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Conceptual Process

Design
An introduction at
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Basic process steps


 Basic Engineering package
 FEED
 Residual process engineering
 Detail engineering
 Basic core process documents

Process design basis, PFD, P &ID,


Datasheets, Line lists, Safety study
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Agenda for this presentation


 Workflow for conceptual process design
 PFD Development
 P & ID Development
 Line sizing
 Control Valve sizing
 Pump Head calculations
 PSV sizing
 Area classification
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Conceptual process design


DESIGN BASIS
 Why to prepare a design basis?
 Any guess on what this document consists of?
 Can a P&ID be made without knowing basis?
 Two different plants same product. Can P & IDs

be absolutely same?
 Two different plants same product. Can control
valve and safety valves be exactly same?
 If Yes why and if no why?
 Same product with same capacity: plant in India
and plant in Russia- will it be exactly same?
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Conceptual process design


DESIGN BASIS
 P & IDs for same product are different









because.
Different licensor philosophies and design
specifications
Different Legends
Different plant capacity
Different climatic conditions
Different utility availability
Different logistics requirements
Different plot layouts
Different equipment/ Instrument manufacturers

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Conceptual process design


DESIGN BASIS
 Equipment design margins
 Standard design philosophy
 Controls and instrumentation levels

(DCS/PLC, SIL study)


 Safety philosophy: (Fire, F&G, Flare)
 Isolation and sparing philosophy
 Battery limit conditions
 Environmental norms
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Conceptual process
engineering
 Focus on process flow diagram

development (Example.reflash column)


 Generate a mass and energy balance
 Chemicals and catalyst summary
 Development of conceptual P & IDs
 Critical equipment sizing
 Estimate utility requirements
 Operating instructions
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Conceptual process
engineering
 Not part of conceptual engg..
 Pump head checks
 Control valve sizing
 Safety valve sizing
 Safety valve sizing
 Vendor package information
 Utility distribution drawings
 HAZOP study
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DOUGLAS METHODOLOGY

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BATCH VS. CONTINUOUS


 Production rate: > 45000 T/yr, use continuous

process
 Product demand: seasonal products  batch
 Multiproduct plant  Batch plant
 Significant gas recycle  continuous plant
 Reaction behavior: High temperature or highly
exothermic reactions, continuous plant
 Significant opportunities of heat integration 
continuous plant
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RECYCLE STRUCTURE
 Decide reactants to be

recycled / purged
 Decide purity / separation
feasibility
 Check effect of recycle on
reaction chemistry e.g.
recycle of poisons etc
 Check effect of compression
cost on feasibility

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BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM


 Major equipments on block flow diagram
 Evaluate cost based on major equipments and

approximate operating cost


 Use ratio method for cost estimation
 Shortlist alternatives for further evaluation
 Process simulation will help fix process
conditions, utility loads etc
 Pinch analysis for energy and area saving, but
keep operational issues in mind
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Any Questions so far?




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PFD developement
 Show only process flow lines
 Start up lines, pump recycle lines need

not be shown
 Utility streams shown in short
 Standby equipment and working
equipment depiction
 Which streams to number?
 Where to place stream number
diamond?
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PFD Development
 All equipments tagged
 Equipment title block added
 Exchanger symbol is generic and not as

per its TEMA type


 Start/stop switches for motors not shown
 All bays of air cooler are not shown
 Local temperature and pressure guages
not shown
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Control valve Selection and Sizing

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COMPONENTS OF
CONTROL SYSTEM
 Measuring element

(thermometer)
 Controller
 Final control
element (control
valve)

F (kg/hr)
Ti (oC)
To (oC)
Ms (kg/hr)
TS (oC)

Thermometer

Hand

Human
Brain

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CONTROL SYSTEM BLOCK


DIAGRAM
V1
Controller

P
Kc {1+(1/ I)+ d}

Final Control
Element

Process

__1__
v + 1

__1__
p + 1

Measuring
Instrument

__1__
m + 1

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CONTROL VALVE SYSTEM


Controller sends the output signal
of the order of 4 to 20 mA.
The i/p converter changes the
signal to 3 to 15 psi and sends to
Actuator.
The Actuator moves the plug
relative to the stationary valve seat.
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POSITIONER
 Measures valve stem

position and compares with


set point
 Makes sure control valve
opening is as required by
controller
 Corrects for effect of packing
friction due to dirt, lack of
lubrication etc
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VALVE TYPES AND


SELECTION
 Globe valve
 Workhorse of industry
 Multiple ports available
 Large pressure drop
 Size limited to about 12
 Butterfly valves
 Low pressure drop
 Large sizes available
 Ball valves
 Low leakage
 Quarter-turn
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CONTROL VALVE SIZING


- 1
 Need to fix following:
 Minimum, normal and maximum flow
 Corresponding pressure drop
 Required flow characteristics i.e. linear or quick
acting etc
 Control valve flow coefficient Cv used as sizing

parameter
 Cv is flow of water in m3/hr through valve at 1 bar

pressure difference across valve


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HOW TO ASSIGN PRESSURE


DROPS?
 For pump systems:
 50-60% of total frictional loss excluding control valve
OR
 15% of pump differential head OR
 0.7 kg/cm2
 For process systems
 Difference of pressure between upstream and
downstream system
 Should give better controllability
 Smaller the pressure drop, bigger the valve
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FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
 Inherent characteristics
 Quick acting / linear / equal percentage

Quick opening

Linear
Equal %

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SELECTING CHARACTERISTICS:
LEVEL
 Level control: very slow response (remember

tanks in series experiment)


 Mostly linear

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SELECTING CHARACTERISTICS: FLOW


 Whenever in doubt, use equal percentage

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CAVITATION AND FLASHING


 Cavitation is collapse of

bubbles
 Damages trim
 Special trim designs
available
 Flashing not as dangerous
as cavitation
 Needs to be specified to
vendor
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CHOKING
 Occurs for gaseous systems when downstream

pressure less than about 50% of inlet pressure


 Can occur at much higher % for two-phase
systems
 Fluid accelerated to sonic velocity in valve
 Formation of shock waves
 Avoided by use of multiple valves or use of ROs

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FAIL
- SAFE POSITION
 Action for valve when air supply fails
 Three options
 Fail open
 Fail close
 Fail last
 Energy adding valves to be fail closed e.g. steam
 Energy removing valves to be fail closed e.g.

cooling medium

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Line sizing

An introduction

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Flow rate basis for line sizing


 PFD and mass balance
 Utility summary and utility flow diagrams
 Design margin: General

considerations
 For all process lines 10%
 Start up, intermittent flow 5%
 Utility lines 15%
 Utility main header 20%
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Line sizing basis


 For revamp, basis differs.
 Circulating fuel oil system-design ring main for







125 to 150% of flow


Pipe wall roughness basis
Carbon steel, new- 0.047 mm
Brass, aluminum, Copper, Plastics, Glass
0.03 mm
Stainless steel 0.025 mm
Rusty steel 0.2 mm
Galvanized steel 0.13 mm

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Normal pipe size


 Avoid 30NB,65NB,125NB, 550NB
 Nominal pipe size for process lines shall

be 25mm
 Pipe rack lines shall be minimum 40NB
 Schedule number as per pipe
specification index
 Piping length estimate based on project
status-preliminary or plot plan/equipment
layout based or isometrics based
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Equivalent length calculations:


Le/D values
 Globe valve
 Angle valve
 Gate valve
 Ball Valve
 90Deg Elbow
 Conventional check valve
 Globe lift check valve
 45 degree elbow
 Flow through run
 Flow through branch
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450
200
13
18
30
135
450
16
20
60

Pressure drop calculations


 Preliminary line size based on velocity criteria
 Actual pressure drop to be verified with

allowable pressure drops as per process design


 General criteria: Pump suction line delp is
0.085kg/cm2 per 100m of pipe
 General criteia: Pump discharge line delp is
0.15 to 0.6 kg/cm2 per 100 mtr pipe
 Reynolds number: Try to be in turbulant region
or laminar region. Avoid transition region(2300
to 4000 Nre)
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Cooling water lines


 DeltaP per 100 mtr is generally 0.3 kg/cm2
 Flow possible through various pipes- in m3/h based on

above criteria
1.5
40
3.8
50
8.5
80
26
100
51
150
160
200
350
250
640
300
1000

 25









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Gravity lines
 The maximum recommended velocity for

gravity lines is 1 m/s


 The minimum line size for gravity lines
within process area to be 40mm
 Sizing of self venting lines- velocity at
about 0.3 to o.7 m/s
 Column draw off lines based on static
head available
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Compressible fluid line sizing


 If pressure drop is less than 10% of the

upstream pressure, use density and


average linear velocity based on either
inlet or outlet conditions
 If pressure drop is between 10%-40% of
the upstream pressure, use density and
average linear velocity based as
averages of inlet and outlet conditions
 First estimate- v= c/row; c is 13 to 24
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Tower overhead lines


 For pressure between, 0 to 0.7 kg/cm2g, use

velocity range as 40 to 60 m/s and max


allowable pressure drop of 0.011 kg/cm2 for
100 mtr pipe
 For pressure between, 0 to 3.5 kg/cm2g, use
velocity range as 18 to 30 m/s and max
allowable pressure drop of 0.033 kg/cm2 for
100 mtr pipe
 For pressure between, 3.5 to 15 kg/cm2g, use
velocity range as 12 to 15 m/s and max
allowable pressure drop of 0.15 kg/cm2 for 100
mtr pipe
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Special services
 Recommended velocity in m/s for special

services:
Concentrated H2So4
Salt water
Caustic solution
Plastic pipe
Liquids with suspended solids
Liquid lines to chillers
Refrigerant lines
Liquid from condenser
Reboiler trap out
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1.2
1.8
1.2
4.5
0.9 min.
1.8
1.2
2.1
1.2

HAZARDOUS AREA CLASSIFICATION

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OBJECTIVE OF AREA
CLASSIFICATION
 Fire triangle: Oxygen / Fuel / Ignition source
 Oxygen: Air abundantly available
 Plant leak: Fuel supply started
 A minor spark and EMERGENCY
 Different fluids, different thresholds
 Area classification makes sure that ignition

source is not available

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ZONES: HOW TO DECIDE


 Zone 0 normally means vapour space above continuous

vents, storage tanks, open tanks of volatile materials


 Zone 1 normally have following locations




Frequent maintenance, leakage prone area


Areas where frequent upstream upsets mean downstream
released to atmosphere
Location adjacent to zone 0 area

 Zone 2 normally means areas like


 Accidental failure of gaskets/packings etc
 Zone adjacent to zone 1 area

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FUEL PROPERTIES
 Classification based on minimum ignition energy
 Fluids classified as either IIC or IIB or IIA
 IIC fluids very sensitive. Explode at slightest spark

energy. E.g. acetylene, hydrogen


 IIB / IIA rather less sensitive
 No difference between electric equipments for IIB
and IIA
 Basically fluid group either IIC or IIA/IIB

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TEMPERATURE CLASS
 Makes sure that

temperature of electrical
equipment surface does
not exceed fluid
autoignition temperature

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Temperature
Code

oF

oC

T1

842

450

T2

572

300

T3

392

200

T4

275

135

T5

212

100

T6

185

85

EXTENT OF ZONES
 Defined by codes
 Depends on whether source of hazard is lighter or heavier

than air
 Depends on location of source i.e. near ground / above
ground, open or closed space etc

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ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT
SPECIFICATIONS
 Method of containment: contain explosion within

confines of electric equipment e.g. Flameproof


apparatus (Ex d)
 Method of segregation/separation: Separate spark
from fuel e.g. Oil immersion (Ex o)
 Method of prevention: Provide just sufficient
energy and reduce faulty conditions e.g. Increase
Safety (Ex e)
 Identified on electric equipment by notations
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Pressure Relief

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WHAT IS THE ROLE OF PSV?


 Makes sure that vessel pressure does not exceed vessel






design pressure
Pressure increase in a system occurs due to imbalance of
either energy or flow i.e. input is not equal to output 
Relief events
Example of energy imbalance = Fire
Example of material imbalance = Blocked outlet
Imbalance corrected by releasing material out of the
system (to atmosphere or flare)

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STEPS IN PSV SYSTEM


SIZING
 Identify relief events
 Calculate relieving capacity required
 Select type of valve to be used
 Calculate PSV orifice area
 Select Standard orifice having area more than calculated

orifice area
 Fix PSV inlet and outlet line size based on rated capacity
 Design flare system (if any) considering worst case
scenario for entire plant

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ACCUMULATION
 Accumulation allowed by API:
 3% for fired and unfired steam boilers
 10% for vessels equipped with a single pressure
relief device in non-fire case
 16% for vessels equipped with multiple pressure
relief devices
 21% for fire contingency
 PSV overpressure should be such that at no

instant relieving pressure is reached


 Consider vessel operating at 1.5 bar (g)
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What are Relief Events?


 External fire
 Control valve failure leading to uncontrolled

flow of fluid or energy


 Blocked outlet
 Cooling water failure
 Power failure
 Exchanger tube rupture

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OTHER RELIEF EVENTS


 Blocked outlet case: relief flow is flow into the system

(credit can be taken for pump curve shift)


 Control valve failure case: Vendor certified full open
control valve flow (corrected for relieving pressure)
 Cooling water / power failure: uncondensed vapour
minus vapor normally exiting the system
 Tube rupture: Calculated based on orifice theory
 All calculations at relieving pressure

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RELIEF DEVICE TYPES


 Pressure Safety Valves




Conventional spring operated valves


Balanced bellows valves
Pilot operated valves

 Rupture Devices



Rupture discs
Rupture pin devices

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CONCEPT OF BACKPRESSURE
 Backpressure = pressure from valve outlet which tries to

close the valve i.e. forces disk down


 Superimposed backpressure: backpressure on disc

before valve opens


 Superimposed backpressure can be constant or variable
 Built-up backpressure: backpressure developed due to

flow after valve opens

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BALANCED BELLOWS
VALVE
 Balanced bellows work on similar principle of

spring tension, but bellows takes care of problems


of backpressure
 Conventional valves okay if backpressure limited
to 10% of set pressure
 Balanced bellows can go easily upto 30%
backpressure and upto 50% at reduced capacity
 Problem of bellow rupture due to fatigue etc

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RUPTURE DISC
 Nonreclosing device
 Once ruptured, material

loss continues
 Used in place of or
upstream of PSV in
corrosive, viscous services
etc
 Reduce capacity of valve if
upstream of PSV
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PSV INLET AND OUTLET


LINE
 PSV inlet line size should atleast be equal to PSV inlet





flange
PSV inlet line size pressure drop limited to 3% of set
pressure  avoids chattering
3% limit not applicable to pilot operated valves
PSV outlet line size should atleast be equal to PSV outlet
flange
PSV outlet line size selected to meet backpressure
requirements




10% of set pressure for conventional valves


30 50% of set pressure for balanced bellow valves
Max. 90% for pilot operated valves possible

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THANK YOU

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