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ABSTRACT
The cancer diseases hospital management system is an IT based solution that has
been developed to enable the cancer diseases hospital to maintain electronic patients
appointments records of the hospital.
The project is based on a dynamic website that will improve the current system of the
hospital. A secure data storage and allocation of appointments to patients is a huge
problem the hospital faces. However, a suitable method had to be chosen on how to
develop a project that will help the hospital securely store data, provide online
registration, appointment request, patients booked for appointments and improved data
retrieval
This web based solution aims at enhancing effectiveness, accuracy efficiency and ease
of use In the current manual system by addressing the challenges faced by the CDH
with regards to proper record keeping and retrieval of patients and the way
appointments are handled which has brought about a lot of difficulties.
However, The project enables the CDH members of staff to allocate appointments to
patients by request and this can be done despite where the patient can be in the
country or world due to the networkability features the solution has

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ACKKNOWLAGEMENT
Firstly I would like to thank God Almighty for giving me the strength to be who and
where I am today, indeed you are faithful to your word you have never left me nor
forsaken me. Special thanks go to Mr. A Malumo my project supervisor for his support
and guidance during the development of the project. I would also like to acknowledge
the support given to me by the members of staff at the Cancer Disease Hospital the
director Dr K Lishimpy, Mr. Mwale, Mrs. Mwila and many others.
To all my L5 classmates of June 2013 intake, I would like to say thank you and urge
them to continue working hard.
Lastly my special appreciation goes to my lovely beautiful sister Belita Banda
Nsenduluka and her husband, thank you for standing by me spiritually and financially. I
would not have achieved this without their support may God bless you.

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Contents
ABSTRACT................................................................................................................... 1
ACKKNOWLAGEMENT................................................................................................. 2
introduction................................................................................................................ 6
Current System....................................................................................................... 6
The System Developed............................................................................................ 6
Methodology Used................................................................................................... 7
THE FINAL SOLUTION............................................................................................... 8
PROJECT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES................................................................................. 9
OVERVIEW OF THE REMAINING CHAPTERS...............................................................10
ANALYSIS............................................................................................................... 10
DESIGN.................................................................................................................. 10
IMPLIMENTATION................................................................................................... 10
OTHER PROJECT ISSUES........................................................................................ 10
TOPIC 2..................................................................................................................... 11
ANALYSIS.................................................................................................................. 11
FACT FINDING TECHNIQUES...................................................................................... 11
INTERVIEWS........................................................................................................... 12
OBSERVATION........................................................................................................ 12
CATEGORIES OF REQUIRMENTS................................................................................12
Requirements........................................................................................................ 12
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS................................................................................ 12
Table for functional requirements.......................................................................14
NON-FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS.......................................................................14
Non functional requirements.............................................................................. 15
MoSCoW Prioritization of Requirements................................................................15
USE CASE DIAGRAM............................................................................................... 16
ARCHITECTURE...................................................................................................... 17
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE........................................................................................ 18
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE DIAGRAM........................................................................18
TECHNICAL ARCHITECTURE................................................................................... 20
IMPLEMENTATION ARCHITECTURE.........................................................................20

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INITIAL CLASS DIAGRAM........................................................................................ 21


CONCLUSION......................................................................................................... 22
TOPIC 3..................................................................................................................... 23
DESIGN..................................................................................................................... 23
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................... 23
STRUCTURAL MODEL............................................................................................. 23
BEHAVIOURAL DIAGRAM........................................................................................ 24
CONCLUSION......................................................................................................... 25
CHAPTER 4............................................................................................................... 26
IMPLEMENTATION...................................................................................................... 26
INTRIDUCTION....................................................................................................... 26
SYSTEM CUTOVER................................................................................................. 27
Direct Cutover....................................................................................................... 28
Phased Cutover..................................................................................................... 29
DATA MIGRATION................................................................................................... 29
TRAINING............................................................................................................... 30
CONCLUSION......................................................................................................... 30
CHAPTER 5............................................................................................................... 31
OTHER PROJECT ISSUES........................................................................................... 31
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................... 31
PROJECT MANAGEMENT......................................................................................... 31
RISK MANAGEMENT............................................................................................... 32
RISK ANALYSIS....................................................................................................... 33
RISK RESPONSE..................................................................................................... 34
RISK RESPONSE STRATAGIES.................................................................................34
CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT............................................................................34
TESTING................................................................................................................ 35
TABLE UNIT TESTING.......................................................................................... 36
INTERGRATION TESTING........................................................................................ 37
CONCLUSION......................................................................................................... 39
CHAPER 6................................................................................................................. 40
CONCLUSION............................................................................................................ 40
PROJECT EVALUATION............................................................................................ 40
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CRITICAL EVALUATION........................................................................................... 40
PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED......................................................................................... 41
FEATURES OF FUTURE PROJECT............................................................................41
REFRENCES........................................................................................................ 43
APPENDIXES.......................................................................................................... 44
APPENDIXES 1.................................................................................................... 44
APPENDIXES 2.................................................................................................... 44
APPENDIXES 3.................................................................................................... 44
APPENDIXES 4.................................................................................................... 44

introduction
This report covers the processes that were taken in the development of a patients
management system for Cancer Disease Hospital (CDH). However, it brings out the

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details of the systems development with reference to system analysis, design and
implementation of a system that is aimed at addressing some of the needs of the client.

Current System
The (CDH) currently maintains a manual paper based system that enables them to
manage patients records and other related information. Therefore, the current system is
not able to meet certain deadlines because it is slow hence ends up delaying some
appointments since they are records one at a time. In addition to that CDH does not
have a website that will help people know more about cancer, how it can be treated and
other health services both the people in and out of Zambia.

The System Developed


The system that has been developed is a web based patient management system
application for CDH its aim is to address the current problems that have been explained
earlier. The system is a website that consists of web forms and functions that looks like
the current system. However, the main purpose of this project is to create a system that
will enable online appointments booking. Its real time and appends information to a
database thats created for that purpose. Patients that book for an appointment should
be able to see that they have booked and receive a feedback to confirm their
transaction. Doctors will also be able to login in to the system and check patents that
will to be attended by them on a particular date and time depending in which
department the doctor belongs and the type of patient, the doctor will be able to modify
the appointment if has attended to the patient and also delete that patient from his list of
pending patents list. The doctor will able to send his patient then send them email on
what the doctor wants to update his patients on their health status. The system is also
able to send reminders to patients that they are due for an appointment or review.

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Methodology Used
I have decided to use the object oriented analysis and design methodology for the
development of the dynamic website for CDH. Object oriented analysis views a system
as a collection of interacting objects that work together to accomplish a task. It users
classes, objects and relationships to create a system. Below are the reasons why I
chose object oriented analysis:
Advantages

It enables systems to be developed fast


It allows scalability in case the user changes requirements
It has a reputation of delivering high quality softwares
Object oriented analysis looks at the real world environment in which a system
will operate with this environment and consisting of people and things interacting

to create some results


The people and the things are first analyzed in the most abstract form and these

abstractions become classes


Object oriented analysis reduces maintenances a first goal to assure that the

system enjoys a life while having a smalle maintenances cost


It encourages training for all the people involved in the analysis process by the

using a low risk project first to allow the analysts to learn from their mistakes.
Object oriented analysis examines system requirements from the prospective of

classes and objects found in the specified domain


It focuses on what the system is supposed to do rather than how it will be done
and looks at the behavior of the system independent of its domain

Disadvantages

It requires a trade-off between coupling and cohesion


It can be too technical and complicated
Badly designed class can be produced if the developer dose not fully
understands object oriented methodology

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THE FINAL SOLUTION


The final solution has been implemented as a php web based application with
accompanied with MYSQL database management system. The application is a
stand-alone application. The solution includes the following key features:
user

Sign up form
User login form
A form for a patient to request for an appointment
A form for a patient to view their appointments

Staff login form


A form for creating a doctor account
A form for creating a patient account
A form for creating appointments
A form for viewing
All doctors in the system
All patients in the system
All appointment requests
All appointments created

Staff

Doctor

Doctor login form


View his patients
View his appointments
Edit his patients appointments
Delete his patients

An administration page for

A form for creating doctors accounts


A form for creating staff accounts
A form for creating a departments
A page for viewing reports
View all staff in the system
View all patients in the system

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View all doctors in the system and patients appointments report

The system database in MYSQL.

PROJECT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Below is a list of the aims and objectives of the project
Aims- the aims of the project were as follows

To design a website-based application that would enable manages its patients

appointments.
To develop a database that will have all the data for the patients, departments,
members of staff and doctors the hospital

Objectives -The following were the objectives


To identify carry the requirements for the CDH with the view to determining which
ones would be ok for the solution.
Deploy the working system as a stand-alone system within a period of two
months.
Test the working project in different types of test requirements
Deploy the working application
Document a user manual for the system
Document the project
Demonstrate the working application on ZCAS facility

OVERVIEW OF THE REMAINING CHAPTERS.


The Remaining Chapters of This Report Will Cover the Following Aspects of the
System.

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ANALYSIS
The analysis part of the report covers issues with regards to the functional and nonfunctional requirements of the system as well as the architecture to be used in order to
reach all the requirements.

DESIGN
This chapter will contain the design specifications of the system with regards to
structural and behavioral models of the system.

IMPLIMENTATION
This chapter will focus on describing every implementation approach that was used
programming

language,

system

cutover

from

development

architecture

and

implementation, data migration as well as user training.

OTHER PROJECT ISSUES


This chapter will focus at other issues of the project such as risk management, project
management, configuration management and system testing.

TOPIC 2
ANALYSIS
When developing a new system for an organization, it is very important to understand
how the current system is working in order to identify what should be needed in the new
system so that the needs of the user are meeting. This part of the report will focus on
the different analysis techniques that are used in the collection of requirements for CDH
and the detailed list of requirements that resulted from them. These requirements are
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divide into two categories the functional and the non-functional requirements. This
chapter will also look at the architecture that will be used to implement the system.
However, the requirements of the project are stated here and the architecture to be
used.

The use case diagram presents the uses case that will support the requirements

of the new system.


Initial class diagram is produced to show how the new system will be made use
of.

FACT FINDING TECHNIQUES


For me know how the current system works for CDH. I found time to visit the hospital to
observe how the system works and interview the members of staff that user the existing
system. This is an important stage of analysis as it helps identify the main requirements
of the new system and clarify problems faced in the old system.

INTERVIEWS
Using this technique, a lot of information was gathered from a Varity of staff members
and patients. Among the staff member I interviewed was the Director of Cancer
Diseases Hospital Dr Lishmpy, He told me that since the hospital was opened it has
only been using the paper based system to register and manage patients appointments
and health information, However, he said that when a patient reaches the hospital they
must be under a reference that the patient may have cancer. Hence, they have to
register by filling in a patients form then go for screening in the screening room, this
information has to be taken to the information room were the data has to be stored into
the hospital file and them book the patient an appointment with the doctor depending on
outcome from the screening room.

OBSERVATION
Having spent time at the hospital, I observed that patients have to make a queue to
collect the patients registration form . They also have to wait for the receptionist to
check for them when their appointment with the doctor will be after they have come
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back for the screening room and at which department of the hospital. Not forgetting
those who have forgotten or misplace their appointment date and what to check for their
appointment. Through this technique it is time consuming and can also lead to
bleaching confidentiality.

CATEGORIES OF REQUIRMENTS
Requirements
A requirement is a service or function that the user wishes the solution to perform, or a
function that the solution should exhibit (Tudor and Tudor, 2010).

Requirements

are

classified as either functional or non-functional

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Functional requirements are what the system is expected to do, which is referred to as
the functionality of the system. Non-functional requirements are highlight aspects
relating to the system concerning how well functional requirements are provided.
It is important to deliver a solution that is of high quality and within time. Therefore, for
this desired quality to be delivered.

ID
FR1

REQUIRMENTS

REQUIRMENTS

Priority

To capture details of a patient

DESCRIPTION
The application should be Must have
allow patents details to be

FR2

To capture details for an appointment request

captured
The application should be Must have
able to capture details that
are being requested for an
appointment

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FR3

To capture details for a doctor

The application should be Must have


able to capture doctor

FR4

To capture details for a new member of staff

detals
The application should be Must have
able

FR5

To create appointments

to

capture

staff

details
The application should be Must have
able

to

capture

appointments that have


FR6

To capture new departments

been created
The application should be Must have
able

to

capture

new

FR7

To generate patient reports

departments
Allow patients to

FR8.1

To generate staff reports

their appointments
Allow staff members to Must have

To generate doctor reports

view reports
Allow doctors

FR.8.3

To generate appointment request

reports
Allow the user to request Must have

FR8.4

To generate individual patients reports

for appointments
Allow patients to

FR8.5

To delete individual patients appointments

their own appointment


The system will individual Must have

FR.8.2

to

view Must have

view Must have

view Must have

patients documents to be
FR8.6

To edit individual patients appointments

deleted
The application will enable Must have
the

FR9.0

Patient be able to delete himself

individual

patients

details to be deleted
The application should Should have
enable

the

patients to

delete themselves from


the system

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Table for functional requirements

NON-FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Non-functional requirements are those that concern themselves with performance
issues of the solution. They specify how the system should function (Tudor and Tudor,
2010).below are the non-functional requirements of the system which is under
development.
ID
NFR1

REQUIMENTS

REQUIRMENT

No online payments

DISCRIPTION
The
application Should have
should

NRF2

Produce a PDF format

be

PRIORITY

able

to

allow online payments


The
application Should have
should
produce

be

able

PDF

formats
NFR3

documentation
No detailed information about The application must Must have
doctor on patients view side

be

able

to

allow

patients to see the


NRF4

doctor details
To ensure that some parts of the For security reasons Must have
system is only accessed by the the system muss only
CDH staff only

NFR5

be accessed specific

members of staff
Restrict logging into the system at Restrict
login
specified times of the day

at Could have

particular times of the


day

Non functional requirements

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MoSCoW Prioritization of Requirements


The requirements prioritization is a method that is used to determine what level of
priority is attached to functional requirements (Tudor and Tudor, 2010). The levels of
prioritization include the following below.
Must Haves: these are requirements that are fundamental to the system, without
them the system cannot function without them.
Should Haves: they are considered as important requirements that the system
can still function without them.
Could Haves: could have requirements are requirements which can improve the
system or business but are more easily left out.
Wont Have This Time: these are valuable requirements which can be left out
but maybe incremented later.

USE CASE DIAGRAM


A use case diagram is a model that is developed to clearly identify the users of the
system and the tasks each user will have with the system. This model also shows how
the users will interact with the system. These users are called actors. StarUML is
software that I have used to generate the model to help understand the system.
However, the use case is based on functional requirements that have been classified as
Must Haves under the MoSCoW protestation of requirements in Table 1. Below is the
use case diagram.

USE CASE DIAGRAM

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System
sign up

Log in
Request for an appointment

User

View all appointment

Doctor

edit appointments

view all patients

delete appointments

Create Department
adminstrator
create staf account

create Doctor account

Staf

Create pateint account

View all pateints

create patients appointments

view Reports

ARCHITECTURE
Architecture refers to the various components modules of an information system
and how they work together referred definition by schach (2004, p. 30). Bennent
McRobb & Farmer (2006, p.340) defines architecture as a fundamental
organization of a particular system that is exemplified in system components,
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their relationships to each other and the environment as well as the principles
that guide the systems design and evolution

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
System architecture refers to a systems high level view. The modeling is based

MEMBER OF STAFFADMINSTRATOR

PATIENT
on
the major components and the interconnection between them. The detailed
DOCTOR

design of the system is not usually addressed. However, it does not normally
address the detailed design of the system, through standards to be applied may
be best. (Bennett,McRobb &USER
2006, P,339)
INTERFACE
The system architecture presents an over view of how a system has been
developed. It shows how the system interfaces with other existing systems. The
diagram below shows how the under development system should communicate

Doctor| Staf with


members
|Patients|view
appointment,
staf,doctor|edit,
delete
other interfaces,
the dynamic website
is being developed
using PHP which
will connect to the database using MySQL. I am using wampServer which has all
these applications embedded in it.

CDH INTERFACE

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE DIAGRAM

PHP

WAMPSERVER

DATABASE
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The system above shows how the system interacts; A user visits the website, signs up
as

patient then logs in. If already a patient, can just login, can request for an appointment
and view them. Doctor can login and then view his appointments, his patients, edit his
appointments and delete his appointments when complete. A member of staff is able to
log in and create a patients account, create appointments for patients and view them
Administrator logs in and is able to create doctor account, patient account, staff
account, create a department, view all staff, patents and doctor of the hospital. All this
data is stored in the database,
TECHNICAL ARCHITECTURE
Technical architecture contains information about the technical architecture which
is hardware and software used in the development of the system. The diagram
below shows the hardware and software objects used in develop the website.

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IMPLEMENTATION ARCHITECTURE
The new system and its database will be installed on the server. The hospital
administrator and other authorized members of staff will be access the system via the
local area network of the hospital while the patients and those that are just visiting the
website will use the internet in order to have access to the system. The diagram is show
below.

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INITIAL CLASS DIAGRAM


This section of the report contains an initial class diagram derived from the use
case diagram. A class diagram is a model that illustrates the relationship and
dependencies among classes in the unified model language (UML). To produce
this diagram I used the StarUML software which is used to model diagrams like
this. The initial class diagrams does not show methods and attributes contained
in the classes. it only shows classes and the relationship between classes. The
initial class diagram is shown below.
AppointmentRequest

appointment created

Appointment

send request
System

signUp/login

Doctor

Users

Staf

Patients

CONCLUSION
Analysis phase involves the understanding of the current system, and looks at
the requirements of the user as well as modeling those using appropriate
implementations that make it easy to design and/or implement the new system.

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TOPIC 3
DESIGN

INTRODUCTION
Design involves producing a specific solution that meets the analyzed
requirements through enhancement of the requirements obtained during the
analysis phase. The main concern of the design phase is the specification of how
the requirements will be met by the new system. In this section of the report, the
design specifications are classified in two aspects: the structural and behavioral
model each represented by a class diagram and a sequence diagram.

STRUCTURAL MODEL
This section presents a detailed class diagram of the system to be developed. it
also includes the relationships between the classes, methods and attributes that
are associated with the class diagram. This class diagram is more detailed than
the initial class diagram in the previous chapter. Below is the class diagram.
CLASS DIAGRAM

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BEHAVIOURAL DIAGRAM
A behavior diagram model defines what interactions the system been developed is
capable of handling. Behavioral models support use case diagrams, it specifies
behavior of each use case using UML diagram. A sequence diagram shows the
relationship between specific objects and allows you to understand how the set of
objects interact (NCC Education,p5-34).The

development of the system under

development made use of the sequence diagrams which shows the flow of data in the
system. The sequence diagram below shows the login process for the users of the
system either the admin or user

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CONCLUSION
The design phase involves enhancing of the requirements and the defining of the
aspects of the system such as the architecture. A good structural model the behavior
model help to come up with a right design for the system to be developed.
behavioral model describes the behavior of the actors and classes in the system.

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The

CHAPTER 4
IMPLEMENTATION
INTRIDUCTION
The implementation phase that is covered in this chapter details the evolution of the
system from analysis, design and the actual deployment of the working system. This
involves actual coding and a series of tests so as to transform the clients requirements
and other related information into a working system.
CHOICE OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML)
This is a markup language that is used to create web pages and other related that is
viewed in a web browser.
CSS
Cascading style sheet (CSS) was used to make the user interface more appealing and
consistent to the users and the administrator. It is a configuration file that is used for
setting up common web page properties.
PHP
PHP is a server side scripting language. It handles the logic of a web application. It also
acts as a moderator between the presentation layer and the data layer. This language
was preferred over others due to the following reasons below
Easy to use. It is easy to use compared with other programming languages. It is
easy to learn and apply.
Cost. It is open source software meaning that it is free.
Platform Independence. It has got a high level of compatibly with popular
operation systems as well as browser.
WampServer

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It is a windows web development environment that will be used to develop the


system because wampServer enables you to develop applications with PHP and
MySQL database. PhpMyAdmin will enable the management of the system.
MySQL
This is the data layer; it is used to create the database in which all the records of the
system will be stored. The database has got tables that makes saving particular data
in the right order. The retrieval and manipulation of data is done here
JavaScript
JavaScript is part of the presentation layer, used to handle user interface
JQuery
JQuery is a library that contains a JavaScript extension. It provides a large library of
functionalities that can make a front end look more attractive. However, it is
developed on top of JavaScript but has its own syntax.

SYSTEM CUTOVER
After the implementation

stage of the new system, the next phase is the system

cutover. System cutover is the transitioning of the solution from its development
environment area to which is supposed to be implemented. There are four main cutover
strategies.
Parallel cutover
It is the implementation of the new system along side with the old system until such a
time when the new system has gained the users confidence, then the existing system is
replaced. This type of an approach can take weeks or months

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Advantages
It is easy to detect discrepancies between the new system and the existing by
just comparing their output.
The existing system acts as a backup in an event were the new system develops
faults.
Disadvantages
It is expensive to maintain both systems running at the same time
User may not be supportive on working with the new system as they are more
familiar with the oil system.
Pilot Cutover
This involves implementing the new system into small departments or sites. It enables
more knowledge of how the system can work from a small point of view. However, it can
be also used as learning and training part of the new system. If the new system has
failed in a small site. It can be avoided
Advantages
It is ideal for on the job training
Before wider installation there is identification of errors
Disadvantages
It is an expensive approach.
The strategy has a long time scale.

Direct Cutover
This approach also known as big bang. It involves bringing into operation the new
complete new system. The old system is completely abandoned wit out the form of
transition period to cater for data migration.
Advantages
It is cheap
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It is an organization wide switch over thus it is quick.


Disadvantage.
End up having live error detection which brings about risks to the operations of
the business

Phased Cutover
Here the new system is introduced in small phases depending on the sub systems of
the software. The phased Cutover enables better understanding of each subsystem. It
also provides testing as the phase is used and seen how it performs.
Advantages
The risk of errors and failure are limited
Low costs are involved
Disadvantages
The users morale is low because of the continuous change over the process
Modes of the interfacing modules will need continuous changes.
The suitable system cutover for Cancer Diseases hospital project is the parallel
approach because it has a low risk since the existing system is almost manual
based.

DATA MIGRATION
Data migration involves moving an existing systems data (database) to the new
system. Therefore, with regards to Cancer Diseases Hospital project, the data
will be copied from Microsoft word process document into the appropriate
database table of the new system. However, there will be a data verification to
confirm that data migration process was successful without any errors to losing
data.

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TRAINING
Training is very important when it comes to the implementation of anything new
be it a product or a system. Proper training helps to increase the job knowledge
and the skills that are required to adopt the new system. Training takes place
after the implementation of the new system.
Face to face training: The hospital administrator and the doctors need to be
trained on how to keep in touch with the patients via the website.
Self Study: Training can be done in different ways among other approaches that
I have chosen toward user training is the creation of a user manual. Which
consist of information about the application? (See Appendix -User guide).

CONCLUSION
The implementation phase is the longest phase of the Cancer Diseases Hospital
patients management system because most of the tasks that were required to
be accomplished were done here, Ranged from deciding on the sailable
programming language to be used, deployment, and installation and data
migration. Finally training of which the appropriate staff were trained and the user
guide was provide.

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CHAPTER 5
OTHER PROJECT ISSUES

INTRODUCTION
This chapter of the report looks at other issues of the project that have not been
taken into account but are important in order for a good project to be developed
according to the requirements specified. These include project management,
configuration and risk management.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
For a project to be successful there is need for proper management of that
project. Project management needs planning for the project in order for all the
specifications to be taken care of. Time needs to be managed adequately and
make sure that the project is delivered on time. This was mainly done by the use
of a Gantt chart. The Gantt chart below shows how the project was managed.

ACTIVITY
Completion

of

March
Week

Week

Week

Week

April
Week

Week

Week

project

MOU
Drafting/Signing

of

Memorandum

Of

Understanding
Completion of

project

proposal.
Drafting/Signing

of

Memorandum

Of

Understanding
BANDA MUKOMELA COMPUTING PROJECTPage 30

Week 4

System

Analysis

and

Design
-Analysis

of

current

system
-Gathering

requirements

and designing of the new


system
Coding
-Write code for the new
system
Test and implementation
-test and implement the
developed system
-Documentation
Final Documentation
-Review and document all
the activates that took
place

during

development

of

the
the

system
Submission
-Submission of project to
the Lecturer

RISK MANAGEMENT
A risk is anything that exposes danger to a solution as the system is under
development. Almost every project has its own risks. Risk management can be
divide into four main parts.
Risk identification: helps to identify portent risks that are bound to happen.
Risk quantification: enables us to measure the impact of the risk in an event it
happens
BANDA MUKOMELA COMPUTING PROJECTPage 31

Risk response: makes sure that any risk that has a potential risk has a response
on how to dealt with it.
Risk monitoring and potential risks: helps to monitor repeating risks and how
they can be controlled.
With regards to the system underdevelopment, the table below shows the risks
that were identified, t heir chance of occurrence, possible effect and measures
taken to counter them.

RISK ANALYSIS
After risks have been identified it is necessary to analyse and make an
assessment of the impact and likelihood of the risk
The importance of risk analysis stage is to ensure that risks with higher
occurrence probability and risks with higher impact effects are identified so that
attention can be focused on them,
Hence, a risk plan and risk assessment methods have been selected to use on
the CDH project The advantages of the risk assessment method include
1. Approch to risk analysis is simple
2. The chance of occurrence and potential impact of the risk is assessed
3. The areas in which issues lie can be seen clearly
Below is the assessment plan:
RISK
Lack of commitment from staff
Staff busy schedules
Continuous change of requirements
Conflict requirements by staff
Over engineering of the system
Time limitation
Availability of software and hardware

OCCURANCE%
20%
40%
50%
10%
2%
50%
10%

tools
Risk assessment Table for CDH
BANDA MUKOMELA COMPUTING PROJECTPage 32

IMPACT%
70%
80%
70%
70%
50%
80%
90%

RISK RESPONSE
Having identified and analyses the risks the cancer diseases hospital project, the
next stage is the response to the risk when they occur. This is the proactive way
of responding to the risks else the project would be re-active to the risk. However,
the protective way to risk management was undertaken

RISK RESPONSE STRATAGIES


Below are four basic risk management response strategies

Preventive: Risks prevented from occurring by being proactive


Reduction :the likelihood of occurrence of or the likely impact of the scale
of the risk, or both the likely occurrence and impact are reduced .An

approach that is proactive is essential


Acceptance : This approach is more risky thus being appropriate to

analysis phase where risks have less impact on the project


Transference: This response is approach involving. It involves the
transferring of risks to the third party such as insurance companies.

CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT
Configuration management is the discipline which involves the identification of
components that comprise an evaluating system. This is meant to control
changes to the components and ensuring maintainability and tractability
throughout the system. As defined by Cadle and Yeates (2001,p.221). However,
a directory tree was created to define the developers own configuration
management approach.
Desktop:/Computer Project
PHASE 1

(Feasibility)

Office

(Microsoft office)

PHASE 2

(Analysis)

BANDA MUKOMELA COMPUTING PROJECTPage 33

Edraw

(Diagram)

StarUML
PHASE 3

(Design)

Notepad++
Wamp
Google chrome
PHASE 4

(Implementation phase)

TESTING
Testing is the procedure intended to establish the quality, performance and
reliability of something. The dynamic website developed needs to be tested to
understand any issues that need to dealt with. The test results are obtained and
then documented so as to ascertain discern between expected results of a test
and the actual results. They are different types of tests that can be done to a
system.
Black box testing: Black box testing is concerned about the functionality of the
system without consideration of the code. It looks at test input and output of the
main features of the system. This type of test was done on the system under
development.
White box testing: this testing type looks at the actual code and analysis
response to impose certain functionality. However, this test was not done to the
system under development.
Unit testing: This is the type of testing where the module of the system is tested
one by one. When each module is tested it helps to identify how it functions and
or performs as a stand-alone. Each module needs to be well tested. Hence, the
system under development was tested and below is a table that shows how the
testing was done.
BANDA MUKOMELA COMPUTING PROJECTPage 34

TABLE UNIT TESTING

UNIT TEST 1
Data Source: Data Entry

TEST: Patients
Designed by:Mukomela banda
Objective: To add a new Tester :Mukomela Banda
patient

appointment

Test Case
Request

request to the system


Description
Task
Expected Result Actual Result
This test shows
The user needs to The appointment The

appointment

if the user is
able to request
for
appointment

an

request
is
enter
The username
supposed to be
Date of request
added
to
the
appointment
database and a
Which
feedback is given
department
The reason for

appointment
Below are screen shots for the system

BANDA MUKOMELA COMPUTING PROJECTPage 35

appointment
request

was

able to be add
and

feedback

was given

INTERGRATION TESTING
This is testing the entire system to see how it works. How all the components
work and interact with each other. For his system integration testing was carried
out to determine whether an appointment can be given a patient. Below is the
test script.

Integration Testing

Tests Classes :create Designed by Mukomela Band


appointment and view
appointment
Objective:
to

Data source: Data entry

whether

view

appointments
updated
Test Case
Capture

To test when

appointment

an

creation

appointment

a
has

been updated
in

class

the

is

when create

appointment is
Task

Description

request

test Tester : Mukomela Banda

Select

Expected

Actual Result

results
username When

the The

appointment
patients name
Select date and has been sent
time
to the database
Select doctor
.the
patent
Select department
Click on ok button must be able to

database table

see

that

an

appointment
has
created
them

BANDA MUKOMELA COMPUTING PROJECTPage 36

been
for

patient

is

able to see that


an

appointment

has been created


for them and is
able to view.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, this chapter has looked at the need for project management, how it
will be handled in the project. Risk management has been taken into
consideration as to how know how to handle risks if any were to rise and
configuration management too.

BANDA MUKOMELA COMPUTING PROJECTPage 37

CHAPER 6
CONCLUSION
PROJECT EVALUATION
In order evaluate the Cancer Disease Hospital patients management system. It
was imperative that the predefined aims, objectives and goals of the project are
considered in relation to the requirements that were fulfilled by the system.CDH
patients management system is designed to facilitate patients appointments
through the use of web based application system that can be accessed via the
hospital intranet or the internet. The attainment of this was through provision of
not only a system that is efficient but also reliable and easily accessed.
The aim of the project was to develop an efficient and reliable web application
patient managements system that would greatly improve the day to day
operations of CDH and eventually lead to excellent management of patients
appointments.

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CRITICAL EVALUATION
In order to attain a thorough evaluation process. The critical assessment of the
system must be looked at. Although the evaluation of the project aim and
objectives had revealed that the project a success. But the new system
developed has got flow as indicated below.
System limitations
Accessibility: The system can only be accessed by the patient after they have
signed up, the administrator, doctor and staff members.
Usability: The graphical user interface is only in English. This can present
problems to users who are not conversant with the English language.
Security: There is no automated system to back up the data on the system.
Hence, the system administrator ought to always remember to backup data.

PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED
During the development of the system there were some challenges I face such
as
Interviewing patients proved to be difficult as most of them were not in the
best of their health.
There was time limitation, contrary to the initial view that the application
was very involving.
The application was developed using php programming language and for me it
was a challenge as I was learning for the first time and applying it in my project.
This made me spend a lot of time in figuring out the error that I was having.

FEATURES OF FUTURE PROJECT


My future projects would include the following features that have not been
included in the system that has been developed.
BANDA MUKOMELA COMPUTING PROJECTPage 39

A telephone capacity so that the application is able to send messages


directly to the patients phone for any notifications or changes.
A provision that will enable patients to view their medical file online.
Inclusion of pharmaceutical review point
Inclusion of images to show which doctor is viewing his account
Finally, from the projects analysis, design, and implementation I have
obtained information on how to work in the in society. Throughout the
development of the project it has greatly improved my communication skills
and confidence in facing real world projects. However, developing the
dynamic website has also improved my programming skills using php and
MySql. The hospital management was happy with the system that was
developed and made it clear that the project did meet their requirements.
All in all, the project developed was a success and I am very glad and humble
to have helped out in the fight against cancer.

BANDA MUKOMELA COMPUTING PROJECTPage 40

REFRENCES
Bennet, S, McRobb, S & Farmer 2006, p.145, Object-Oriented Systems
Analysis and Design Using UML.
Boddy, D. (2002) Management an Introduction, 2nd ed., Prentice hall:
Pearson Education
Curtis, R & Cobham, D 2008, Business Information Systems Analysis,
Design and Practice, Pearson Education Limited, London
Cadle, J & Yeats, D 2001, Project Management for Information Systems,
Pearson Education Limited, England
Nixon,R (2012).Learning PHP,MSQL, Javascript and CSS. 2nd Edition
.USA: O'Reilly
NCC, 2008. The Purpose of Systems Analysis. In Systems Analysis. NCC
Education Services.

BANDA MUKOMELA COMPUTING PROJECTPage 41

Sindhe, V., 2009. Software Testing Help. [Online] Available at:


http://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/software-testing-terms-completeglossary/ [Accessed 12 April 2014].
Tudor, D.J. & Tudor, I.J., 2010. The DSDM Atern Student Handbook.
Cheshire: Galatea Training services Ltd.

APPENDIXES
All the appendixes are in the folder Appendixes
APPENDIXES 1
TEST SCRIPTS
APPENDIXES 2
SYSTEM REQUIRMENTS
APPENDIXES 3
CODE
APPENDIXES 4
USER GUIDE

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