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Acoustics

Where ever we are noise and we here sounds. A sound is arranged


and pleasant where as noise is disorganised and chaotic. Sounds are
defined as elastic molecular fluctuations in the air or other media
that create a chain reaction by putting the nearest particles in
motion. The sound then will spread at a certain propagation velocity
which is called the speed of sound in the medium in question.
Acouticics troldekt- YouTube

What this means is that when sound is created It moves thought the air
colliding with nearby particles which then collide with the other creating a
knock-on effect which allows you to here sound. This is why there is no
sound in space because there are no particles in space for the vibrations
to collide with. Space is a vacuum.

Sound pressure
Sounds pressure is measured in DB or decibels the higher the
sounds pressure the higher the decibels. When you compare two
different sounds they must be measured at equal distance because
sound dissipates the further away the measurement. This very
useful because when you mix something you get a visual
representations of how loud a guitar is to a kick drum.
Vu meters
VU stands for volume unit meter is an audio metering device. This
allows the user to measure the sound pressure or loudness of an
audio signal. This was 1st used in the 1930s to help regulate
transmissions over telephone lines. This over time was used and
because more wildly used transfusing it self to be used by sound
engineers. VU meters measure all channels giving an average sound
level. This can show you a visual representation of sounds and also
closely creates what a human ear hears.
The optimum audio level for hearing is generally around 0VU or
0Db.
Sounds basics
Sound is omnidirectional meaning that it travels in all directions
away from the score, the number of sound waves a second
determine the frequency of the sound. Frequency is measured in Hz
and 1Hz= one vibrations per second. The human ear is especially
sensitive the frequency and the audible hear range for a human is
20Hz- 20,000Hz. However over time humans are exposed to loud
noises and the ear will determinate over time meaning that higher

frequency s will be harder to hear when you get older and exposed
to loud noises. Low bass waves have very few vibrations a second
meaning that the frequency is low where as a treble sound has
many vibrations a second meaning that the frequency is high. Here
is a audio spectrum so that you can get an idea os where bass mids
and treble are situated on a scale

a 20HZ wavelength in real life spans 17 meters long for a full


rotation where as at 20,000 HZ the wavelength is 1.7 cm for a full
rotation.
The volume of the sounds is determined by how big the wavelength
is or the amplitude. Here is a diagram of how the air molecules are
compressed by the sound giving an on-going effect displayed
below.

Here is a compassion of air


molecules about you can see that
the sing wave is gigh about the
line of incidence

Here is a rarefaction meaning


that molecules are rare in this
area you can see it is displayed
about on the air molecule chart
on the sign wave chart this dips
below that line

One full compression and rarefaction makes full rotation.


The best was to hear these compression and arerarefaction by using
pitching forks.

When these make the compression and rarefactions and once mad
will create a certain frequency.
Frequencies
Whenthepitchingforkshavemadeacycle(acompressionandrarefaction)thisis
whatwecallafrequency.FrequenciesaremeasuredinHertzandtheamountofHz
thereiswithinonesecondsdetermineisitisahighorlowfrequency.
OctavesaredoubletheHz.Forexamplewhenyouhaveanote,whichis440Hzthe
octaveaboutthatwouldbe880Hz.Hereyoucanseethattheyhavedoubledin
number.Reasonwhytheyareoctavesisbecausetheyarejustcompressionand
refractingatdoubletheratesoitwouldbeahigherpitchbutitwouldbeofthesame
notejustanoctavehigher.
Sound, which travels through different mediums
Sound travels though different mediums at different rates because
there are more molecules in liquid that there are in air so that time
to travels would be grated in the liquid because of the more
molecules it would take to collide with one another allowing the
sound to travel through that medium.

High frequencys are ore easily absorbed that others because they
have more move the same mass back and forth more times, which
takes more energy out of the wave. Where as a bass wavelength
penetrates easier because it has more energy to move because the
wavelength does have as much distance to travel that the treble
wavelength.
Wave lengths are classified but bass mids and treble
Sub bass: 20-39 Hz
Bass: 40- 99Hz
Low mids: 100-799 Hz
Mids: 800-1999Hz
Upper mids: 2000-9999 Hz
Treble: 10,000- 18000 Hz
Sounds travels at 344 meters a second no matter the frequency so
there can be a delay for example if you are listening to a live band.
In a case where this would happen they would situate speaker
stands further away from the stage so that the audience would hear
the same music at the same time as everyone else otherwise the
crowd would be hearing two different parts of a song. Also the
speaker stands provide more power are drive the music because
especially open air conserts sound is easily lost because sound as
Omni directional is will just fill out the space meaning that it can
easily get lost.
How do we hear sound
Sound waves travel into the ear canal until they reach the tympanic
membrane The tympanic membrane passes the vibrations through
the middle ear bones these are called the malleus, the incus and the
staple. After passing through here it travels to the inner ear is called
the cochlea. Inside the cochlea, there are thousands of tiny hair
cells. These hair cells change the vibrations into an electrical
impulse which are transmitted to the brain vie the nerve connecting
the brain to the cochlea.

Acoustics in the studio


A studio is specially designed for many reasons one being so you to
maximum quality for you tracks and that nothing interferes with the
sound you desire.

here you can see that the live room is not symmetrical because if it
was it you would get frequencies which will just bounce off walls had
stay in the room. Most ceilings are not flat to break up the sound so
that it room sounds more neutral. Also the more cornets the better
because it will again distribute the sound around the room making
the room more acoustically treated. Also a recording studio is a
room within a room so that it is sound treated and you dont get any

sounds leaking out of walls. Also you would notice in the computer
room at the from towards the monitors it is acoustically very dead to
the you can get your mix sounding good and it is not coloured
sound. Also you would see that the studio is designed to be the best
for the sound engineer. At the back of the studio room you would se
that there is a 2nd focal point for other people eg the band. This
usually is a bit more brighter sounding. This is because you can
compare when listening is a usual room. Where as where the sound
engineer sits it has to be dead because you do not want anything it
alter the sound when mixing because when you transfer to other
rooms it will not sound as good or very different than where you
originally mix the track.