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Georges Guiochon and Claude L.

Guiltemin

Quantitative Gas Chromatography


for laboratory analyses and on-line control
EL
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frd New York Tokyo

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II


. . . .

- . , . .-

1991

24.4

11

543.544

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13

: 2- ,
. II: . . .: , 1991. 375 , .
ISBN 5-03-001892-1
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1707000000-167
041(01)-91

24.4

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ISBN 5-03-001892-1 (.)


ISBN 5-03-001890-5
ISBN 0-444-42857-7 (.)

g) Elsevier Science Publishers . V., 1988


, . ., 1991

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MS

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102

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104

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
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9.
10.

12.

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105

42
43'
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45
46
47!
48.

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13


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133

1. James . ., Martin A. J. P., Biochem. J., 50, 679 (1952).


2. Guiochon G., Goedert M., Jacob L., in: Gas Chromatography 1970, R. Stock
Ed, The Institute of Petroleum, London, UK, 1971, p. 160.
3. Massart D. L., Dijkstra ., Kaufman L, Evaluation and Optimization of Laboratory Methods and Analytical Procedures, Elsevier, Amsterdam, NL, 1978.
4. Day R. ., Jr., Underwood A. L, Quantitative Analysis, 5th Edition, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1986, Ch. 2.
5. Philippe J., Les Methodes Statistiques en Pharmacie et en Chimie, Masson,
Paris, France, 1967.
6. Spiegel M. R., Statistics, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1961.
7. Peters D. G., Hayes J. M., Hieftje G. M., Chemical Separations and Measurements, Theory and Practice of Analytical Chemistry, W. B. Saunders, New
York, NY, 1974, pp. 2937.
8. York D., Can. J. Phys., 44, 1079 (1966).
9. Halasz I., Anal. Chem., 36, 1428 (1964).
10. Guiochon G., J. Ghromatogr., 14, 378 (1964).
11. Borba de Oliveira D., J. Gas Chromatogr., 6, 230 (1968).
12. Goedert M., Guiochon G., J. Gas Chromatogr., 7, 323 (1969).
13. Guillemin L., Vermont J., Juston P., Ferradini P., Artur ., Peyron .,
J. Chromatogr. Sci., 9, 155 (1971).
14. Janak J., Mikrochim. Acta, 1956, 1038.

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160

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: 220 . 150 . -: 2 , 3,6 /.

2'

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24
SH 2
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34,08
64,07
28,013

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0,93

1,10

1,4

1,81

1,6

0,94

, ( Pretzel Gow Mac, Fractomatic Carlo Erb-a) . :


4XWX, : 250 ; : 80 ; -: , 3 /.


2 .
. 14.614.16 14.1914.23 , .
III.


, . 16.
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162

1 14.

14.7.

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44,05
58,08
56,06
60,05
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72,06

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1,375
1,64
1,65
1,77
2,025
1,98

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0,9
0,9
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1,65

14.8.

: 4=1

14.9.

.

1-
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44,09
42,08
58,12
56,10
56,10
56,10
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28,013
28,01
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1,24
1,22
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1,77
1,465
1,37
1,14
1,15
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2
1,4
0,9
0,7
2,25
0,3
0,5

0,7
1,7
1,2
0,5
0,95

, ( Pretzel
Gow Mac, Fractomatic Carlo Erba). :
4WX; : 220 , : 65 "; -: , 3,6 /.

alf.

29,02
62,50
18,016
86,09

1,11
1,57
0,895
1,085

1,3
2,2
2,6
2,4

, ( Pretzel ' Gow Mac, Fractomatic Carlo Erba). :


4XWX; : 250 ; : 140 ; -: , 3 /.

. , ( )
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14.10.

: C 2 H i = l

alt.

50,49
84,93
119,38
153,82
64,52
98,96
98,96
133,41
133,41
167,85
167,85
202,30
236,74
62,50
96,95

1,51
2,15
2,77
3,17
1,805
2,38
2,31
2,725
2,79
3,45
3,40
3,88
4,315
1,765
2,34

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1,3
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1,4
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96,95
96,95
131,39
165,83

2,33
2,32
2,84
3,30

0,8
1,2
2
1,2

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1,2-
1,1,1-
1,1,2-
1,1,1,2-
1,1,2,2-

1,2-

, ( Pretzel
o o w Mac, Fractomatic Cailo Erba). :
* , : 250 , : 200 ; -; , 3 /.
11*

163

14.

164

14.11.

: 2 4 =1

1,1-
1,2-
1,1,1-
1,1,2-
1,1,1,2-
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1,2-
-

1,45
1,90
2,47
2,95
1,60
2,01
2,24
2,37
2,14
3,24
3,30
3,87
4,63
1,57
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2
1,81,4
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2,8
1
1,8
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2

1
2

96,95
96,95
131,39
165,83

2,30
2,08
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1,8
2,8
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14.12.

410

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so

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COS
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2

28,96
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30,07
58,12
64,07
34,08
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76,13
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1,08
0,72
1,13
1,48
1,84
1,14
1,49
1,70
1,76
0,85

1,8
1
1,8
1,3
1,6
0,9
1,3
1,2
3,4
4

, ( Pretzes
Gow Mac, Fractomatic Carlo Erba). :
4XWX; : 220 ; : 130 ; -: , 3 /.




-2-

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--1,2-

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, (Bendix P G C ) . - : 4XWX; : 250 ; : 200 "- -: ,


3 /.

:
,= 1

14.13.

50,49
84,93
119,38
153,82
64,52
98,96
98,96
133,41
133,41
167,85
167,85
202,30
236,74
62,50
96,95

165

18
44
32
46
60
60
74
74
74
74
88
60
46
74
76
62
88
88

0,81
1,30
1,07
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1,59
1,53
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1,72
1,79
1,75
1,87
1,52
1,34
1,64
1,85
1,62
2,17
2.05

0,9
2,3
0,9
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3,6
2,2
0,9
0,25
0,9
0,9
1,5
1,3
1,3
1,9
1
1,2
2,3
10

, ( Pretzel
Gow Mac, Fractomatic Carlo E r b a ) . :
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,

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166

14.

14.14.

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54,09

1,70

0,5

104,14

2,54

0,9

, ( Pretzel
Gow Mac, Fractomatic Carlo Erba). :
4XWX, - 250 ; : 150 ; : , 1,5 /.

14.15.

: 2 4 =1

32,04
46,07
60,09
60,09
58,08
72,10
100,16
74,12
74,08
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1,34
1,56
1,59
1,535
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14.16.

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2,016
31,99
28,02
16,04
30,07
28,01
44,01
44,09
58,12
58,12

//, %

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1,95
2,18
0,40
0,92
2,22
4,0
1,62
2,58
2,47

0,3
0,4
0,5
0,4
0,4
0,4
0,9
0,5
1,6
0,8

, ( Pretzel
Gow Mac, Fractomatic Carlo Erba). :
JXWX; ; : 100 , -: , 3 /.

. 14.15. .

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168

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170

1 14 .

14.17.
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100

150

200

250

300

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2,70

2,69

2,67

2,69

2,73

2,70
(0,77%)

WX

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W2X

t ( ) ()

2,74
2,76
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2,74
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300
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172

1 14.

14.18.

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130
150
180
200
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1,398
1,405
1,387
1,401
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173

14.19.
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12=1
11 CFCls
12 CF2C12
21 CHFC12
22 CHF2C1

137,4
120,8
102,93
86,5
153,84

1,49
1
0,73
0,86
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0,6
0,5
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( Fractomatic Carlo Erba).


, - (): 3 /, 2 /; : 15 /

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174

1 14.

14.20.
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4,43
2,765
2,78
2,15
3,55
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2,20
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. Phillips . S. G., in: Gas Chromatography 1970, R. Stock (Ed.), The Institute of Petroleum, London, UK, 1971, p. 1.
2 Barratt R. S., Analyst, 106, 817 (1981).
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Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, MI, 1971.
4.. Excoffier J. L., Guiochon G., Chromatographia, 15, 543 (1982).
5. Lovelock J. E., in: Gas Ghromatography 1960, R. P. W. Scott (Ed.), Butterworths, London, UK, 1960, p. 26.
6. Follis . ., Scott R. P. W., J. Chromatogr., 11, 1 (1963).
7,. Williams H. P., Winefordner J. D., J. Gas Chromatogr., 4, 271 (1966).
8.. Ritter J. J., Adams N. K-, Anal. Chem., 48, 612 (1976).
9, Lovelock J. E., Watson A. J., J. Chromatogr., 158, 123 (1978).
10. Desty D. H., Geach C. J., Goldup ., in: Gas Chromatography I960,
R. . Scott (Ed.), Butterworths, London, UK, I960, p. 46.
11. Goldup ., Westaway M. ., Anal. Chem., 38, 1657 (1966).
12. McKetaey J. M., Hoescher . ., Anal. Ghem., 29, 123 (1957).
13. Devaux P., Guiochon G., Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 1967, 1404.
14. Savttsky A. C, Siggia S., Anal. Chem., 44, 1712 (1972).
15. O'Keefe A. E., Ortman G. C, Anal. Chem., 38, 760 (1966).
16. Lucero D. P., Anal. Chem., 43, 1744 (1971).
17. Detnaio I., Instrument. Technol., 19, 37 (1966).
18. Dietz R. N., Cote . ., Smith J. D., Anal. Chem., 46, 315 (1974).
19. Van de Wiel H. J., Uiterwijk J. W., Regts . ., in: Studies in Environmental
Science, 2, Air Pollution Reference. Methods and Systems, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1978.
20. Debbrecht F. J., Neel E. M., in: Calibration in Air Monitoring, 7, ASTM
Special Technical Publication 598, Philadelphia, PA, 1976, p. 55.
21. Carson L. M., Uglum K. L., J. Gas Chromatogr., 3, 208 (1965).
22. Guillemin L., Auricourt F., Blaise P., Z. Anal. Chem., 227, 260 (1967).
23. Guillemin L., Auricourt F., Vermont J., Chromatographia, 1, 357 (1968).
24. Guillemin L., Auricourt F., Du Crest J., Vermont J., J. Chromatogr. Sci.,
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25. Vermont J., Guillemin L, Anal. Chem., 45, 775 (1973).
26. Barry E. F., Rosie D. M., J. Chromatogr., 103, 180 (1975).
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28. Guillemin L., Vermont J., .
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R. P. W. Scott Ed., Butterworths, London, UK, I960, p. 46.
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N. Brenner, J. E. Gallen, Weiss Eds., Academic Press, New York, NY, 1962,
p. 231
38. dementi S., Savetly G., Vergoni M., Chromatographia, 5, 413 (1972).

15



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1. Excoffier J. L., Guiochon G., Chromatographia, 15, 543 (1982).

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

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16


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50
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1
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252

16.
16.10. [30]
.


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1
2
3
4
5

78,00
78,03
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78,12
78,10

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. 16.816.10 ,
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(17)
(18).

1. James . ., Martin A. J. P., Biochem. J., 50, 679 (1952).


2. Hauser . ., in: Principles of Sample Handling and Sampling System
Design for Process Analysis, Instrument Society of America, Pittsburgh, PA,
1972.
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(Ed.), The Institute of Petroleum, London, UK, 1971, p. 160.
4. Williams A. F., Murray W. J., Talanta, 10, 937 (1963).
5. Kaiser R., Methodes Phys. Anal., 5, 357 (1969).
6. Kaiser R., Gas Chromatography, Vol. IV, Quantitative Analysis, Butterworths, London, UK, 1963.
7. Kaiser R., Chromatographia, 4, 479 (1971).
8. Ball D. L, Harris W. E., Habgood H. W., Anal. Chem., 40, 129 (1968).
9. Bocek P., Novak J., Janak J., J. Chromatogr., 42, 1 (1969).
10. Jecko G., Reynaud ., Rev. Metal., 64, 681 (1967).
11. Daneman H. L., Ross D. E., Gas Chromatography Institute Technical Symposium, Canisius College, Buffalo, NY, 1960.
12. Hay P., Chromatographia, 1, 268, 347, 423 (1968).
13. Goedert M., Guiochon G., Chromatographia, 6, 116 (1973).
14. Ball D. L., Harris W. E., Habgood H. W., Separ. Sci., 2, 81 (1967).
15. Ball D. L, Harris W. E., Habgood H. W., J. Gas Chromatogr., 5, 613 (1967).
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253

17. Gill J. M., Bauman P., Tao F., Previews and Reviews, Varian Aerograph,
August 1967.
18. Grant D. W.. Clarke ., Anal. Chem., 43, 1951 (1971).
19. Baumann F., Tao F., J. Gas Chromatogr., 5, 621 (1967).
20 Baumann F., Brown A. C, Mitchell M. ., J. Chromatogr. Sci., 8, 20
(1970).
21 Goedert M., Guiochon G., Chromatographia, 6, 116 (1973).
22. Goedert M., Guiochon G., J. Chromatogr. Sci., 11, 326 (1973)
23 Goedert M., Guiochon G., Chromatographia, 6, 76 (1973).
24. Goedert M., Guiochon G., Chim. Anal., 53, 214 (1971).
25. Cram S. P., Chester S-, Anal. Chem., 43, 1922 (1971).
26. Excoffier J. L, Guiochon G., Chromatographia, 15, 543 (1982).
27. Schmauch L. J., Dinerstein R. ., Anal. Chem, 32, 343 (1960).
28 Anderson A. H., Gibb . , Littlewood . ., J. Chromatogr. Sci., 8, 640
(1970).
29. Deans D. R., Chromatographia, 1, 187 (1968).
30 Goedert M., Guiochon G., J. Chromatogr. Sci., 7, 323 (1969).
31 King W. H., Dupre G. D., Anal. Chem., 41, 1936 (1969).
32. Clarke ., Grant D. W., in: Gas Chromatography 1970, R. Stock (Ed.), The
Institute of Petroleum, London, UK, 1971, p. 189.
33 Johnson H. W., Stross F. H., Anal. Chem., 31, 1206 (1959).
34 Halasz I., Anal. Chem., 36, 1428 (1964).
35. Guiochon G., J. Chromatogr., 14, 378 (1964).
36 Goedert M., Guiochon G., Anal. Chem., 45, 1188 (1973).
37. Goedert M., Guiochon G., Anal. Chem., 42, 962 (1970).
38. Littlewood . ., Gas Chromatography, Principles, Techniques, and Applications, Academic Press, New York, NY, 1970.
39 Sanford R. ., Miller M. I., Agers . ., Analytical Instruments, Plenum
Press, New York, NY, 1965, p. 87.
40 Sternberg J. C, Gallaway W. S., Jones D. T. L, in: Gas Chromatography,
N. Brenner, J. E. Callen, M. D. Weiss (Eds.), Academic Press, New York,
NY, 1962, p. 231.
41. Bruderreck H., Schneider W'., Halasz !., Anal. Chem., 36, 461 (1964).
42. Denting S. N., Morgan S. L., InstrumenTune-up, Elsevier Scientific Software, Amsterdam, NL, 1983.
43. Blu G., Lazarre F., Guiochon G., Anal. Chem., 45, 1375 (1973).

ffl
17

255

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262

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267

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1
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1
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356

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IF PSh<DS>> = Hh OP P S B < D S K = H1 T H b N h = 0 ELSE
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ON Hl + 1 GOTO 4,4, 468, 499, 506. 510, 520, 50


46 !" RLRPM
RLRPM
IIn j e c tti - . i
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40
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282


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418
420 ftl=S+H+Tn
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283

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1 = 1 TO 7 : ? E H D
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DRTR ,495,1.50.4?5,8
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END
S = #C2ue: K = #C380: INPUT "LINE " L: LIST'L!
I = 29 + 2PEE f ''PEEK#C3R2 + S>: FOR T = S TO S + 64
IF C
O 1 ! 1 = 1+1: C = PEEK I 7F: POKE T/
T
N E K : POKE , , 9, 5: END
B = DT: IF DCT1 THEN D = T1 RLWRVS IF !1N = 0 THEH 520
POfE #C2CD,0: BISF : GOTO 160: END

60

68S

(. III.4),
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. 17.13. , [44].
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284

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286

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17.4.

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1

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1 -

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1.

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77 89

PSR (US) = 11S960.


PS T (OS) = 216.

=2

dioSa IS
+
24,27% (.)

24,480,80%
: 1,12

24,41 0,40%
: 1,12

24,17 0,57%
:
1,385

:
0,264

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: 30 .

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250 .
: , - (. 17.10, )
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30 .
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paSoves


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2, %

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ps

217

2
,

1.
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24 18
77. 9

=
PSR (OS) =119114.

PSA (OS) = 70.

paSovee

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3
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73:28-51

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217

9.
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PSr/
. 17.14. (DS). : (1) (2). (3). (. .)

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V = /19 135.
1=2/7.

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77. 3

PSA (DS)= /1176.


PST(PRUffO.

=77. =7.

paSovee

288

l 17.

17.5




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291

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10,66

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[45]
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82,01X0,635

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3. ,

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2
3
4
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% (.)
66,34
65,71
67,04
62,55
63,40

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68,33
68,07
65,09
65,67
62,51

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299

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1 ; 100200 80 2/ (, Rhone Poulenc), 10% .
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300

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301


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302

17.
17.9.
[37]

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1,34

17.10.
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1,65

NH 3

0,97

2 NH 3

1,015


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2
3 NH 3

4 ; (-2,6---) 80100 [48].


: 70 .
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303

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5 NH 3

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50,8
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50,9
33,6
15,5

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50,5
35,0
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50,9
33,7
15,4

+ 0,8
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+ 6,2

51,8
33,7
14,5

52,6
31,9
15,5

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51,4
33,8
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52,9
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50,9
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16,8

52,8
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15,6

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2,2
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NH3/CO2,

1
2
3

1,51
1,50
1,44

1,57
1,52
1,51

, %
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+ 1,3
+4,85

. 512 .
1,29
12,50 .
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.

305

17.11. ,
[37]

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5 (). .
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5,815
5,515
5,670
5,630
5,665
5,730
5,110
5,315
5,060

1,250
1,205
1,245
1,140
1,200
1,200
1,080
1,145
1,100

0,400
0,430
0,445
0,445
0,430
0,390
0,370
0,370

0,055
0,070
0,035
0,110
0,110
0,090
0,170
0,195
0,210

0,020
0,020
0,020
0,020
0,025
0,025
0,020
0,020
0,020

. 17.24. 13 ; 4 ; 5 -, 6 ; 7 ; 8
; 9 ( ); 10 ; // .

8 1969 .
9
10
16
18
19
26
29
30

, /3

56,00
56,20
57,30
55,30
55,10
55,00
55,00
55,00
54,65


, (. 17.11).
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[35].
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160200 , 80 / (),
10% .
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306

J 17.

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4
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311

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).
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312

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.
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.

1. Fraade D. J., National Petroleum Refiners Association, Technical Paper


62.36 (1962).
2. Wall R. F., Instrum. Technol., 14, 59 (1967).
3. Karasek F. W.t Sci. Amer., 220, 112 (1969).
4. Bailey S. J., Control. Eng., 23, (6), 22 (1976).
5. Fellows G., Control Eng., 4 (6), 75 (1957).
6. Thomason E. M., ISA J., 10, 56 (1963).
7. Sternberg I. C, in: Gas Chromatography, L. Fowler (Ed.), Academic Press,
New York, NY, 1963, p. 161.
8. Manning D. E., Instrum. Technol., 15, 67 (1968).
9. Burges D. /., Proc. Soc. Anal. Chem., 5, 132 (1968).
10. Cutler M. R., Proc. Soc. Anal. Chem., 5, 133 (1968).
11. Derose ., Proc. Soc. Anal. Chem., 5, 134 (1968).
12. Fowler L, Instrum. Technol., 16, 46 (1969).
13. Topham W. H., Instrum. Technol., 17, 51 (1970).
14. Klein ., Coniriol. Eng., 22 (12), 39 (1975).
15. Weiss M. D., Control Eng., 24 (9), 66 (1977).
16. Pine C. S. F., Talanta Review, 14, 269 (1966).
21

316

17.
1

17. McWilliam I. , in: Advances in Qhromatography, /. . Giddings and


R. A. Keller (Eds.), M. Dekker, New York, NY, 1968, p. 163.
18. Martin F. D., Instrum. Technol., 24, 51 (1977).
19.
Vlltalobos R., Brace R. 0., Johns ., in: Gas Chromatography, H. J. Noebbets, R. F. Wall and N. Brenner (Eds.), Academic Press, New York, NY,
20. 1961, p. 39.
Turner G. S., Villalobos R., in: Gas Chromatography, N. Brenner, I. E. Cal21. len and M. D. Weiss (Eds.), Academic Press, New York, NY, 1963, p. 363.
22. Crum W. M., 17th Proc. Natl. Instr. Symp., 8, 263 (1962).
23. VUlalobos R., Turner G. S., ISA J., 10, 67 (1963).
24. Villalobos R., Chem. Eng. Progr., 64, 55 (1968).
25. Villalobos R., Chem. Eng. Prog., 64, 55 (1968).
26.
Turner G. S., Crum W. M., 18th Proc. Natl. Instr. Symp., 9, 77 (1963).
Smith
R. W., Wotring A. W., Johnson L. tf, Morgan L. W., ISA J , 24,
27.
28. 131 (1977).
29. Villatobos R., Turner G. S., Instrum. Technol., 23, 51 (1976>.
30.
31. Giraud ., Rev. Inst. Pet., 18, 271 (1963).
32. Foumenteze J. L, Rev. Metall., 1967, 61.
33. Smith J., Villalobos R., ISA Trans., 7 (4), 273 (1968).
34. Fair J. R., Crocker . ., Null H. R., Chem. Eng, 19 (9), 146 (1972).
35. Foster R. ., Chem. Eng., 22 (3), 65 (1975).
36. Barnes L. K., 18th ISA Annual Conference and Exhibit, September 1966.
37. Konrad - ., Greenbrier Co., , 1970.
Guillemin . L, Mesures, 41, 1 (1976).
38. Villalobos R., Instrum. Technol., 14, 59 (1967).
39. Guillemin L., Vermont J., Juston P., Ferradini P., Artur ., Peyron .,
40. J. Chromatogr. Sci, 9, 155 (1971).
41. Guillemin L, Mesures, 37, 87 (1972).
42. Goedert M., Guiochon G., Anal. Chem, 45, 1188 j(1972).
43. Guillemin L, Mesures, 37, 99 (1972).
44. Guillemin L, Instrum. Technol., 4, 43 (1975).
45. Guillemin C. L., J. High Resolut. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Commun., 3,
46.
(1980).
47. 620
Guillemin L, Colloque IRA, Aries, (France), 1979, p. 112.
Guillemin L, J. Chromatogr., 239, 363 (1982).
48. Fotlain G., Colloque IRA, Aries (France), 1979, p. 23.
49.
50. Sain-Yriex ., Le Simple J., Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 1967, 4365.
Guillemin L., Auricourt F., Du Crest J., Vermont J., J. Chromategr, Sci.,
7, 493 (1969).
Carte G. C, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 8, 550 (1970).
Tranchant J., Z. Anal. Chem, 236, 137 (1968).
Othmer D. F., Frohlich G. F., Ind. Eng. Chem., Process Des. Dev., 3, 273
(1964).

(Absolute Retention Time). ,


. (Retention Time).
.
. . . 23 (I).
: <R.
(Absolute Retention Volume).
. , .
. . . 23 (1).
: VR.
(Adsorbents). ,
, , -. , , , , . : , ,
( ), , . . . 224 (I).
(Adsorption Chromatography). , .
. . . 97 (1).
(Adsorption). - ,
( )
. , .
.
, ,
. . . 97104 (I).
(Activation of Adsorbent). , ,
, , ,
. .
.
, - , ,
.

.
, .
(Headspace Analysis). . ,

318

, , , .
, , . ,
,
, , .
, \
,
(Apiezon). , , , , , . , ,
( ?), .
L; N.
250 .
(Argon Ionization Detector). 1958 . (,
- ,


,
, ,
.
,
,
-,
( M Sr, 63 Ni, 3 H), . , Ne, , 2 , N2, 2, , 2, 4, , , ,
. . . . 563569 (I),
(Asymmetry).
.
, , 0,10. . . 30 (I),
: As.
(Aerogels). , , , .
, ,
, . ,

, . , , .
(By-pass Injector). ,
, -,

.
(Eddy Diffusion). , -

319

. , , . ,
, , , , , . . . 121125 (I).
(External Standard).
,
. . . 211 (II).
(Internal Standard). , .
, , . (), ,
, , . . . 210 (II).
() (Hold-up Time (Volume)). . () (Gas Hold-up Time (Volume)).
() (Gas Hold-up Time (Volume)). ( )
. , .
: tm t0. . . 23 (I).
(Retention Time). 1) : , . 2) : . 3) : , . 4) : , ,
; 5) : , . 6) :
. 7) : . . . . 21, 2326 (I).
(Air Retention Time).
. . . 24 (I).
(Inert Compound Retention Time)
. (Gas Holol-up Time).
(Gut and Weigh).
. , ,
, .
- ,
.
. . . 186, 332 ().
, (Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate). . ,
. . . 29 . 4 (1).
: () .


320

321

(Peak Height). .
, . , . 39 (I).
: h.
(Plate Height). , . , . . . 4 (I).
: .
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, , ,
,
, . =1,2 , , . .
16 (I).
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Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate).

(Height

- (Carrier Gas). .
(Gas-Solid Chromatography). , , .
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Layer Chromatography). , , , .
. . . 7.
(Interstitial Volume). , .
.
.
(Gas-Liquid Chromatography). , ,
.
, , (GSC, GLC, GC). , , .
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( ), -.
, , Ne,
. .
. . 563569 (I).
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, .
. . . 2 (I).
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, ,
-, -
. . . 8098 (II).

(Deactivation). , , , , ,

.
1) (, ) , 2) (, ), 3) 4) , - (, ).
(Splitter). , (). ,
, 1 . 23 .
, ,
,
,
-. ,
. , ,
. . . . 348366 (I).
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(Lovelock Detector). . .
,
(Solute Property Detector). , . , . . .
, (Bulk Property Detector). ,
,
. ,
. . ,
.
.
, , ,
. , , . . . 475492 (I),
(Gas Density Balance). , - . , . . . 493506 (I).
(Electron Mobility Detector). , . .

322

(Cross-section Detector). . ,
^- . , , , . ,
. ,
- , .
.
(Thermal Conductivity Detector). , .
, , . , . .
, .
-. . . 506522 (I).
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(Electrolytic Conductivity Detector). (
.) ,
,
. , . .
(Diatomaceous Earth). . , , , .
. .
. . 222235 (I).
(Variance). . . . . 28 (I).
(Differential Detector). , . ,
. , ,
. . . 475 (I).
(Diffusion), , , ,
. .

. , ,
( , )
. .
. . 119 (I).
: Ds Di. : 2/.
(Standard Addition). .
, . , -

323

. , . . . 209 ().
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(Drift). . .
(Base Line Drift). . -
-, .
.
, ,
. . . 192199 (II).
(Peak Capacity). , , ( k{' 2'>
0 7,4, -).
: TZ.
,
(Liquid Phase). ,
.
(Liquid Loading). . .
, 100 ( ). . . 239248 (I).
(Deferred Standard). .
, , , ,
, .
. . . 270289 (II).
: DS.
(Zone). .
(Reversing). , (. ),
. . , 425 (I).
(Isorheic Mode). -, - . , , - . , - ,
.
(Adsorption Isotherm). .
. , ,
. ,

324

, , ,
. (
), (
). ,
, , , (tR ). , ,
(tR ). ,
. . . 5 (I).
(Langmuir Isotherm). ,
.
. , .
.
maP/(\-\-bP).
(Isothermal Chromatography). ,
. :
.
(Kovats Index). . . . . 1116 3748(11).
: RI /.
(Retention Index). . .
,
. . . 31 (I) 1116 (II).
(Integral Detector). , ,
, .
.
(Interface). , , , - . , , .
(Watson Biemann Interface). -, , , . 10
100- . . . 92 (II).
(Ionization Detector). , , .
( ) (Corrected Retention Volume (Time)). ( ),
_ -. . . 24 (I).
: VR(tR).

325

( )
{Adjusted Retention Volume (Time)). ( ) ( ). , .
( ). . . 24 (I).
:
VR'(tR').
(Injection Port). , -. ,
, .
(Capillary Column). . ()
. , - , . . . 8 (I).
(Carbowax). . ,
, . ,
. -, .
.
(Katharometer). . .
(Kieselguhr). , . . .
(Column). .
,
. : , () , () ,
, ()
, , ()
. . , () () , .
. . 8 (I).
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- (McReynolds Constants).
- .
.

. . . 51 (II).
(Concentration Sensitive Detector). ,

. . . 475480 (1).

326

(Adsorption Coefficient). , , . . . 98 (I).


: (Capacity Factor Capacity Ratio_ of the
Column). , . ]!?.
. . 25 7489 (I).
: k'.
(Response Factor). \ .
. -'
. . 480 (I).
(Distribution Coefficient Partition Coefficient).
. . . . 77 (I).
: KR KR0.
(Frontal Ratio). :
( ). . . 26 (I).
: RF.
(Retention Factor). -, Rx9.

- -, . , .
- (Sampling Valve). ,
. -
, , .
, - . - ( ) ,
, .
. , - ,
. . . 397412 (I).
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. . . 38 (I).
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.
800 , , , ,
, .
, . ,
.
.
, .
- (Linear Gas Velocity). ,
-. -..

327

,
, ( -
' ).
( -).
-
. . . 22 . 2 (I).
: 0 .
(Linearity). 1) ,
( ). 2) , ( ). . .
(Linear Range). ( ), ,
. (),
5% , . . . 484 (I).
(Dynamic Linear Range). , ( 5%),
. . . 484 (I).
(Trap). ,
,
, , .
- (Mass Sensitive Detector). ,
. . . 477 (I).
(Matrix). ,
.
(Craig Machine). , , . . ,
.
. . 1'620 (I).
( ) (Dead Volume (Time)).
( ) , . . , (
).
, , . . . 23 (I).
: tm to.
(Methyl Silicone).
, . .
() (Logarithmic Dilution Method). , ,
. ,

328

. . . . . 139142 (II),
(Mesh). , . , ;1 .
(Multidimensional Chromatography). ,
,
, ;!
.
(Molecular Sieves). , , , . .
.
, , , . , , .
(Start). , .
(Wheatstone Bridge). ,
. -, , . ,
. .
() (Packing). , .
.
(Packed Column). , , ,
. . . 6 7 (I).
(Stationary Phase). , . () , .
(Continuous Chromatography).
.
, . . , , .
, -, .
, .
(Lower Detection Limit). . .
(Support). . .

329>

(Base Line). , . , . .
, , . .
(Derivatization). ,
. , ().
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Tailing, Tailing). , , , . ,
,
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, (, ) ; 2)
; 3) ,
. . . 5.
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. ,
, , ,
, , , . . . . 5 (I).
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.
,

. . 413417 (I) 429 (II).
(Void Volume). ,
. . . . 23 (I).
- (Flow Rate). -.
-, .
,
() - . . . 2 (II).
: F.
(Alumina). ( )

( 200 2 /). ( : I ).
, , .
22659

330

,
, () .
(Deferred Standart). . .
() (Axial Molecular Diffusion).
. ,
, . ,
. . . 120 (I).
: .
(Peak Base) .
(Sampling Port).
, -.
() (Open Tubular Column). , ,
. ,
. . . 8 (I).
: .
() , (Wall Coated Open Tubular Column (WCOT Column)). . () .
() ,
(Support Coated Open Tubular Column (SCOT Column)). , .
() ,
(Porous Layer Open Tubular Column (PLOT Column)). ,
, , , . . . 339 (I).
(Relative Retention).
, . . . 32 (I) 83 (I).
: .
(Relative Response
Factor). . . 480 (I).
/ (Signal to Noise Ratio). .
(Vapor Phase Chromatography). ,
.
(Switching Valve). ,
. , , - ,
. . . . 413 (I).

331.

(Column Switching). ,
. .


. . . . 412
462 (I).
(Heartcutting).
. , , , , , .
. . . 417423 432436 (I).
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,
. . . 423 (I).
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: .
(Peak). .

. ,
.
(Peak Capacity). . .
(Flash Pyrolysis).
. . .
(Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography).
. ( ) (8001000 ).
. -

.
- (Flame Ionization Detector). ,
.
. , . (: 2 = , )
, 1020 /( ).
. . . 522535 (I).
-
(Alkali Metal Flame Ionization Detector). . .
- (Flame Photometric Detector). ,
- . ,
, .
-, .
, . . . 554557 (I).
22

-332

333

(Planimeter).
, .
. ,
. . . 186 ().

(Correction Factor). 1) . -'. 2) ,


(. ).

(Peak Area). ,
. . . . 15 (I).
, .

(James and Martin Correction


Factor). , -
.
. . . 5558 (I).

(Mobile Phase). - .
(). . .
(Polyglycols). , . () ().
(Polystyrene Gels). ,
, .
.
. , 100 .
(Polyesters). ,
. ,
- -, -.
() (Uncorrected Retention Time).
, .
. . 21 (I).
tK.
(Band). , .
.
, . .
, . ( )
(Backflush). -
, ,
. , , , - , . ,
, , ,
. ,
,
, , . . , , . . . 417 (I).
(Polarity). , . , , . , .
. . . 56 (II).

- (Compressibility
Correction Factor). , , ,
- .
, ,
. . . . 55 (I).
: j .
(Porapak). -, . 100.
(Response Time). ,
() , ,
.
, , . . . 489 (I).
, (Limit of Detection, Detection
Limit). ( ),
.
, ,
, . . , . . . 482484 (I).
(Reduced Plate Height). , . . . 138140 (I).
- (Reduced Velocity). , -
- , -.
. . . 138 (I).
() (True Retention Time (Volume)).
, ( -, ),
. () , (
). . . 24 (I).
:
tR'(VR').
(Bonded Stationary Phases). , (), < .

334


. 1 , . , , , , , , , .
, . .
( :
) .
(Sample Loop). ^,
. , -
. . 397409 (I).
- (Pressure Programming).
-.
- (Flow Rate Programming). ,
. - , , - ( ) ,
, .
, , -
. . . . 68 (1)
(Temperature Programming). !>
,
. .
,
, , . . . 106112 (I).
. . .
(Septum). ,
, .
.
, .
,

. . 403 (I).
(Radial Diffusion). . .
(Band Broadening). ,
, , , . . . 4.
(Partition). .
. . . 3
() (Solute).
, , .
(Flow Meter) , !

335

- , .
, ,
, ,
,
-.
.
- (Recorder). ,
: .
(Selectivity). , . . . 479 (I).
(Selective Detector). , . ,
,
, , . . . 10.
(Silylation). , ,
, , , . ., . . ,
, .
(Silica Gel). .
.
(Silicone). i[Si]
3, Si.
, ,
. .
. ,
; . -.
-- (Van der Waals Forces). . (), , (), ,
.
, .
(Peak Symmetry). . - ,
, - -
. , .
. . 30 (I).

336

(Sampling System, Inlet System). , ,


, -,
. . 349-366 397409 (I).
(Squalane). 2,6,10,15,19,23. 350 ,
120 . , , .
. , , .
(Resistance to Mass Transfer, Mass Transfer
Resistance). , . ,
, , , ,
(. . 121128 (I). ,
,
.
, . , ( ),
, - () (). . . 121128 (1)
- (Average Carrier Gas Velocity). , . . . 55 (I).
: .
(Standard Deviation). .
. . . 26 (I).
: .
(Glass Beads).
. , . .
(Resolution). .
. . 3337 (I).
: R.
(Slurry). - . . . 250 (I).
(Solid Support). ,
, ,
, .
, . . . 222237 (1).
(Theoretical Plate). ,
.

337

, .
. . . 118 (I).
(Plate Theory). , , .
() (Thermistor). , . .
(Thermoionic Detector). . (Rb Cs).
, , . . . 547554 (I).

(Triangulation). , .
. . . 183185 (II).
(Specific Retention Volume).
,

. . . 25 7880 (I).
(Retention Volume). , , . ,
, , , ,
()

(.
).
. . 2325 (I).
(Storing). , ,
, .
. . . 424427 (I).
(Bleeding). .
, . , , . . 1) ,
2) , , , 3) , , 4) .
, - , .
. . 260261 (II).
(Ultrasonic Detector). ,
.
, ,
- ,

338

. ,
.
(Van Deemter Equation). ,
. . ,
, ,
.
,
, ( )
. . 130-138 (I).
(Golay Equation). :
.
(Phase Ratio). , . , , .
(Phenyl Silicones).
. 300 .
, , SE,
OV DC 0
25%.
(Photoionization Detector). ,
. . . 557563 (I).
(Photometric Detector). . - .
(Frontal Analysis). , . , . . . 15 (I).
(Chromathermography). , ,
. ,
,
.
, , , . -,
.
(Chromatogram).
. , .
(Chromatograph). , .
(Chromatography).
.
, . , , . *

339

, ,
.
(Chromosorb). )
( ); ) ,
.
(A, G, , W)
. , ,

. G ; ,
.
,
; .
. . W
(). A, G, W . ( 101 108) . , , ,
.
(Celite) , . (
) 900
. , (38 2 /). , ,
,
.
(Zeolites). . .
(Separation Number). .
(Effective Plate Number).
, . . . . 38 (I).
: JVeff-

, (Molecular Diffusion Term).

. () .

(Sensitivity). , . , ,
, . . .
.
, . . . 480 (X).

340

(Band Width). . . . . . 2630 (1).


: w.
(Peak Width). , . . . 29 (I).
: w.
(Peak Width at Half-Height). ,
,
.
:
(Brockman Scale). ,
(. . )
.
.
(. . RF ) , ,
.
,
, .
(Syringe). . , . ,
. . . 403 (I).
(Noise). .
(Electronic Integrator). , , .
.
. , ,
. . . 187191 (II).
(Electron Capture Detector). - . ( , . .)
, ,
, .
(1010 ). , . . . . 535547 (I).
(Eluate). .
.
(Eluent). .
(Elution). ,
,

34!

.
(Eluite). , .
(Net Retention Time). ,

. ,
. . . . 24 ( I ) .
: tn (Effective Peak Number). !
, ,
-.
. . . 38 (I).
: EPN.
(Efficiency of a Column, Column Performance). . , , . . . 29 4 (I).
: N.
(Net Retention Volume). )
,
. . . 24 (I).
: VN-

-
*

accuracy 1. ; 2. ()
; 3. .
actuate 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; , .
addition 1. , ( ); ; 2. ().
additive 1. ; ; 2. .
complexing ~ .
adsorbent .
heterogeneous .
adsorption .
affinity
electron ~ .
air .
compressed ~ .
servo- ~ .
alarm 1. ; 2. .
aliquot , .
allocation , .
area ~
(
).
alumina , .
amount 1. ; 2. ,
.
amplifier .
analysis , .
airborne pollution ~
factor .
fast ~ , -.
frontal ~ .
headspace ~
,
.
. .

isothermal .
off-line ~
.
on-line ~ ^ .
process control ~ .
qualitative ~ .
quantitative ~ .
analyte .
angle .
contact ~ ().
approximation , .
as a first ~ .
area , .
cross-section ~ .
peak ~ .
specific surface ~ .
artefact , .
average ().

backflushing .
background .
electrical noise ~ .
backpurging .
balance 1. , ; 2. .
gas density ~ .
band , .
base , .
peak ~ .
bead .

glass ~ s .
black 1. ; 2. .
graphitized carbon ~ .
bleeding () .
body , .
heated ~ .
bridge ,
.
Wheatstone ~ .
broadening , .
band ~ .
burner .
calculation , .
manual ~ .
calibration , .
cap ; .
septum ~
.
capacity 1. ; ; 2. ; 3. ;
.
heat ~ .
liquid phase loading ~ .
peak ~ .
capture .
electron ~ .
cell .
flow-through ~ .
measure ~ .
reference ~ .
semi-diffusion ~ .
chamber .
ionization ~ .
vaporization ~ .
chart .
recorder ~ .
chromatogram .
first step ~
.
idealized ~ .
chromatograph .
gas ~ .
modular ~ .
on-line process control gas ~ (
) .

343

chromatography .
continuous ~ .
displacement
~

.
elution ~ .
gas-adsorption layer ~

gas-liquid ~ .
gas-solid
~

.
modified gas-solid ~
.
multidimensional ~
.
partition
~

.
process control gas ~

.
programmed temperature gas ~ .
pyrolysis gas ~
.
circuit , .
gas ~ .
coating
.
dynamic ~ .
static ~

support ~

coefficient .
activity ~ .
adsorption ~ .
apparent diffusion ~
.
compressibility
~

.
correction ~ ~" .
diffusion ~ .
gas phase diffusion ~ .
James and Martin ~ () *

344

.
numerical ~ .
partition ~ .
second virial ~
.
tortuosity ~ .
coiled , .
collection 1. ; 2. .
data ~ 1. ; 2. .
column .
advanced ~
.
chromatographic ~ .
open tubular ~ ()
.
packed ~ .
porous layer open tubular ~ ()

.
support coated open tubular ~ ()
, .
wall coated open tubular ~
() , .
wide bore open tubular ~
() .
component .
sample ~ s .
compound () ,
.
homologous ~s .
inert ~ () .
retained ~ .
concentration .
finite ~ .
maximum ~ .
total ~ .
condition 1. ; 2. ;
3. ; 4. (pi) .
experimental ~ s .
^conductivity 1. , -

-
; 2. .
thermal ~ .
connector .
constant , .
complexation ~ .
desorption rate ~ .
Henry ~ ,
time ~ .
universal gas ~ .
content ,
control , ,
.
intermediate pressure ~ ,
on-line ~
.
process ~ , .
temperature ~ , .
controller , .
flow rate ~ .
pressure ~ .
conversion
, .
A/D [analog-digital] ~ .
correction 1. , ,
; 2. .
~ for .
credibility .
cross-linking .
current 1. . ; 2. , , .
background ~ .
bridge ~ .
dark ~ .
ionization ~ .
curvature .
~ of the isotherm .
curve , ; .
A vs ~
.
ascending ~ .
descending ~ .

cutting 1. (); 2. .
~ and weighing .
cylinder 1. ; 2. .
gas ~ .

D
data .
direct chromatographic ~
.
retention ~ .
deactivation .
deposit , .
density .
loose weight ~ .
derivatization .
-column ~ .
desorption .
detection .
peak ~ .
detector .
argon ionization
~
.
concentration ~
.
electron capture ~ .
flame ionization ~ - .
flame photometric ~ - .
helium ionization ~ .
Lovelock ~ .
mass-sensitive ~
.
photoionization ~ .
selective ~ .
thermal conductivity ~
.
thermoionic ~ .
deviation .
relative standard ~
.
standard ~ .
device .
sampling ~
.
diagram .
23659

345

window ~ .
selectivity ~ .
diameter .
average particle ~ .
average pore ~
.
column inner ~ .
difference , .
diffusion .
axial molecular ~ () .
radial molecular ~ () .
dilution .
analyte ~ .
infinite ~ .
discontinuity ().
concentration ~ ()
.
display 1. ; 2.
(); 3. .
data ~ .
dissolution .
distance .
distribution .
size ~ .
doublet .
drift .
base line ~ .
drying , .
earth , .
diatomaceous ~ .
effect 1. , ; 2. .
temperature ~ .
efficiency .
column ~ .
electrode .
accelerating ~ .
collecting ~ .
concentratic ~ s
.
parallel plate ~ s
.

346

element .
heating ~ .
sensing ~ .
equation 1. ; 2. .
Golay ~ .
mass balance ~ .
Van Deemter ~ .
equilibrium .
equipment , .
ancillary ~ .
error , .
instrumental ~
.
esterification .
estimate .
evaluation .
factor 1. ; 2. .
apparent column capacity ~
.
capacity ~
().
correction ~ for gas compressibility

.
James and Martin correction ~

.
molar relative response ~ .
response ~ .
separation ~ .
weight relative response ~ .
family , , , .
chemical ~ .
ferrule ; ; .
graphite ~ .
film , .
homogeneous ~ .
uniform ~ .
filter .
optical ~ .

filtering , .
noise ~ .
fit 1. ; 2.
.
least square ~ .
flame .
diffusion ~ .
flooding .
flow , .
gas ~ , .
fluid , ; ;
; () ; ; ; , .
supercritical
~

;
; .
fluidization , .
foil .
force , .
Van der Waals ~ s -
.
frequency .
acquisition ~
.
fronting .
function .
alarm ~ .
Student ~ .
gas .
axiliary ~ .
axiliary carrier ~
-.
carrier ~ -.
permanent ~ .
reference ~ .
gaseous , .
gauge
1. ;
2. , .
pressure ~ .
gel .
modified silica ~ .
silica ~ .
polystyrene
~

.
glass .
gradient .
pressure ~ .

grid ; .
metal ~ .
group .
bound reactive ~ .
free .
functional ~ .
geminal ~ .
Kiselev's ~ .
silanol ~ .
growing ; .
whisker ~ .
-guide .
needle ~
.

iieartcutting .
handling 1. ; 2. , .
data ~ .
height .
~ equivalent to a "theoretical plate
, .
peak ~ .
plate ~ .
reduced plate ~ .
tiold-up .
gas ~ .
"hole .
trydrogenation , .
on-line ~ .
Impact 1. ; 2. , .
electron ~ .
Impurity , .
trace ~ .
index , , .
Kovats ~ .
retention ~ .
Influence .
Injection .
-colutnn ~ .
pressure pulsed ~
.
23

347

pulsed ~ .
syringe ~ .
injector , .
on-column
.
Ros ~ .
splitless ~
.
splitter ~
.
inlet , ; .
column ~ .
instrumentation (-) .
gas chromatographic ~ .
insulation .
electrical ~ .
thermal ~ .
insulator .
integration .
computer ~ .
manual ~ .
peak ~ .
integrator .
electromechanical ~ .
electronic ~ .
interaction .
molecular ~ s

.
interface 1. , ; 2. .
direct ~ .
open split ~
.
Watson Biemann ~
.
ionization .
chemical ~ .
electron impact .
flame ~ .
isotherm .
adsorption ~ .
Langmuir ~ .
S-shape ~ S- .
J
jet .
law , ; .
Darcy ~ .

348

layer , .
thin ~ .
leaching .
leading .
leak-proof .
length .
column ~ .
step ~ ()
( ).
lifetime ; .
column ~ .
limit , .
confidence ~ .
detection ~ ().
lower detection ~

().
line ; ( ).
base ~ .
the best straight ~ .
linearity .
liner , , .
glass ~ ().
vaporization ~ .
liquid .
coated ~ ( )
.
loading ; .
liquid ~ ,

()
.
location 1. , ;
2. ,
.
~ of analyzer .
loop ; .
sample ~ .
loss ; .
~ of efficiency .

machine ; ; ; .
Craig ~ .
glass drawing ~
.

maintenance .
mass .
material , .
packing ~ , .
matrix ().
mean 1. () ; 2. , ; (pi).
measure 1. ; 2. ; 3. .
measurement ; .
membrane , .
flexible ~ .
mesh 1. ; 2. ;
3. ( 1 ).
meter 1. ; ; 2. (, ).
flow ~ .
method .
Condal Bosh ~ -.
Deans ~ .
dynamic ~
( ).
Rohrschneider ~ .
static ~ ( ).
mixing , .
mixture .
calibration ~ .
complex ~ .
test ~ .
undiluted ~ .
mode 1. ; 2. , ;
3. (), ; 4. , .
chromatographic ~ s .
model ; .
random walk ~
.
modification 1. , (,
;
2. , ,
.
chemical ~ .
geometrical ~ .
mole , -.
monolayer .
N
nebulization , .

needle 1.; 2. .
neighbor ,
.
the nearest ~ .
noise , ; , .
normalization .
internal ~ .
number ; ; ;
.
effective peak ~ .
effective theoretical plates ~

.
plate ~ .
Reynolds ~ .
separation ~ .
theoretical plates ~ .

operation 1. ; ;
2. , .
optimization .
order ; ;
.
elution ~ .
reverse ~ .
origin 1. (); 2. , .
outlet ; ; .
column ~ .
oven 1. ; 2. .
temperature controlled ~ .
overloading .
column ~ .
oxide .
metal ~ .
pack ; ().
packing 1. ; (); 2. ();
3. ; ; ; .
column ~ .
material ~ , .
parameter .
operating ~ s .
experimental ~ s -

349

.
reduced ~ .
particle .
partition .
peak , .
air ~ ( ).
early ~ .
Gaussian ~ .
ghost ~ .
late ~ .
lost ~ .
moving ~ .
partially resolved ~ s .
unsymmetrical ~
.
performance 1. ; ;
2. () .
column ~ .
period ; .
pulse ~ .
permeability .
column ~ .
specific column ~ .
phase .
apolar stationary ~
.
bonded stationary ~ s
.
gas ~ .
immobilized stationary ~ .
liquid ~ .
liquid stationary ~
.
mobile ~ .
polar stationary ~ .
solid ~ .
stationary ~ .
photoionization .
photometry .
flame ~ .
photomultiplier .
piston
articulated ~ .
planimeter .
planimetry .
plate 1. ; ; 2.
(); 3 ; 4. .

350

theoretical ~ .
plot , .
plug 1. , ; 2. ; 3. .
coating solution ~ .
glass wool ~ .
mercury ~ .
point 1. ; 2. ;
3. .
intersection ~ .
polarity .
pollutant .
polymer .
porous ~ .
port ; ; ; .
injection ~
.
inlet ~ .
outlet ~ .
sampling ~
.
potential .
excitation ~ .
ionization ~ .
powder ; ; .
teflon ~ .
precision 1. ; 2. ;
3. , ; 4. ; 5. .
predictability .
~ of the response
.
prediction , .
preparation 1. ; ; 2. .
pressure .
atmospheric ~ .
average column ~ .
inlet ~ .
intermediate
~

.
local ~ .
outlet ~ .
partial ~ .
vapor ~ .
pressurization .
principle ; ; .
detector ~ .

-
probe 1. ; ; ; 2. ,
; 3. , ,
temperature ~ .
problem 1. ; ; 2. .
procedure 1. ; 2. ; 3. ;
4. .
general ~ .
practical ~ .
safety ~ .
process 1. ;
; ; ; ;
2. .
chromatographic ~ .
processing ; .
data ~ .
product 1. ; ; ; 2. ; 3. .
profile ; , ;
; .
band ~ .
pressure ~ .
velocity ~ .
programming .
flow rate ~
.
pressure ~ .
temperature ~
.
propagation .
~ of bands .
property , .
pure .
purge , .
septum ~
.
purification .
pyrolysis , , .
flash ~ .
R
radius .
inner ~ .
range 1. , , ;
; , ; 2. ; 3.
.

dynamic linear ~ .
rate
1. ;
;
2. ; ; 3. .
elution ~ .
flow ~ , -.
program ~ .
ratio ; ; .
capacity ~ .
coating ~ .
coverage ~ of adsorbent
.
frontal ~ .
inlet to outlet pressure ~ -
-
.
phase ~ .
signal to noise ~ /.
splitting ~ .
reaction .
post-column ~ .
reagent , .
silanization
~

.
recorder ,
; .
regression .
linear ~ .
relation ; ; .
relationship ; .
reliability ; .
repeatability
; .
reproducibility .
requirement , .
resistance ; ;
.
mass transfer ~
.
pneumatic ~ .
resolution ; .
response 1. , ;
2. , ; 3. .

351

detector ~ .
result .
retention .
relative ~ .
reversing ; ,
.
column ~ .

sample , .
sampling ; .
scale 1. ; 2. .
Brockman ~
.
polarity ~ .
schematic ; .
seal .
graphite ~ .
section 1. , , ;
2. ; ; ;
3. , .
column ~ .
cross ~ .
segment 1. ; 2. ; 3. .
intermediate column ~ .
selection ; .
selectivity ; .
sensitivity .
sensor ; .
flow rate ~ .
separation 1. ; ;
2. , .
separator , .
molecular ~ .
septum .
series ; ; .
homologous ~ .
in ~ .
shape ; .
particle ~ .
semi-spherical ~
.
sieve ; .
molecular ~ .
signal .
detector ~ .
silanization .

352

site 1. ; ; 2. , ;
3. .
acidic ~ .
basic ~ .
silylation .
size ; .
normalized sieve mesh ~
()
.
particle ~ .
pore ~ .
slope ; ;
.
slurry .
solid ; .
solute ; (, , ), .
solution 1. ; 2. ;
3. .
approximate ~ .
coating ~
.
numerical ~ .
solvent .
sorbate .
sorption .
source .
instrumental ~ s of error
.
ion ~ .
specification 1. ; 2. ; 3. (pi)
; .
equipment ~ .
spectrometer .
mass ~ -.
spectrometry .
mass ~ -.
spectrophotometry .
Fourier transform infrared

.
splitter .
inlet ~ -
.
stability ; .
base line ~

column ~ .
detector ~ .

long term ~ .
short term ~ .
standard ; ; ;
.
deferred ~ () .
external ~ .
internal ~ .
start .
start-up .
steam .
steel .
stainless ~ .
step ; ; .
stirrer .
storing .
stream ~ ; .
carrier gas ~ -.
structure , .
support 1. ; 2. , .
solid ~ .
surface .
surfactant - .
switching .
column ~ .
valve ~
.
symbol ; .
symmetry , .
peak ~ ,
syringe
system ; ; .
data collection and handling ~ .
detection ~ .
injection ~ .
sampling ~ .
split-splitless ~
/
.

tailing .
tangent 1. ; 2. .
inflection ~
.
technique 1. ; ; -

; ; 2. ;
; .
hyphenated ~ s
; -.
injection ~ .
temperature .
absolute ~ .
column ~ .
optimum ~ .
tension 1. ; 2. .
interfacial
surface ~ .
term 1. ; 2. .
molecular diffusion ~ , .
test 1. ; ; ; 2. .
theory .
plate ~ .
thermistor ().
thickness .
film ~ .
time ; ; .
absolute retention ~
.
adjusted retention ~
.
air retention ~
( ) .
analysis
~

.
corrected retention ~
.
dead ~ .
gas hold-up ~ .
inert compound retention ~
() .
net retention ~ .
response ~ 1. ;
2. ,
.
retention ~ .
switching ~
().
true retention ~
.

353

unconnected retention ~ () .
transfer 1. ; 2. ; 3. .
data ~ .
mass ~ , .
trap .
treatment .
sample ~ .
surface ~ .
triangulation .
tube 1. ; ; 2.
.
chromatographic ~ .
U
unit 1. ; ; ; ;
2. ( ).
analytical ~
arbitrary ~ .
control ~ .

value ; ; .
average ~ .
measured ~ .
predicted ~ .
true ~ .
valve ; ; ;
.
automatic sampling ~ -.
gas sampling ~ -
.
liquid sample injection ~ -

.
liquid sampling ~ -
.
membrane ~ .
N-port ~ N- .
piston ~
rotatory ~ .
sampling
,
-.
sliding ~ .
solenoid ~ .
split needle ~
.
stop ~ .
switching ~ .

354

vapor , .
vaporization , .
vaporizer .
programmed temperature ~ - .
variance .
variation ; .
velocity .
average carrier gas ~ -.
carrier gas ~
-.
inlet carrier gas ~ -
.
optimum carrier gas ~ .
outlet carrier gas ~ - .
reduced ~
-.
vibrator .
mechanical ~ .
ultrasonic ~ .
viscosity .
voltage .
constant ~ .
polarization ~ .
volume , ; ,
.
absolute retention ~
.
adjusted retention ~
.
column gas ~ .
corrected retention ~ .

dead ~ .
detector cell ~ .
gas hold-up ~ .
loop ~ .
interstitial ~ .
molar ~ .
net retention ~ .
retention ~ .
sample ~ .
specific retention ~ .
true retention ~ .
void ~ ().

W
weight 1. ; ; 2. ; .
molecular ~ .
whisker ( ).
width .
band ~ .
base-line ~ of the peak .
peak ~ .
peak ~ at base line
.
peak ~ at half height .
peak ~ at the fraction of its
height .
pulse ~ .
relative peak ~ .
window ; ; .
wool 1. ; 2. .
glass .
zone .

I, 223; II 317
II, 317
I, 99
I,
101
I, 97104; II, 317
,
, I, 92
95
II, 317
, II,
300302


. 17
. 11; .
,
II, 28
48

II, 7476

II, 70
71
. 1316
. 15
. 16
II, 207217
I, 39
. 14
I, 39
. 13
II,
318
I, 106112
I, 107
1,

I, 111
I, 112
I, 107110
I, 15; II, 338
-

. 17
,
I, 58
,
II, 302305
II, 318
I, 30; II 185,
318
II, 318
I, 397409
I, 407409
-- II,
124125
II, 125128
II, 124128
II, 121122
II, 122

II, 122
II, 120124
, , - I, 297299
,
II, 292297

I, 159161
I, 158159
, II,
290292
II, 110
. 16
I, 21, 23, 55, 56;
11,319
I,
60

I, 66
I, 58
II, 19
I, 59
I, 21, 2325,
5556; .
I, 24; II, 317

356

I, 175176
1, 21

I, 1, 21, 56; .

I, 24; II, 324
I, 23; 2, 332
I, 24; II, 333
I, 25; II, 340

. 6
(1- ) I, 196
197; (2- ) I, 201207
I,
370376; .
()
I,
212213
l g a 1/ I, 210212
I, 192194
I, 192194, 222237
I, 224233
I,
233235
- (1- )
I, 198; (2- ) I, 213216
(1- )
I, 197198; (2- ) I, 207
213
I, 237240
I, 240248
II, 232233
I, 22, 39; II, 320
,
II, 221
, II, 221
224
,
II, 222

II, 232233
. 4; II, 320; .
I, 138140; II, 333
,
I, 29, . 4; II, 319
, I, 140146

() I, 130134
I, 128
130
I, 136
-

I, 128135
- I,
134
I, 173180
( ) I, 134136

I, 143

I,
141142
I,
142143

I, 136
I, 143
I, 215
I, 146147
, I, 137
138

I, 134136
I, 131
134

I, 130138
. ,
- I, 50
I, 52
I, 52
I, 53

- II, 320
I,
286299

() I, 86
I, 373
I, 5052
I, 499
I, 213216
I, 53
, I, 509
, II, 297300
.
II, 322
.
.
I, 50, . 2; II, 320
II, 30
43
lg k' lg k'
II, 3435
\gk'
II, 3032
lg Vg II, 3234

557

lg Vg
II, 2024
II, 3234
II, 911
II, 3537
. , 36

.
II, 1624
- II, 98103
I, 23
II, 101
II, 24
II, 101
II,
II, 103
2628
- II, 8098, 320
II, 17
II, 83

II, 84
II, 22
() II,
II, 8894
17-18
II, 91
I, 208
II, 8890
II, 321
II, 90
I, 349366; II,
II, 91
321
II, 91
II, I, 10:
II, 335
92
II, 70
II, 93
71
94
II, 7173
II, 82
II, 71
II,
98

II, 97
I, 492,
, 563; , 318
II, 87
.
II, 8687
I, 563
II, 91
569
II, 8183
I, 568
II, 94
II, 97
I, 569
II, 91
I, 566
II,
I,
92
566

II, 9498
I, 568
II, 97
I,
569
I, 564566
, I, 568
I, 39
I, 565
, I, 31

. 3
I, 569
. 11
I, 568
II, 324
I ,8489
II, 326
.
, 69
II, 69,
II, 321
II, 18
I, 475
II, 2022
492; II, 321
IL.2324
- I, 532
535; II, 331

35S

I, 530

I, 526534
I, 529530
I, 526
I, 527
- I,
528
I,
526529
I, 526
530
I, 533534
I, 532
I, 532
I, 524526
I, 531
I, 522526
I, 531
I, 523

I, 534
I, 531
- I, 554
557; II, 331
I, 556

I, 555557
I, 555
I, 555
556
I, 555
556
' I, 557

I, 557

I, 557
I, 554
I, 556
I, 555

I, 557
I, 556557
I, 493506; , 321
I, 501

I, 494501, 504505
I, 494495
I, 500
I,
497499
- I,
496497

I, 500
I, 500
I, 495
501
I, 496, 504
505
I, 504
I, 503
I, 503
I, 502
I, 493495,
I, 501
I, 503
I, 494

I, 505
I, 502
II, 321
II, 322
I, 506522;
II, 322
I, 515
I, 517
I, 527
I, 522
I, 508
509
I, 513
515
- 1,.
509510
- I,
510
I, 511512
I, 512513
I, 509
515
I, 517521
I, 506509
I, 516
I, 517
I, 506

I, 521
I, 516
.
II, 322
I, 547554; II, 337
I, 552
-

I, 552

I, 548
, -

I, 550
I, 551
I, 551
- I, 551
I, 550
552
I, 553
I, 552
I, 547550
I, 552
I, 548

I, 554
I, 552
II, 337
I, 557563
I, 560
I, 561
, I, 559560
I, 559
I, 561

I, 562563
I, 558
- I, 560
I, 558


I, 563
I, 561
I, 535547, II,
340
I, 538
I, 542

I, 539546
I, 541
- 1,
539
- I,
540
I, 540541
I, 539
542
() I,
544546
I, 544546
I, 543
I, 543
I, 536537
I, 538
I, 539
I, 542

359

I, 536539
I, 542
I 543
I, 538


I, 546
I, 542
I, . 10; II, 321
I, 488
490
I, 475; II, 322
I, 475
II, 324
I 486
II, . 14
I, 475479
I, 476477; II,
325
1,
480482
I, 475
1,
475, 484487
I, 475, 477
488; II, 327
I, 475
I, 473492
I, 475, 490
I, 475, 489
490
I, 475, 482
484
I, 491
I, 475, 479480
I, 490
I, 491492
I, 475, 480482
I, 475, 487

I, 41
():
I, 239
I, 239
I, 150153

I, 484
487; II, 327
I, 484; II, 327
I, 28; II, 322
, I, 27
I, 28
II, 108
I, 118; 11,322
I, 121124; II, 319

360

, I, 120122;
II, 330
,
II, 311314
() II, 7
II, 209, 322
I,
349354; , 323
.
I, 488; II, 192
199, 323
.
I, 38; II, 323
.
I, 239248;
II, 323
, II, 306309

I, 76
I, 98; II, 326
I, 50, 57
I, 75
I, 251254
I, 166
I, 223237; II,
322
II,
108

II, 6780; . ,
II, 79
80

II,
7476
II ,67
73
I, 425427, 429430; 2, 323
I, 423, 430
I, 425, 429, 430

II, 323
II, 324

II, 1116, 3748, 324; .



I, 3133; II, 1116,
324
II, 3742

II, 3840
II,
4042

I, 110
II, 15
.
II, 3133
, II, 4243
II,
1114
II, 318
II,
14, 4348
II, 4548
II, 45

I, 44
I, 45; . ,
I, 44
I, 44; II,
188191, 340
,
189
II, 324; . -,

II, 93, 324


II, 220234
I, 117128; .

II, . 14
II, 214
II, 262, 283
II, 135150
II, 136142
^
142143
, 144145

II, 145147
II, 147149
( ) II, 150161
II, 151152
II, 153
II, 139
142
II,
156157
I, 403405
II, 325
II, 325; .
II, 325
I, 101

I, 568
I, 501
I, 515
I, 530
I, 556
I, 552
I, 560
I, 542
I, . 68; II, 325
I, . 8; II, 325; .

()
,
I, 305306; II, 330
I, 340;
II, 330
I, 306, 339; II, 330

I, 22, 41
I, 58
I, . 6 7; II, 328
I, 307
I, . 7
() I,
. 8: . 330
I, 66
- I, 373
I, 305307
I, 349366

I, 359
364
I, 357
359

1,
364366
24659

361

I, 349
351, 374376
I, 351354
I, 354357
I, 340348
1,
341342

1,346
I. 343346
I, 342
343

- I, 347
348
- I, 346

I, 61
- I, 349
366

1,
366370
I, 307340
- I, 312316

I,
324325
I, 320
322
1,
313316
I, 326329
I, 330334

I, 315,
316

I, 339
, I,
326-339
1,
323324
-
I, 326330
I, 316325
I, 319
NaCl I, 319
I, 312316
I, 322
1,
323

-362

I, 329330
I, 334337
1 I,
322
1,
316

I, 348
370

I, 301305
I, 61

I, 309312
1,
370378
I, 337339
I.
217222
,
I, 8992
I 98
I, 102
I, 9899

- II, 51, 325; . ,


II, 4548; .
,
I, 40

I, 98; II 326
I, 75

I, 80
I, 75,
77
,
I, 85
I, 25, 7477; II,
326

I, 8489

I, 119120
() I, 480; II, 114119, 326
II, 161
179
II, 117118
II, 118119
II, . 14
-

II, 150161

II,
135150

II,
136142
II,
142149
II, 142.
143

II, 161179


II, 145147
II, 150
161

II, 147149


II, 139142
I, 480; II,
. 14, 134, 330
II, 161179
II, 165
II, 332
I, 22, 24,
5658; II, 333
I, 56, 57
I, 5658;
II, 333
I, 77, 8489; II, 326

I, 9295
I, 84
I, 26; II, 10, 326
.

:
I, 125126
:
I, 119
120
I, 119120
I, 120
() , :
I, 569
I, 504
I, 517521

II, 168173
I, 533534

II, 173179

I, 557
I, 553
I, 562
I, 544546
II,
235
.
. -
I, 412428;
II, 330
I, 412428
- I, 397411; , 326
, I,
400401
,
I, 406
, I,
401
, I,
339400
I, 402
I, 405406
I, 409; II, 124128
I, 38; II, 326
II, 337
() I, 568
I, 503
I, 517
I, 532
I, 557
I, 552
I, 561
I, 543
II,
262267
II, 329
I, 488; II, 192199, 323
I, 487488
II, 327

, ,
II, 6870

I, 112125
I, 124
I, 121128; II, 336;
.
() II, 327
24*

363>

I, 1620; II, 327


II, 108
II, 327

1,
366370, 429437; .
,
I, 436437
I, 368, 429, 436
I, 212213,
221222
II,
186, 319

l g a 1/ (
) I, 207212
II,.
139142, 327
I, 188
190

II, . 12
I, 412462
I, 412,
427
I, 429437

I, 436437
I,
437462
I, 437462
I, 412
428
II, 202217

I, 8995
I, 9295
I, 8992
I, 28
117
II, 328
II, 328
. ,
; ,

I, 222235; .

, 1
. 6.4

334

,
I,
. 6.5
-
- I, 64
I, 84
89

II,
209
II, 208


I, 249250
I,
251

I, 232
I, 232
I, 232
I, 235
I, 233235
I, 9597
I, 9597
I, 222237; II, 336

I, 146, . 5; II, 329



I, . 5; II, 329

I, 63; II, 320


I, 21, 23, 41, 63; II,
319
I, 23; II, 327
I, 23; II, 329
I, 23, . 3; II, 337
I, 23; II, 317
I, 9799
- I, 104
- I, 102
I, 102
I, 102
I, 98
I, 263264, 267274
- 1,
294295
I,
95
I, 7783

I, 9295
I,
81

I, 8489

I, 94
I, 80
I,
7580
I, 80
I, 23, 63
I, 24; II, 324
I, 2326
I, 24

1,
84
I, 24; II, 333
I, 25, 77; II, 337
I, 24; II, 340
II, 329


II, 6870
I,
89

I, 147153, . 6; .
I, 190201
I, 201222
II, 330
II, 330; .

I, 26; II, 336
, I, 26
, I, 26
II, 108

-
- I,
50
/ I, 482; II, 330
I, 42, 75; II, 338

- I, 286299
/
/ I, 290291
I, 288290
I, 287290

- 1,
291299

I, 157185
I, 412462;
II, 330

I, 366370, 417
423, 432436; II, 331
I, 368, 421, 429, 433,
436
I, 367370, 432
436
I, 369, 417423
I, 423, 425, 427; II, 331; .
,

I, 4852; II, 331
I, 397412; II,
333
, II, 129
133
. -
II, 331

I, 30; II, 185, 318


II, 2628
II, 26
II, 28
II, 27

,
I, 39

II,
202207
II, 331
. .
II, 186, 331
II, 226
II, 232233
, II, 207
217
I, 27, 39; II, 15
332
II, 224232


- II,
237241
II,
242245
- , 242245

II,
242245

II,

563

242245
II,
245249
II, 241

II, 232233
II, 115119
I, 42; II, . 15
, II, 224
226
;
II, 229


II, 229

/
/ II,
229
II,
229232

II, 229
, II,
226229
I, 39; II, . 15; .

II, 186
, 191
202
- II, 192194
II, 200
201

II,
198199

II,
199200
II, 194195
II, 196
198
II,
195196
II, 186
II, 186
-
II, 185
II, 183

II, 187
II,
188

361

II,
189
II, . 15

II,
191202

II, 187191
II, 182187
II, 332

II, . 16
II, 234236
II, 332

I,
284286
I, 284286
II, 332
II, 332; .
()
.
II, 56,
332
II, 333
I, 489; II, 333
, I, 143
I, 390391

II, . 16
II, 111
I, 482484;
II 333
I, 482484; II, 328
I,
482484; II, 333
I, 568
I, 502
I, 516
I, 483
I, 531
I, 557
I, 552
I, 561
I, 542
II, 109
:
I, 564
I, 493
I, 506
I, 522
I, 554
I, 547
I, 558
I, 536

, I, 398402

, I, 402409

J,
106112; II, 324; .
I, 465470
I, 183185

I, 413417, 429432; II,


329
I, 414
I, 414416
I, 366370, 429
432
I, 417; II, 332
I, 420
I, 420
, II, 329
II, 79
II, 77
II, 77
BF 3 II, 77
I, 403; II, 334
I, 50, 51
I, 61

I, 53
, I,
173180
I, 53
. -
I, 483484
I,
204

, I, 170180
I, 173180
I,
173180
II, 114119
II, 120133
II,
122
II, 121
122, 124125
II, 125
128

II, 122
IL
234

I, 41, 51
I, 42; II, 328
I, 152153
I, 51
I, . 4; II, 334; .
,
I, 140146
1,
143
I, 141142
I, 157185
I, 117
1,
117
I, 121128
I, 180183
I, . 3; II, 334
II, 202207
II, 203-206
II, 206
, II, 235
I, 470471; II, 334

II, 113

II, 113
II, 112
I, 392395

I, 282
284
I, 282
I, 282284
I, 479
480; II, 335
I, 217222
I, 66
I, 66
I, 136138

I, 66
I, 442
- I, 65
II, 335
I, 262
282
I, 263265

367

I, 262282
- I, 263
265
II, 335
II, 335
-- II, 335
I, 30; II, 335

I, 349366, 397412;
II, 335

I, 141142
I, 398402
I, 402409
I,
407409

1,
403405
. -
I, 403405
I, 389397
II, 328
II, 336

- I, 22, 50;
II, . 12,
I, 62
I, 50
I, 22,
50
I, 213216
I, 67
I, 138140; II,
333
I, 22, 55; II, 336
- I, . 2; II,
329
I, 213216
I, 68; II,
334
I, 395396
,
II, 237241
, I, 142143
I, 121
128; II, 336
I, 125127
I, 121127
/ I,
127
II, 334
, riio II, 207217
-

3-8

II, 139142
II, 139
142
II, 260261
,

II, 240

II, 211212, 319


II, 210211, 319
II, 213214, 270289, 323
II, 270289
II, 283
II, 283
II, 285315
II, 273275
II, 275276
II, 276, 282

I, 41
I, 3337; II, 336

1,
146147
I, 3537
, II, 305
I, 49
I, 250; II, 336
II, 110


I, 144146
II, 182185, 337
II, 227

, /, 237,
,
I, 237240
( ) II,
147149

I, 202
222
II, 290292
I, 32, 83;
II, 330
I, 43
I, 423425,
425432; II, 337
I, 423425
I, 425, 427
I, 423425
I, 425
II,
260-261; 337

I, 130138; , 337
I, 130134, . 8; .

I, 117; II, 336


, I, 29
,
I, 30
I, 20, 29
I, 29

, I, 140150

1,
107109
I, 109
II, 336
- I,
. 10 4,
II, 337
I, 48, . 2
I, 22
.
, I,
240248

I, 166
170
,
I, 143
-, I, . 6

II, 323
II, 328
I, 192194; II, 5762
, 5859
II,
5961
II, 61
62
II, 5062

11,57
II, 56
I, 217222
I, 11

II,
5055
II, 5153
II, 50
51
II,
5455
I, 194196
II, 61
II, 260
261
I, . 6 8, 244
II, 332

II, 334
I, 126
I, 217222
II, 338
.

, II, 237
241

II, 241
II, 109

, I, 41
; .
, I, 26
, II,
309
II, 338
, II, 338
I, 9; II, 338

I, 140146
I, 9
I,
463471
- I, 398402
I, 405409
I, 388389
I, 412
462
I, 389
397
,
1,
390-392

369

1,
463470
(
) II, . 17
II, 256

()
II, 270289
II, 283

II, 283
II, 285
315
II, 273275
II, 275
276
,
276282
II, 269
II, 262

II, 261
II, 271
II, 254258
II, 262
268

II, 264

II, 262267

II,
267

II, 268
- II, 257
,
256
II, 272
( II,
284285
II,
260261
II, 255
II,
273

II 269
I, 470471; II, 334
I, 463
470

I, 392396
1,
391392
, 397409
I, 463464

370

I, 13
I, 9; II, 338
I, 95; II, 317
I, 14
I, 16; II, 320
I, 95, 260286;
II, 320; .
I, 95,
95, 260286, . 7; II, 320
I, 260286
I, 266267
I, 265266
1,
271

1,
282284

I, 274

- I, 276,
286299
- I, 267274

I, 279280
I, 279
280
I, 278
279

I,
283
I, 284
I, 276
I,
269273
I, 274277
- I, 267274
I,
277282
I, 277282
I, 275
I, 280

I,
266272

I,
105106

II, 331
,

II, 272
II, 258
II, 290315
II, 271273
I, 10, . 3; II, 320
I, 20
I, 180185
II, 323
II, 324
II, 328
I, 16
II, 328
I, 9; II, 338
II, 330
II, 338
II, 339
II, 339

I, 38; , 339
I, 20, 29,
. 3
I, 38; II, 341

I, 38; II, 339
I, 480;
II, 339
II, 336

I, 2631; II, 339


I, 21, 29; , 339
II, 340
I, 29
II, 340
I, 403465; , 340
I, 487; II, 340
.
II, 340
II, 340
I, 14; II, 34
I, 73
, 340
I, 29, . 4;
II, 339, 341; .

) II, 145147

11. .

I.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
II.
. . . .
1. ,
2.
3.
4. ()
III.
1.
2.
IV.
1.
. .
2. -
3.
4.
5.
6.

16
20
24
26
28
30
37
48
50
51
54
55
57
61
62

12. .

66

I.
1.
2.
3
4.
.
1.
2.
III. -
. . .
1. -
2. , . . . .
3. -
4.
5. - -

66
67

24

5
6
6
9
11
14
15
16

68
70
71
73
73
74
76
80
81
86
88
94
95

372

IV.
98
1.
99
2.
()
.101
3. -
101
4.
103

104

13. . , , 6

I. .
1.
2.
3.
4. ( )
5.
6. (repeatability)
7. (reproducibility)
8. (precision)
9. (accuracy)
10.
II.
,
1.
2.
III.
1.
2. -
3.

114
115
116
120
120
124
129
133

14. .

134

I.
1.
2.
3.
4.
II.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
III.

373

106
107
108
108
108
109
109
110
110
Ill
Ill
112

134
135
136
142
149
149
150
151
153
154
156
158
16J

1.
2.
. . .
3.
-

165
168
173
180

15. .

181

I.
.
. . .
1. ,
2.
. .
3.
4.
5.
II.
. . .
1.
2.
.
III.
. .
1. -
2.
3.
4.
5.
,
6.
7.
8.
IV.
. .
1. . . .
2.
V.
. . . .
1.
2.
. .
3. ( )
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

181
182
183
185
186
186
186
187
187
188
191
192
194
195
196
198
199
200
201
202
203
206
207
208
209
209
210
211
213
214
215
217

16. . ,

219

I.
1.
2.
3. ?
4.
II.

219
220
221
224
232
234
234

-374 .
III. -
. .
1. -
I
2.
-
II
3.
IV.
V.
1.
2. -
3.
VI.
1.
2.
VII.
. . .

17.

I.
1.
2.
3.
II.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6
7.
8.
9.
III.
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
4V.
. .
1.
. .
2.
3. ,
4.

236
237
240
240
241
242
242
245
249
249
249
249
249
252

254
254
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
261
262
262
268
269
269
270
271
273
275
276
283
283
284
285
286
288
290
290
292
297
300

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.



'



10.

1.
2. -
. .

375

302
305
306
309
311
313
315
317
342
355