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Study Guide

Fluid Mech 3

Sem 2 2014

Study Guide Fluid Mech 3 Sem 2 2014 Department of Mechanical Engineering Study Guide for FLUID

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Study Guide for



Qualification: N.Dip: Mechanical Engineering


Date Revised: July 2014 Revised by: David van Wyk

Study Guide

Fluid Mech 3

Sem 2 2014

Name of Lecturer:

David van Wyk


S5 Level 3, Steve Biko Campus


ext 2373



Consultation Times:

To be confirmed

1. Welcome

This is the second course in Fluid Mechanics, and in it we will be looking at refining and extending your understanding of the subject.

2. Introduction

Instill more advanced concepts of fluid mechanics of incompressible Newtonian fluids, by building on foundations laid in Fluid Mechanics II. Become familiar with industrial plant and equipment involved in such operations, enabling learners to become functional in the market place.

3. Outline

The course is presented in the form of lecture/tutorial periods, augmented by laboratory practical sessions. The lecture/tutorial periods are also used to discuss queries relevant to the sections being covered. The purpose of practicals is to gain insight into practical fluid mechanics applications in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory.

4. Assessment

Two test marks and the practical mark are necessary to obtain a Class Mark. If both Test 1 and Test 2 were written, the make-up-test is not written:

Class Mark (%) = 0.4 x Test 1 mark (%) + 0.4 x Test 2 mark (%) + 0.2 x prac mark (%)

The tutorials consist of a question done at the end of section, to be handed in and marked in class.

The Class Mark must be 40% or greater to permit the learner to write the final examination.

Final Mark (%) = 0.4 x Class Mark (%) + 0.6 x Examination Mark (%)

To pass, a minimum Final Mark of 50% must be achieved, but with a minimum Examination Mark of 40%. To be able to write the supplementary examination subject, a minimum Final Mark of 45% must be achieved.

The test dates are:

Test 1 – Wednesday 20 August Test 2 – Wednesday 1 October Makeup – Wednesday 8 October

Study Guide

Fluid Mech 3

Sem 2 2014

4. Textbook and Additional Resources

The following book is the prescribed textbook:


MEYER C., 1995, Applications of Fluid Mechanics. CFM Pubs. (621.2 MEY)

This will be handed out to students during the first week.

The following list of books may be used as reference material and for supplementary reading:

DOUGLAS, 1986, Solving Problems in Fluid Mechanics Vol 1 & 2 Longman (620.106 DOU) SAYERS, 1992, Fluid Mechanics – an Intro Oxford University Press (620.106 SAY)

The library also contains various other references, dealing with fluid mechanics topics.

The course has a website – go to http://dutmoodle.dut.ac.za/moodle and follow the links to Mechanical Engineering. This website will be updated regularly with information for the course, so please check it whenever possible.

5. Practicals

Students will be advised at the beginning of the semester as to when they will be conducting the practicals. Due to the nature of the course, the relevant sections of theory may not have been covered in class at the time of attending a practical. The onus is on learners to read the practical manual for the practical, which will be handed out at the beginning of the semester, in order to gain understanding of the practical. A copy of the raw data for the practical must be handed in to the laboratory technician before leaving the practical session. The practical laboratory is located at S5, Level 01, Steve Biko Campus.

Practical Report

After completion of a practical, a laboratory report must be prepared. This involves performing necessary calculations, spreadsheet presentations and graph plotting where necessary. The lab report must include raw data, specimen calculations for one set of readings, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations. The reports shall be handed in no later than 7 days after the practical has been performed unless otherwise notified. The report must be submitted electronically to fluidmech3dut@gmail.com . A hard (paper) copy is only required when asked for. The email subject line must be in the following format:

Group No; Practical; Date performed

And the body of the email should include the names and student numbers of the group members. The document should be in Microsoft Word format, either .doc or .docx format. The filename must be in the form of GroupNo- Practical-DatePerformed.doc (e.g. Group4-Bernoulli-4April.doc). Emailed reports not in this format will not be accepted. You will be required to sign a declaration form saying that the work is all original.

Students handing in reports whose calculations do not tie up with the readings taken on the day will be given a mark of 0% for that report. Groups may be called upon to do a short oral presentation on their laboratory report, detailing the procedures, results and conclusions.

Group Work

During the semester, the learner will be required to work in groups with designated partners, in practicals and tutorials. The essence is for group members to work together, and not to divide the work between each other. For group work, learners will be required to fill in a form detailing the work done, and evaluate the work done by others in the group. Note that evaluations deemed as suspect will be dealt with. If a learner is given poor grades by fellow group members more than twice, that learner may be fired from the group after consulting with the lecturer. Similarly, if one team member feels that he is doing all the work in a group, that learner can quit the group after consulting with the lecturer. Individuals who are fired or quit must then find a group willing to take them, provided group size doesn’t become


Study Guide

Fluid Mech 3

Sem 2 2014

6. Absence from Tests/Practicals

Tests 1 and 2 and the practicals are conducted on designated dates. Any excuse or absence from these must be endorsed by an accredited person, explaining the circumstances for such an absence, including dates, times etc. If due to illness, the medical certificate must be signed and stamped by a qualified medical practitioner. Non-compliance of this results in no mark being entered into the register for that test. By noon, on the day of return to lectures, the statement must be submitted to the lecturer. If later than that, it will not be accepted, resulting in no mark being entered into the register for that test. The lecturer will contact the people involved to verify its authenticity and admissibility. On the basis of this, a decision will be made to reject or accept the excuse. If rejected, no mark will be entered into the register for that test. If accepted, the learner will be permitted to write a make-up test, or reschedule their practical. No excuse is accepted for absence from the make-up test. Make up practicals will be conducted at the end of the semester.

7. DP Requirements

For the course, an attendance rate of 75 % of lectures is required. Class registers will be taken every lecture. Also, for the quizzes, a learner needs to attend at least 75 % of them. The Class Mark must be 40% or greater to permit the learner to write the final examination.

8. Written Tests and Examination

Two tests, a make-up-test and the final examination are written on prescribed dates. Tests 1 and 2 have duration of 1.5 hours. Students granted a make up test due to absences will perform a make up test (duration: 2 hours) shortly after Test 2 and it shall be based on work covered since the beginning of the course, up to that stage.

The Final Examination (duration: 3 hours) is based on work covered over the whole of the course. Test and examination rules are available to learners registered for subjects offered by the Department of Mechanical Engineering. The following items serve as a summary of such rules:

The learner must be present at the test venue at least 5 minutes before a test and at the examination venue at least 15 minutes before the examination.

No learner will be permitted to leave the examination venue during the first 30 minutes or the last 15 minutes of the examination.

For the examination, a seating plan will be displayed at the entrance to the examination venue, and learners must seat themselves at their allocated desks.

Scripts, graph paper, etc., and the question paper will be provided by the invigilators.

For tests, bags are permitted in the venue and must be placed under the learner’s desk and cell phones contained therein must be disabled.

Once in the test or examination venue, communication between learners is not permitted (talking, written or gestures). Questions should only be directed to invigilators.

The test attendance register must be correctly completed with the learner's name and registration number.

Learners must ensure that their surname, initials and registration number appears on the cover of the answer sheets/booklets. Multiple choice response cards must also be correctly completed, according to the instructions given.

Writing may only begin when instructed to do so by the invigilator(s).

At the end of the examination or tests, learners must stop writing immediately when instructed to do so by the invigilators.

Learners may not leave their seat, without the consent of an invigilator. Attention for requests to visit the toilet, leave the exam venue, or query the question paper are made by the learner by raising one hand to attract the attention of an invigilator.

Study Guide

Fluid Mech 3

Sem 2 2014

9. Plagiarism

During this course, no plagiarism will be tolerated, and will be dealt with severely. Learners are expected to produce their own work, in their own words. When using other authors’ material you will need to reference the work properly, giving due credit and not simply copy the work. In the case of laboratory reports, the details of the practical such as method need to be presented in the learner’s own words, to show that they understand the work. The details on plagiarism are presented at orientation, and on the department notice board, and are found under G(13) in the rulebook. No excuses will be tolerated, and any event of plagiarism will be brought to a Student Disciplinary tribunal.

10. Syllabus

Dimensional Analysis: Derivations of dimensional/dimensionless variables and constants. Expected outcome on completion of section should equip the learner to: Use dimensional analysis to endorse/reject rational assumptions on influences of variables relating to fluid processes. Derive dimensionless quantities, expressing their relationship among variables.

Flow Regimes: Flow regimes. Velocity distribution and friction in pipes. Expected outcome on completion of section should equip the learner to: Compare laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Compare velocity distribution profiles for laminar and turbulent flow in conduits. Determine relative roughness of pipe surfaces and friction factors, using a Moody Chart or other engineering nomographs. Compare smooth pipe flow and fully turbulent flow for rough pipes. Account for pipe fitting losses, both in terms of velocity head losses and equivalent pipe length frictional losses.

Fixed and Varying Head Flow in Pipes: Pipe systems. Expected outcome on completion of section should equip the learner to: Calculate heads for pipe flow, including friction loss for pipe fittings from reference tables (equivalent pipe lengths or velocity heads). Determine flow rates and head losses for pipes connected in series and/or parallel arrangements. Solve fixed head flow problems (e.g gravity flow, siphoning and pumping). Solve the fixed heads three reservoirs problem by mathematical/graphical iterations. Solve varying head problems for inflow/outflow of liquid to/from reservoirs with/without varying cross sections.

Fluid Momentum: Momentum changes, reactions and forces. Resultant forces, work, power efficiency. Expected outcome on completion of section should equip the learner ta: Apply Newton's 2 m1 law to momentum change relating to interaction forces of a moving a jet of incompressible fluid directed to fixed/moving flat plates and curved vanes. Construct blade velocity diagrams to determine component velocities of absolute velocity (i. e. whirl, flow and relative velocities) of a liquid in relation to peripheral blade velocities of impellers. Calculate forces, power, etc., involved in jet propulsion.

Relative Equilibrium Systems: Uniform acceleration of fluids (linear and radial). Expected outcome on completion of section should equip the learner to: Calculate forces imparted by liquids subjected to uniform linear horizontal/vertical/inclined acceleration. Differentiate between free, forced, spiral and compound vortices. Solve vortex problems relating to tank drains, propeller mixers and rotating tanks (open, closed and pressurized) leading to appreciation centrifugal pump.

Hydrodynamic Transmission: Power transmission. Hydrodynamic machines. The expected outcome on completion of this section should equip the learner to: Calculate work done and power transmission from steady heads via pipeline/nozzle systems to hydraulic machines. Determine power transmission efficiency and maximum power transmission. Describe devices operating on the principles of hydrodynamics (e.g. hydraulic accumulator, intensifier, crane and lift). Calculate forces, pressures, power, etc., involved with such hydrodynamic machines. Compare the construction, operation and applications of fluid couplings to torque converters.

Uniform Open Channel Flow: Uniform and most economical discharge through open channels. The expected outcome on completion of this section should equip the learner to: Determine discharge through open channels of various cross-sections, using Chezy's, Bazin's, Kutter's and Manning's formulae and constants. Establish the most economical cross-sections of channels for maximum discharge. Measure irregular cross-section flow areas and average flow velocities by Pitot tubes, floats, current meters, etc.