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Mechanics of Materials III Lab Assignment

Destructive testing
Destructive testing (DT) includes methods where your material is broken down in order to
determine mechanical properties, such as strength, toughness and hardness. In practice it means,
for example, finding out if the quality of a weld is good enough to withstand extreme pressure or
to verify the properties of a material.

Tensile Testing

Tensile testing is a destructive test process used to provide information about the strength and
ductility of a material or to meet acceptance test requirements. The tensile test, also known as a
tension test, involves applying an ever-increasing load to a test sample up to the point of failure.
The process creates a stress/strain curve showing how the material reacts throughout the tensile
test. The data generated during tensile testing is used to determine mechanical properties of
materials and provides a quantitative measurement of tensile strength, yield strength and ductility
or stiffness.
The test process involves placing the test specimen in the testing machine and slowly extending
it until it fractures. During this process, the elongation of the gauge section is recorded against
the applied force. The data is manipulated so that it is not specific to the geometry of the test
sample.

2011-ME-122

Mechanics of Materials III Lab Assignment

Figure 1. Tensile Testing Machine

2011-ME-122

Mechanics of Materials III Lab Assignment

COMPRESSION TEST
Structure components such as columns and struts are subjected to compressive load in
applications. These components are made of high compressive strength materials. Not all the
materials are strong in compression. Several materials, which are good in tension are poor in
compression. Many materials poor in tension are good in compression. Cast iron is one such
example. This strength is determined by conducting a compression test. During the test, the
specimen is compressed and deformation Vs. the applied load is recorded. Compression test is
just opposite in nature to tensile test. Nature of deformation and fracture is quite different from
that in tensile test. Compressive load tends to squeeze the specimen. Brittle materials are
generally weak in tension but strong in compression. Hence this test is normally performed on
cast iron, cement concrete etc. But ductile materials like Aluminum and mild Steel which are
strong in tension are also tested in compression.

Figure 2. Compression Testing Machine

2011-ME-122

Mechanics of Materials III Lab Assignment

TORSION TEST
A torsion test measures the strength of any material against maximum twisting forces. It is an
extremely common test used in material mechanics to measure how much of a twist a certain
material can withstand before cracking or breaking. This applied pressure is referred to as torque.
Materials typically used in the manufacturing industry, such as metal fasteners and beams, are
often subject to torsion testing to determine their strength under duress.

Figure 3. Torsion Testing Machine

2011-ME-122

Mechanics of Materials III Lab Assignment

Hardness Measurement Methods


The Metals Handbook defines hardness as "Resistance of metal to plastic deformation, usually
by indentation. However, the term may also refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to
scratching, abrasion, or cutting. It is the property of a metal, which gives it the ability to resist
being permanently, deformed (bent, broken, or have its shape changed), when a load is applied.
The greater the hardness of the metal, the greater resistance it has to deformation.
HARDNESS MEASUREMENT METHODS
The definitions of metallurgic ultimate strength and hardness are rather similar, it can generally
be assumed that a strong metal is also a hard metal. The way the three of these hardness tests
measure a metal's hardness is to determine the metal's resistance to the penetration of a nondeformable ball or cone. The tests determine the depth which such a ball or cone will sink into
the metal, under a given load, within a specific period of time. The followings are the most
common hardness test methods used in today`s technology:
1. Rockwell hardness test
2. Brinell hardness
3. Vickers
4. Knoop hardness

2011-ME-122

Mechanics of Materials III Lab Assignment

Bend Testing
Bend testing determines the ductility or the strength of a material by bending the material over a
given radius. Following the bend, the sample is inspected for cracks on the outer surface. Bend
testing provides insight into the modulus of elasticity and the bending strength or a material.
Metallurgical offers three and four point bend setups with interchangeable rollers for a variety of
test configurations.

POLARISCOPE

is an experimental method to determine the stress distribution in a material. The method is


mostly used in cases where mathematical methods become quite cumbersome. Unlike the
analytical methods of stress determination, photoelasticity gives a fairly accurate picture of stress
distribution, even around abrupt discontinuities in a material. The method is an important tool for
determining critical stress points in a material, and is used for determining stress concentration in
irregular geometries.

2011-ME-122

Mechanics of Materials III Lab Assignment

HYDROSTATIC TEST

A hydrostatic test is a way in which pressure vessels such as pipelines, plumbing, gas cylinders,
boilers and fuel tanks can be tested for strength and leaks. The test involves filling the vessel or
pipe system with a liquid, usually water, which may be dyed to aid in visual leak detection, and
pressurization of the vessel to the specified test pressure. Pressure tightness can be tested by
shutting off the supply valve and observing whether there is a pressure loss. The location of a
leak can be visually identified more easily if the water contains a colorant. Strength is usually
tested by measuring permanent deformation of the container. Hydrostatic testing is the most
common method employed for testing pipes and pressure vessels. Using this test helps maintain
safety standards and durability of a vessel over time. Newly manufactured pieces are initially
qualified using the hydrostatic test. They are then re-qualified at regular intervals using the proof
pressure test which is also called the modified hydrostatic test.[citation needed] Testing of
pressure vessels for transport and storage of gases is very important because such containers can
explode if they fail under pressure.

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