and click Open.
7. Verify that the dialog box appears, as shown, and click OK to create the
new sheetmetal part.

8. Right-click in the graphics area and select Default Constraint, as shown.


9. Click Complete Component

to finish assembling the component.

10. Right-click the new FRONT_ENCLOSURE.PRT sheetmetal part in the


model tree and select Activate, as shown.

Note that once the new FRONT_ENCLOSURE sheetmetal part has been
activated, the Sheetmetal icons appear in the feature toolbar,
indicating that the part is both a solid part and a sheetmetal part.

11. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

12. Click File > Erase > Current > Select All
from memory.

> OK to erase the model

This completes the procedure.

Creating a New Sheetmetal Model in Part Mode


There are three methods for creating a new sheetmetal
model. One method is to create a new sheetmetal part in
Part mode.

Creating a New Sheetmetal Model in Part Mode


if you prefer to read Lecture Notes, Click here
Creating a New Sheetmetal Model in Part Mode
You can create a new sheetmetal model in Part mode. You can click the New
icon, select theSheetmetal radio button and type a part name. You can then
either click OK and use the default sheetmetal template part or you can clear
the Use default template check box, click OK, and then browse for the
sheetmetal template part you want to use. Note that you can use the
template_sheetmetalpart config option to specify the default template

Procedure: Creating a New Sheetmetal Model in Part


Mode
Scenario
Create a new sheetmetal model part.
NewInPart

1.

Create New

Task 1. Create a new sheetmetal model.


1. Click New

from the main toolbar.

2. Select Part as the Type, if necessary and select Sheetmetal as the Subtype.
3. Type bracket in the Name field.
4. Clear the Use default template check box.
5. Verify that the dialog box appears, as shown, and click OK.

6. When the New File Options dialog box appears, verify


that mm_kg_sec_sheet appears in the Template field.

mm_kg_sec_sheet is in the Template field due to


the template_sheetmetalpart config setting. This config option is
set to the exact path and filename that you designated for sheetmetal
part templates, in this case ..\..\templates\mm_kg_sec_sheet.prt.
This template part is pre-configured with, among other things, default
datum planes and a coordinate system, layers, and parameters.

7. Click OK to create a new sheetmetal part using this template.

Note the presence of the sheetmetal options in the Part toolbar on the
right side of the screen. This is one way to know you are in a
sheetmetal part.

1.

Task 2. Explore some of the entities that are in the part as the result of
using the MM_KG_SEC_SHEET.PRT template part.
1. In the model tree, click Show
and then Layer Tree and note that
several layers have already been created.
2. From the main toolbar, click Tools > Parameters and note the presence
of three parameters.
3. Click Cancel to close the Parameters dialog box.

The layers and parameters exist in the new sheetmetal part because
the MM_KG_SEC_SHEET.PRT was used as a template. All of these
entities (and others) existed in the template file and were copied into
the new file.

4. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

5. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.
This completes the procedure.

Converting a Solid Model to a Sheetmetal Model


There are three methods for creating a new sheetmetal
model. One method is to convert a solid model to a
sheetmetal model.

Converting a Solid Model to a Sheetmetal Model

if you prefer to read Lecture Notes, Click here


Converting a Solid Model to a Sheetmetal Model
You can convert an existing solid model to a sheetmetal model in Pro/ENGINEER
Wildfire. You can clickApplications > Sheetmetal from the menu bar. The menu
manager appears with the SMT CONVERT options. You can then select Driving
Srf and select the driving surface if the model is already a constant thickness,
or you can select the Shell option and specify which surfaces to remove and
create a shell model with a constant thickness. Once you complete either of
these steps, the FIRST WALL feature will be added to the model tree and you
will have access to the Sheetmetal menus and feature icons.
Once you have converted a solid model to a sheetmetal model using this
technique, you can employ additional sheetmetal features to help create a
developable part. A developable part is typically defined as a sheetmetal model
that can display in its flat state and is capable of being manufactured. The most
common tool that you will use for this job is the Conversion feature, but you
can use any sheetmetal features to create a developable part.

Procedure: Converting a Solid Model to a Sheetmetal


Model
Scenario
Convert a solid model to a sheetmetal model.
Convert

1.

convert.prt

Task 1. Convert a solid model to a sheetmetal model.


1. Examine the features in the model tree.

The model currently consists of a default datum coordinate system,


three default datum planes, and two extrude features.

2. From the main menu, click Applications > Sheetmetal.


3. When the SMT CONVERT menu manager appears, select Shell.
4. Press CTRL and select the two hidden surfaces on the back of the model,
as shown in the figure (highlighted in red).

You will need to either query select these surfaces or rotate the model
so that you can select the surface directly.

5. Click Done Refs to finish the feature.


6. When prompted for a thickness, type 1.0 and click Complete Feature
.

1.

Task 2. Examine the converted model.


1. Examine the features in the model tree.

Note the addition of the FIRST WALL feature. Also note that the
Sheetmetal mode icons have been added and the Solid mode icons
have been removed in the feature toolbar on the right.

2. Rotate the model to examine the surfaces that have been removed from
the back of the model.

3. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

4. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.
This completes the procedure.

Creating Primary Sheetmetal Wall Features


Module Overview
A critical building block for every sheetmetal model is the creation of a primary
wall feature. Since it is the first sheetmetal feature in a model, it does not need
to reference any other sheetmetal features. It also sets the thickness of the
entire sheetmetal model.
In this module you will explore a number of different methods of creating
primary walls. You will also learn about how these primary wall types can be
created after an initial primary wall exists. These walls are called unattached
walls.

Objectives
After successfully completing this module, you will be able to:

Understand the difference between primary and secondary walls

Understand the difference between attached and unattached walls.

Create flat primary walls.

Create extruded primary walls.

Create revolved primary walls.

Create blend primary walls.

Create offset primary walls.

Understand other less common types of primary walls.

Understanding Sheetmetal Wall Features


A wall is any section of sheetmetal.

Primary Wall No References

Secondary Wall Attached Along Red Edge

Two Unattached Primary Walls

Secondary Wall Merged at Both Ends

if you prefer to read Lecture Notes, C

Sheetmetal Walls

Sheetmetal walls are the main method of adding solid geometry to a sheetmetal model. They are sim
Protrusion feature in normal, non-sheetmetal solid Pro/ENGINEER models. There are two main types
of walls that you can create in sheetmetal models: primary wall and secondary wall features.
Primary Walls

Primary walls are sheetmetal wall features that do not need to reference existing sheetmetal features

are always the first sheetmetal feature in a sheetmetal model: they form sheetmetal geometry which
sheetmetal features can reference. None of the sheetmetal features except for the primary wall
features are available until a primary wall has been created.

You can continue to create primary walls after an initial primary wall has been created, but these wall
created as unattached primary walls and can later be attached to existing sheetmetal geometry.
Secondary Walls

Unlike primary wall features, secondary wall features need to reference existing sheetmetal geometry
the first step in creating a secondary wall is to select an edge of an existing sheetmetal wall to which
attach the secondary wall.
Attached versus Unattached Walls
By definition, secondary walls are attached walls as the name suggests, they are attached to an

existing wall. However, since primary walls can be created without referencing any other existing shee
geometry, it is possible to create more than one primary wall in a Pro/ENGINEER sheetmetal design.
One such example can be seen in the figures on bottom of this example: the first wall was created

as a primary wall (marked #1 in the figure), and then another primary wall was created (marked #2
figure). A secondary wall flange wall (marked #3 in the figure) was then attached to wall #1

(shown by the green arrow) because the top edge of the wall #1 where the green arrow is was select
reference for the wall.
This secondary wall (#3) is later attached to wall #2 with a merge feature along the edge where the
red arrow is shown. Once wall #3 is attached at both ends, the geometry becomes one continuous
piece of sheetmetal geometry and other useful sheetmetal features (such as the unbend feature)
can be applied to it.
This type of approach is often useful in top-down designs where the location of some geometry is
known and other geometry is needed to bridge between these known locations.

Creating Flat Walls


A flat wall is a planar, unbent section of sheetmetal.

Completed Flat Wall

Flat Wall Icon Location

if you prefer to read Lecture Notes, Click here

Primary Flat Walls


Primary flat walls can take any flat shape because you either select or create a closed sketch that
defines the extents the feature. You can use the Flat
icon for this type of feature, and it is located
in the feature toolbar.

Procedure: Creating Flat Walls


Scenario
Create a primary flat wall sheetmetal feature.
Flat

blank.prt

1.

Task 1. Create a primary flat wall feature.


1. Click Flat

from the feature toolbar.

2. Click References from the dashboard and click Define.


3. When the Sketch dialog box appears, select the TOP datum plane from
the display area or from the model tree as the Sketch Plane reference.
4. Verify that the resulting default for the Sketch Orientation reference is the
RIGHT datum plane and that the Orientation field is set to Right.
5. Click Sketch to start Sketcher mode.
6. Sketch and dimension the geometry in the Sketcher window, as shown.

7. Click Done Section


dashboard.

to leave Sketcher mode and return to the

8. Type 1.50 in the thickness field on the dashboard, as shown.

Note that the thickness set for this wall will modify the value of the
thickness parameter (SMT_THICKNESS), which controls the thickness of
the entire sheetmetal part. Editing the first wall feature will display the
thickness dimension since it is the first wall feature in the sheetmetal
model.

9. Click Complete Feature

10. From the main menu click View > Orientation > Standard
Orientation.

11. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

12. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.
This completes the procedure.

xtruded Sheetmetal Wall Features


You can use the Extrude tool to create a primary wall feature.

Competed Extruded Primary Wall

if you prefer to read Lecture Notes, Click here

Extruded Sheetmetal Wall Features


An extruded wall is created by taking a sketch you create and extending it normal to the sketch plane.
This creates a surface to which you can add sheetmetal thickness to the inside or outside. You can use
the Extrude Tool
icon for this type of feature, and it is located at the top of the feature toolbar.

Procedure: Extruded Sheetmetal Wall Features


Scenario
Create a primary extruded wall sheetmetal feature.
Extrude

beam.prt

1.

Task 1. Create a primary extruded wall feature.


1. Click Extrude Tool

from the feature toolbar

Note that the tool has automatically been set to Solid

2. Click Placement from the dashboard and click Define.


3. When the Sketch dialog box appears, select the FRONT datum plane from
the display area or from the model tree as the Sketch Plane reference.
4. Verify that the resulting default for the Sketch Orientation reference is the
RIGHT datum plane and that the Orientation field is set to Right.
5. Click Sketch to start Sketcher mode.
6. Sketch and dimension two lines in the Sketcher window, as shown.
7. Click Done Section
dashboard.

to leave Sketcher mode and return to the

8. From the dashboard, click Options and select the Add bends on sharp
edges option.
9. Type 5.0 in the Radius field and verify that the dimension side is set
to Inside. The Options menu appears, as shown.

10. Type 500 in the dashboard depth field and type 3.5 in the thickness
field. The dashboard appears, as shown.

11. Click Complete Feature

12. From the main menu click View > Orientation > Standard
Orientation.

13. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

14. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.
This completes the procedure.

Revolved Sheetmetal Wall Features


You can use the Revolve tool to create a primary wall feature.

Completed Revolved Wall

Revolved Wall Icon Location

Revolved Sheetmetal Wall Features


A revolved wall is created by taking a sketch you create and rotating it about an
axis. This creates a surface to which you can add sheetmetal thickness to the
inside or outside. You can use the Revolve
icon to create this type of
feature, and it is located in the feature toolbar.

Procedure: Revolved Sheetmetal Wall Features


Scenario
Create a primary revolved wall sheetmetal feature.
collar.prt

Revolve

1.

Task 1. Create a primary revolved wall feature.


1. Click Revolve

from the feature toolbar.

You may need to locate the icon on the flyout menu, as shown.

2. Click One Side > Done.


3. When prompted for a SKETCHING PLANE, select the FRONT datum plane
from the model tree. Click Okay from the menu manager to accept the
direction of feature creation.
4. When prompted for a reference for sketching, click Default from the
menu manager.

5. Sketch the two lines, the arc, and the centerline, as shown. The vertical
centerline acts as an axis of revolution and as a dimensioning reference
for the revolved diameter dimensions.
6. When you finish sketching and dimensioning the geometry, click Done
Section
to leave Sketcher mode.

7. Click Okay from the menu manager to accept the direction of thickening,
as shown.
8. Click 360 > Done from the menu manger to define the angular rotation
of the section.

9. Click OK from the FIRST WALL feature creation dialog box to create the
feature.

10. From the main menu click View > Orientation > Standard
Orientation.

11. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

12. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.
This completes the procedure.

Blend Sheetmetal Wall Features


Multiple sections can join together to create a Blend Primary
Wall feature.

Completed Blend Primary Wall Feature


Blend Wall Icon Location
Blend Sheetmetal Wall Features
You can create a blended wall by connecting two or more sketched sections
together. This creates a surface to which you can add sheetmetal thickness to
the inside or outside. You can use the Blend
icon for this type of feature, and
it is located in the feature toolbar. There are three different methods you can
use to connect sections: parallel, rotational, and general. See the Sheetmetal
help files for Blend walls or the Part help files for Blends and Non-parallel blends
for more information on creating these types of walls.

Procedure: Blend Sheetmetal Wall Features


Scenario
Create a sheetmetal Primary Blend Wall feature.
Blend

1.

funnel.prt

Task 1. Create a Blended Primary Wall feature.


1. Click Blend

from the feature toolbar.

You may need to locate the icon on the flyout menu, as shown.

2. Verify that Parallel, Regular Sec, and Sketch Sec are selected in the
menu manger and click Done.
3. Verify that Straight is selected in the menu manger and click Done.

4. When prompted for a SKETCHING PLANE, select the FRONT datum plane
from the model tree. Click Okay from the menu manager to accept the
direction of feature creation.
5. When prompted for a reference for sketching, click Default from the
menu manager.
6. Sketch a circle and make its diameter 120. Right-click and select Toggle
Section to go to the second section, as shown.

7. Sketch a second circle with a diameter of 20. Right-click and


select Toggle Section to go to the third section.

8. Sketch a third circle with a diameter of 10.


9. When you finish sketching and dimensioning the geometry, click Done
Section
to leave Sketcher mode.

10. Click Okay from the menu manager to accept the direction of
thickening, as shown.
11. When you are prompted to type a DEPTH for section 2, type 75 and
click Accept Value .
12. When you are prompted to type a DEPTH for section 3, type 75 and
click Accept Value .

13. Click OK from the FIRST WALL feature creation dialog box to create the
feature.
14. From the main menu click View > Orientation > Standard
Orientation.
15. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK.

16. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes.

This completes the procedure.

Offset Sheetmetal Wall Features


You can use surfaces to create an offset wall feature.

Completed Offset Primary Wall


Offset Wall Icon Location
Offset Sheetmetal Wall Features
An offset wall is created by specifying an existing surface, and the direction and
distance you wish to offset. This creates a new surface to which you can add
sheetmetal thickness to the inside or outside. You can use the Offset
for this type of feature, and it is located in the feature toolbar.

Procedure: Offset Sheetmetal Wall Features


Scenario
Create a primary offset wall sheetmetal feature.
Offset

case.prt

icon

1.

Task 1. Create a primary offset wall feature.


1. Click Offset

from the feature toolbar

You may need to locate the icon on the flyout menu, as shown.

2. When prompted for a surface to offset from, select the surface, as shown.
3. When you are prompted for an offset distance type 25.0 and click Accept
Value .

4. Click Okay to accept the direction of material addition, as shown.

Note that other items are available in the FIRST WALL feature creation
dialog box (such as the Offset Type and Thickness) for which you will
be accepting the default settings.

5. Click OK from the FIRST WALL feature creation dialog box to create the
feature.

6. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

7. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.
This completes the procedure.

Sheetmetal Wall Sketching Tools


The Thicken option is available in Sketcher mode for
sheetmetal features.

Before Thicken

After Thicken

The Thicken Sketcher Tool


Sheetmetal bends are often formed on a break where the sheetmetal is bent
over a specifically sized die to form an inside radius. Since the inside radius of
the bend is set by a specifically sized die, it is important to the design intent of
a model. As a designer, you may run into situations where the sketch you are
creating is dimensioning to an outside diameter.
An example of a sketch where this may happen is shown in the first figure. The
design intent for this model is to create the sheetmetal thickness to the right of
the sketch, dimension all bends as 5.00 mm inside radius bends, and to
dimension the right most vertical member to the far side of the thickness. The
weak (gray) dimensions do not match this design intent.
You can use the Thicken Sketcher tool to incorporate the correct dimensioning
scheme (and hence the correct design intent) into your features. It creates a set

of construction entities that are offset from the geometry you have sketched.
You can select the side and distance to which the offset occurs, and this in turn
sets the direction and thickness of the solid sheetmetal geometry.
The most useful aspect of this set of offset entities is the ability to dimension to
them. You can dimension the inside radius of a sketch even if the geometry you
have sketched is the outside radius. Furthermore, you can dimension to offset
entities in order to match the dimensioning scheme of your feature to the
design intent of your model. An example of this is shown in second figure. The
offset entity is used to create an inside radius 5.00 mm dimension and the
29.00 mm dimension. Both of these dimensions belong to the offset entities
created by the Thicken tool.

Best Practices
Outside radius dimensions that are left as weak dimensions prior to using the
Thicken tool will change to weak inside radius dimensions after you use the
Thicken tool.

Procedure: Sheetmetal Wall Sketching Tools


Scenario
Explore some sketching tools that are unique to sheetmetal models.
SheetSketch

1.

brace.prt

Task 1. Create an extruded primary wall feature with an existing sketch,


but re-dimension the sketch to match your design intent.

The design intent for this model is to create a brace that is 25 mm


thick and uses bends that have inside radii dimensions all equal to 5
mm. You will discover that the existing sketch that currently uses these
dimensions does not have the correct design intent (due to the
material thickness of the sheetmetal) and will need to be redimensioned.

2. 1. Click Extrude Tool

from the feature toolbar

3. 2. Select Sketch 1 from the model tree.


4. 3. From the dashboard, click Solid

5. 4. From the dashboard, click Placement > Unlink > OK to convert


Sketch 1 to an internal sketch.
6. 5. Click Edit from the Placement tab to start Sketcher mode, as shown.

Note the presence of the weak 25.00 and 5.00 dimensions in the
sketch.

7. 6. Once in Sketcher mode, right-click in the display area and


select Thicken.

You can also click Sketch > Feature Tools > Thicken from the main
menu.

8.

9.
10.7. Click Flip from in the menu manager to flip the arrow to the right.
Once the arrow is facing right, click Okay from the menu manager.
11.8. If necessary specify a thickness of 2.0.
12.9. Click Accept Changes

to accept the thickness.

Note the addition of the offset construction line representing the


thickness of the sheetmetal material. Also note that the weak 5.00
dimension has automatically moved to the inside radius and is now
3.00.

13.10. Select the 3.00 dimension, right-click and select Modify....

Type a value of 5.00 in the Modify Dimensions dialog box and


click Regenerate Section .

11. Click Normal Dimension


and select the thickness line and the
vertical reference line to create the 29.00 dimension, as shown.
12. Select the 29.00 dimension, right-click and select Modify.

Type a value of 25.00 in the Modify Dimensions dialog box and


click Regenerate Section .

13. Click Done Section


to complete the sketch and leave Sketcher mode.
Type 100 for the depth in the dashboard and clickComplete Feature .

14. Click View > Orientation > Standard Orientation from the main
menu.
15. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

16. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.

This completes the procedure.

Advanced Primary Walls


There are many less common but often useful types of
primary walls.

Variable Section Sweep

Swept Blend

Helical Sweep

From Boundaries

Blend Section to Surfaces

Advanced Primary Walls


In addition to the most common types of primary walls, there are quite a few less common but
often useful types of primary walls:

Variable Section Sweep A variable section sweep creates a primary


wall feature by sweeping a section along the selected trajectories and
simultaneously controlling the sections orientation, rotation, and
geometry along the trajectory. In this example, the trajectories used
to create the wall are shown in red while the section is shown in blue.
Swept Blend A swept blend creates a primary wall feature by
sweeping along a trajectory while simultaneously varying the crosssection from one user-defined cross-section to the next. In this
example, the trajectory used to create the wall is shown in red while
the sections are shown in blue.
Helical Sweep A helical sweep creates a primary wall feature by
sweeping a section along a helical (corkscrew-like) trajectory.
From Boundaries The From Boundaries option creates a primary wall
feature by enabling you to create a surface by specifying curves that
the surface will pass through in one or two directions. From this
surface the offset surface is created and the sheetmetal material is
added. In this example, the curves used as boundaries in the first

direction are shown in red while the boundaries in the second direction
are shown in blue.
Blend Section to Surfaces The Blend Section to Surfaces option
creates a primary wall as a blend that goes from a sketched section to
a selected surface or surfaces and is tangent to that selected surface.
In this example, the blend section is shown in blue, the surface it
attaches to is grey, and the resulting primary wall is shown in
transparent purple.
Blend Between Surfaces The Blend Between Surfaces option creates
a primary wall feature that is a smooth surface between two selected
surfaces. In this example, there is no figure for this primary wall
creation method.
Blend from File Imports a blend from an .IBL file. In this example,
there is no figure for this primary wall creation method.
Blend Tangent to Surfaces The Blend Tangent to Surfaces option
enables you to create a blended surface tangent to surfaces from an
edge or a curve. This surface then becomes the driving surface for a
sheetmetal primary wall. In this example, there is no figure for this
primary wall creation method.

Creating Sheetmetal Secondary Wall Features


Module Overview
Once you have created at least one primary wall in a sheetmetal model, you
can begin creating secondary walls and attaching them to the model. In this
module, you will explore a number of different methods of creating secondary
walls.

Objectives
After successfully completing this module, you will be able to:

Understand the general characteristics and types of secondary walls.

Create secondary flat walls.

Create secondary flange walls.

Create secondary extruded walls.

Create secondary twist walls.

Create secondary extended walls.

Create secondary merge walls.

Understand and create partial and overextended walls.

Understand and apply the different types of relief to walls when


necessary.
Understand and use the different dashboard options that are available for
flat and flange walls.

Understanding Secondary Walls


Secondary walls are dependent on at least one primary wall.

Flat

Flange

Extruded

Extend

Twist

Merge

Secondary Walls

You can create secondary walls by referencing at least one primary wall. A
secondary wall is always a child feature of the primary wall it references.
You can create any primary wall type as a secondary wall. In addition to the
primary walls, there are six other wall features that can ONLY be created as
secondary walls:

Flat You can create a secondary flat wall using the Flat
icon (as
opposed to a primary flat wall that is created using the Flat
icon). You
create it by referencing the edge of an existing wall and then using a
modifiable predefined shape (rectangle, trapezoid, L, or T) or a userdefined sketch. You use an open sketch that is attached to the referenced
edge to define the shape of the wall. You can specify the angle of the
attachment as well as the radius of an optional bend.
Flange A flange wall takes a commonly used predefined shape, a
common hem shape, or user-defined shape and sweeps it along a
trajectory of referenced edges. You can create it using theFlange
icon.
Extruded The extruded wall is very similar to a flange wall. For this
type of secondary wall, a single straight edge is selected to act as an
extrude direction and a sketched section is created that follows along this
edge to create the sheetmetal geometry.You can use the Extrude
Tool
to create this type of wall.
Extend An extend wall lengthens an existing wall. You can extend the
wall from a straight edge on an existing wall to either a planar surface or
a specified distance. You can use the Extend Tool
to create this type
of wall.
Twist You can create a twist wall by selecting a straight edge on an
existing planar wall. It is formed by extending the wall and twisting it
around an axis that typically runs through the center of the wall (although
a different point on the wall can be specified. The distance of extension
and degrees of twist are specified by the user.
Merge The Merge Wall tool combines two or more unattached walls that
are tangent and touching each other into one contiguous wall. You can
use the Merge Walls
icon to create the feature.

Unattached Primary Walls


As mentioned, you can create all of the primary wall types as secondary walls.
Typically, you create a primary wall as an unattached wall after the initial
primary wall has been created in the model. For example, you can create the
side walls of a sheetmetal model before knowing what the middle section will
look like.

This is similar to the use of separate parts in assembly mode, where you have
parts of the model that are completely separate from other parts of the model.
However, eventually these unattached primary walls need to be attached (with
the Merge Wall tool) to the primary wall in order to have a valid sheetmetal
model, for example, a single contiguous piece of sheetmetal in the a part
model.
Once the unattached wall has been attached via the Merge Wall tool, it comes a
child of the Merge Wall feature. Since it is dependent on another wall feature, it
becomes a secondary wall.

Creating Secondary Flat Walls


Secondary flat walls are planar walls that are attached to a
straight edge of an existing wall.

Rectangle

Trapezoid

Secondary Flat Walls


You can create a secondary flat wall by referencing a straight edge on an
existing wall. You can then specify a number of different elements that
determine the final configuration of the flat wall.
Predefined Shapes
First you should specify the overall shape of the wall. The wall will always be
created as an open loop sketch that is attached to the referenced straight edge.
You can select a predefined sketch shape or define the sketch yourself.
You can select from the following predefined shapes:

Rectangle

Trapezoid

Modifying Predefined Shapes


You can modify a predefined shape in a number of different ways.

Drag handles You can right-click in the display area and select Edit
Shape. Drag handles appear on the model that enable you to click and
drag the shape to a new location while the preview geometry updates in
real-time.

Modifying dimensions You can double-click any dimension and specify a


new value for it.
Sketch mode You can take the predefined geometry into Sketch mode
and manipulate it there. You can delete, modify, or create new entities in
Sketch mode to create a shape that matches your design intent. The only
requirement for the sketch is that it is an open loop with the open ends of
the sketch terminating at the edge you referenced for attachment.

Wall Angle
You can also control the angle of the wall from 0 to 180 degrees. A 0 degree
wall inserts the wall parallel to the existing wall. You cannot use a negative
angle or an angle greater than 180 degrees to make the wall angle reverse its
direction. Instead you must select the sheetmetal edge on the opposite side of
the edge you selected as the attachment reference.

Procedure: Creating Secondary Flat Walls


Scenario
Create a secondary flat wall that starts with an L shape and ends with a userdefined custom shape.
Flat

1.

blank.prt

Task 1. Create a secondary flat wall.


1. Click Flat

from the feature toolbar.

2. Select the edge on the top-left side of the model, as shown.

Alternatively, you can preselect the edge first and then click Flat

Note that the Rectangle shape has been selected by default.

3. Select L from the Shape drop-down list in the dashboard, as shown.

4. Double-click the 2.00 Inside dimension and type 5.0 and press ENTER.
5. Click the angle drag handle and drag the wall to a 110 degree angle, as
shown.

6. Drag the drag handle for the taller side of the L wall to a value of 40, as
shown.

7. Click Shape from the dashboard and edit the height of the shorter side of
the L wall to 20 and press ENTER.
8. Click Sketch from the Shape tab to start Sketch mode.

9. Click Circular Fillet

and create the fillet, as shown.

10. Modify the fillet radius dimension to 10.0 and click Done Section
complete the sketch.
11. Click Complete Feature
feature.

from the dashboard to complete the

to

12. Click View > Orientation > Standard Orientation from the main
menu.
13. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

14. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.

This completes the procedure.

Using Flange Walls


A flange wall is a folded sheetmetal wall that is attached to
straight or swept edges.

Z
Arc
S

Open
Flushed

Duck

Flange Walls
A flange wall is a folded sheetmetal wall that is attached to straight or swept edges. You select an
edge or a set of adjacent edges (they must form a continuous path) to which you will attach the
flange wall. You can then specify the profile of the wall as well as other dashboard options.
Flange Wall Profiles
There are three basic types of flange wall profiles.

Frequently Used Shapes The frequently used shapes that are


available as predefined geometry are the I, Arc, and S shapes.
Hem Shapes The hems that are available are: Open, Flushed, C, Z,
and Duck.
User-defined shapes Similar to secondary flat walls, you can start
with predefined geometry and then start Sketch mode and manipulate
it there. You can delete, modify, or create new entities in Sketch mode
to create a shape that matches your design intent. The only
requirement for the sketch is that it is an open sketch with one end
terminating at the edge you referenced for attachment.

In all cases, care must be taken not to use angles, bends, or geometry that would cause the flange
wall to double over itself. If this happens, the geometry can not be formed and the yellow
preview geometry will stop being generated.
Flange Wall Dashboard Options
In addition to having the dashboard options that are common to both secondary flat and
secondary flange walls, you can also set the following options that are specific to flange walls:

Length By default, Pro/ENGINEER creates the flange wall from the


start to the end of the edge chain you select for attachment. If you
want either end of the wall to stop short of or extend beyond the
selected chain, you can use the Length option on the Flange Wall
dashboard. There are three setting for either end of the wall:
o Chain End When this option is selected (it is the default
setting), the wall begins (or terminates) at the end of the chain
you selected for attachment.
o Blind Using the Blind option, you specify a positive or negative
linear distance where that the wall terminates relative to the
chain end.
o To Selected The To Selected option enables you to have the
wall terminate at a piece of geometry that you select. Points,
curves, planes, and surface are references that you can select to
set the extents of the wall on either end.
Miter Cuts The Miter Cuts option (selected by default) adds miter
cuts in areas between intersecting tangent wall segments. You can
specify the width and offset of the miter cut, as well as whether or not
to keep all deform areas. Below is an example of geometry with these
miter cuts (shown by the black arrows in the figure on the left below) .
The figure on the right is the same flange with the Keep all deform
areas option selected.

Miter Cuts

Miter Cuts with Deform Areas

If you decide to disable the Miter Cuts option, the yellow preview
geometry will not be available in situations where the geometry
intersects itself.
Edge Treatment The Edge Treatment options (shown below) enable
you to specify how you would like walls placed on adjacent nontangent edges to behave where they meet each other.

Open

Gap

Blind

Overlap

Procedure: Using Flange Walls


Scenario
Create a flange wall that uses gap edge treatments and miter cuts.
Flange

1.

blank2.prt

Task 1. Create a flange wall.


1. Click Flange

from the feature toolbar.

2. Select the bottom front edge, as shown.

Note that the I profile has been selected by default.

3. From the Shape drop-down list in the dashboard, select Open.

4. Click Placement > Details from the dashboard.

In the Chain dialog box, select the Rule-based radio button


followed by the Complete loop radio button.
Click OK in the Chain dialog box to close it.

5. Select I from the shape drop-down list in the dashboard, then


click Shape > Sketch from the dashboard.
6. Click Sketch from the Sketch dialog box to start Sketch mode.
7. Click the 3-Point / Tangent End Arc
sketch, as shown.

and Line

icons to create the

8. When you have modified the dimensions, as shown, click Done


Section
to complete the sketch.

9. Click View > Orientation > Standard Orientation from the main
menu.
10. Click Edge Treatment from the dashboard. Verify that Edge
Treatment #1 is selected and select Gap from the Type drop-down
menu. Type 2.00 for the gap dimension and press ENTER.
11. Repeat the above step for Edge Treatment #2 and Edge Treatment
#3.

12. Click Miter Cuts from the dashboard and type 2.00 for the gap
dimension and press ENTER.

13. Click Complete Feature


feature.

14. Click Save

from the dashboard to complete the

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

15. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.
This completes the procedure.

Using Extruded Walls


You can use the Extrude tool to create extruded walls to
handle special modeling requirements.
Extruded Walls

For non-circular bends

Constant thickness
o Thickness set by primary wall

No automatic bends

No automatic thickness side

No automatic attachment

Elliptical Bend Example

o Merge Wall tool necessary for


attachment

Wrong side Thickness

Invalid Attachment
The Extruded Wall
Flat and flange secondary walls enable you to automatically add a bend at the
attachment edge. However, if you use flat and flange type walls you can only
add constant radius type bends. If you need to create an elliptical or any other
non-circular type bend, you can use the Extrude Tool
in sheetmetal to
create such a wall. An example an elliptical bend wall is shown in the top figure
of this example.
You can also use the Extrude tool to create an extruded sheetmetal wall. All
extruded solid features will be the same thickness as the rest of the sheetmetal
walls in the model.

In addition to creating sheetmetal walls, you can also use the Extrude
tool to create solid cuts and surfaces in your sheetmetal model.

When you use the Extrude tool to create a sheetmetal wall, Pro/ENGINEER
requires you to specify the attachment details. You must add any necessary
bends in the sketch, make sure that the material is added on the correct side of
the extruded section, take care of any tangencies that are necessary for the

feature, and integrate the new extruded wall feature into the existing primary
walls using the Merge Wall tool. Some example of thickness being added to the
wrong side and an inappropriate attachment to the existing walls are shown in
the figures in this example.

If you create partial or overextended walls using an extruded wall, you


may also need to create datum features to use as starting or ending
reference points.

Best Practices
In most cases, unless you have a special need that requires the Extruded Wall
tool (such as an elliptically shaped bend) it is far easier to use a flange type wall
attached along a single edge to generate this type of geometry.

Procedure: Using Extruded Walls


Scenario
Create an extruded wall.
Extrude

1.

extrude_blank.prt

Task 1. Create an extruded wall.


1. Click Extrude Tool

from the toolbar.

2. Right-click anywhere in the display area and select Define Internal


Sketch.
3. For the sketch plane reference select the small surface near the bottom of
the model, as shown.

4. Accept the defaults for the reference plane by clicking Sketch in the
Sketch dialog box.

5. Click 3-Point / Tangent End Arc and Line


to create the sketched
entities, as shown. Dimension the entities, as shown, and then click Done
Section .

6. Click Remove Material

from the Extrude dashboard to de-select it.

The above step directs Pro/ENGINEER to create a solid from the sketch
instead of a cut. Note how the yellow preview geometry appears.

7. Click Change Thickness Side

Note how the wall preview has now flipped to the correct side of the
sketch.

8. Click View > Orientation > Standard Orientation from the main
menu.
9. Drag the depth handle to drag the depth of the extruded wall to 50, as
shown.

Note that although you have overextended the wall beyond the
attachment edge, the extruded wall geometry did not stay attached
beyond the point of overextension. Instead, it continued creating the
shape exactly as it was sketched.

10. Click To Selected

from the depth option drop-down menu.

11. Select the vertex as shown, for the depth reference.


12. Click Complete Feature
feature.

13. Click Save

from the dashboard to complete the

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

14. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.

This completes the procedure.

Wall Dashboard Options


Wall dashboard options enable you to fully capture your
design intent in Pro/ENGINEER sheetmetal walls.

Placement

Shape/Prof
ile
Offset

Relief

Bend
Allowance
Properties

Thickness
Side
Bend/No
Bend
Bend
Radius
I/O Bend
Dimension

Offset: None

Offset: Add to
Part Edge

Offset:
Automatic

Offset: By
Value

Dashboard Options Common to Secondary Flat and Flange Walls

Several dashboard options common to secondary flat walls and secondary


flange walls are available to enable you to fully capture your design intent in a
Pro/ENGINEER sheetmetal model. Consider the options in the list below and
how they might relate to capturing your design intent:

Placement The sketch (for flat walls) or the edge chain (for flange
walls).
Shape/Profile The shape or profile used to build the wall. Shape is for
flat walls, profile is for flange walls.
Offset The Offset option enables you to decide how far to offset the
newly added geometry from the attachment edge. By default, this option
is disabled and the wall is added to the geometry as though the sketch
was connected to the attachment edge for flat walls and common profile
flange walls (specifically, the I, Arc, and S profiles). If you are adding a
flange wall using a hem profile, the wall is added as though you were
using the Add to Part Edge setting detailed below.If you activate the
offset option by selecting the Offset wall with respect to attachment
edgecheck box, you will have three settings available:
o Automatic This setting offsets the new wall and trims the wall it
is attached to so that the new wall's furthest extent aligns with the
old location of the attachment wall's edge.
o Add to Part Edge This setting appends the new wall to the
attachment edge without trimming the wall to which it is attached.
o By Value This setting enables you to offset the wall a specific
distance by using a drag handle or adjusting the numeric offset
value.
An example of each offset setting can be seen in this example. The
existing wall displays in gray and the new wall that would result from
each of the offset options displays in transparent yellow.
Relief Pro/ENGINEER offers a number of different types of relief. For
partial secondary flat and partial secondary flange walls (walls that do not
extend to the end of the referenced edge or edge chain) five different
types of bend relief are available: No relief, Rip, Stretch, Obround, and
Rectangular. For secondary flange walls that use an edge chain that
consists of non-tangent entities, five different types of corner relief are
also available: No relief, V Notch, Circular, Rectangular, and Obround.
Bend Allowance Using this dashboard option enables you to set the
bend allowance for the wall to an allowance specific to the feature instead
of using the default bend allowance for the entire part.
Properties The properties field enables you to specify the name of the
feature. There is also an information tool which enables you to gather
information about the feature you are building.

Thickness Side The Change Thickness Side


icon on the dash board
enables you to change the thickness of the sheetmetal material to the
other side of a sketch plane for flat walls, or to the other side of the
sketch for flange walls. The practical application of this can be seen in the
two figures below. The existing wall that a new flat wall is attached to
displays in gray, a purple dot represents the edge of the existing wall
referenced for attachment, and the sketch plane for the flat wall displays
in red. Note that all of this geometry is exactly the same in both cases.
The only difference occurs when the thickness of the wall is added to one
side of the sketch plane versus the other. If your design intent is to have
this model fit inside of something, you would likely use the Thickness
Inside option. If your design intent is to have this model fit over the
outside of something, you would likely use the Thickness Outside option.

Thickness Inside

Thickness Outside

Bend/No bend The Add Bend


tool in the dashboard enables you to
add a sheetmetal bend to a wall, or to add the wall without the bend
exactly as the sketch profile would create the geometry. Note that this
option is not available for hem type flange walls profiles. It is only
available for the Open, Flushed, C, Z, and Duck profiles.
Bend Radius The Bend Radius field enables you to specify the bend
radius from the dashboard.
Inside/Outside Bend Radius Dimension You can click the Inside
Radius
or Outside Radius
icons to toggle between dimensioning a
bend using the inside or outside radius. Pro/ENGINEER defaults to an
inside radius.

Procedure: Wall Dashboard Options


Scenario
Explore some of the dashboard options available for secondary walls.

Dashboard

1.

options.prt

Task 1. Edit the definition of the Flat 1 feature.


1. Right-click Flat 1 in the model tree and select Edit Definition.
2. Enable the addition of an edge bend by clicking Add Bend
dashboard.

from the

3. Click Inside Radius


from the Radius Dimension Type drop-down list to
dimension to the inside of the radius.
4. In the radius dimension field, type 5.0 and press ENTER.
5. Click Change Thickness Side
from the dashboard and note how the
thickness of the sheetmetal moves from one side of the sketch plane to
the other.

Thickness Outside

1.

Thickness Inside

Task 2. Explore the different offset options.


1. Select the Offset tab from the dashboard.
2. Select the Offset wall with respect to attachment edge check box.

Note the appearance of the offset drag handle.

3. Right-click the offset drag handle, as shown.

You can select the Offset option from this menu or from the dashboard
panel.

4. Select Add to Part Edge.

Note how the feature is added to the existing wall without consuming
any of it.

5. Right-click the offset drag handle again and select By Value. Drag the
drag handle for the offset dimension (currently 7.00) to 3.00 below the
attachment edge, as shown.

1.

Task 3. Change the bend allowance for Flat 1 to a feature-specific Y-factor.


1. Select the Bend Allowance tab from the dashboard and select the A
Feature Specific Set Up check box.
2. Select the By Y Factor radio button, type .57 and press ENTER, as
shown.

This bend allowance is specific for this feature (using a Y factor of


0.57) regardless of how the bend allowances are calculated in the rest
of the part.

3. Click Complete Feature

from the dashboard to complete the feature.

4. Click View > Orientation > Standard Orientation from the main
menu.
5. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

6. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.

This completes the procedure.

Using Partial and Overextended Walls


Partial walls are walls that do not extend to the end of the
referenced edge or edge chain.

Partial/Overextended Wall Definitions

Creation Methods

Bend Relief

Full Wall

Overextended Wall

Partial Wall

Partial and Overextended Wall Definitions


By default, Pro/ENGINEER creates full walls when you create a new secondary
flat or secondary flange wall. A full wall is a wall that attaches to the entire edge
or edge chain that you reference for attachment when building the wall.
Partial Walls are walls that do not extend to the end of the referenced edge or
edge chain. Overextended walls are walls that extend beyond the end of the
referenced edge or edge chain. Pro/ENGINEER enables you to build partial and
overextended walls so that you can fully capture your design intent in
sheetmetal wall features.

Methods of Creating Partial and Overextended Walls


It is possible to create partial walls for both secondary flat walls and secondary
flange walls.

Flat Walls When creating secondary flat walls there are three ways to
create a partial or overextended wall:
1. Change a standard shape's dimensions such that it starts and/or
ends along the attachment edge somewhere other than endpoints.
2. Use drag handles to drag the start or end points of a standard
shape such that it starts and/or ends along the attachment edge
somewhere other than endpoints.
3. Sketch a custom shape with its ends dimensioned or constrained
such that it starts and/or ends along the attachment edge
somewhere other than endpoints.
Flange Walls As discussed in the Using Flange Walls concept you can
use the following icons to control where a flange wall begins and ends
along an edge chain that it is attached to:

Trim First End

Trim Second End

Trim First End To Reference

Trim Second End To Reference

Use First End

Use Second End

Note also that all of these techniques can be used to create partial or overextend a
walls.
Adding Bend Relief
When you create a partial secondary wall that includes a bend at the
attachment point, it is possible that the bend will extend back into the existing
attached wall. Additionally, when you create an overextended secondary wall
that includes a bend at the attachment point, it is possible that the bend will
extend into the existing attached wall. You may need to specify a bend relief so
that Pro/ENGINEER knows how to transition from the existing wall to the partial
secondary wall.

Typically no relief is needed when both ends of a secondary wall terminate at the
endpoints of the attachment edge.

There are five different settings you can use to provide bend relief for a
secondary wall when necessary: No relief, Rip, Stretch, Obround, and
Rectangular.

Procedure: Using Partial and Overextended Walls


Scenario
Create a new partial flat wall feature that is overextended on one end.
Partial

1.

partial.prt

Task 1. Create a new partial flat wall feature that is overextended on one
end.
1. Click Flat

from the feature toolbar.

2. Select the edge on the bottom-left side of the model, as shown.

3. Drag the drag handle near the top of the screen down to 5.00. Drag the
drag handle near the bottom of the screen down to 7.00.
4. When the model appears, as shown, click Complete Feature
dashboard to complete the feature.

1.

from the

Task 2. Change the order of Flange 1 in the model tree and change the
length options such that it becomes a partial and overextended wall.
1. Select Flange 1 from the model tree and drag it below the Flat
1 feature you just created, as shown.

2. Right-click Flange 1 from the model tree and select Edit Definition.

Note that the length options for the ends of the flange wall are
currently set to Use First End

and Use Second End

3. Drag the drag handle near the top of the screen down until the wall is
15.00 inside the edge of the wall it is attached to, as shown.

Note that the length option for the first end has automatically changed
to Trim First End

since you dragged it to a new location.

4. Click Trim Second End To Reference


Options drop-down list.

from the Second End Length

5. Select the side surface of the overextended edge of the flat wall, as
shown.
6. Click Complete Feature

from the dashboard to complete the feature.

7. Click View > Orientation > Standard Orientation from the main
menu.
8. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

9. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.

This completes the procedure.

Understanding Relief
Bend reliefs and corner reliefs are often necessary when
creating secondary walls.

No Bend Relief

Rip Bend Relief

Stretch Bend Relief

No Corner Relief

Rectangular Bend Relief

Obround Bend Relief

V Notch Corner Relief

Circular Corner Relief

Rectangular Corner Relief

Obround Corner Relief

Types of Relief
There are two primary types of relief available for secondary walls:

Bend Relief Relief added when a bend meets a wall.

Corner Relief Relief added where multiple non-tangent adjacent


walls fold next to each other.

Bend Relief

Often the creation of partial secondary walls results in the new wall either extending into the wall
it is attached to (for partial walls), or the wall it is attached to extending into the new wall. In
these cases, it is often necessary to specify a bend relief to enable Pro/ENGINEER to transition
from the existing wall to the partial secondary wall. There are five types of bend relief that you
can use.

As the name suggests, the option is used when you wish to provide
no bend relief. However, in some cases (particularly with partial
walls) if this option is used, Pro/ENGINEER will create a stretch-like
relief that runs to the end of the wall.

No Relief

The rip relief creates


a zero volume cut as
though the material
were ripped as the
bend was formed.

Rip

The stretch relief


stretches the
material for bend
relief at wall
attachment points.

Stretch
The rectangular
relief create a
rectangular cut of
specifiable
dimensions.

Rectangular

The obround relief


creates a rectangular
cut with a
semicircular top of
specifiable
dimensions.

Obround

Corner Relief
Corner relief helps control the sheetmetal material behavior and prevents unwanted deformation.
You can add corner reliefs using an option available in the flange wall dashboard or as a separate
feature by using the Corner Relief
icon.

No Relief

V Notch

Circular

Rectangular

Obround

Procedure: Understanding Relief


Scenario
Edit the existing Flange 1 wall and explore the bend relief options.
BendRelief

1.

relief.prt

Task 1. Edit the existing Flange 1 wall and explore the bend relief options.
1. Right-click the Flat 1 feature and select Edit Definition.

Note the relief on both ends of a wall defaults to the rip type relief.

2. Select Relief on the dashboard to activate the relief dashboard tab.


3. Select Stretch from the Type drop-down menu.
4. Select Thickness in the width field and type 5.0 and press ENTER.

Note the appearance of the stretch relief at both ends of the wall
instead of the rip relief.

5. Select Rectangular from the Type drop-down menu.

Note the depth of the relief defaults to the Up to Bend option.

6. Click Preview Feature

from the dashboard to view the result.

7. After you are done viewing the result, click Resume Feature

8. Select Relief on the dashboard to activate the relief dashboard tab again.
9. Select the Define each side separately check box.
10. Select the Side 2 radio button.
11. Select Obround from the Type drop-down menu.
12. Select the Up to Bend option and type 12.0 and press ENTER.
13. Click Complete Feature
feature.

from the dashboard to complete the

14. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

15. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.
This completes the procedure.

Creating Twist Wall Features


Twist walls enable you to create spiraling or coiling sections
of sheetmetal.

Twist Wall (Developed State)

Twist Wall (Flat State)


Twist Walls
Twist walls enable you to create spiraling or coiling sections of sheetmetal.
There is no feature toolbar icon for the twist wall. You must instead use the
Insert drop-down menu to create a twist wall by clicking Insert > Sheetmetal
Wall > Twist.

The twist wall is then created by selecting the a straight edge to attach to the
wall. You can then select a datum point along the edge to rotate the wall around
or the wall can rotate around the middle point of the attachment edge.
The next step is to specify the following dimensions:

Start width

End width

Overall length

Degrees of twist

Developed length

The twist wall is then created by beginning with an isosceles trapezoid (where
the base angles are symmetrical) that has a base equal to the starting width, a
top equal to the end width, and a height equal to the overall length. This shape
is then placed symmetrically about the axis of rotation (the point you selected
or the middle point of the attachment edge) and is rotated by the degrees of
twist to create the twist wall.
The developed length is used anytime the twist wall is in its flat or unbent state.
The wall is stretched out to the length you specified for the developed length.
The twist wall in this example was created by using PNT0 as the reference for
the axis of rotation, a start width of 20, an end width of 10, an overall length of
50, 225 degrees of twist, and a developed length of 60.

Procedure: Creating Twist Wall Features


Scenario
Create a twist wall. Then measure the current and developed length of the twist
wall.
Twist

1.

twist.prt

Task 1. Create a twist wall.


1. Click Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Twist from the main menu.
2. Select the edge on the right side of the model as the attachment edge, as
shown.

3. For the twist axis, select PNT0 from the display area.
4. When prompted for the start width, type 20.0 and press ENTER.
5. When prompted for the end width, type 10.0 and press ENTER.

6. When prompted for the twist length, type 50.0 and press ENTER.
7. When prompted for the twist angle, type 225 and press ENTER.
8. When prompted for the developed length, type 60.0 and press ENTER.
9. Click OK in the Twist Feature Creation dialog box to create the feature.

1.

Task 2. Measure the current and developed length of the twist wall.
1. Click Analysis > Measure > Distance from the main menu. Select
the two surfaces for the From and To references, as shown.

Note that the distance is currently measured as 50.0.

2. Click Accept

3. Click Unbend

to close the Distance dialog box.

from the toolbar to begin unbending the model.

4. Click Regular > Done > Unbend All > Done from the menu manager.
5. Click OK from the Feature Creation dialog box to create the unbend
feature.
6. Click Analysis > Measure > Distance from the main menu. Select the
same two surfaces you selected as references for the distance
measurement above.

Note that the distance is now measured as 60.0 mm. The developed
length of the feature in the flat state is the dimension you specified for
the developed length when you created the twist feature.

7. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

8. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.
This completes the procedure.

Creating Extend Wall Features


You can use extend walls to lengthen existing walls.
Creation Methods

Extend Tool

Insert > Sheetmetal Wall >


Extend...
Required Reference

Edge

Up To Plane

Original Model

10 mm Extend Wall Added

Extend Wall Added Up to Plane

The Extend Wall Feature


You can use extend walls to lengthen existing walls. You can extend the wall from a straight edge
on an existing wall to either a planar surface or a specified distance. Typically the extend wall is
used at corners to close gaps between walls and model various overlap conditions enabling you
to fully express your design intent in a Pro/ENGINEER sheetmetal model.
You can use the Extend
icon from the feature toolbar to start the process of creating an
extend wall feature. Alternatively you can use the main menu to create an extend wall by
clicking Insert > Sheetmetal Wall > Extend....
There are two elements that you must specify in order to build an extend wall:

1. Edge For the edge reference, you must select a straight wall you
want to extend.
2. Distance To complete the distance element, you can select one of
two options:
o Up To Plane This option enables you to extend the wall up to a
plane. You can select an existing datum plane or make a new
datum plane.
o Use Value This option extends the wall a distance that you
specify. You can select a default value from the menu or click
ENTER, and type the exact distance value.
The following is a brief description of the figure in this example. In all cases, the extend wall that
was added is shown in yellow, and the edge referenced for extension is highlighted in red.

Upper right: The original model.

Lower left: The model after the addition of an extend wall using the
Use Value Extend option. The value was set to 10 mm.
Lower right: The model after the addition of an extend wall using the
Up To Plane option. The hidden side of the wall extended in the lowerleft figure was used as the Up To Plane reference.

Procedure: Creating Extend Wall Features


Scenario
Create an extend wall feature.
Extend

1.

extend.prt

Task 1. Use the extend wall feature to extend a wall 10 mm.


1. Click Extend

in the feature toolbar.

2. Select the edge highlighted in red as the edge reference for the extend
wall feature, as shown.
3. Click Use Value > Enter from the menu manager.
4. Type 10.0 and press ENTER.

5. Click OK from the Wall Feature Creation dialog box to create the extend
wall feature.

1.

Task 2. Use the extend wall feature to extend a wall up to an existing wall
using the Up To Plane depth option.
1. Click Extend

in the feature toolbar.

2. Select the edge highlighted in red as the edge reference for the extend
wall feature, as shown.
3. In the menu manager, verify that the Up To Plane and Plane options are
selected. Select the hidden surface on the back side of the wall you
extended in the previous task as the planar reference, as shown.

4. Click OK from the Wall Feature Creation dialog box to create the extend
wall feature.

5. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

6. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from memory.
This completes the procedure.

Using the Merge Feature


A merge wall combines two or more unattached walls into
one contiguous piece of sheetmetal.
Merge Wall Feature Requirements

Touching and Tangent

Creation Elements

Basic Refs

Driving Sides Match

Tangent Lines Shown as Phantom Lines:


Before Merge

Merge Geoms

Merge Edges

Keep Lines

Tangent Lines Shown as Phantom


Lines: After Merge

The Merge Wall Feature


A merge wall combines two or more unattached walls into one contiguous piece
of sheetmetal. Once you have combined all unattached walls to a single piece of
sheetmetal you can unbend the sheetmetal or create flat states for it.
In order to merge walls, the following criteria must be satisfied:

The walls must be touching one another and be tangent to each other at
the edges of contact.
The driving sides of the wall must match before you use the Merge
feature. If they do not match, you must edit the definition of the
unattached feature(s) and, use the Set driving surface opposite of
sketch plane check box in the dashboard or the Swap Sides element in
a feature creation dialog box. Which option you need to use depends on
the type of unattached wall you are using.

When creating a merge wall feature, you will need to specify four different
elements in the Merge Wall feature creation dialog box:

Basic Refs To complete this element, you must select all surfaces of the
base wall(s) to which you will merge.
Merge Geoms To complete this element, you must select all of the
surfaces of the walls you will be merging to the base wall(s).
Merge Edges This element is an optional element. It enables you to add
or remove edges deleted by the merge
Keep Lines This element is also optional. It enables you to control the
visibility of merged edges on surface joints. It defaults to Do not Keep
Lines.
The last two optional elements do not change anything structurally
about the Merge Wall feature. They simply enable you to selectively
include all, some, or none of edges that would be consumed by the
Merge Wall feature.

Best Practices
Displaying tangent edges as something other than solid can be useful when
using the Merge Wall feature. For example, if you are merging a cylindrical
surface to a flat surface and the display of tangent edges is set to solid, the
edge between the two walls would appear the same before and after the merge,
as shown in the figure on the lower left. However, if the display of tangent
edges is set to phantom, the edge would appear as a solid edge before the
merge, and as a phantom edge after the merge, as shown in the figure on the
lower right.

Procedure: Using the Merge Feature


Scenario
Change the display characteristics of the model to assist in the creation of
merge wall features, create a merge wall feature between the horizontal flat
wall and the adjacent extruded wall feature, and create a single merge wall
feature to attach all three unattached walls.

Merge

1.

merge.prt

Task 1. Change the display characteristics of the model to assist in the


creation of merge wall features.
1. Click View > Display Settings > Model Display from the main
menu.
2. Select the Edge/Line tab.
3. Select Phantom from the Tangent Edges drop-down menu.
4. Click OK to close the Model Display dialog box.

5. Click Wireframe
model.

from the main toolbar to display the wireframe of the

Note that the model currently exists as three unattached sheetmetal


features: the vertical rectangular surface (which is the primary base
wall), the horizontal rectangular surface, and an extruded surface
consisting of a cylindrical surface and a small rectangular surface.
Note also that the green driving surface of the flat horizontal wall does
not match up with the driving surfaces of the other walls.

1.

Task 2. Create a merge wall feature between the horizontal flat wall and
the adjacent extruded wall feature.
1. Click Merge Walls

from the Sheetmetal Feature toolbar.

This icon is located in the third icon flyout menu from the bottom of
the sheetmetal dashboard and is displayed as Corner Relief
default.

by

2. To complete the Basic Refs element in the Wall Options: Merge Feature
Creation dialog box, select the surface, as shown, and click Done Refs.

3. To complete the Merge Geoms element in the Wall Options: Merge Feature
Creation dialog box, attempt to select the surface, as shown.

Note the Inappropriate geometry selected error in the message area.


This is because the driving surfaces of the walls to be merged do not
match up.

4. Click Cancel > Yes from the Merge Wall Feature Creation dialog box.

Right-click the Unattached Flat_2 feature in the model tree and


select Edit Definition.
On the Extrude dashboard, click Options and select the Set
driving surface opposite of sketch plane check box.
Click Complete Feature
from the dashboard to complete the
feature redefinition.

5. Click Merge Walls

from the sheetmetal feature toolbar.

6. Complete the Basic Refs element by selecting the same surface you
selected in step #2 above, then click Done Refs.
7. Complete the Merge Geoms element by selecting the same surface you
selected in step #3 above, then click Done Refs.
8. Click OK from the Merge Wall Feature Creation dialog box to complete the
feature.

Note how the edge between the two surfaces has disappeared now
that the walls are attached.

Note also that the Unbend


and Flat Pattern
icons are still not
available. This is because the vertical base wall and the rest of the
model have not been merged together into one contiguous piece of
sheetmetal geometry.

9. Right-click the wall feature you just created in the model tree and
click Delete > OK.
1.

Task 3. Create a single merge feature to attach all three unattached walls.

Instead of deleting the merge wall feature you created in the previous
task, you could have left it and created another separate merge wall
feature to connect the vertical primary base wall to the extruded wall.
However, the purpose of this task is to show you that you can merge
more than two walls.

2. 1. Click Merge Walls

from the feature toolbar.

3. 2. Press CTRL and select the two surfaces as references, as shown, for
the Basic Refs element and click Done Refs from the menu manager.

4.
5. 3. Press CTRL and select the two surfaces, as shown, as references for
the Merge Geoms element and click Done Refs from the menu manager.

6.
7. 4. Click OK from the Merge Wall Feature Creation dialog box to complete
the feature.

Note that the solid line that existed between the vertical and
cylindrical surfaces now displays as a phantom line due to the
sheetmetal being contiguous at this point due to the merge feature.
Also note the disappearance of the line between the two planar

horizontal sections due to the same reason.

8.
9. 5. Click View > Display Settings > Model Display... from the main
menu.
10.6. Select the Edge/Line tab
11.7. Select Solid from the Tangent Edges drop-down menu.
12.8. Click OK to close the Model Display dialog box.
13.9. Click Save

from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model.

14.10. Click File > Erase > Current > Yes to erase the model from
memory.
This completes the procedure.

Modifying Sheetmetal Models


Module Overview
While manufacturing sheetmetal parts, you bend flat sheets using bending
tools. Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0 enables you to create bends and other
geometry to reflect the true manufacturing process.
You can remove material in various ways to establish cuts, openings, and relief
where necessary in your designs.
Formed models can be unbent. In some cases, the model has to be ripped or
deformed to enable flattening.

Objectives
After successfully completing this module, you will be able to:

Create angle and roll type bends.

Apply the Regular, Transition and Planar options for bends.

Unbend models with the Unbend tool.

Reform models with the Bend Back tool.

Use the Flat Pattern tool.

Flatten undevelopable geometry using deform areas.

Remove material from a model using cuts.

Use punches and dies to form your models.

Flatten form geometry.

Create rips to help flatten unbendable geometry.

Create notches and punches to remove material and create relief.

Create edge bends on sharp corners.

Create corner relief.

Bends
A bend feature adds a bend to a flat section of the part.

Types of Bend
Features:

Angle Bend

Roll Bend

Bending Over Forms

Angle Bend Sketch

Angle Bend

Roll Bend Sketch

Roll Bend

Bend Features
While manufacturing sheetmetal parts, you bend flat sheets using bending
tools. Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0 enables you to create bends and other
geometry to reflect the true manufacturing process. You can bend a sheet using
various tools like Angle Bend or Roll Bend. You use bend lines to determine the
location and shape for the bend geometry in your sheetmetal parts. A bend line
is also a reference point to calculate the developed length. Pro/ENGINEER
Wildfire 5.0 enables you to sketch the bend lines, thus enabling you to control
the behavior of the bend geometry.
A bend feature adds a bend to a flat section of the part. To create a bend
feature, you sketch a bend line and determine the bend's direction with
direction arrows on your sketching view.

The bend line is a reference point for calculating the developed length and
creating the bend geometry.
You can add bends at any time during the design process.

You can add bends across form features.

Depending on where you place the bend in your sheetmetal design, you
may need to add bend relief.
A bend cannot be added where it crosses another bend feature.

You cannot copy a bend with the mirror option.

While you can generally unbend zero-radius bends, you cannot unbend
bends with slanted cuts across them.
You can modify the developed length of a bend area. If you do modify the
developed length, remember that revising the developed length only
affects unbent geometry and does not affect the bend back features.
Bends are made along the axis of the radius.

Types of Bend Features


Angle Bend An Angle type bend creates a bend with a specified radius
and angle. An angle appears along the axis of the radius to show the
bend direction. You can flip the angle to change the direction of the
bending.
Roll Bend A Roll type bend creates a bend with a specified radius, but
the resulting angle is determined by the radius and the amount of
material to bend.
Bending Over a Form Feature
You can also create a bend or unbend feature over a form feature. Bends can
intersect form features but they cannot cross another existing bend feature. You

can bend forms that have been placed on the model and also unbend bends that
cross over form features.

Procedure: Bends
Scenario
Create an angle bend and a roll bend on a part.
Bends

1.

BENDS.PRT

Task 1. Create an angle bend on the provided sheetmetal part.


1. Click Bend

to insert a bend feature.

Click Done to create an angle bend.

Click Done/Return to use the part bend table.

Click Done/Return to use an inside radius.

2. Select the surface shown.

Click Okay > Default.

3. Create the sketch shown.

Click Done Section

4. Click Okay > Okay.

Click No Relief > Done.

Click Done.

Click Thickness.

5. Click OK.

1.

Task 2. Create a roll bend on the provided sheetmetal part.


1. Select the bend in the model tree, right-click and select Delete.
2. Click Bend

to insert a bend feature.

Click Roll > Done.

Click Done/Return > Done/Return.

3. Select the surface shown.


4. Click Okay > Default.

5. Create the sketch shown.

Click Done Section

Click Okay > Okay.

Click No Relief > Done.

Click Enter Value.

Type 10 and press ENTER.

6. Click OK.

This completes the procedure.

Bend Options
There are three options associated with any roll or angle
bend.

Bend Options:

Regular

Transition

Planar

Transition Sketch Bend with Transition

Planar Sketch

Planar Bend

Bend Options
For each angle or roll bend, there are three options to choose from:

Regular

Transition

Planar

Regular Bend Option


A regular bend forms the sheetmetal wall, around a neutral bend axis, into
angular or roll shapes. You sketch a bend line and determine the side of the
bend with the direction arrows.

The regular bend is the bend you will use most often. It has no transition
surfaces.
Transition Bend Option
A bend with a transition deforms the surface between the bend and an area that
is to remain flat. To create a bend with the transition option, you:

Sketch the bend line.

Sketch the transition areas to remain flat or bend differently.

You can create one or more transition areas for each with a transition bend.
Each transition area sketch must consist of two lines. One line needs to be
adjacent to the bend area. Sketch this line first, followed by a second line that is
used to complete the transition area.

Transition bends do not accept bend relief. If your design calls for a cut in a
transition area, either create it before you make the transition bend or unbend the
bend, making the cut and using the bend back feature.
Planar Bend Option
A planar bend creates a bend feature around an axis that is perpendicular to the
green surface and the sketching plane. The neutral point for planar bends is
placed according to the current y-factor and bend tables are not applicable.
A planar bend forces the sheetmetal wall around an axis that is normal
(perpendicular) to the surface and the sketching plane. You sketch a bend line
and form the planar bend around the axis using direction arrows. While this
type of bend is not utilized in the manufacturing process, it can help you reach
your overall design intent.

Procedure: Bend Options


Scenario
Create a wire contact using a roll bend and a planar bend.
BendOptions

1.

Task 1. Create a roll bend.

OPTIONS.PRT

1. Click Bend

2. Click Roll > w/Transition > Done.


3. Click Done/Return > Done/Return.
4. Select the surface shown and click Okay > Default.

5. Click Sketch > References and select the bottom edge of the model.
6. Click Close in the References dialog box.
7. Click Line

and sketch the line, as shown.

8. Click Done Section

9. Click Both > Okay to define the bending and fixed areas.

10. Click Sketch > References and select the five additional references, as
shown.
11. Click Close in the References dialog box.

12. Create the sketch, as shown.


13. Click Done Section

14. Click No from the confirmation window.


15. Click Enter Value and type 1.2 as the radius value.
16. Click OK to complete the feature.

1.

Task 2. Create a planar bend.


1. Click Bend

2. Click Planar > Done.


3. Click Done/Return.
4. Select the surface shown and click Okay > Default.

5. Select the three additional references, as shown.


6. Click Close in the References dialog box.

7. Click Line

and sketch the line, as shown.

8. Click Done Section

9. Click Okay > Flip > Okay to define the bending and fixed areas.

10. Click 45.00 > Done in the menu manager.


11. Click Enter Value and type 3 as the radius value.
12. Click Okay.
13. Click OK to complete the feature.

This completes the procedure.

Unbend Features
You can unbend both a wall and a bend as long as the
material is developable and able to unbend.
You can unbend developable and
undevelopable surfaces.

Regular

Xsection Driven

Transition

Regular Unbend

Xsec Driven Unbend Influenced by Edge

Xsec Driven Unbend Influenced by


Sketch

Unbending Developable Surfaces


You can unbend both a wall and a bend as long as the material is developable
and able to unbend. You cannot unbend non-ruled surfaces using a regular
unbend feature. After you unbend an area, you can continue to add features like
cuts and rips. The features following the unbend are children of or dependent on
the unbend feature. If you delete the unbend feature, the features will also be
deleted. If you add walls that intersect when they are unbent, Pro/ENGINEER
Wildfire 5.0 highlights the intersecting edges in red and warns you with a
prompt.
You have the option of unbending all surfaces and bends or selecting specific
areas:

Unbend Select Selects specific bend surfaces to unbend.

Unbend All Unbends all bends and curved surfaces.

When creating an unbend, you select a surface or edge to remain fixed. Your
choice changes the default view of your model.

Try to pick major surfaces that you want to keep in the same position.

If possible, be consistent and use the same surface when creating several
unbend features.

Unbending Undevelopable Geometry


There are three methods that you can use to unbend undevelopable geometry.
Xsec-Driven Unbends
Using a Xsec Driven (Cross-Section) Unbend, you can unbend undevelopable
sheetmetal geometry, such as walls curved in more than one direction. The
unbend feature consists of a series of cross-sections along a curve that are
projected onto a plane. The first step in creating a Xsec Driven Unbend is to
select a single edge or multiple edges that are to remain fixed during the
unbend operation.
The cross-section term refers to the curve you use to influence the shape of the
unbent wall. You can either select an existing curve or sketch a new curve.
Whether you select or sketch the curve, it must be coplanar with the fixed
edges you define. If you sketch the curve, be sure to dimension/align the curve.
The curve you select or sketch affects the unbent state of the part. Remember,
the curve can be a straight line.
A cross-sectional unbend feature is created by selecting a stationary surface
edge and specifying a cross-sectional curve. Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0 takes a
series of cross-sections, influenced by the curve, and projects them onto a
plane, to determine the shape of the unbend.

The cross-sections created must not intersect within the unbent


geometry. Otherwise, the feature fails.
You cannot bend back a cross-section unbend.

There are two additional methods of unbending undevelopable geometry. You


can use these options to unbend the non-ruled or undevelopable geometry
whenever using an Xsec-Driven Unbend does not match your design intent.

The defining rule is that all surfaces that you unbend must either have an
outside edge or be adjacent to an area that has an outside edge. The outside
edge or adjacent area serves as a way for the deformation to escape and the
material to stretch.
Transition Unbends
A transition unbend feature flattens non-developable geometry that cannot be
unbent with a regular unbend feature. Non-developable geometry bends in
more than one direction. The transition geometry is temporarily removed from
the model, so you must define that geometry to utilize the feature. The
developable surfaces can then unbend. The transition geometry is placed back
into the flat pattern.
Regular Unbend Tool with Deformation Area
You can create the deformation area during the unbend. The system defines the
deformation area automatically, but you can add to the set of surfaces.

Best Practices

Do not add unnecessary pairs of unbend/bend back features. They inflate


the part size and might cause problems during regeneration.
If you add an unbend (or bend back) feature just to see how your model
looks flattened (unbent), delete the sample unbend feature before
proceeding with your design.
If you specifically want to create features in a flattened state, you should
add an unbend feature. Create the features you need in the flattened
state and then add a bend back feature. Do not delete the unbend feature
in this case since features that reference the unbend feature might fail
regeneration.
If you want a projected datum curve to follow a sheetmetal bend, project
the curve after creating an unbend feature. The curve will follow the
sheetmetal surface when you bend back the sheetmetal wall.

Procedure: Unbend Features


Scenario
Unbend the developable and undevelopable geometry in the part.

BODY.PRT

Unbend

1.

Task 1. Unbend the developable geometry in the toaster body.


1. Click Unbend

2. Click Regular > Done.


3. Select the top surface of the part to remain fixed during unbend.

4. Click UnbendSelect > Done.


5. Press CTRL and select the six bends, as shown.

6. Click OK > Done Refs > OK.

1.

Task 2. Unbend one side of the toaster body using the Xsec Driven
method, by selecting the Xsec Curve.
1. Click Unbend

2. Click Xsec Driven > Done.


3. Select the bend edge to remain fixed during unbend.
4. Click OK > Done.
5. Click Select Curve > Done.
6. Select the same edge again.
7. Click OK > Done.
8. Accept the default side to remain fixed. Click Okay.

9. Click OK to complete the Xsec Driven Unbend.

1.

Task 3. Unbend the other side of the toaster body using the Xsec Driven
method, by sketching the Xsec Curve.
1. Click Unbend

2. Click Xsec Driven > Done.


3. Select the bend edge to remain fixed during unbend.

4. Click OK > Done.


5. Click Sketch Curve > Done.
6. Select the top surface of the part as the sketching plane.

7. Click Right and select datum plane RIGHT from the model tree.
8. From the main toolbar, click No hidden

9. Select the end vertices of the edge that is selected as the fixed edge, as
references and click Close.

10. From the Sketcher toolbar, click Line


references.

11. Click Done Section

and create a sketch using the

12. From the main toolbar click Shading


13. Click Named View List

and select Standard Orientation view.

14. Accept the default side to remain fixed. Click Okay.


15. Click OK to complete the Xsec Driven Unbend.

This completes the procedure.

Bend Back Features


Bend back features return unbent geometry to the bent
condition.
Two options:

Bend Back All

Bend Back Select

Formed Model

Cut Created in Unbent State

Model with Bend Back Applied to


Selected Surfaces

Creating a Bend Back Feature


You create the bend back feature to return an unbent feature to its original
condition.
When you create a bend back feature, you can specify contours to remain fixed
(that is, unbent) by selecting the edge of that contour. The bend back feature
enables you to return unbent surfaces to their formed position.
As a rule, you should only bend back a fully unbent area. When a sheetmetal
wall overlaps and intersects in the unbent position, the system highlights it and
issues a warning. You have the following two options to bend a part back:

Bend Back All

Bend Back Select

If you partially bend back a regular unbent surface containing a deform area,
the original bent condition might not be obtainable. Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0
examines the contours of each bend back section. Contours partially
intersecting a bend area are highlighted. You are prompted to confirm whether
the section should bend back or remain flat.
You cannot bend back a cross-section (Xsec-Driven) unbend.

Procedure: Bend Back Features


Scenario
Unbend a part, add a cut, then bend it back to create a clip.

BENDBACK.PRT

BendBack

1.

Task 1. Unbend the part.


1. Click Unbend

2. Click Regular > Done.


3. Select the surface shown as the surface to remain fixed.

4. Click Unbend All > Done > OK.


1.

Task 2. Create a cut feature.


1. Click Extrude Tool

2. Right-click and select Define Internal Sketch.


3. Select the surface shown as the sketch plane and click Sketch.

4. Click No hidden

5. Create the sketch shown.

6. Click Done Section

7. Click Complete Feature


8. Click Shading
Orientation.
1.

and press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard

Task 3. Bend the part back, but leave the center tab straight.
1. Click Bend Back

2. Select the surface shown as the fixed geometry.

3. Click BendBack Sel > Done.


4. Press the CTRL and select the two surfaces shown.

5. Click Done Refs > Yes > Yes > OK to complete the feature.

This completes the procedure.

Flat Pattern
A flat pattern is equivalent to the unbend all feature.
Select a fixed surface:

System unbends all geometry.

Flat pattern feature added to end of model


tree.
Automatically moves to end of model tree
if additional features are added.

Fixed Surface

Flat Pattern

Last Feature in Model Tree

Flat Pattern
A flat pattern is equivalent to the unbend all feature. It flattens any curved
surface, whether it is a bend feature or a curved wall. However, unlike the
unbend all, the flat pattern feature automatically jumps to the end of the model
tree to maintain the flat model view.
The flat pattern feature automatically appears at the end of the model tree to
maintain the flat model view. The flat pattern feature is suppressed at the time
of new feature creation and positions itself as the last feature after the new
feature is added, in case you add any feature to the part after creating the flat
pattern.
The flat pattern is helpful if you are constantly toggling between the solid and
flat versions of the design. If you add new features to your design the flat
pattern is temporarily suppressed.
You can create a flat pattern early in your design process so that you can
simultaneously create and detail your sheetmetal design. You can only create
one flat pattern per part. After you create it, the flat pattern option becomes
unavailable.

Procedure: Flat Pattern


Scenario
Create a flat pattern of the provided part.
FlatPattern

1.

FLAT.PRT

Task 1. Create a flat pattern of the part.


1. From the main menu click Insert > Bend Operation > Flat Pattern.

Note that you can also click Flat Pattern

from the feature toolbar.

2. Select the wall to remain fixed while unbending the other walls, as shown.

3. The remaining walls unbend, as shown.

1.

Task 2. Add another wall and observe the behavior of the flat pattern.
1. Click Flange

Notice that the system immediately starts Insert mode, and the Flange
wall is located prior to the Flat Pattern feature in the model tree.

2. Select the edge, as shown.


3. Click Complete Feature

4. Observe that the flat pattern feature is resumed, and placed at the end of
the regeneration order.

This completes the procedure.

Deform Area
Deformation areas stretch to help you unbend a sheetmetal
part.

You can create deform areas using the following tools:

Regular Unbend tool

Deform Area tool


o Defining it before unbending

Undevelopable Area

Selecting the Deform


Area in the Regular
Unbend Tool

Using the Defined Deform


Sketching the Deform Areas
Area

Undesirable Unbend

Desirable Unbend

Creating Deformation Areas


A deformation area is a section of sheetmetal that helps to accurately stretch
the material when you unbend the sheetmetal part. You may need to create
these areas when unbending sections that:

Do not extend to the edge of the model.

Bend in more than one direction.

You can either create the deformation area before unbending the section using
the Deform Area tool or you can define it while using the Regular Unbend tool.

The deformation area acts as a bridge between the multiple direction bend
section and the outside edges of the part. The deformation area must be
tangent to both the undevelopable surface and an outside edge.
The developed length of unbent sheetmetal geometry reflects the proper values.
Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0 approximates the deformation area geometry by
attaching vertices with a line segment. The geometry does not become thinner
or thicker and, because the developed length is typically determined empirically,
you sketch the deformation area geometry.
If an appropriate surface does not exist on the model, you can break up a
surface into multiple patches by creating a deformation area, then specifying
this area as the area to deform during the unbend operation. This gives you the
advantage of creating geometry that closely reflects the developed part.
In addition to using the deform area feature during unbending, you can also use
it to define edges for edge rips or to split surfaces for bend line development.
Sketching Technique
Select a common edge between the undevelopable region and the deformation
area. Use the Entity from Edge tool. Then select the outside edge of the deform
area and two points on that outside edge as vertices. Connect the two outside
edge vertices to the vertices of the undevelopable surface on the common edge.

Procedure: Deform Area


Scenario
Unbend the model using deform areas.
Deformation

1.

DEFORMATION.PRT

Task 1. Unbend the part.


1. Unbend the part.

From the feature toolbar, click Unbend

Click Regular > Done.

Select the top surface of the tray to remain fixed during the
unbend, as shown.

2. Click Unbend All > Done.

Read the warning in the message window. Notice the four


highlighted surfaces, similar to the one shown.
Rotate the model, press CTRL and select the four surface surfaces,
similar to the one shown.

3. Click OK > Done Refs > OK.

Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

Review the deformation areas in the unbent part. Notice the


distorted surfaces resulting from the selection of existing surfaces as
deformation areas.

4. From the main toolbar click Undo

1.

to remove the unbend feature.

Task 2. Create deformation areas in the part for unbend.


1. From the main toolbar, click Named View List
the DEFORM view.
2. Zoom in to the corner and click Deform Area

and select

3. Select the surface shown as the sketching plane.

4. Click Default.
5. From the main toolbar, click No hidden

6. Select the edges as references, as shown, and click Close.

7. Right-click in the graphics window and select Line.


8. Create the sketch for the deform area.

Sketch the two lines shown.

Click Use Edge

Click Done Section

and select the two edges used as references.


.

9. From the main toolbar click Shading


feature.

. Click OK to complete the

For your convenience, deform areas have been defined in the other
areas on the model.

1.

Task 3. Unbend the part with deform areas.


1. From the main toolbar, click Named View List
REAR view.
2. Click Unbend

and select the 3D-

3. Click Regular > Done.


4. Select the top surface of the tray to remain fixed during the unbend, as
shown.

5. Click Unbend All > Done.


6. Press CTRL. Zoom in and select the four deformation area features from
the model, similar to the one shown.

7. Click OK > Done Refs > OK.


8. The model unbends as expected.

This completes the procedure.

Sheetmetal Cuts
Sheetmetal cuts are created normal to the part surface while
solid cuts are created normal to the sketch plane.

Types of Cuts

Sheetmetal Cut
o Solid
o Thin

Solid Cut

Cut Normal to Surface

Cut Normal to Sketch


Creating Cuts

Thin Sheetmetal Cut

You remove the material using cuts from a sheetmetal part. The cut is made
normal to the sheetmetal surface, as if the part were completely flat, even if it
is in a bent state. The cut adopts the sheetmetal material's natural behavior,
like bending and warping, when the part is bent.
You sketch cuts on a plane and then project them onto the sheetmetal wall.
Either the driving (green) or offset (white) side of the sheetmetal wall can
determine the cut direction.
You can create sheetmetal cuts using the Extrude tool.
The sheetmetal cut can be created normal to the driven surface, offset surface,
or both surfaces.
Types of sheetmetal cuts:

Solid Removes solid sections of the sheetmetal wall.

Thin Removes only a thin section of the material.

You can use the Insert menu to access advanced options such as Revolve,
Sweep, Blend and so on, to make advanced cuts in the sheetmetal wall. Note
that cuts can be made on an edge.
To make a defined-angle cut, you must click the Normal To Surface
icon in
the dashboard, which disables the three normal to surface options, and makes
the cut normal to the sketch plane. See the Part Modeling Functional Area from
the Help menu in Pro/ENGINEER for information about advanced cuts.
Creating Cuts in Design State
You may create cuts in a design or bent state. When you unbend the parts, the
cuts also unbend along with the parts.

You can see this in the figures shown above. A circular sheetmetal cut is added
to the model as shown in the left figure. The part is then unbent from its design
state. Note that the unbent model now shows the cut that was added in the
design state.

While creating circular cuts, individual datum axes are automatically created for
each circular cut that intersects more than one sheetmetal wall. The created
axes behave like all other axes. They have an ID, can be referenced, can be
turned on/off on the main tool bar and follow the cut during any bending and
unbending. The circular cut that was added in the design state was only one
feature, but two separate axes are created in the unbent state.
Creating Cuts in the Unbent State
To meet your design intent, you may create cuts in the unbent state. The figure
illustrates unbending a model, creating a straight lip around the bent area using
a thin cut, and then selectively bending the part back.

Procedure: Sheetmetal Cuts


Scenario
Create cuts in the model both normal to the model surface and normal to the
sketch plane.
SMCuts

1.

SMCUTS.PRT

Task 1. Create a cut, using the existing datum curve, that is normal to the
sketch plane.
1. Select the datum curve, as shown.

2. Click Extrude Tool

3. Click Through All

4. Click Normal To Surface


5. Click Complete Feature
6. Click Hidden line

to disable it.
.

7. Click Named View List

and select FRONT.

Notice that the cut runs normal to the plane that the datum curve was
sketched on.

1.

Task 2. Edit the definition of the cut and make it normal to the wall
surface.
1. Right-click Extrude 2 in the model tree and click Edit Definition.
2. Click Normal To Surface
3. Click Complete Feature

to enable it.
.

Notice that the cut now runs normal to the surface of the main wall.

1.

Task 3. Create a circular cut through the model and unbend it to observe
the result.
1. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.
2. Click Extrude Tool
3. Click Through All

.
.

4. Right-click and select Define Internal Sketch.


5. Select the surface shown for the sketch plane.

6. Select TOP for the orientation reference and click Sketch.


7. Create the sketch shown.
8. Click Done Section

9. Click Complete Feature


10. ClickAxis Display

1.

to display axes.

Task 4. Unbend the model.


1. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation, if necessary.
2. Click Shading

3. Click Unbend

4. Click Regular > Done.


5. Select the surface shown as the surface to remain fixed.

6. Click Unbend All > Done > OK.

This completes the procedure.

Die Form Features


Your sheetmetal models can be formed using dies.
Die form features:

Represents the forming


geometry surrounded by a
bounding plane.
Uses assembly-type
constraints to determine the
location.
Uses reference parts to
create Die Forms.

Die Reference Model

Creating Form Features


A form is a sheetmetal wall molded by a template (reference part). Merging the
geometry of a reference part to the sheetmetal part creates the form feature.
You use assembly-type constraints to determine the location of the form in your
model.
You can create a sheetmetal form using a die form:

Die Form A die form represents the forming geometry (convex or


concave) surrounded by a bounding plane. The surface that surrounds the
forming geometry, the base plane, must be planar and the base plane
must completely surround the forming geometry. You can reference
multiple die forms from a single model.

Placing Form Features


You use assembly-type constraints to determine the location of the form feature
on the model. If you move a feature referenced by the form, then the system
parametrically updates the forms location.

Placing by Reference You can place a form feature so that it references


the original forming model at all times. If the original form model
changes, the geometry on the sheetmetal part also changes. If the
sheetmetal model cannot find the referenced form model, the system
freezes the geometry on the component.
Copying the Geometry When you do not want to associate the
geometry of the form to the reference model, you can place the form
model by copying all of the form geometry into the sheetmetal model.
This copy operation creates a completely independent version of the form

geometry. Therefore, when you make a change to the original form


geometry, the system does not reflect it in the components where the
form was used.
You can use a coordinate system reference within the form to define where to
strike the part during the manufacturing process.
You can create multiple form placement scenarios by redefining the placement
constraints. For example, you might place a louver form with constraints that
force the opening to face the outside edge of the wall, while also having a
constraint that forces the opening toward the center of the wall. This enables
you to quickly change your sheetmetal design.
Creating and Using Reference Parts
You can create the form or reference part as a standard solid part or as a
sheetmetal part. If you use a sheetmetal model, the form should conform to the
green side of the sheetmetal component.
The reference parts can have shapes that are convex, concave, or are a
combination of both. When creating reference parts, you should keep the
following points in mind:

Any convex surface must have a radius that is larger than the thickness of
the sheetmetal or equal to zero if the form is mated to the sheetmetal
geometry.
Any concave surface must have a radius that is larger than the thickness
of the sheetmetal or equal to zero if the form is aligned to the sheetmetal
geometry.
The form can contain a combination of convex and concave geometry,
creating hollows. The hollows in the form must not drop below the base
plane or mating surface, meaning all the form geometry must be on the
same side of the base plane.

Creating Rips in the Geometry


Some forming operations consist of two tasks: plastically deforming the
sheetmetal and actually cutting the sheetmetal. Below is an example of a
cooling fin that is cut through the side of the sheetmetal housing. You can
represent the shearing of the material by excluding surfaces from the form
when you place it on the sheetmetal model.

Using Multiple Forms


Using Multiple Forms on a Single Die Model
In some cases, it may be more convenient to store multiple forms on a single
die model. However, for Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0 to distinguish one set from
another, you must specify a seed surface. The seed surface gathers all surfaces
that are surrounded by the base plane to create the form. You must select the
seed surface in all die forms, even if there is only one set of form geometry.

Procedure: Die Form Features


Scenario
Add a form to the model and pattern it.
DieForms

1.

FORMS.PRT

Task 1. Add a form to the model.


1. Start the form feature.

Click Die Form

Click Reference > Done.

Select MOUNT_FORM.PRT and click Open.

from the feature toolbar.

2. Define the placement of the form.

Edit the constraint type to Mate.

Select the rear hidden surface of the tray part.

Select the flat surface of the mount form part.

Select Coincident as the Offset type if necessary.

3. Click New Constraint. Select Align as the new constraint type.


4. Click Plane Display

to enable their display.

5. Select the datum plane FRONT from both the models.


6. Select Offset from the Offset list and type 10.
7. Click New Constraint. Select Mate as the new constraint type.
8. Select datum plane TOP from the tray model and select datum plane SIDE
from the mount form.

9. Edit the offset to Coincident in the Form dialog box, if necessary.


10. Click Preview Display
11. Click Plane Display

to preview the location of the form.


to disable their display.

12. Click Complete Feature

to complete the placement.

13. Select the surface of the mount form as the bounding plane.
14. Select the top surface of the mount form as the seed surface.

15. In the Form dialog box, select Exclude Surf and click Define.
16. Press CTRL. Select the three surfaces from the mount form, as shown.
17. Click OK > Done Refs.

18. Click OK to complete the form feature.

1.

Task 2. Pattern the form feature.


1. With the form feature still selected, right-click and select Pattern.
2. Change the pattern type to Direction from the dashboard.
3. Select datum plane FRONT from the model tree as the reference in the
first direction.
4. Click Flip First Direction
to 20.

on the dashboard and edit the spacing value

5. Right-click in the graphics window and select Direction 2 Reference.


6. Select datum plane TOP from the model tree.
7. Edit the second direction spacing value to 40 from the dashboard.
8. Click Complete Feature

from the dashboard.

This completes the procedure.

Punch Form Features


Your sheetmetal models can be formed using punches.
Assemble with Dashboard

On Surface Csys

Interfaces

Constraints

Options

Auto-Round Edges

Exclude Surfaces

Merge or Inheritance

Punch Reference Model

Wall Formed with Punch

Creating Form Features


A form is a sheetmetal wall molded by a template (reference part). Merging the geometry of a
reference part to the sheetmetal part creates the form feature. You use assembly-type constraints
to determine the location of the form in your model.
You can create a sheetmetal form using a punch:

Punch A punch shapes the sheetmetal wall using only the reference
part geometry. Punch forms use the entire form reference part to
create the correct geometry.

Placing Form Features


The Punch form sheetmetal tool uses a dashboard interface. You can select any model to
assemble in one of three ways:

On surface Coordinate System Select a coordinate system in the


punch model as the only reference for an assembly interface. Upon
placement, you can select references to locate an on-surface
coordinate system in the sheetmetal model. This method leverages the

capability of the on-surface coordinate system to allow the option for


specifying an additional rotation.
Assembly Interfaces Create assembly interfaces using any desired
references.
Assembly constraints Use standard assembly constraints to locate
the punch

The Punch form tool also has several options:

Auto Round Edges You can select to round the edges of the resulting
sheetmetal form, even if the punch form model did not contain rounds.
Placement or non-placement edges can be selected.
Exclude Surfaces You can select surfaces for the punch model to
exclude them from the operation, resulting in these surfaces being
deleted from the resulting form feature. The surfaces to exclude can
also be pre-specified by using a Punch Model Annotation feature.
Merge or Inheritance These dashboard icons enable you to reference
the punch model by performing a merge operation, or you can copy
the punch model geometry by creating an inheritance feature.
Tool Name and Coordinate System Specify these options for
sheetmetal manufacturing.

Placing by Reference You can place a form feature so that it references the original forming
model at all times. If the original form model changes, the geometry on the sheetmetal part also
changes.
Copying the Geometry When you do not want to associate the geometry of the form to the
reference model, you can place the form model by copying all of the form geometry into the
sheetmetal model. This copy operation creates a completely independent version of the form
geometry.
Creating and Using Reference Parts
You can create the form or reference part as a standard solid part or as a sheetmetal part. If you
use a sheetmetal model, the form should conform to the green side of the sheetmetal component.
The reference parts can have shapes that are convex, concave, or are a combination of both.
When creating reference parts, you should keep the following points in mind:

Any convex surface must have a radius that is larger than the
thickness of the sheetmetal or equal to zero if the form is mated to the
sheetmetal geometry.

Any concave surface must have a radius that is larger than the
thickness of the sheetmetal or equal to zero if the form is aligned to
the sheetmetal geometry.
The form can contain a combination of convex and concave geometry,
creating hollows. The hollows in the form must not drop below the
base plane or mating surface, meaning all the form geometry must be
on the same side of the base plane.

Creating Rips in the Geometry


Some forming operations consist of two tasks: plastically deforming the sheetmetal and actually
cutting the sheetmetal. Below is an example of a cooling fin that is cut through the side of the
sheetmetal housing. You can represent the shearing of the material by excluding surfaces from
the form when you place it on the sheetmetal model.

Using Multiple Forms


Using Multiple Forms on a Single Punch Model
To reduce the number of models stored for punch forms, you create a punch model with two
sides. You select one side or the other, with respect to the mating surface that you use in the
punch model.

Procedure: Punch Form Features


Scenario
Create different punch forms on a sheetmetal part.
PunchForms

1.

punch.prt

Task 1. Create a louver using a punch form.


1. Click Punch Form

from the feature toolbar.

2. ClickOpen Punch Model

from the dashboard.

Double-click LOUVER_FORM.PRT.

3. Place the cursor over the upper model surface.

Query and select the underlying surface.

4. Drag the handles to the front and right surfaces of the model.

Edit the offset values as shown.

Click the direction arrow to flip it upwards.

5. Select the Placement tab and enable Add rotation about the first
axis.

Drag the rotation handle to 90.

Note that the additional rotation is possible due to a coordinate system


selected for the component interface.

6. Select the Options tab.

Click in the Excluded punch model surfaces collector.

Select the surface shown.

7. Click Complete Feature

1.

Task 2. Create a gusset using a punch form.


1. Click Punch Form

from the feature toolbar.

2. Click Open Punch Model

from the dashboard.

Double-click GUSSET_FORM.PRT.

3. Select the right model surface.

4. Select the upper model surface.

Select the front model surface.

Drag the offset handle to 20.

5. Select the Options tab and enable Placement Edges.

Select Thickness as the radius option.

Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

Utilizing Punch Model Annotations


Define Punch Model annotations to speed up placement.

Punch Model annotation type


o Predefine surfaces to
remove

Creating Annotation

Punch Model Created

Utilizing Punch Model Annotations Theory


A new type of annotation feature has been added called Punch Model. In this
type of annotation, you can select surfaces to predefine those that will be
removed when using the model for a punch in a sheetmetal part.
When a punch is created using a model with a punch model annotation defined,
the surfaces to be removed will be defined automatically without having to
select them. However, you can add to or remove from this selection if desired.

Procedure: Utilizing Punch Model Annotations


Scenario
Create a punch form using a punch model annotation feature.

round_form.prt

punch_annotations

1.

Task 1. Create a Punch Model annotation feature.


1. Expand the footer and select INTFC001.

Notice the highlighted coordinate system.

2. Click Annotation Feature

Select Punch Model and click OK.

3. Press CTRL and select the three surfaces shown.


4. Click OK and OK.
5. Click Close Window

1.

Task 2. Create a punch form utilizing the defined punch model annotation.
1. Click Open

and double-click ANNOTATIONS.PRT.

2. Click Punch Form

from the feature toolbar.

3. Click Open Punch Model

from the dashboard.

Double-click ROUND_FORM.PRT.

4. Place the cursor over the upper model surface.

Query and select the underlying surface.

5. Drag the handles to the front and right surfaces of the model.

Edit the offset values as shown.

Click the direction arrow to flip it upwards.

6. Select the Options tab.

Notice there are excluded surfaces defined.

7. Click Preview Feature

Notice the placement edges are not rounded.

Click Resume Feature

8. Select the Options tab.

Enable the Placement edges option.

Select Thickness as the Radius option.

9. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

Flatten Form
Form features can be flattened using the Flatten Form tool.
Forms are unbent using the Flatten
Form tool.

Rounds and chamfers are unbent


using the Edge Treat element.

Edge Round and Chamfer Flattened

Model with Forms

Forms in Flattened State

Returning the Model to the Flat


In some cases, you may have to return a sheetmetal model to its original flat
state after you have placed form features on it. The form features do not get
flattened along with the bend features in the model. You can use the Flatten
Form tool to unbend punch or die forms.

You can flatten multiple form features at the same time.

You can flatten forms that cross multiple surfaces.

You typically create flatten form features at the end of the design process,
when you are preparing your model for manufacture.
The flatten form option adjusts the width of the part after flattening,
ensuring that the material volume after flattening is the same as before
flattening.
The formed area is retained upon unbend and bend back, to visualize
location.

Flatten Form Theory


The Flatten Form feature has the capability to flatten forms that cross multiple
surfaces. For example, you can flatten the form of a wall gusset over a 90
degree wall.
The Flatten Form feature retains the formed area upon creation of unbend or
bend-back features to enable visualization of the formed area.
Flattening Edges with Features

You create edge treatments (stamped edges with chamfers or rounds) using
solid class features. As you prepare your sheetmetal design for manufacture,
you need to flatten your design. In order to accurately flatten the stamped
edges, you should create a flatten form feature with the Edge Treat element.
The flatten form calculates the flat pattern for the stamped edges. This is based
on the assumption that the volume of the material in the part is the same, both
before and after it is flattened.
The top image in the slide illustrates the adjustments made to the developed
length of the part after flattening, ensuring that the material volume before and
after flattening, is the same.

Procedure: Flatten Form


Scenario
Unbend a model containing forms.
FlattenForm

1.

FLATTEN.PRT

Task 1. Unbend the model.


1. Click Unbend

2. Click Regular > Done.


3. Select the surface, as shown.

4. Click Unbend All > Done.


5. Click OK.

Notice that the form features do not unbend.

1.

Task 2. Create a flatten form feature to flatten the model.


1. Click Flatten Form

2. Double-click Form in the FLATTEN dialog box.


3. Select the form, as shown.

4. Click OK > Done Refs > OK.

5. With the Flatten feature still selected, right-click and click Pattern.
6. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

Rip
You can add rips to your models to help flatten otherwise
unbendable geometry.

Three rip types

Regular

Surface

Edge

Model Cannot Be Unbent

Rips Added
Adding Rips to the Geometry

Part Unbent

You can unbend sheetmetal geometry using rips. A rip shears or tears your
sheetmetal walls, especially along seams. If your part is a continuous piece of
material, it cannot be unbent without ripping the sheetmetal.
Create a rip feature before unbending. When you unbend that area of the
model, the material breaks along the rip section. In general, a rip is a zerovolume cut.
There are three types of sheetmetal rips available:

Regular Rip Creates a saw cut along a sketched rip line. You select a
surface and sketch the rip line. You can select boundary surfaces to
protect certain surfaces from the rip.
Surface Rip Select a surface patch on the geometry and exclude the
entire surface from the model by creating a cut in the geometry.
Edge Rip Creates a saw cut along an edge. You select the edge to rip.
The resulting corner edges can be open, blind, or overlapping.

While edge rips are intended for unbending your part, you can customize the
corner type to be open, overlapping or cut/extended to a specific depth. You can
create rips with open or overlapping corners.
You can create multiple versions of a regular rip by setting a bounding surface a surface that will not be ripped. The rip extends around the model until it
meets the edges of the bounding surface. If your rip design requires most of the
surfaces not to be ripped, you can exclude all the surfaces (as bounding
surfaces) and select/remove the desired surfaces that need to be ripped.
In the images on the slide, the cubical surface has been applied an edge rip (to
create an open edge), a surface rip (to remove any undevelopable surface), and
then unbent.

Procedure: Rip
Scenario
Add rips to the model so that it can be unbent.
Rips

1.

RIPS.PRT

Task 1. Add surface rips to remove material in four corners.

1. Click Named View List


2. Click Rip

and select RIPS1.

3. Click Surface Rip > Done.


4. Press CTRL and select the four surfaces shown.

5. Click OK > Done Refs > OK to complete the rip.

1.

Task 2. Create an edge rip along three edges of the part.


1. Click Rip

2. Click Edge Rip > Done.


3. Press CTRL and select the three edges shown.

4. Click OK > Done Sets > OK to complete the rip.

1.

Task 3. Create a regular rip.


1. Click Rip

2. Click Regular Rip > Done.


3. Select the surface shown as the sketch plane.
4. Click Default

5. Create the sketch shown.


6. Click Done Section

7. Click OK to complete the rip.


8. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

1.

Task 4. Unbend the model.


1. Click Unbend

2. Click Regular > Done.


3. Select the surface shown as the fixed geometry.

4. Click Unbend All > Done > OK to complete the unbend.

This completes the procedure.

Notches And Punches


You use notches and punches as templates to cut and relieve
sheetmetal walls.

Punches and notches are used to


create cuts and capture
manufacturing information.

Notches are placed on edges.

Punches are placed in the


middle.

Notch Used for Relief

Punch Used to Create Holes


Defining Notches and Punches
You use notches and punches as templates to cut and relieve sheetmetal walls.
You place notches on the edges and punches in the middle of the sheetmetal
wall. Notches are used to relieve material that interferes with bending in places
such as the corners of flanges. You use punches and notches to create cuts and
capture manufacturing information, such as the tool name.
Creating Notches and Punches
Each punch or notch has a specific tool that defines its shape. You create
notches and punches using the following steps:

Create the desired type of cut on a sheetmetal part.

Convert the cut into a user-defined feature (UDF).

Place the notch or punch UDF on the desired sheetmetal part.

You need to create UDFs in the sheetmetal application. UDFs created in Part
mode do not work on sheetmetal parts.
You save a notch or punch UDF in your directory and use it in multiple designs.
It carries the file name extension - .gph.
To create a notch or punch UDF, you use the following parameters that are
specific to sheetmetal design and manufacturing:

A coordinate system to locate tooling for automated punch and notch


operations.
A specific tool ID to specify the proper tool for the manufacturing
operation.

Use the following steps to create a notch or punch UDF:

Create a simple sheetmetal part to serve as a reference part.

Create a cut feature. Be sure to include the coordinate system. When you
align and dimension, keep in mind the convenience of the eventual
placement of the UDF.
Create a UDF feature.

Use the Stand Alone option:

When the system prompts you to indicate whether you are defining this
UDF for a punch or a notch feature, acknowledge it.
In response to the system prompt, type the tool name.

Define the symmetry of the tool relative to the feature coordinate system.
Select one of the options.
Respond to prompts for the reference geometry.

Complete the UDF creation. The system creates and stores the UDF.

Using Notches for Relief


When you create a sheetmetal part, you add the notch relief before bending.
However, you can capture your design intent more accurately by creating the
part in the formed state. Instead of adding relief and then creating the wall, you
focus on dimensioning the walls to preserve your design intent. Using this
method, you increase your regeneration speed by suppressing the notches,
since the walls are not children to these entities.
If a notch is intended to relieve material in the bend areas, create a bend and
then unbend it. When sketching the cut, align its sides to the bend edges.

Procedure: Notches And Punches


Scenario
Create a notch and use it to create relief in another model.
Notches

1.

NOTCH.PRT

Task 1. Create the Notch tool.


1. Click Tools > UDF Library from the main menu.
2. Click Create and type CORNER_NOTCH as the name of the UDF feature
and press ENTER.
3. Click Stand Alone > Done.
4. Click Yes to include the reference part.
5. Select the cut, as shown.

6. Click OK > Done > Done/Return.


7. Select Yes to create the UDF for Punch or Notch.
8. Type NOTCH_RELIEF as the name of the tool. Press ENTER.
9. Click Y Axis for the symmetry options.

10. Edit the prompts.

Type Placement Surface as the prompt. Press ENTER.

Type Right Orientation as the prompt. Press ENTER.

Type Vertical Edge Reference as the prompt. Press ENTER.

Type Horizontal Surface Reference as the prompt. Press ENTER.

Click Next and Previous from the MOD PRMPT menu to review the
prompts entered. Click Enter Prompt to modify any of the prompts, if
necessary.

11. Click Done/Return > OK to complete the UDF creation.


12. Click List in the menu manager to see the UDF features in the working
directory. Click Close > Done/Return.
13. Click File > Close Window.
1.

Task 2. Prepare the model to add a notch.


1. Click Open

and double-click LEFT_PANEL.PRT.

2. Drag the Insert Indicator


tree.
3. Click Named View List
4. Click Plane Display

1.

before the bend back feature in the model

in the main toolbar and select TOP view.

, to enable their display.

Task 3. Create the notch on one side using the NOTCH_RELIEF tool
defined as UDF.
1. Click Notch

from the feature toolbar to start the Notch tool.

2. Select CORNER_NOTCH.GPH and click Open.


3. Select the Advanced reference configuration and View source
model options.
4. Click OK to begin specifying references for the notch.
5. Select the wall surface as reference #1 (Placement Surface), as shown.

6. Select reference #2 in the User Defined Feature Placement dialog box.


7. Select datum plane FRONT from the model tree as reference #2 (Right
Orientation).
8. Click Plane Display

, to disable their display.

9. Select reference #3 in the User Defined Feature Placement dialog box.


10. Select the edge of the panel as reference #3 (Vertical Edge Reference),
as shown.

11. Select reference #4 in the User Defined Feature Placement dialog box.

12. Rotate the part slightly and select the surface as reference #4
(Horizontal Surface Reference), as shown.

1.

13. Click Complete Feature


dialog box.

in the User Defined Feature Placement

14. Click Named View List

in the main toolbar and select TOP view.

Task 4. Create the notch on the other side using the NOTCH_RELIEF tool
defined as UDF.
1. Click Notch

from the feature toolbar to start the Notch tool.

2. Select CORNER_NOTCH.GPH and click Open.


3. This time only select the Advanced reference configuration option, if
necessary, and click OK.
4. Select the wall surface as reference #1 (Placement Surface), as shown.

5. Select reference #2 in the User Defined Feature Placement dialog box.


6. Select the datum plane FRONT from the model tree as reference #2
(Right Orientation).
7. Select reference #3 in the User Defined Feature Placement dialog box.
8. Select the edge of the panel as the vertical edge reference, as shown.

9. Select reference #4 in the User Defined Feature Placement dialog box.


10. Rotate the part slightly and select the surface as reference #4,
(Horizontal Surface Reference), as shown.

11. Select the Adjustments tab. Select Flip .

12. Click Accept Settings


box.
13. Click Named View List

in the User Defined Feature Placement dialog

in the main toolbar and select TOP view.

14. Right-click Insert Indicator


in the model tree and select Cancel.
Click Yes from the confirmation message window.
15. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

This completes the procedure.

Edge Bends
An edge bend converts non-tangent edges to bends.

Non tangent edges converted to bends:

Default bend radius set to thickness.

Can customize one or more edges to


have unique parameters.
Smooths inside and outside
surfaces, if geometry allows.

Formed Part with Sharp Edges

Part With Edge Bends Applied

Edge Bends

One Bend With Customized Radius

An edge bend converts non-tangent edges to bends. Depending on the material side you choose
to thicken, some edges appear rounded while others have sharp edges. The edge bend option
enables you to quickly round the edge.
By default, the bend parameters are set to the following values:

Bend Table Part Bend Table

Radius Type Inside Radius

Radius Default radius, else Thickness

If your design requires different bend parameters you can either change the entire models bend
parameters or you can customize the values for each edge individually by redefining specific
edges.

Procedure: Edge Bends


Scenario
Add edge bends to a model.
EdgeBends

1.

EDGE.PRT

Task 1. Add edge bends to the model.


1. Click No hidden
2. Click Edge Bend

from the main toolbar.


from the feature toolbar.

3. Select the three edges shown (start with the edge on the right of the
image).

4. Click OK > Done Sets > OK to complete the edge bends.

Notice that the bend table, radius type, and bend radius are all set by
default and you did not have to specify any information.

1.

Task 2. Customize one of the bends.

1. With the edge bend still selected, right-click and select Edit
Definition.
2. Double-click Edge Bend from the EDGE BEND dialog box.
3. Click Piece # 1 > Done.
4. Double-click Radius in the BEND PIECES dialog box.
5. Click Enter Value.
6. Type 15 and press ENTER.
7. Click OK > Done Sets > OK.
8. The edge updates with the larger radius.

This completes the procedure.

Corner Relief
Corner relief helps prevent unwanted deformation by
controlling the sheetmetal material behavior.

Four types of corner relief:

No Relief (default)

None

Circular

Obround

Default Relief

NONE

Circular Relief

Obround Relief

Corner Relief
Corner relief helps prevent unwanted deformation by controlling the sheetmetal material
behavior. To utilize the corner relief option you must have at least one ripped edge
and Annotation Element Display
enabled or annotations displayed in the model tree.
You can create four types of corner relief:
No Relief

None

Circular

Obround

Retains the default V- Generates a square


notch shape.
corner.

Generates a circular
notch.

Generate an obround
notch.

There are four possible ways to apply corner relief to bends or converted parts:

Create the corner relief as a feature (Feature > Create > Corner
Relief).
Create default relief automatically while unbending (Setup >
Sheetmetal > Corner Relief).
Create default relief for all corners in the model or part templates
(Setup > Sheetmetal > Parameters).
Define the corner relief in the conversion feature dialog box
(Feature > Create > Conversion).

Procedure: Corner Relief


Scenario
Add various corner relief types to the part.
Corner

1.

CORNER.PRT

Task 1. Change the default corner relief type for all corners.
1. Note that the current relief is set to No Relief.

2. Click Edit > Setup > Corner Relief > Confirm.


3. Click Circular > Thickness*2. and observe that all reliefs are now
circular.
4. Click Done/Return.

1.

Task 2. Edit the corners to display the other relief types.


1. Click Corner Relief
2. Click Settings

and then Open Settings File from the model tree.

3. Click Working Directory if necessary in the Load Model Tree


Configuration dialog box and then double-click TREE.CFG.
4. The four corner relief notes now display in the model tree, as shown.

The numbers associated with your model may not match those shown.
Use the corresponding numbers from your model tree.

5. Select the first three notes from the model tree.


6. Click Redefine.
7. Click Corner #1 > Done to open the Corner Relief dialog box.
8. Double-click Corner Relief.
9. Click No Relief > OK.
10. Click Redefine.
11. Click Corner #2 > Done .
12. Double-click Corner Relief.
13. Click None > OK.
14. Click Redefine.

15. Click Corner #3 > Done .


16. Double-click Corner Relief.
17. Click Obround.
18. Click Thickness*2 > Thickness > OK.
19. Click Done Sets > OK.
20. The model returns to the flat state, as shown.

This completes the procedure.

Patterning Walls
You can now pattern walls using direction and reference
patterns.

Pattern Flat or Flanged


o Use Direction Pattern

Can Reference Pattern

Original Model

Flange Wall Reference Patterned

Flat Wall Patterned

Patterning Walls Theory


You can now use the direction pattern option to create patterns of flat and flanged walls. You can
select the wall, select a direction reference, and type the increment and quantity for the pattern
using the dashboard.
Once a pattern is created, you can also reference pattern any child wall features.

Procedure: Patterning Walls


Scenario
Complete a sheetmetal part by patterning walls.
pattern_walls

1.

pattern.prt

Task 1. Create a direction pattern of a flat wall.


1. Select the Flat 1 wall from the model tree.
2. Right-click and select Pattern.

Select a front edge.

Type -20 as the pattern increment and press ENTER.

3. Type 6 as the quantity and press ENTER.

4. Click Complete Feature

1.

Task 2. Create a reference pattern of a flange wall.


1. Select the Flange 1 wall from the model tree.
2. Right-click and select Pattern.

Select Reference as the pattern type.

3. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

Mirroring Walls
You mirror sheetmetal walls to create symmetric models.

A mirrored wall is its own


feature.
o Dependent by default
o Can make section
independent
o Can redefine independently

Original Model

Second Mirror Created


First Mirror Created
Mirroring Walls Theory
You can now use the mirror option to create symmetric models. Once you select
the walls and a planar reference, the mirror is created as dependent by default.
You can change the dependency in the dashboard, or right-click the mirrored
wall and make its section independent. You can also redefine the wall to break
the associative link, and change its shape or options independently from the
original.

Procedure: Mirroring Walls


Scenario
Complete a sheetmetal part by mirroring walls.
mirror_walls

1.

mirror.prt

Task 1. Mirror a selection of walls.


1. Select the Flat 1 wall from the model tree.

Press SHIFT and select Flange 3.

2. Click Edit > Mirror from the main menu.

Select datum plane RIGHT from the model tree.

Click Complete Feature

3. Notice that each mirrored wall is its own feature in the model tree.

1.

Task 2. Mirror the original and previously mirrored walls, then redefine a
wall.
1. With Mirror 1 still selected, press SHIFT and select Flat 1 from the
model tree.
2. Click Edit > Mirror from the main menu.

Select datum plane FRONT from the model tree.

Click Complete Feature

3. Select Flange 3 (3), as shown.

4. Right-click and select Edit Definition.

Modify the shape from Flushed to Duck.

Click Yes.

Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

Sheetmetal Bends and Setting Up the


Sheetmetal Environment

Module Overview
While manufacturing sheetmetal parts, you bend flat sheets using bending
tools. Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0 enables you to create bends and other
geometry to reflect the true manufacturing process.
The order in which features are created can have a significant impact on how
your design appears when being detailed.
You use bend lines to determine the location and shape for the bend geometry
in your sheetmetal parts. A bend line is also a reference point to calculate the
developed length. Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0 enables you to sketch the bend
lines, thus enabling you to control the behavior of the bend geometry.
When you unbend sheetmetal parts, Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0 calculates the
developed length using a standard formula or using a standard bend table. To
suit your particular manufacturing process, you can override the default bend
calculations by modifying the factors in the formula or by using customized
bend tables.
You select a surface to remain fixed as the geometry bends. The resulting
geometry will differ depending on the geometry selected to be fixed.
Using family tables, you can create a flat state of the model, which is an
instance in the family table where the model is completely unbent.

Objectives
After successfully completing this module, you will be able to:

Create features in the proper order to achieve appropriate dimensioning


results.
Define and adjust bend lines.

Define and adjust bend allowances using bend tables.

Define default fixed geometry.

Define flat states.

Order of Bend Features


It is important to consider the order in which features are
created when designing sheetmetal parts.

The two key


considerations
when creating
sheetmetal features
are:

References
for feature
creation.
Order of
feature
creation.

TOP Used as Sketching Plane

Cut Created Before


Bend

Edit Original Cut

Cut Created After


Bend

Edit Cut Again

Feature References
The references used to create sheetmetal features must be selected carefully. For example,
consider the model shown in the upper right figure. Instead of using the surface of the wall for
the sketching plane for the cut, the datum plane FRONT was used.

The end result is that the dimensions for the cut feature would be inappropriate for detailing or
manufacturing.
Feature Order
It is also important to consider the order in which features are created. Consider the example
shown in the lower left set of figures.
The cut was created in the sheetmetal wall, then the wall was bent to shape. When the bend was
created, the system established new surfaces, but the cut surfaces remain in their original
position. The end result is that the dimensions for the cut feature would be inappropriate for
detailing or manufacturing.
A better method of creating the cut is shown in the lower right set of figures.
In this case, the bend was created in the wall, the wall was unbent, the cut was created, and
finally the wall was bent back. In this case, the section stays with the wall feature, and yields the
desired result.

Procedure: Order of Bend Features


Scenario
Create a flat state for the already formed model.
ORDER.PRT

FeatureOrder

1.

Task 1. Create a cut and bend in the model.


1. Click Extrude Tool

2. Right-click and select Define Internal Sketch.


3. Select the flat surface of the model and click Sketch.
4. Create the sketch shown.
5. Click Done Section

6. Click Complete Feature

7. Click Bend

Click Done > Done/Return > Done/Return.

Select the flat surface of the model.

Click Okay > Default.

Create the sketch shown.

8. Click Done Section

9. Click Okay > Flip > Okay > No Relief > Done > Flip > Done >
Thickness > OK.

1.

Task 2. Edit the cut to observe where the sketch resides.


1. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.
2. Select Extrude 1 from the model tree.
3. Right-click and select Edit.

The sketch remains in the original position, which is undesirable.

1.

Task 3. Delete the cut and add it in again, after the bend.
1. Select Extrude 1 from the model tree.
2. Right-click and click Delete > OK.
3. Click Extrude Tool

4. Right-click and select Define Internal Sketch.


5. Select the surface shown and click Sketch.
6. Select the appropriate references, click Close, and create the sketch
shown.
7. Click Done Section

8. Click Complete Feature

1.

Task 4. Add an unbend feature, then edit the cut to observe where the
sketch resides.
1. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.
2. Click Unbend

Click Done.

Select the surface shown.

Click Unbend All > Done > OK.

3. Right-click Extrude 1 from the model tree and select Edit.

The sketch now moves in relation to the original wall, as desired.

This completes the procedure.

Bend Line Adjustments


You can control the location of a bend feature by adding a
Bend Line Adjustment (BLA).
The bend line location can be
adjusted.

Use the equation: BLA=L(R+T).

Original Bend Line Location

Relation to Control the Bend Line


Location

Bend Line Adjusted

Adding Bend Line Adjustment


You can control the location of a bend feature by adding a Bend Line Adjustment (BLA). The
BLA is the dimension that locates the sketched bend line from a reference. You can modify it to
manipulate the placement of the bend. For two surfaces to be coplanar, the developed length of
the bend must be equal to the sum of the inside radius and the thickness.
Since the system calculates both the radius of the bend and the developed length of the bend, you
can use the following relation to determine the BLA.
BLA = L - ( R + T )
Where: BLA Bend Line Adjustment. L Developed Length. R Inside Radius. T Thickness.

Procedure: Bend Line Adjustments


Scenario
A design requires that the top surfaces of a bent flange is coplanar with the top
surface of the adjacent unbent portion. Apply the bend line adjustment formula
to make the surfaces coplanar.
BLA

1.

BEND_LINE.PRT

Task 1. Determine whether the bend is in the desired location.

1. Create an analysis to measure the distance.

Click Analysis > Measure > Distance.

Select the surfaces shown as the references.

2. Orient to the FRONT view.

Notice that the distance is approximately 0.80.


This is the vertical gap between the surfaces, hence the two
surfaces are not coplanar because the bend line adjustment value is
incorrect

3. Save the analysis feature.

1.

Select Saved from the drop-down list in the Distance dialog box.

Click Complete Analysis

Task 2. Add a relation to control the BLA.

1. Press CTRL + D to view the Standard Orientation.


2. Right-click the bend feature in the model tree and select Edit. Notice that
the developed length (DEV.L) is 1.7.

3. With dimensions still displayed, click Tools > Relations.

Select the FIRST WALL from the model tree.


Identify the symbolic form for the dimensions. Find the developed
length (d14), the inside radius (d13), the thickness (d0), and the bend
line location (d9).

4. In the Relations window, type the following BLA relation:

d9 = d14 - (d13 + d0).

Click OK.

5. Click Regenerate

from the main toolbar.

6. Orient to the FRONT view. Notice that the distance is now 0.0.

1.

Task 3. Test the relations added.


1. Modify the bend radius.

Right-click the bend feature in the model tree and select Edit.

Double-click the radius value, type 2 and press ENTER.

Click Regenerate

twice to update the bend and the relation.

2. Notice that the distance is still 0.0 due to the bend line adjustment
relation.

This completes the procedure.

Using Bend Tables for Bend Allowances


You can use bend tables, instead of the system default
equation, to calculate the developed lengths of bends.

A Typical Bend Table

Bend Tables
You can use bend tables, instead of the system default equation, to calculate
the developed lengths of bends. Bend tables are files (a *.bnd file) that can be
stored in the part or on a hard drive for use in multiple models.
The values in the top row of the bend table (area #4 in the figure) are inside
radius values (R) while the values in the first column of the table (area #3
above) are for material thickness (T). The rest of the cells in the body of the
table (area #5 above) are populated with developed length values for a 90
bend that has the corresponding inside radius and material thickness that
makes them intersect in the first row and column (respectively) of the table.
For bends other than 90, the values are multiplied by /90, where is the
specific bend angle, in degrees.

If a bend is created in a model that does not have an exact corresponding inside
radius or material thickness in the table, the developed length is calculated in
one of two ways.
1. If the values for R and T fall inside the range of inside radii and material
thicknesses present in the table, the developed length is calculated by
interpolation from the surrounding values.
2. If the values for R and T fall outside the range of inside radii and material
thicknesses present in the table, the developed length is calculated by
using the Formula (area #1 above) that is present in the table.
If necessary, you can write logic statements into the Formula area of the bend
table. By doing so, you can assign different formulas to be applied based on
specific attributes of the bend. For example you can specify logic statements so
that the developed length for bends where 0 90 is calculated differently
than for bends where > 90. See the Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0 help files for
more information on formulas as well as another feature called a Conversion.
You can use one of three tables supplied with Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire or you can
create and name your own. The three tables supplied have developed lengths
based on values for soft, medium, and very hard materials. The y-factor and
developed lengths they contain are listed below and are based on values found
in Machinerys Handbook, 25th Edition.
Table
Name

Materials

yfactor

k-factor

TABLE1

soft brass, copper

0.55

0.35

TABLE2

hard brass, copper, soft steel, aluminum

0.64

0.41

TABLE3

hard copper, bronze, cold rolled steel, spring


steel

0.71

0.45

Additionally, there is a Materials section in each bend table (area #2 above)


where you can specify materials that the bend table can be applied to. When
you apply the bend table to a part, Pro/ENGINEER will verify whether the part
material matches one of the materials in the list. If it does not, you will receive
an error message and the bend table will NOT be added to the part. If no
materials are listed in the Materials section of the bend table, the bend is
applied to any part regardless of its material.

Best Practices

If you create your own library of bend tables, point to the appropriate
folder with the configuration option
pro_sheet_met_directory_<pathname>. You can find bend tables that are
specified by name in your projects current directory and in the folder
specified by the configuration option.
Bend tables are only applicable for constant-radius bends. Bends with a
varying radius, as in a cone or cylinder, calculate the developed length
using the y-factor. Bend tables are applied to a geometry with flange walls
based on the arc profiles.

Procedure: Using Bend Tables for Bend Allowances


Scenario
Use bend tables instead of k or y-factors to control the developed length of
bends.
BendTable

1.

bend_table.prt

Task 1. Determine how the bend length is currently calculated.


1. From the main menu, click Info > Model.

From the information at the top of the browser window, it should be


obvious that no bend tables have been assigned to the part and that
bend allowances for all bends are being driven by the k-factor
(0.31831) and y-factor (.5) assigned to the part.
Also note that all of the bends in the part have an inside radius of 2
mm and a developed length of 3.64 mm.

2. Close the browser.

1.

Task 2. Drive the developed length of all of the bends in the model with
the system supplied table for hard materials (TABLE3).
1. Click Edit > Setup > Bend Allow > Bend Table > Set > Confirm >
From File > table3.
2. Click Done/Return > Done/Return > Done/Return.
3. From the model tree, right-click the FIRST WALL feature and select Edit.

Note that the developed length for this feature is now 3.85 mm. If you
inspect the bend allowances for the Flat 1 and Flange 1 features you
will also find that they have developed lengths of 3.85 mm as well.
This is based on a y-factor value of .71 from the TABLE3 system

supplied bend table.

1.

Task 3. Drive the developed length of the bend in the Flat 1 feature using
a user-defined bend table (new.bnd).
1. In the model tree, right-click the Flat 1 feature and select Edit
Definition.
2. From the dashboard, click Bend Allowance and select the A Feature
Specific Set Up check box.
3. Click By Bend Table > Browse.
4. Select the NEW.BND table and click Open.
5. Click Complete Feature

6. In the model tree, right-click the Flat 1 feature and select Edit.

Note that the developed length of the bend in this feature is now
calculated as 3.69 mm.

This completes the procedure.

Fixed Geometry
You can specify a default reference for the fixed surface for
unbend and bend back features.
You do not have to select the fixed side
after setting default fixed geometry.
Applies to:

Unbend features

Bend Back features

Surface Selected as Fixed Geometry

Unbend Uses Fixed Surface

Bend Back Uses Fixed Surface

Defining Default Fixed Geometry


When unbending and bending back sheetmetal geometry, it is always good practice to specify the
same surface or edge to remain fixed. You can use the SETUP option Fixed Geom to
automatically specify the same reference when creating the unbend and bend back features.
The fixed geometry setting helps ensure consistency in your design workflow. You can select a
surface, edge, or a plane as a fixed geometry. Once you have defined the fixed geometry, the
system does not ask you to specify the geometry to remain fixed, while creating the unbend and
bend back features.

When working with fixed geometry, you can:

Set a surface to remain fixed with the Select command.

Highlight the current fixed geometry selection with the Show


command.
Delete the current fixed geometry selection with the Clear command.

Procedure: Fixed Geometry


Scenario
Define the default fixed geometry for unbend and bend back operations in a
model.
FIXED.PRT

FixedGeom

1.

Task 1. Define the default fixed wall for all bend back and unbend
operations.
1. Click Edit > Setup > Fixed Geom.
2. Click Select and select the wall surface to remain fixed, as shown.
3. Click Done/Return > Done/Return.

4. Test the fixed geometry setup. Create an unbend feature.

Click Unbend

Click Regular > Done.

from the feature toolbar.

Click Unbend All > Done.


Notice that the fixed geometry is automatically selected and
highlighted.
Click OK to complete the feature.

5. Create a bend back feature.

Click Bend Back

from the feature toolbar.

Notice that the fixed geometry is automatically selected and


highlighted.
Click BendBackAll > Done.
Click OK to complete the feature.

This completes the procedure.

Flat States
A flat state is a completely unbent copy of your part.

Flat states are controlled by family


tables.

Start with Flat or Formed model.

System creates family table.

Open other states using the Show


option.

Formed Model

Family Table

Flat State

Flat States
A flat state is a completely unbent copy of your part. It streamlines the creation
of flat patterns needed in manufacturing because you can create any number of
flat states, at any time in your design process, whether your part is fully formed
or fully flat.
You use family tables to control flat states. You can:

Produce a new flat state instance with the Create command.

Use the Update command to transfer features you added to a flat state
from the flat state to the generic part, except for features you specifically
suppressed. You can then delete or suppress desired features which are

then deleted or suppressed in any other flat state in that part's family
table.
Use the Show command to list the flat state instances related to the
generic part. You select the instances from the list, and they will open in a
new window.

You can edit individual flat state instances to make any necessary modifications.
Any new features you add to a flat state are enabled in that specific flat state
instance but suppressed in the generic part. Any features you delete from a flat
state are suppressed in the specific flat state instance but still enabled in the
generic part. Keep in mind that any features you add to the generic part, after
you create the flat state, are added to all flat state instances.
When you create a flat state instance, the unbend operation or the flat state is
automatically added to the end of the generic part's model tree. Any
modifications made to the generic do not affect the flat state. Therefore, in the
generic, a flat state works exactly like a flat pattern. Any features added to the
generic part are automatically reordered to always be inserted before the
unbend.
When you create a flat state instance it is automatically added to the generic
part's family table. If you in turn add or remove features from a flat state
instance, the system records those changes in the generic part's family table.

Procedure: Flat States


Scenario
Create a flat state for the already formed model.
FlatStates

1.

FLAT_STATE.PRT

Task 1. Create a Flat State for the model.


1. Click Edit > Setup.
2. Click Flat State > Create.
3. Press ENTER to accept the default name.
4. Click Fully Formed, to indicate the current state of the model.

The system displays the Regular Type dialog box, so that you can
define the unbend operation.

5. Select the surface shown for the fixed geometry.

1.

Click OK to complete the unbend operation.

Task 2. Show the flat state instance.


1. Click Show > FLAT_STATE_FLAT1.

The Flat State opens in a new window.

1.

Task 3. Add another flat state instance to the family table.


1. Click File > Close Window to return to the generic model.
2. Click Edit > Setup.

3. Click Flat State > Create and press ENTER to accept the default name.
4. Click Tools > Family Table to display the instances.
5. Click OK.

1.

Task 4. Edit the FLAT_STATE_FLAT2 instance to see the impact on the


family table.
1. Click Edit > Setup.
2. Click Flat State > Show > FLAT_STATE_FLAT2.
3. Select Smt Cut id 298 in the model tree, right-click and click Delete >
OK.

4. Click File > Close Window to return to the generic model.


5. Click Tools > Family Table.

The family table is updated to include a new column for the cut feature
that was just deleted. The generic and first flat state instance will
regenerate the cut, and the new flat state will not.

6. Click OK.
This completes the procedure.

Special Sheetmetal Tools


Module Overview
Reports provide information on bends, radii, and specific design rules for your
sheetmetal part, and they enable you to investigate your design to ensure it
adheres to company standards.
Design rules are guidelines for your design such as minimum distance between
cuts and minimum wall height. You establish these rules based on the materials
and processes used in manufacturing.
Sheetmetal defaults and parameters automate routine tasks to help streamline
your part design. You can predefine some common feature geometry to ensure
design consistency and to save time by reducing menu selections.
If a converted part is not developable, you can either create individual features
like rips and corner reliefs to make it developable or you can use the Create
Conversion tool to add alterations like rips, bends, and corner relief.

Objectives
After successfully completing this module, you will be able to:

Review sheetmetal reports in text and HTML format.

Set and review the effects of design rules.

Edit and assign sheetmetal defaults and parameters.

Retrieve an existing set of sheetmetal defaults and parameters.

Use the Create Conversion tool to flatten an otherwise undevelopable


model.

Info Tools and Reports


Reports provide information about bends, radii, bend tables,
and design rules for your model.
Two types of reports

Text

HTML

Controlled by config.pro option info_output_format

HTML Report Excerpt


Sheetmetal Reports
Sheetmetal reports help you to ensure that your model adheres to company
standards. The reports can be displayed in either text or HTML (the default)
format. To change from HTML to text format, you can set the config.pro
parameter info_output_format to text.
The HTML reports display in the embedded browser while the text reports
display in a separate window. The text reports can be stored in an external file.
You can create the following text reports:

Bend Reports Detailed information about the bends in the part.

Radii Report Detailed information about the bend radii in the part.

Design Check Detailed report on your model's compliance with any


design rules that have been defined.

You can access the text reports, with info_output_format set to text, by
clicking Info > Sheetmetalfrom the main menu. This opens the Sheetmetal
Info dialog box.

You can create the following HTML reports:

Used K and Y Factors by Part Lists all values of the K-factors and Yfactors that are used by the part or features.
Bend Tables Associated with Part Detailed information about bend
tables used in the part.
Bends Containing Feature Bend Table Lists the assigned bend tables
used by the features.
Bends Allowance Information about bends assigned to a feature with or
without a 90 degree bend angle.
Bend Radii Detailed information about the bend radii of features.
Design Rules - Violations Check Detailed report on your model's
compliance with any design rules that have been defined.

You can access the HTML reports, with info_output_format set to html, by
clicking Info > Model.
Note that the HTML reports are more interactive than the text reports. For
example, in the Bend Tables section of the HTML report, you can click the Get
Table Contents
icon to access another HTML report that lists the entire
bend table.

Procedure: Info Tools and Reports


Scenario
Use the information tools and reports to interrogate the model.

Reports

1.

REPORTS.PRT

Task 1. View the HTML report for the model.


1. Click Info > Model to open the Model Info HTML report.
2. Review the overview section.

3. Scroll to the Bend Tables section and use the report to view the table
contents.

4. Click the first Get Table Contents

The Bend Table report appears.

5. Click Back

in the browser.

icon in this section.

6. Scroll to the Bends Allowance section.

The equations and dimensions used for each bend are listed.

7. Scroll to the Bend Radii section.

The bend radii and radius type (inside or outside) for each bend are
listed.

8. Scroll to the Design Rules section.

1.

The rule MIN_CUT_TO_BOUND is violated. The allowable value is


3.0000, but the current value it 1.0001.
Minimize the browser window.

Task 2. Set the configuration option for text reports, and review the Bend
Report.
1. Click Tools > Options.
2. Type info_output_format in the Option text box and text in the Value
text box.

Press ENTER and click OK.

3. Click Info > Sheetmetal to display the Sheetmetal Info dialog box.

4. Clear the File check box and click OK.


5. Click Close when finished viewing the information window.

6. Click Tools > Options.


7. Select info_output_format in the list and type html in the Value text
box.

Click OK.

This completes the procedure.

Design Rules
Design rules are geometric standards for your design.
A Rule table contains the design
standards.

MIN_DIST_BTWN_CUTS

MIN_CUT_TO_BOUND

MIN_CUT_TO_BEND

MIN_WALL_HEIGHT

MIN_SLOT_TAB_WIDTH

MIN_SLOT_TAB_LENGTH

MIN_LASER_DIM

MIN_CUT_TO_BEND
Design Rules

MIN_CUT_TO_BOUND

Design rules are geometric standards for your design. You can establish the
design rules that fit your materials and the manufacturing processes you use.
For example, in the upper-right image, the dimension 5 represents the
MIN_CUT_TO_BEND option. This is the minimum distance a cut can be placed
relative to a bend. Any distance greater than or equal to the
MIN_CUT_TO_BEND parameter is an acceptable value.
The second image is an example of MIN_CUT_TO_BOUND. In this case, the
parameter (a value of 2 in the image) represents the smallest allowable value
between any boundary and the edge of any cut.
Note that the Design Rules do not stop the model from regenerating when there
is a rule violation, but the violations can be displayed in a report.
The standard rule table contains the following default sheetmetal design rules.
In the table, T is the stock thickness and R is the bend radius.
Parameter

Description

MIN_DIST_BTWN_CUTS

Checks the distance between two cuts or punches.


(Default: 5T)

MIN_CUT_TO_BOUND

Checks the distance between a part edge and a cut


or punch. (Default: 2T)

MIN_CUT_TO_BEND

Checks the distance between a bend-line and a cut


or punch. (Default:2.5*T+R)

MIN_WALL_HEIGHT

Checks the minimum bend height of formed walls.


(Default: 1.5*T+R)

MIN_SLOT_TAB_WIDTH

Checks the minimum width of the slot. (Default: T)

MIN_SLOT_TAB_LENGT
H

Checks the minimum length of the slot.

MIN_LASER_DIM

Checks the minimum distance between contours


that have to be laser cut. (Default: 1.5*T).

You specify design standards in a rule table and assign the table to your part.
You can develop as many tables as you need and you can edit the table at any
time.
Note that you cannot directly add additional rules beyond those found in the
table, but through the use of relations you can customize them.

Your design can be tested against the design table using the Info > Model html
report or the Info > Sheetmetal > Design Check text report.

Procedure: Design Rules


Scenario
Add the default design rules table to the model and check the design against it.
DesignRules

1.

RULES.PRT

Task 1. Assign the design rules table.


1. Click Edit > Setup to access the SMT SETUP menu.
2. Click Design Rules > Define.
3. Type My_Rules for the name of the table and press ENTER.
4. Review the design table then click File > Exit from the table editor.
5. Click Assign > From Part > MY_RULES.

1.

Task 2. Check the status of the design.


1. Click Info > Model to display the Model info report.
2. Scroll to the bottom of the report, and notice that the
MIN_CUT_TO_BOUND rule is violated.

1.

Task 3. Fix the rule violation and recheck.


1. Edit the dimensions to move the cut feature away from the edge.

Select Extrude 2 from the model tree.

Right-click and select Edit.

Edit the .25 dimension to .50.

Click Regenerate

2. Click Refresh

from the browser.

3. Scroll to the bottom of the report, and notice now that by moving the cut
down, the MIN_CUT_TO_BEND rule is violated.

Moving the cut down has now caused the bottom edge to get too close
to the bend. The allowable value is 1.6250 but the current value is
1.3750. Therefore, you have to change the height of the cut by 0.25.

4. Edit the dimensions to move the cut feature away from the bend.

Select Extrude 2 from the model tree.

Right-click and select Edit.

Edit the 7.125 dimension to 6.675.

Click Regenerate

5. Click Refresh

from the browser.

6. Scroll to the bottom of the report, and notice that there are no longer any
violations.

This completes the procedure.

Defaults and Parameters


Sheetmetal defaults and parameters automate tasks.
Defaults and parameters are stored in a table.

Parameters hold numeric values.

Defaults reduce the number of menu picks.

Sheetmetal Parameters
Defaults and Parameters
You can set common values and define common feature geometry to streamline
the design process. This can be accomplished using the Sheet Metal Defaults
and Parameters file. The defaults and parameters file is stored in tabular
format, and uses the .smd extension.
You can:

Set new or use existing defaults and parameters.

Modify existing parameters.

Save the sheetmetal parameter file.

There is an important difference between a default and a parameter. A default


enables you to define common feature geometry, thereby reducing the number

of menu picks required during the design process. A parameter, on the other
hand, holds a numeric value.
The slide displays a typical Sheetmetal Parameters table. The highlighted
entities function as both defaults and parameters. The following items are found
in the table.

Name The default or parameter name. The name is a symbolic string,


so parameter names can be used in relation formulas. Note that you
cannot change the default or parameter names.
Value Sets a value to automatically highlight in the menu manager.
Attribute Sets how the default or parameter value will be accepted on
the menu manager.
o Manual Requires you to accept the default setting as you work
through the menu manager.
o Auto Automatically accepts the default setting and brings you to
the next section of the menu manager.
Add Relation Create a relation between the defined dimension and the
parameter, when the attribute is set to Auto.
Status If you modify the value, the Status column displays
indicating
that you have changed the default value to a user-defined default value.

Procedure: Defaults and Parameters


Scenario
Change the settings in the Sheetmetal Parameters dialog box and review the
effects.
Defaults

1.

DEFAULTS.PRT

Task 1. Open the Sheetmetal Parameters dialog box and check for nondefault parameter values.
1. Click Edit > Setup > Parameters to open the Sheetmetal Parameters
dialog box.
2. Notice that the SMT_THICKNESS parameter is set to 0.25 which is not the
default value. Edit the Value cell to 1.00 and press ENTER.
3. Click OK > Yes to apply the new value and regenerate the model.

1.

Task 2. Open the Sheetmetal Parameters dialog box and set several
defaults.
1. Click Parameters from the menu manager.
2. Set the default bend radius, and enable it to apply automatically:

Select Thickness from the Value cell next to


SMT_DFLT_BEND_RADIUS and edit it to 1.00.
Select Manual in the adjacent Attribute cell and edit it to Auto.

3. Set the default bend angle, and enable it to apply automatically:

Select the Value cell next to SMT_DFLT_BEND_ANGLE and edit it


to 90.
Select Manual in the adjacent Attribute cell and edit it to Auto.
The dialog box should appear, as shown.

4. Click OK to apply the new value and regenerate the model.


1.

Task 3. Create a bend feature to see the impact of setting the defaults.
1. Click Bend

2. Click Done > Done/Return > Done/Return to accept the defaults.


3. Select the surface shown.
4. Click Okay > Default.

5. Create the sketch shown.


6. Click Done Section

7. Click Okay > Okay > No Relief > Done.

Notice that the dialog box is automatically completed, and you were
not prompted to provide the Bend Angle and Radius elements. These
were predefined in the defaults and parameters table.

8. Click OK to complete the bend feature and then press CTRL+D.

This completes the procedure.

Converting Solid Models


You can use the Create Conversion tool to make
undevelopable parts developable when you convert an
existing model to a sheetmetal model.
The Create Conversion tool enables you to
define:

Edge Rips

Rip Connects

Point Reliefs

Corner Reliefs

Original Model

Flattened Model

Conversion Feature Created

Using the Create Conversion Tool


If a converted part is not developable, you can either create individual features
like rips and corner reliefs to make it developable or you can use the Create
Conversion tool to add alterations like rips, bends, and corner relief.
The Create Conversion tool enables you to define:
Point Relief
You use point relief to:

Define a point break that divides an existing edge into two separate edges
that can be partially ripped and partially bent.
Define the end of a rip connection.

Define point relief at vertices of bends and rips.

You create point relief by placing datum points on edges (selected or created on
the fly).
Edge Rips
You can make a rip along the edge.
Rip Connects

You can connect rips with planar, straight-line rips. The rip connects are
sketched with point-to-point connections, which require you to define rip
endpoints. The rip endpoints can be datum points or vertices and must either be
at the end of a rip or on the part border. The rip connects cannot be collinear
with existing edges.
Corner Reliefs
You can place relief in selected corners.

Procedure: Converting Solid Models


Scenario
Use the Create Conversion tool to add rips and reliefs so that the part can be
unbent.
Conversion

1.

CONVERSION.PRT

Task 1. Apply the Create Conversion tool, and add point relief.
1. From the feature toolbar, click Conversion
Conversion dialog box.

to open the SMT

2. In the SMT Conversion dialog box, click Point Reliefs > Define.
3. Click Point Display
from the main toolbar to display points and press
CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.
4. Create a datum point to locate the relief.

Click Datum Point Tool

Click the edge to locate the point, as shown.

Select the Reference option in the Datum Point dialog box.

from the feature toolbar.

Select the surface as a reference for the location of the point, as


shown, and edit the dimension to 18 in the Datum Point dialog box.
Click OK from the Datum Point dialog box.

5. Click OK > Done. Do not complete the SMT Conversion dialog box.
1.

Task 2. Create rips to the sheetmetal part.


1. Double-click Edge Rip from the dialog box.
2. Press CTRL and select the four edges, as shown. Click OK > Done Sets.

1.

Task 3. Define the rip connect in the sheetmetal part.


1. Double-click Rip Connect in the dialog box and click Add.
2. Select the datum point that you created for point relief as the first end
reference. The system then highlights all the possible corners and other
rips to connect the rip.
3. Select the bottom vertex of the previously created rip as the second end
reference, as shown.
4. Click OK > Done Sets. Do not complete the SMT Conversion feature yet.

1.

Task 4. Define corner reliefs in the sheetmetal part.


1. Double-click Corner Reliefs in the dialog box.
2. Click Add All > Circular > Enter Value.
3. Type 0.5 as the dimension value. Press ENTER to accept value.
4. Click Done Sets.
5. Click OK to complete the SMT Conversion feature. Click the background to
de-select all items. The part appears, as shown.

1.

Task 5. Unbend the part.


1. Click Unbend

then Regular > Done.

2. Click Named View List


view.

from the main toolbar and select the SHELL

3. Select the bottom surface to remain fixed.


4. Click Unbend All > Done > OK.
5. Click Named View List
from the main toolbar and select
the Standard Orientation view.

This completes the procedure.

Detailing Sheetmetal Designs


Module Overview
A flat state is a completely unbent copy of your part. It streamlines the creation
of flat patterns needed in manufacturing because you can create any number of
flat states, at any time in your design process, whether your part is fully formed
or fully flat. Using multi-model drawings, you can add views of both the flat and
formed states.
You can automatically ordinate the dimensions in your drawing using the Auto
Ordinate command. This command saves you time when detailing and
organizing your sheetmetal model in drawings.
You can add bend line notes to a drawing. A bend line note describes the basic
information about the bend type, bend direction, and bend angle.
The bend order table is used to document the bend order for manufacturing.
When creating the bend order table, you start with the model completely
unbent, then indicate the sequence in which the bends are to be added.

Objectives
After successfully completing this module, you will be able to:

Add the flat and formed views to a drawing using multi-model drawings
and flat states.
Apply dimensions using the Auto Ordinate tool.

Create bend line notes.

Define the bend order sequence and create the bend order table.

Adding the Flat and Formed States


Flat states enable you to add the fully formed and fully flat
views of your designs to a drawing.

Formed Model

Flat State

The Drawing
Flat States
A flat state is a completely unbent copy of your part. It streamlines the creation
of flat patterns needed in manufacturing because you can create any number of
flat states, at any time in your design process, whether your part is fully formed
or fully flat.
You use family tables to control flat states. You can:

Use the Create command to produce a new flat state instance.

Use the Update command to transfer features you added to a flat state
from the flat state to the generic part, except for features you
suppressed. You can then delete or suppress desired features which are
then deleted or suppressed in any other flat state in that part's family
table.
Use the Show command to list the flat state instances related to the
generic part. You select the instances from the list, and they will open in a
new window.

You can make any necessary modifications to individual flat state instances. Any
new features you add to a flat state are enabled in that specific flat state
instance but suppressed in the generic part. Any features you delete from a flat
state are suppressed in the specific flat state instance but still enabled in the
generic part. Keep in mind that any features you add to the generic part, after
you create the flat state, are added to all flat state instances.
When you create a flat state instance, the unbend or the flat state is
automatically added to the end of the generic part's model tree. Any
modifications made to the generic do not affect the flat state. Therefore, in the
generic, a flat state works exactly as a flat pattern. Any features added to the
generic are automatically reordered to always be inserted before the unbend.
When you create a flat state instance it is automatically added to the generic
part's family table. If you in turn add or remove features from a flat state
instance, the system records those changes in the generic part's family table.

Procedure: Adding the Flat and Formed States


Scenario
Create a new drawing and add the flat and formed state of the model.
FlatFormed

1.

CREATE NEW

Task 1. Create a new drawing.


1. Click New

from the main toolbar.

2. Edit the Type to Drawing.


3. Type RIGHT_PANEL as the drawing name.
4. Clear the Use default template check box.
5. Click OK.
6. Click Browse and double-click RIGHT_PANEL.PRT in the Open dialog box
7. Click OK.
8. Select The generic and click Open.
1.

Task 2. Add the general view.


1. Right-click in the graphics window and select Insert General View.
2. Click the top-right corner of the drawing to place the new view.
3. In the Drawing View dialog box, select 3D from the Model View Names
drop-down list and click Apply.
4. Select View Display from the Categories list. Select No Hidden as the
Display Style from the drop-down list.
5. Click OK to complete the view definition.

1.

Task 3. Add the flat state instance.


1. If necessary select the Layout tab in the Drawing ribbon.
2. Click Drawing Models

from the Document group.

3. Click Add Model from the Menu manager.


4. Select RIGHT_PANEL.PRT and click Open.
5. Select RIGHT_PANEL_FLAT1 and click Open.
6. Notice the information displayed at the bottom of the graphics window.
The active model is now RIGHT_PANEL_FLAT1.
7. Click Done/Return.
1.

Task 4. Add a general view of the flat state instance.


1. Right-click in the graphics window and select Insert General View.
2. Click in the center of the drawing to place the new view.
3. In the Drawing View dialog box, select TOP from the Model View Names
drop-down list and click Apply.
4. Select View Display from the Categories list.

5. Select No Hidden as the Display Style from the drop-down list and
click Apply.
6. Select Scale from the Categories list. Select the Custom Scale option
and type 2 as the scale value.
7. Click OK to complete the view definition.
8. Right click and select Lock View Movement option, to disable it.
9. Move the view to the desired location.
10. Click anywhere on the drawing to de-select the view.

This completes the procedure.

Auto Ordinate Dimensions


You can quickly create ordinate dimensions in a view.
You use the Auto Ordinate command to create ordinate dimensions
automatically.

Select surfaces to dimension.

Select edge, curve, or datum as baseline.

Selected Surfaces

Ordinate Dimensions

Auto Ordinate Dimensions


You can automatically ordinate the dimensions in your drawing using the Auto
Ordinate command. This command saves you time when detailing and
organizing your sheetmetal model in drawings.
To use auto ordinate dimensioning, select the Annotate tab in the Drawing
ribbon. Click Auto Ordinate Dimension
from the Insert group. Then select
the surfaces for which you want to create ordinate dimensions. The surfaces
must be selected within the same view.
Once you select the appropriate surfaces, you select a base line entity, which
can be an edge, curve, or datum plane. The ordinate dimensions appear, at
which point you can adjust their position, witness lines, and so on.

Procedure: Auto Ordinate Dimensions


Scenario
Use the Auto Ordinate command to add dimensions to the flat state on a
drawing.
AutoOrdinate

1.

AUTOORDINATE.DRW

Task 1. Create auto ordinate dimensions for the tabs on the top of the flat
state view.
1. Select the Annotate tab in the Drawing ribbon.
2. Click Auto Ordinate Dimension

from the Insert group.

3. Press CTRL and select the two surfaces shown in the image.

4. Middle-click and select the edge shown as the baseline.


5. Middle-click to complete the dimensions.

6. Select anywhere in the drawing to de-select the dimensions.

1.

Task 2. Clean up the dimensions.


1. Select the R0.5 dimension.
2. Right-click and select Delete.
3. Click and drag a selection rectangle around the dimensions shown below.
4. Drag the ends of the witness lines and to the position shown.

5. Select the 0 baseline dimension and drag its witness line endpoint to an
appropriate location.

This completes the procedure.

Bend Line Notes


A bend line note describes the basic information about the
bend type, bend direction, and bend angle.
Bend line notes describe:

Bend Type

Bend Direction

Bend Angle
o Measured as deflection from the flat.

Bend Notes

Bend Line Notes


A bend line note describes the basic information about the bend type, bend direction, and bend
angle:

Bend Type Formed or rolled.

Bend Direction Up or down.

Bend Angle Angle in degrees.


o Measured as deflection from the flat.

The bend line notes are automatically created for each bend in your design. The notes are
parametric and aligned with the bend, so they enable you to easily provide drawing dimensions
and bend annotations. This information enables manufacturers to program their bending
machines, locate punch positions, and create dimension inspection documents.

You can customize the display order by changing the smt_bend_notes_order configuration
option. You can also customize the bend line note symbol by modifying the symbol source files.
The following is an example bend line note.

The following table defines each bend line note element:


Element Description

Default
Symbol

Bend Type
Formed
Inside bend radius is equal to or smaller than ten times the sheetmetal
thickness.
(Inside Bend Radius =< Thickness * 10)
Rolled
Inside bend radius is greater than ten times the sheetmetal thickness.
(Inside Bend Radius > Thickness * 10)
Bend Direction
Up
Inside radius is on the sheetmetal's driving surface.
Down
Inside radius in on the sheetmetal's offset surface.
Bend Angle
45
Pro/ENGINEER measures the angle of the bend as the angle of
deflection from the flat. The bend angle displays according to the
format set in the ang_units configuration option.

Procedure: Bend Line Notes


Scenario
Create a flat state for the already formed model.
BENDNOTES.DRW

BendNotes

1.

Task 1. Display the bend lines and bend notes in the drawing.
1. Select the Annotate tab in the Drawing ribbon.
2. Select the flat view.
3. Click Show Annotations
4. Click Datums Tab

from the Show Model Annotations dialog box.

Click Select All

5. Click Note Tab

to select all Datum Axes and click Apply.

from the Show Model Annotations dialog box.

Click Select All

6. Click OK.

from the Insert group.

to select all bend notes.

This completes the procedure.

Bend Order Tables


The bend order table is used to document the bend order for
manufacturing.

Bends are added in sequence to


match the manufacturing
process.
Multiple bends can be added to a
given sequence.

Bent Part

Sequence 1 and 2

Sequence 3 and 4

Bend Order Tables


The four bend sequences shown in the slide result in the bend table shown.

The bend order table is used to document the bend order for manufacturing.
When creating the bend order table, you start with the model completely
unbent.
You use bend order tables to document the dimensioning and the order of the
bend features in your sheetmetal design. You can display bend order tables in
sheetmetal drawings to better illustrate the bending process for manufacturing.
You can also store and edit the tables with a text editor, in a file named
PARTNAME.BOT.
You create bend order tables by fully unbending your part and then recording
the bend back process. You select the bend or groups of bends in the sequence
that matches your manufacturing process. You cannot create or edit a bend
order table on a completely unbent part, so a flat state is used.
The table can also provide you with information concerning bends that are not
90 degrees. This can be very helpful when you use bend tables or a bend
formula that does not consider the bend angle in its calculation.
Bend order tables are shown on a production drawing by creating a note and
reading it in the .bot file. If you change the table in Sheetmetal mode, the note

on the drawing automatically updates; however, you must manually add any
new bends to the table.
In order to create or work with bend order tables, you need your sheetmetal
part to be in a bent condition.
The standard bend order table contains:

The bend sequence number.

The number of bends in a sequence.

The bend number ID.

Bend direction.

Bend angle.

Bend radius.

Bend length.

Procedure: Bend Order Tables


Scenario
Create a bend order table and add it to the drawing.
BendOrder

1.

BENDORDER.DRW

Task 1. Open the RIGHT_PANEL.PRT model and create the bend order
sequence for the main bends.
1. Select RIGHT_PANEL.PRT in the model tree, right-click, and click Open.
2. Click Open.
3. Create the first bend in the sequence.

Click Edit > Setup from the main menu.

Click Bend Order > Show/Edit.

Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

Select the wall surface to remain fixed, as shown.

4. Click Add Bend, zoom in to the model, press CTRL and select the two
bend surfaces, as shown.

Edit the selection type to Surface from the object selection drop-down
list to select the bend surfaces.

5. Click OK > Next and select the wall surface to remain fixed, as shown.

6. Click Add Bend, zoom in and select the bend surface, as shown.
7. Click OK > Next and select the same surface to remain fixed as you
selected in Step 5.

8. Click Add Bend, zoom in and select the bend surface, as shown.
9. Click OK > Next and select the same surface to remain fixed as you
selected in Step 5.

10. Click Add Bend, zoom in and select the bend surface, as shown.
11. Click OK > Next and select the same surface to remain fixed as you
selected in Step 5.

12. Click Done > Done/Return > Done/Return to save the bend order
table.
1.

Task 2. Add the bend table to the drawing.


1. Click Window > BENDORDER.DRW.
2. Select the Annotate tab in the Drawing ribbon.
3. Click Show Annotations
4. Select the Note Tab

5. Query to select the flat view.

6. Click Select All

to select all four Bend Notes.

7. Click OK from the Show Model Annotation dialog box.


8. The bend table is added to the drawing.

You can place more views in the drawing while showing feature details
and dimensions. The dimensions and notes can be arranged in the
drawing as desired. If you are interested in learning more about
creating drawing for parts, you can request information for the course
Detailing with Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0.

This completes the procedure.

Design Project
Module Overview
This module contains an advanced, self-paced project. The purpose of this
project is to provide you with an opportunity to practice the skills you have
learned in the class without relying on step-by-step instructions. In this project,
you create some of the main components of a stapler. These components are
manufactured using sheetmetal.

Objectives
After successfully completing this module, you will be able to:

Design sheetmetal parts using the top-down design approach.

Apply the skills you learned in this course to real-world design projects.

Designing a Stapler
Project Designing a Stapler

Stapler Components

Fully Assembled Model

Designing a Stapler
In this project, you will design four parts of a stapler that are made of sheetmetal. These parts are
shown with the corresponding numbers in the top figure.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Handle
Plunger
Base
Magazine

The lower figure is the finished, fully assembled model.

Design Aspects
Several aspects of the design that you will encounter are detailed below.

Layout The stapler assembly uses a layout, which determines the


two main dimensions: the Magazine angle and the Handle angle. The
layout driven dimensions can be changed externally to open the
stapler assembly.
Skeleton Model The top-level skeleton model defines the dimensions
and locations of the various stapler components. Individual skeleton
models control the location of the components in the assembly with
respect to the skeleton model. The published geometry from the toplevel skeleton model serves as a link between the parts and the
skeleton.
Model Tree The assembly is initiated by defining the top-level
assembly structure containing empty parts. Individual components are
picked up and the references and features are populated based on the
skeleton model.

Layout

Model Tree

Skeleton Model

Exercise: Creating the Stapler Base


Objectives
After successfully completing this exercise, you will be able to:

Create initial sheetmetal geometry using primary walls.

Create an attached secondary wall.

Scenario
Seals, a company that manufactures staplers, is planning to introduce a new
hand stapler. The stapler has sheetmetal mechanical parts and plastic covers.
The design team of your company has created the product structure and based
it on the top-level assembly structure created in Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0. You
are assigned with the task of designing the four major components - Handle,
Magazine, Plunger and the Base. You will design these parts and review the
assembly components with the top-down design approach in mind.
In this exercise, you will examine the existing HAND_STAPLER.ASM and some of
its top-down design components before creating the necessary geometry in
BASE.PRT.

The Final Stapler


The Stapler Components Handle,
Plunger, Magazine and Base
Stapler

1.

hand_stapler_skel.prt

Step 1. Review the skeleton and layout models.

Notice the datum planes defined with dimensions for the four
components of the stapler assembly, which are the Base, Handle,
Magazine, and Plunger. Also, notice the Pin axis and the Staple Center
defined with an axis and a plane, respectively.

2. 1. Scroll down in the model tree to see the published geometry features
for each of the stapler assembly components.
3. 2. Click File > Declare > List Decl. Review the list of declared items in
the skeleton model.

You can capture all the necessary design dimensions for creating the
components and assembling them in the skeleton model. The skeleton
model can be driven by a layout to externally control some
dimensions.

4.
5. 3. Click Open

from the main toolbar.

6. 4. Select HAND_STAPLER.LAY from the File Open dialog box and


click Open.

Notice the Magazine and the Handle angles defined as parameters in


the layout.

7. 5. Click File > Close Window > File > Close Window from the main
menu to close both of the windows.

8.

1.

Step 2. Retrieve the stapler assembly model and review its structure.
1. Click Open

from the main toolbar.

2. In the File Open dialog box, select HAND_STAPLER.ASM and click Open.
3. Review the skeleton models and the components placed in the assembly.
In the model tree menu, click Settings
and then click Tree Filters. .
If necessary, enable the Features check box and click OK.
4. Expand the parts in the model tree and review the defined features.

The skeleton models are created to control the dimension and location
of each of the assembly components. The published geometry from
the main skeleton model is placed as copied geometry in the
component skeleton models. The parts are created in the assembly as
empty parts and placed at default locations or with reference to the
relevant skeleton model.

1.

Step 3. Create the Stapler Base model.


1. Right-click BASE.PRT in the model tree and select Open.
2. Click Plane Display
Display

, Axis Display

, Point Display

from the main toolbar to disable their display.

, and Csys

3. Create the first wall feature. Click Flat

from the feature toolbar.

4. Right-click and select Define Internal Sketch from the pop-up menu.
5. Select datum plane TOP as the sketching plane and orient the datum
plane RIGHT to face right. Click Sketch to start the sketch.
6. Click Sketch > Data from File > File System... from the main menu.
Select BASE_FLAT.SEC and click Open.

Enable and disable the display of datum features as required.

7. Select anywhere on the screen to make an initial placement of the


section.
8. Right-click and drag the location handle to the point in the sketch.
9. Click to place the location handle, as shown in the following figures.

10. Type 1 as the scale and 90 as the rotation angle in the Move & Resize
dialog box.
11. Click and hold the location handle, and drag the sketch, as shown. Click
to place the sketch.
12. Click Accept Changes

13. Arrange the dimensions and edit them if necessary, as shown.

14. Click Done Section

and type a thickness of 1.

15. Click Complete Feature

16. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

17. Create a flange wall on one side. Click Flange


toolbar.

from the feature

18. Select the bottom (lower) edge, as shown.

If you select the top (upper) edge, the wall will point downwards. If this
is the case, cancel the creation of the feature and start over using the
bottom (lower) edge.

19. Press SHIFT and select the tangent edge chain for the flange wall.

20. Select the Shape tab on the dashboard. Edit the width of flange wall
to 16.
21. Click Change Thickness Side

on the dashboard.

22. Select the Relief tab on the dashboard. Select the Define each side
separately check box.
23. Edit the relief for side 1 to No Relief and side 2 to Stretch.
24. Click Complete Feature

25. Copy the flange wall to the other side. With the previously created flange
wall still selected, click Copy
26. Click Paste

from the main toolbar.

. Select the bottom edge on the other side, as shown.

27. Press SHIFT and select the tangent edge chain for the flange wall.

28. Select the Relief tab. Edit the relief for side 2 to No Relief and side 1
to Stretch.
29. Click Complete Feature

30. Click Save


from the main toolbar, and click OK. Click File > Close
Window from the main menu.

This completes the exercise.

Exercise: Creating the Stapler Handle


Objectives
After successfully completing this exercise, you will be able to:

Create initial sheetmetal geometry using primary walls.

Create a sheetmetal cut feature.

Scenario
In this exercise, you will build geometry in the HANDLE.PRT.
Stapler

1.

hand_stapler.asm

Step 1. Create the stapler handle.

The HAND_STAPLER.ASM should still be open from the activities in the


previous exercise. If it is not, open it before beginning this exercise.

2. 1. Activate the stapler assembly window. Right-click HANDLE.PRT in the


model tree and click Open.

Notice the additional datum planes created in the model.

3. 2. Begin creating the first wall. Click Extrude Tool


toolbar.

from the feature

4. 3. Right-click anywhere in the graphics area and select Define Internal


Sketch.
5. 4. Select datum plane RIGHT as the sketching plane and select the
datum plane TOP as the reference to face the top. ClickSketch to start
the sketch.
6. 5. Click Sketch > Data from File > File System from the main menu.
7. 6. Select HANDLE_EXTRUDE.SEC and click Open.
8. 7. Left click anywhere in the graphics window to temporarily place the
sketch.
9. 8. Drag the sketch using the location handle to the intersection of the
references, as shown. Ensure that the scale value is 1 in the Move &
Resize dialog box.
10.9. Click Accept Changes

Enable and disable the display of datum features as required.

11.

12.10. Edit the dimensions, as shown.

13.

14.11. Right-click in the graphics window and select Thicken. If necessary,


click Flip so the thicken direction arrow points to the outside of the
sketch. Click Okay and type 0.9 as the thickness.
15.12. Click Done Section

16.13. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.


17.14. Click Options from the dashboard. In the Side 1 field, click To
Selected
, and select the datum plane UPTO2 as the reference.
18.15. In the Side 2 field, click To Selected
plane UPTO1 as the reference.
19.16. Click Complete Feature

, and select the datum

from the dashboard.

20.
21.17. Create a sheetmetal cut. Click Extrude Tool
toolbar.

from the feature

22.18. Right-click anywhere in the graphics area and select Define Internal
Sketch.
23.Select datum plane FRONT as the sketching plane and select the datum
plane TOP as the reference to face the top. ClickSketch to start the
sketch.
24.Click Sketch > Data from File > File System from the main menu.
Select HANDLE_CUT.SEC and click Open.
25.Select anywhere in the graphics area to initially place the sketch.
26.Right-click and hold the location handle, and drag it to the point in the
sketch. Click to place the location handle, as shown.

27.

28.19. Drag the sketch using the location handle to the intersection of the
references, as shown. Ensure that the scale value is 1 in the Scale Rotate
dialog box.
29.20. Click Accept Changes

You can click No hidden

from the main toolbar for better clarity.

30.21. Add additional constraints and edit the dimensions of the sketch, as
shown.

Be sure to align the right edge of the sketch to the end of the
extruded sheetmetal wall.
Be sure to align the top edge of the sketch to the top of the
extruded sheetmetal wall.
Be sure to create the 2.50 dimension between the vertical sketched
edge and the vertical reference (the RIGHT datum plane).

Be sure to create the tangent constraint between the sketched arc


and the bottom edge of the extruded sheetmetal wall.

22. Click Done Section

23. Click Change Material Direction


sketch.

to remove the material outside the

24. Click Options from the dashboard. In the Side 1 field, click Through
All
.
25. In the Side 2 field, click Through All
26. Click Complete Feature

from the dashboard.

27. Create a hole for the pin. Click Insert > Hole from the main menu.
28. Click Datum Axis Tool , press CTRL and select datum
planes RIGHT and TOP from the model tree. Click OK.
29. Click Resume Feature

on the dashboard.

30. Press CTRL and select datum plane FRONT from the model tree.
31. Right-click the depth handle, and click To Selected
outer wall surface.
32. Select the Shape tab and click To Selected
33. Select the front outer wall surface.

. Select the rear

as the option for Side 2.

34. Edit the hole diameter to 3. Click Complete Feature

35. Create another hole for the top grip on the handle. Click Insert >
Hole from the main menu.
36. Click Datum Point Tool
wall.

, and select the top surface of the extruded

37. Right-click and select Offset References.


38. Press CTRL and select datum plane FRONT from the model tree and the
front edge of the extruded wall, as shown. Edit the dimensions, as shown.
Click OK.

39. Click Resume Feature


40. Click To Next

on the dashboard.

as the depth.

41. Edit the hole diameter to 3. Click Complete Feature

42. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

43. Click Save


from the main toolbar, and click OK. From the main menu,
click File > Close Window.

This completes the exercise.

Exercise: Creating the Stapler Magazine


Objectives
After successfully completing this exercise, you will be able to:

Create an attached secondary wall.

Create relief for the secondary walls.

Scenario
In this exercise, you will add to the geometry that already exists in the
MAGAZINE.PRT by creating flat walls.
Stapler

1.

hand_stapler.asm

Step 1. Create additional walls in the magazine part.

The HAND_STAPLER.ASM should still be open from the activities in the


previous exercise. If it is not, open it before beginning this exercise.

2. 1. Activate the stapler assembly window. Right-click MAGAZINE.PRT in the


model tree and click Open.

3.
4. 2. Create a flat wall on one side. Click Flat
5. 3. Select the edge of the wall, as shown.

from the feature toolbar.

6.

7. 4. Select the Shape tab on the dashboard to edit the dimensions of wall.
8. Edit the width of the wall to 3 and the offset value to -6, as shown.

9.
10.5. Select the Relief tab on the dashboard.
11.6. Select the Define each side separately check box.
12.7. Edit the relief for side 1 to No Relief and side 2 to Rectangular.
13.8. Click Change Thickness Side

from the dashboard.

14.9. Edit the inside radius value to 0.25.


15.10. Click Complete Feature

16.

17.11. Create a flat wall on the other side. With the previous wall selected,
click Edit > Mirror.
18.12. Select datum plane FRONT and click Complete Feature

19.

20.13. Click Save

from the main toolbar, and click OK.

21.14. Click File > Close Window from the main menu.
22.15. Review the assembly created so far. Click File > Close Window from
the main menu.
23.16. Click File > Erase > Not Displayed to clear all models from
memory.
This completes the exercise.

Exercise: Finishing the Stapler Base


Objectives
After successfully completing this exercise, you will be able to:

Create form features using dies or punches.

Create angle type bends.

Define and adjust bend lines.

Scenario
You continue to design the stapler. Out of the four components, you have
partially completed the Handle, Magazine, and Base parts.

Stapler

1.

hand_stapler.asm

Step 1. Open the base part and cut the sidewalls.


1. Select the HAND_STAPLER_SKEL.PRT from the model tree, right click
and select Hide.
2. The HAND_STAPLER.ASM assembly should appear as shown.

3. Right-click BASE.PRT in the model tree and click Open.

4. Create an axis for the pin location. Click Axis Display


toolbar to enable their display.
5. Click Datum Axis Tool

in the main

to start creating an axis.

6. Select datum plane FRONT from the model tree as the placement
reference. Notice that the axis is created normal to the plane by default.

7. Right-click in the graphics window and select Offset References.


Press CTRL and select datum planes RIGHT and TOP from the model tree.
Edit the offset value from datum plane RIGHT to 0 and the offset value from
datum TOP to 10, as shown in the figure below.
8. Click OK to create the axis.

9. Create a cut on the side walls. Click Extrude Tool


toolbar.

from the feature

10. Right-click anywhere in the graphics area and select Define Internal
Sketch.
11. Select datum plane FRONT from the model tree as the sketching plane.
12. Verify that the RIGHT datum plane is set to a right orientation and
click Sketch.
13. Add the axis created in the previous step as an additional reference by
clicking Sketch > References from the main tool bar and selecting the
axis.
14. Click Close in the References dialog box.

15. Click No hidden

from the main toolbar.

16. Click Sketch > Data from File > File System from the main menu.
Select the section BASE_CUT.SEC and click Open.
17. Click anywhere in the graphics area to make an initial placement of the
section.

18. Right-click the location handle and drag it to the point, as shown. Click
to locate the location handle.

19. Edit the scale value in the Move & Resize dialog box to 1 and press
ENTER. Click the location handle and drag the section to snap to the axis
reference, as shown. Click to locate the section.

20. Click Accept Changes

21. Click Sketch > Constrain > Coincident. Select the right end of the
section and the right end of the BASE.PRT. Delete the 86.00 dimension
that appears in the Resolve Sketch dialog box.

22. Select the bottom horizontal line of the section and the horizontal
Sketcher reference of the BASE.PRT. Right click and selectCoincident.
23. Create and edit the dimensions and constraints, as shown.

24. Click Shading

from the main toolbar.

Click Done Section

Click Change Material Direction


sketch.

to remove the material outside the

Click Options from the dashboard. In the Side 1 field, click Through All
In the Side 2 field, click Through All
Click Complete Feature

to complete the cut feature.

1.

Step 2. Create the hole for the pin.


1. Click Insert > Hole from the main menu.
2. Select the axis created previously as the reference.
3. Press CTRL and select datum plane FRONT from the model tree.
4. Edit the diameter dimension to 3 from the dashboard.
5. Right-click the depth handle in the graphics window and select Through
All.
6. Select the Shape tab and select the Through All option from the dropdown list for Side 2.
7. Click Complete Feature

Complete Hole Feature

Preview of Hole

8. Click Axis Display


1.

to create the hole.

in the main toolbar to disable their display.

Step 3. Create a flat wall to create the lip at the rear of stapler base.
1. Click Named View List
the TOP view.

from the main toolbar and select

2. Create a flat wall. Click Flat


from the feature toolbar and select the far
(lower) edge as the placement reference, as shown.

3. Click the bend angle drop-down list on the dashboard and select Flat as
the angle value.
4. In the Shape tab, click Sketch.
5. Click No hidden

from the main toolbar.

6. Edit the sketch, as shown.

7. Click Done Section

8. Click Complete Feature

9. Click Shading

from the main toolbar.

10. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

1.

Step 4. Create a bend on the flat wall.


1. Click Bend

from the feature toolbar.

2. Click Angle > Regular > Done.


3. Click Part Bend Tbl > Done/Return.
4. Click Inside Rad > Done/Return.
5. Select the surface as the sketching plane, as shown.

6. Click Okay to accept the default viewing direction.


7. Click Bottom from the Sket View menu manager and select the datum
plane FRONT from the model tree.
8. Click No hidden

from the main toolbar.

9. Select references for the sketch. Click Sketch > References from the
main toolbar.

10. Select the existing references and delete them. Select the two vertices
as references and click Close, as shown.

11. Create the sketch and complete the bend. Click Line
line, as shown.

12. Click Done Section

13. Click Both to create the bend feature on both sides.

and sketch a

14. If necessary, click Flip to set the side to remain fixed, as shown.
15. Click Okay to accept the fixed side, as shown.

16. Click No Relief > Done.


17. Click Enter Value and type a bend angle value of 15. Select
the Flip check box. Click Done.

18. Click Thickness as the radius value and click OK to complete the bend
feature.
19. Click Shading
from the main toolbar. Press CTRL + D to orient to
the Standard Orientation.

1.

Step 5. Create a form feature to press the stapler pin.


1. Create a datum plane named Staple. Click Plane Display
main toolbar to enable their display.
2. Select datum plane RIGHT and click Datum Plane Tool
creating a plane.

from the

to start

3. Edit the offset value to 77.35.


4. In the Properties tab, type STAPLE as the name of the plane.
5. Click OK.

6. Click Punch Form

from the feature toolbar.

7. Click Open Punch Model

from the dashboard.

8. Select PIN_BEND_FORM.PRT and click Open. The reference part opens in


a new window.
9. Define the assembly constraints.

Select the datum plane FRONT in both the models to define the
Align constraint.

Select the datum plane STAPLE from the base model and datum
plane RIGHT from the reference model to define the Align constraint.
Accept the default offset value, if necessary. Change the Offset value
to Coincident.
Click New Constraint and select the surfaces from the two models
(the bottom hidden surface from the BASE.PRT model and the top visible
surface from the PIN_BEND_FORM.PRT, to define a Mate constraint, as
shown.

10. Click Complete Feature

1.

to complete the punch form feature.

Step 6. Create a hole for mounting the bottom grip.


1. Click Insert > Hole from the main menu.
2. Select the surface as the placement reference, as shown.

3. Right-click in the graphics window and select Offset References


Collector.
Select the datum plane FRONT from the model as the first reference, as
shown.

4. Press CTRL and select the front surface, as shown.

5. Select the Placement tab in the dashboard. Edit the offset dimensions
from datum FRONT to 0 and from the front surface to15.35.
Edit the hole diameter value to 3 on the dashboard.
Edit the depth option to Through All
Feature
.

6. Click Plane Display

in the dashboard. Click Complete

from the main toolbar to disable their display.

7. Click Save
from the main toolbar, and click OK. From the main menu,
click File > Close Window.
This completes the exercise.

Exercise: Finishing the Stapler Magazine


Objectives
After successfully completing this exercise, you will be able to:

Create form features using dies or punches.

Flatten a form feature.

Create angle type bends.

Define and adjust bend lines.

Scenario
In this exercise you will complete the MAGAZINE.PRT.
Stapler

1.

hand_stapler.asm

Step 1. Retrieve the Stapler Magazine and create a spring holder detail.
1. Activate the Stapler Assembly window.
2. Right-click the MAGAZINE.PRT part in the model tree and select Open.

3. Start creating the spring holder detail.

Click Plane Display


display.

from the main toolbar to enable their

Click Punch Form

Click Open Punch Model

from the feature toolbar.


.

Select SPRING_HOLDER_PUNCH.PRT and click Open. The reference


part opens in a new window.

4. Define the assembly constraints and complete the form.

Select datum plane FRONT in both the models to define the Align
constraint.

Click Plane Display


from the main toolbar to disable their
display.
Select the surfaces as references, to create an Align constraint, as
shown. Accept the default offset value, if necessary. Right-click the offset
handle and select Coincident.

5. Select the Placement tab and click New Constraint and select the
surfaces as references, to create a mate constraint, as shown.
6. Accept the default offset value, if necessary. Edit the offset value
to Coincident.

7. Click the yellow punch direction arrow upwards if necessary. The punch
direction should follow the same direction the punch model is protruding
into the part.
8. Right-click and select Excluded Surfaces.
9. Press CTRL and select the two side surfaces from the punch, as shown.

10. Click Complete Feature

to complete the punch form feature.

1.

Step 2. Create flat walls to define the pin guides.


1. Create the first flat wall. Click Flat

from the feature toolbar.

2. Select the edge as the placement edge, as shown.

3. Edit the bend angle to Flat from the dashboard.


4. Edit the type of flat wall to T from the dashboard.
5. Select the Shape tab and click Sketch to define another sketch.
6. Edit the sketch, as shown.

7. Click Done Section

. Click Complete Feature

8. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

9. Create another flat wall on the other side of the magazine. With the
previously created wall still selected, click Copy

from the main toolbar.

10. Click Paste


from the main toolbar and select the edge on the other
side of the magazine, as shown.
11. Click Complete Feature

1.

Step 3. Create bends on the flat walls created to define the pin guides.
1. Start creating the first bend. Click Bend

from the feature toolbar.

2. Click Angle > Regular > Done.


3. Click Part Bend Tbl > Done/Return.
4. Click Inside Rad > Done/Return.
5. Create the sketch. Select the surface as the sketching plane, as shown.

6. Click Okay to accept the default viewing direction.


7. Click Right from the Sket View menu manager and select datum
plane RIGHT from the model tree.
8. Click No hidden

from the main toolbar.

9. Click Sketch > References from the main toolbar. Select the existing
references and click Delete.
10. Select the two vertices as references, as shown, and click Close.

11. Click Line

and sketch a line, as shown.

12. Click Done Section

13. Complete the bend feature. Click Flip > Okay > Flip > Okay to create
the bend feature toward the fixed side, as shown.

14. Click Shading

from the main toolbar.

15. Click No Relief > Done.


16. Click 90 and select the Flip check box. Click Done.
17. Click Enter Value and type a radius value of 0.9.
18. Click OK to complete the bend. Press CTRL + D to orient to
the Standard Orientation.

19. Using the method described in the previous steps, create the bend on
the other flat wall.

1.

Step 4. Flatten the form.


1. Click Flatten Form

from the feature toolbar.

2. Double-click Form in the Flatten dialog box.


3. Select the surface of the form feature, as shown. Click OK > Done
Refs > OK.

Selecting the Form Feature

1.

The Completed Flatten Form Feature

Step 5. Create a flat state instance.


1. Click Edit > Setup from the main menu.
2. Click Flat State > Create.
3. Accept the default name for the flat state instance. Click Fully
Formed and select the wall surface to remain fixed, as shown.

4. Click OK.
5. Review the flat state. In the Flat State menu, click Show.
6. Select MAGAZINE_FLAT1.
7. Click Window > Close.
8. Click Save
from the main toolbar, and click OK. From the main menu,
click File > Close Window.

1.

Step 6. Review the Stapler assembly and edit the angles.


1. Activate the Stapler Assembly window.

2. From the main menu, click Open


. In the File Open dialog box, select
HAND_STAPLER.LAY and click Open.
3. Modify the layout.

Edit the Magazine Angle to 15.

Edit the Handle Angle to 30.

4. Click Save

from the main toolbar, and click OK.

5. Click Window > Close from the main menu.

6. Activate the Stapler Assembly window. Click Regenerate


main toolbar.

1.

from the

Step 7. Assemble the included components in the stapler assembly.


1. Right-click PIN in the model tree and select Edit Definition.
2. Click Find

from the main toolbar.

3. If necessary, edit the Look For option to Axis. Edit the Look In option to
PIN.PRT. Click Find Now.
4. Select PIN_AXIS and click Add Item

. Click Close.

5. Click Find

from the main toolbar.

6. Edit the Look For option to Axis. Change the Look In option to
HAND_STAPLER_SKEL.PRT. Click Find Now.
7. Select PIN_AXIS and click Add Item

. Click Close.

8. Using Find
, add another constraint to Align the datum
plane FRONT from PIN.PRT with datum MID_PLANE from
HAND_STAPLER_SKEL.PRT.
9. Click Complete Component

to complete the assembly.

10. Similarly, assemble the other components, namely the TOP_GRIP.PRT


and BOTTOM_GRIP.PRT.

Click Show In Assembly Window


in the Component Placement
dialog box to see the component in the assembly window.

11. Click Save

from the main toolbar, and click OK.

This completes the exercise.

Exercise: Creating the Bend Order Table for the


Stapler Plunger
Objectives
After successfully completing this exercise, you will be able to:

Create a production drawing showing the flat and designed states of a


sheetmetal part.
Document the bend order sequence of a sheetmetal part using a bend
order table.

Scenario
In this exercise you will create a drawing for the PLUNGER.PRT. You will also add
a bend order table to the drawing and show the PLUNGER.PRT in both the bent
and unbent states.
Stapler

1.

hand_stapler.asm

Step 1. Create a flat state instance of the plunger part.


1. Activate the stapler assembly window.
2. Click Edit > Resume > Resume All from the main menu.
3. Right-click PLUNGER in the model tree and select Open.

4. Create a flat state of the part.

Click Edit > Setup.

Click Flat State in the Smt Setup menu.

Click Create and accept the default name PLUNGER_FLAT1 as the


name of the instance.

Click Fully Formed to define the present state of the part.

Select the top surface as the fixed geometry, as shown.

Click OK to complete the flat state feature creation.

5. Click Show > Plunger_Flat1 to see the instance.

6. Click File > Close Window.


1.

Step 2. Create a bend order in the part.


1. Activate PLUNGER.PRT.
2. Create a bend order table. Click Edit > Setup > Bend Order >
Show/Edit.
3. Select the top surface to remain fixed while unbending or bending, as
shown.

Selecting the Fixed Surface

Displaying the Part with All Bends in an


Unbent State

4. Add the first bend to the bend order. Click Add Bend and select the bend
surface, as shown.
5. Click OK > Next.

6. Select the surface to remain fixed during the bending operation, as


shown.

Selecting the Fixed Surface for the First


Bend

Preview of the First Bend in Bend Order

7. Add the second bend to the bend order table. Select the bend surface as
the second bend, as shown.
8. Click OK > Next.

9. Select the surface as the fixed surface, as shown.

Selecting the Fixed Surface for the Second


Bend

Preview of the Second Bend in Bend Order

10. Add the third bend to the bend order table. Select the bend surface as
the third bend, as shown.
11. Click OK > Next.

12. Select the surface as the fixed surface, as shown.

Selecting the Fixed Surface for the Third


Bend

Preview of the Third Bend in Bend


Order

13. Add the fourth bend to the bend order table. Click Add Bend and select
the bend surface as the fourth bend, as shown.
14. Click OK > Next.

15. Select the surface as the fixed surface, as shown.

16. Click OK > Done, to complete the bend order creation.

1.

Step 3. Review the bend order table for the part.


1. Click Info in the Bend Order menu.
2. Review the sequence of bends applied to the part.

3. Click Close to close the information window.


4. Click Done/Return > Done/Return > Done.
5. Click Save

from the main toolbar, and click OK.

1.

Step 4. Create a drawing for the part.


1. Create a new drawing named PLUNGER.DRW.

Click New

Select the Drawing option and type PLUNGER as the name.

Clear the Use Default Template check box and click OK.

Use PLUNGER.PRT as the default model.

Select the Empty check box to create an empty drawing.

Select the standard sheet size C. Click OK.

from the main toolbar.

2. Select The generic instance as the model to be used for creating views.
Click Open.
3. Place the view in the top-right corner of the drawing, as shown:

Right-click in the graphics window and select Insert General


View. Click anywhere in the upper right of the display area to being
placing the view.
Select Standard Orientation from the Model View Names dropdown list. Click Apply.
In the Scale category, select the Custom Scale option. Edit the
drawing scale to 4. Click Apply.
In the View Display category, change the Display Style to No
Hidden.
Click OK.

4. Add another model to the drawing.

Click Drawing Models


from the Document group and then
click Add Model.
Select PLUNGER.PRT and click Open.

Select the PLUNGER_FLAT1 instance as the model to be used for


creating views. Click Open.

5. Place the TOP view of the flat instance at the center of the drawing, as
shown:

Right-click in the graphics window and select Insert General


View.

1.

Click in the center of the drawing near the bottom.


Select TOP from the Model View Names drop-down list.
Click Apply.
In the Scale category, select the Custom Scale option. Edit the
drawing scale to 4. Click Apply.
In the View Display category, edit the Display Style to No Hidden.
Click OK.

Step 5. Add the bend order information to the drawing.


1. Select the Annotate tab in the Drawing ribbon.
2. Click Show Annotations

from the Insert group.

3. Select the flat view.


4. Click Note Tab
Click Select All
Click OK.

from the Show Model Annotations dialog box.


to select all Bend Notes and Bend Order table.

5. Arrange the notes in the drawing, as shown.

To move views, dimensions, and notes, utilize a click and release then
click and drag workflow. To move a note, select the note, then click
and hold the note while moving. To stop note movement and place the
note, release the mouse button.

6. Click Save

from the main toolbar, and click OK.

7. From the main menu, click Window > Close for all open models.
8. Click File > Erase > Not Displayed > OK to erase all models in session.
This completes the exercise.