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1

Training Manual
for Advanced Sales Staff
Subject
Chapter 1
Principle and Characteristics of
Induction Motors
Chapter 2
Inverter Principle and
Characteristics
Chapter 3
Operation Characteristics
Chapter 4
Inverter Drive Units Selection

Inverter Basics
Chapter 5
Inverter Functions and Advantages
Chapter 6
Inverter Drives Precautions
Chapter 7
Harmonics, Noise & Surge Voltage
Chapter 8
Maintenance and Inspection
Chapter 9
Reference

Training for
Advanced Sales Staff

Inverter Basics

Introduction
Market of General purpose Inverters

Inverter Market Trend


Marketing of 2,200,000 units worth \73,000,000,000
Unit(10000

(General-purpose inverters up to 75 kW)

Transition of Market Scale

Tens of thousands

\ (Hundred million)

(Hundred
million)

Actual Record

Estimation

*Actual record is in accordance with Statistics Investigation on Production Trendsof Ministry


of Economy, Trade and Industry.
The data of 2003 is an estimation made by Japan Electrical ManufacturersAssociation (JEMA).

Inverter Market Shares (FY 2001 )


World

Japan
This share represents No. of units
produced in Japan.

Data estimated by Sales Promotion Section

Others
25.8%
C.T
4.8%

Toshiba-Schneider
Toshiba7.2%

Yaskawa
12.8%

Total
2,342M US$

Rockwell
12.1%

ABB
10.0%
Mitsubishi
Fuji
9.8%
9.6%

Siemens
7.9%

Hitachi
5.9%

Others
6.0%

Mitsubishi
Total 30.5%
1.813million
units
Yaskawa
23.7%
Fuji
24.3%
Toshiba
9.5%

History of Yaskawa GeneralGeneral-purpose Inverters

Year of 1968
Worlds
First

VS-610

Thyristor inverter (current type)

1969
VS-610B

Worlds
First

Worlds
First

Thyristor inverter (current type)

1974
VS-616T

PWM transistor inverter (analog)

1980
VS-616G, H

PWM transistor inverter (analog)

1984
VS-616H

PWM transistor inverter (digital)

1987
VS-616G, GLN
1989
3rd Generation

3-level

PWM transistor inverter

PWM transistor inverter

2000

Varispeed F7
1998
VS mini V7
1998
VS mini J7

7th Generation

1995
VS-616G5, etc.

Year of 2000
Varispeed G7

PWM transistor inverter (IGBT, low-noise type)

VS-616G3, etc.
5th Generation

Worlds
First

Year of 2000 to 2003

Yaskawa Inverter Business

Global Sales and Production Network

YE UK Ltd. (YGB)
YE Europe Ltd. (YEG)
YE Korea Corp. (YEK)
YE Shaghai Co Ltd
Shanghai Yaskawa-Tongji
M&E Co. Ltd (SSC)
YE Shaghai Co Ltd (SYD)
Yaskawa HongKong (YHK)

Yaskawa Electric (YEC)


Inverter Plant (V)
YE Taiwan Corp. (YTW)

Taian Technology
SDN (YTM)
YE Singapore Pte. (YSP)

: Sale office
: Production facility

YE America Inc. (YEA)

YE Do Brazil Co. LTDA (YEB)

Typical Industrial Applications

Primary industry

Compressor
Air
conditioner

Mixer
Centrifugal
separator

Extruder

Conveyor

Fan, Blower

Iron, steel making


Wire drawing
Chemical
Textile
Automobile
Machine tool
Food
Paper, Pulp
Cement
Loading, Feeding
Plant, Building

Industrial Field

Crane
Feeding
carrier

Pump

Machine Names

Other Machines

Rolling mill, Steel plate processor


Winder, Rolling mill
Film processor
Spinning machine, Weaver
Press
Lathe, Surface grinder, Machining center, Press
Noodle maker, Confectionery maker, Packer
Paper machine, Paper processor, Printer

Automatic warehouse
Elevator, Water-supply tower
Shed, Henhouse, Processing M/c for Tea,
Processing M/c for Sea Weed

Functions

Printer

Press

Grinder, Sander

Extruder

Centrifugal
separator

Elevator

Traveling carrier

Feeder

Conveyor

Mixer

Compressor

Correspondence to
environment

Facility downsizing

Upgrading of facility

Application, Facility

Fan, Pump

Reduction of drive power by speed changes


Power reduction mode at run (light load, no load)
Improvement of machine stop position accuracy
Improvement of line speed control accuracy
Automation of flow rate control
Improvement of productivity by increasing line speed
FMC of facility
Optimum operation by no-step speed changes
Optimum operation for product quality
Optimum operation for product processing
Matching of speed between units in line
Optimization of reaction time
Smooth start, accel/decel, stop
Extension of facility lifetime by speed reduction at no load
Reduction of maintenance by using no brushes
Reduction of maintenance by using no contacts
Installation in explosionproof area
Noise reduction of facility
Machine downsizing by increasing speed
Facility downsizing compared to mechanical speed changes

Improvement of
maintainability
Improvement of
product quality

Functions Subject to Variable Speed Drives

Energy saving

Needs for Production


Facility

10

Users Evaluation
Satisfaction Level
(Item)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100 (%)

Quality,
Performance

Vibration
Protective
functions

Noise

Durability,
lifetime
characteristics

Brake

Size, weight

Starting torque
Operation characteristics at

low-speed
operation
Prevention
from harmonics

Investigated in 1987
Investigated in 1999
[by Japan Electrical Manufacturer
s
Association (JEMA)]

11

Chapter 1
Principle and Characteristics
of Induction Motors

12

Induction Motors

Foot-mounted type

Flange-mounted type

13

Types of Motors
DC motors
(series, shunt, compound)
Motors for motive
power

Induction motors
(Squirrel-cage, wound rotor type)
AC motors

Motors

Synchronous motors
(Magnet type, field winding type)
Motors with eddy-current coupling
(VS-MOTOR)

Motors for dynamic


response

DC servomotors
Servomotors
AC servomotors
(SM, IM types)

14

Configuration

Stator frame
Output shaft
Stator coil
Stator iron core
Rotor End ring
Rotor iron core

Bearing
Bracket
Internal fan
External fan
Terminal box
Center height (motor frame No.)

(a) Configuration of Squirrel-cage Induction Motor


(Example of Totally-enclosed Externally-cooled Type)

Rotor
End Ring

(b) Squirrel-cage Rotor


(Excluding Iron Core)

Secondary
Conductor

15

Flemings LeftLeft-hand Rule

Force ( F )

Force (F)

Magnetic field
(Flux density B (wb/m2) )

Magnetic field
(Flux density B (wb/m2) )

Current ( I (A) )

Current ( I (A) )

F BI sin

[N]

Length of
conductor ( (m) )

16

Principle
ARAGOs Disc
(Disc rotates following magnet rotation.)
Permanent Magnet

S
Iron Disc

Rotary Shaft

Induction Effect of Rotating


Magnetic Field

17

Magnetic Flux Generated by Current


Direction of Mag. flux
from front to back of
paper face

Current Direction

Current Direction
Right Screw

Direction of Mag. flux


from back to front of
paper face

Beginning of
Coil Winding

Direction of Magnetic Flux

Direction of
Magnetic Flux

A. Right hand screw Rule


End of Coil
Winding

B. Coil Current and Magnetic Flux Directions

18

Principle of Rotating Magnetic Field (2 Pole)


1 Cycle
Phase U
3-phase AC
(Current)

Phase V

Phase W

U
V

Direction of
Magnetic
Field

U
Induction Motor

(a) Three-phase Alternating Current (Power Supply) and Magnetic Field Direction

Three-phase motors use three-phase


alternating current to create a rotating
magnetic field.
U, V, W : START of Coil
U,V,W: END of Coil

V
W

19

Rotating Magnetic Field of a 44-pole Motor

S
N

Phase U

Phase V

Phase W

1
1

(a) Coil Arrangement

(b) Three-phase
Alternating Current

20

Number of Poles and Synchronous Speed


S

P o w e r S u p p ly
F re q u e n c y (f)

N o. of
P o le s
(P )

N o. of
C o ils p e r
P hase

50 Hz

60 Hz

3000

3600

1500

1800

1000

1200

750

900

2p

4p
N

(a) Synchronous Speed (min-1)

S
S

6p

N
N

(b) Number of Poles (p)

8p

21

Induction Motor Speeds


Synchronous Speed
The speed at which the magnetic field rotates is called synchronous speed (NS), which depends on the
number of magnetic poles p , that depends on the configuration of the motor stator winding, and
power supply frequency f .

NS

120 f
p

( min-1 )

NS : Synchronous speed ( min-1 )


f : Power supply frequency (Hz)

Rotating Speed
Rotor speed N ( min-1 ) is a little slower than synchronous speed Ns . This amount is called
slip, which is defined as follows:

NS N

NS

The above equation can be changed into the following one.


Ns : Characteristic value depending
on motor specifications
s : Value varying on the load size

N N S 1 S
Therefore:

120 f
N
1 S
p

( min-1 )

22

Characteristics
Current (%)
Starting Current

Rated Speed

Rated Current
No-load Current

Stalling Torque

Torque

Starting Torque
Rated Torque
Ns
Slip (Rating)

Reverse Phase Braking Area


( PLU GGING )

Regenerative Braking Area


(Induction Generator)

Motoring Area

[With 4 poles at 60 Hz ( min-1 )] - 1800

1800

3600

23

Slot Form and Torque Characteristics of Induction Motors


Torque

Special Squirrel-cage Type Class 1

Torque

Speed

Speed

Torque

Special Squirrel-cage Type Class 2

Normal Squirrel-cage Type

Speed

Standard

Torque

Speed
Low Starting Torque Type

Torque

Torque

Particular

Speed
High Resistance Squirrel-cage Type

Speed
High Starting Torque Type
Aluminum die-cast
Copper
Brass
High-resistance alloy die-cast

24

Control Method
Load Torque

-1

The intersection of the motor


generating torque and the load
torque becomes the operation
speed.

To change the induction motor speed

Number of
Poles Large

Changing p
(Pole change motor)

Voltage Small

Changing s
(Primary voltage control)

Frequency Small
Secondary
Resistance Large

Changing s
(Secondary resistance control)

Changing f
(Primary frequency control
inverter drives)

25

Example of Pole Change Motor


[For Low Speed]

Pole Change Motor


1THR
(Example at 60 Hz)
P

2THR
Load Torque

Low Speed

[For High Speed]

Number of poles : 4 / 8

[For Low Speed]

High Speed

900

1800

N
(min-1)

26

Thyristor Type Primary Voltage


Control Circuit
Induction
Motor

3-phase
Power
Supply

Example with
4 Poles at 60 Hz

T V2
Large
Voltage

TG
Speed
Detection
Generator

Nfb
Speed
Reference
Unit


Nref

PS
ASR

Phase Shifter

Load
Torque

1800
(min-1)

27

Wound Rotor Induction Motor


Secondary Resistor Control
(a) Conceptual Diagram

(Stalling torque constant:


Proportional Transition)

R2
(Slip Ring)
3-phase
Power
Supply

Secondary
Resistance

Small
Large

Secondary Resistor

Load Torque

(b) Symbol
3-phase
Power
Supply

R2

1800

(min-1)

(Example with 4 Poles at 60 Hz)


Secondary Resistor

28

Eddy--current Coupling Motor


Eddy
Drum

Spider
Speed Detection
Generator

Induction
Motor

Slip Ring
Load
Machine

Exciting Current

3-phase Power Supply

(Example with 4 Poles at 60Hz)


Induction Motor Characteristics
Exciting Current
Large

Power
Supply

Load
Torque
Small
0

Thyristor Exciter

Speed
Reference

Phase
Shifter

Speed Deviation
Amplifier

1800
(min-1)

29

Dripproof
Protection Type

Type

Configuration

Protection
Type

Provided with ventilation openings in the housing. These


openings protect against round bars of 12 mm diameter or more.

Dripproof
Type

The open-type with water dripping within 15 degrees vertically


does not enter the motor interior directly or along the motor
surface.

Dripproof
Protection
Type

Satisfies the conditions of both protection type and dripproof type.

Operational
Environment
Ordinary environment
(indoor)
Ordinary environment
Under special ambient
temperature
Exposed to water
splashes

Protection
Symbol
(Representative
Example)

BODY
JP 20

JP 12

JP 22

* BODYis added in front of the protection symbol for any configuration without terminal box.

30

Totally--enclosed FanTotally
Fan-cooled Type

Type

Configuration

Totally-enclosed
Type

The housing is enclosed so that the outer air


does not enter the motor interior.

Totally-enclosed,
Fan-cooled Type

In addition to the totally-enclosed


configuration, the housing surface is cooled
by the fan mounted on the rotary axis.

Operational Environment
Ordinary environment (indoor)
Under special temperature
Under high temperature
Use in tropical area
Exposed to excessive amount of
dripping water or dust

Protection
Symbol
(Representative
Example)

BODY
JP 44
JP 44

31

Outdoor Type

Type

Anticorrosion Type

Configuration

Outdoor Type

Durable for outdoor use.


(Totally-enclosed type or totally-enclosed fan-cooled
type)

Totallyenclosed, Fancooled Type

Can operate properly in a place exposed to corrosive


acid, alkali or any other hazardous gases.
(Totally-enclosed type or totally-enclosed fan-cooled
type)

Operational Environment
Ordinary environment
(indoor)
Under special temperature
Under high temperature
Use in tropical area
Exposed to excessive
amount of water or dust

Protection
Symbol
(Representative
Example)

JPW 44

JPC 44

32

Explosionproof Type

Type

Configuration

Explosionproof Type
(Increased Safety,
Pressure Proof, Internal
Pressure)

Durable for outdoor use.


(Totally-enclosed type or totally-enclosed fan-cooled
type)

Dustproof,
Explosionproof Type

Can operate properly in a place exposed to corrosive


acid, alkali or any other hazardous gases.
(Totally-enclosed or totally-enclosed fan-cooled type)

Operational
Environment

Protection
Symbol
(Represent
ative
Example)

Exposed to explosive
gases

JPE 44

Exposed to dust

JPE 44

33

Types of Inverter Motors


1. Inverter Drive Motors
Totally-enclosed
(With PG)
Model EEK-IM

Fan Cover

Totally-enclosed
Fan-cooled Type
FEQ-X, FEF
FEK-I

Totally-enclosed
Fan-cooled Type
(With electric fan)
FEK-IK

Pulse Generator (-M)

External Fan

2. Applied Modification

Totally-enclosed
Fan-cooled Type
(With electric fan and PG)
FEK-IKM

External Fan (-K)

Geared motors

Output shaft torque increased

Brake motors

Quick brake
AG brake motors

Explosionproof motors

Increased safety explosionproof motors


Explosionproof motors

34

Motor Characteristics at Inverter Drives


The following shows the relation between the magnetic flux, voltage and frequency.

Magnetic Flux

Voltage V
= Constant
Frequency f

Example
When speed is reduced to the half (60 Hz to 30 Hz), according to the above equation, set the
inverter output voltage and output frequency so that the magnetic flux will be constant.
200

V 200( V ) 100( V )
=
=
= Cons tan t
f 60( Hz ) 30( Hz )

Voltage (V)

In actual operation, voltage at low frequency must be increased


by 150% to 200% in order to compensate for voltage drop in the
motor.

100

30
Frequency (Hz)

60

35

Motor Rated Torque


The following shows the equation of motor rated torque.
Rated torque

Rated torque

P (kW)
Rated speed N (min-1)

TM 974

Motor rated output

60

Motor rated output

TM

P (W)
Rated speed N (min-1)

Example
In case of a motor of 7.5 kW, 4 poles, rated speed 1740 min-1
Rated torque

TM 974

Rated torque

TM 60
2

7.5
1740

4.19

(kgfm)

7.5103 41.2 (Nm)


1740

(kgfm)

(Nm)

36

Motor Speed Variation


Output Torque
Torque

When load torque varies


As the load torque becomes greater, the motor speed
decreases (or slip becomes greater).
At this time, the greater the load torque the greater
the motor current.

Load Large
Load Small
Speed

Load Fluctuation and Speed Changes

Voltage Large
Torque

When the motor applied voltage varies


The motor generating torque is in proportion to the
square of voltage.
As the voltage becomes smaller, the speed decreases
(or slip becomes greater).

Voltage
Small

Load Constant

Speed

Voltage Fluctuation and Speed Changes

37

Operations Exceeding 50Hz or 60Hz


Inverter output voltage does not exceed power supply voltage.
Therefore, output voltage becomes constant in the range exceeding frequency
50 Hz or 60 Hz (base frequency).
The following equation shows the relation between motor voltage (V),
frequency (f) and torque.

V
T orque T = K
I
f

K Constant
Current

Since only frequency is changed, torque is reduced in inverse proportion


to frequency if the motor current value is the same
as shown in the above equation.
This area is called constant output area.

38

Chapter 2
Inverter Principle and Characteristics

39

Inverter Configuration

AC
Power

Rectifier Circuit
Converter
Section

DC Intermediate
Circuit
Smoothing
Circuit Section

Invert Conversion
Circuit
Inverter Section

AC
Power

Motor
M

Variable Frequency
/Variable Voltage AC

Commercial
Power

VVVF

Control Circuit Section

40

Principle of SingleSingle-phase Inverter


Switches
S1, S4

S1
DC
Power
Supply

S3

ON

S2, S3

ON
ON

Ed

+Ed

S1 S4 ON

S1 S4 ON
S2 S3 ON

-Ed

S2

S4

How to Make AC

Current wave

41

Basic Circuit of 33-phase Inverter


DC
Power
Supply

S1

S3

S5

U Motor

Ed

V
S4

S6

+Ed
-Ed

S2

42

Basic Circuit of Transistor Inverter


3-phase AC
+Ed

DC
Power
Supply

Ed

IM
Motor

43

Main Semiconductor Power Elements Used for Inverters


Name

Diode

Thyristor

GTO
(Gate Tum Off
Thyristor)

Symbol

IGBT

Power MOS FET

(Power Metal Oxide


(Insulated Gate Bipolar
Semiconductor. Field
Tr.)
Effect Tr.)

Drain

Collector

Anode

Gate

Base

Gate

Emitter

Source

Features,
Application

Voltage, Current
Waveform

Characteristics

Cathode

Bipolar Power
Transistor

General high-voltage, High-voltage,


large-current rectifier large-current converter
circuits
section
Inverter section, chopper
section attached with
commutation circuit

High-voltage,
large-current inverter
section, chopper
section

Medium voltage,
medium current
high-speed switching,
inverter section

Medium voltage,
medium current
high-speed switching,
inverter section

Low-voltage, smallcurrent high-speed


switching, inverter
section

44

Voltage--type Inverter Control Method


Voltage
(Ed: DC voltage)
Control Method

Output Frequency

Features
Ed
Ed

PAM Method
(Pulse Amplitude
Modulation)

Output Voltage Waveform


Average Output Voltage
Ed
Ed

PWM Method
(Sinusoidal Wave
Approximate)

PWM:
Pulse Width
Modulation
When the above Output power frequency is 60 Hz, the number of pulses per cycle is
14. Therefore, carrier wave (carrier frequency) is obtained as 6014 = 840 Hz.
Since the actual inverter has this carrier frequency of 15 kHz, the number of pulses
per cycle is 250 pulses (1500060).

Voltage control is
needed for the
converter.
Motor current distortion
is excessive, resulting
in torque ripple.
Frequency and voltage
can be controlled only
in the inverter section.
Smooth operation is
possible at a low speed.

45

Converter Section
and InIn-rush Current Suppression
MC
P
R
D1

D2

D3

In-rush Current
Suppression Resistor

Ed

V
Vs

D4

D5
E

D6

Vs 1.35

Vs

46

Primary Frequency Control of Induction Motors


Torque
0Hz(DC)
20 Hz

-30 Hz

60 Hz

Speed
min-1
Load Torque
-1800

600
-900

<Example of 4 Poles>
: In case of vector control
(Torque min-1 curve moves
horizontally.)
: In case of V/f control
(Torque is reduced at low speed.)

1800

3600

47

V/f Control PWM Inverter


Converter

Inverter

3-phase Power Supply

Current Detector

Motor
IM

Transistor Base Signal

Speed
(Frequency)
Reference

Accel/decel
Interrupt Signal

Voltage/
Current
Detection

N
0

Voltage
Reference

Accel/decel Adjuster

PWM
Signal
Generator

V/f Setter
Frequency Reference

Base
Driver

48

Voltage / Frequency Characteristics


in V/f Control
Rated Voltage

V/f control compensates for the voltage drop value of the motor primary
winding for the constant E/f (magnetic flux).

In Case of Variable
Torque Load

Voltage (V)

In Case of Constant
Torque Load
E/f Constant
(Constant Magnetic Flux)
Compensation for Motor
Primary Winding Voltage Drop

Voltage
Bias

V/f Constant
Frequency f (Hz)

Rated Frequency

49

Equivalent Circuit and Vector Diagram


l1
r1
I22
~
II2
I1 I1

V
V
V
r1
E
r2
I1
l1
I2
M
IM
S

IIMM

EE

I11~

I2

II11

r2
1s
r2
s

: Motor terminal voltage


r2
: Primary winding resistance
s
: Motor (internal) induced voltage
: Secondary winding resistance
: Motor primary (stator) current
: Primary winding leak inductance
: Motor secondary (rotor) current
: Exciting inductance
: Exciting current (exciting current component of primary current)
: Slip

(a) Equivalent Circuit for Motor One Phase

I1 l1

I1 r1

(b) Vector Diagram

IMM

50

Vector Control PWM Inverter


Speed
Reference

Torque Current Current Reference


Speed Controller Reference Calculator
Current Amplitude Reference

N
2
2
t

I 2 I1 I M I2
I
Current Phase Reference Each Phase Current
tan1 2
Accel/decel
I
M
IM

Reference
Speed/Torque
Adjuster
Control Switch

fs

I2
Torque
Reference
Exciting
Current
Reference

r2

M
Slip
IM
Frequency
Reference

I2
IM

fdt

fn

3-phase
Power Supply

Converter

PWM
Control

Inverter

Multiplier

Instantaneous Current
Control Circuit
3- (or 2-) phase Current
Feedback Signal

Current Detector
M
Motor

Speed Feedback Signal

PG (Speed Detector)
(Pulse Generator)

51

Auto--tuning
Auto

Input the basic numerical values such as motor NP into the inverter so that the motor
determines the motor constants required for the vector control by measurement and
calculation. This function is called Auto-tuning.

In Case of V/f Control


V/f control suitable for the motor
load characteristics is needed in
order to obtain low-speed torque.

In Case of Vector Control


Constant calculation using the
motor test report or combination by
manufacturer is needed.

Varispeed G7
Incorporates the auto-tuning program as standard so that no
complicated adjustment is needed.
The following three methods are available for the auto-tuning.
1. Stop-type tuning only for line resistance
2Stop-type tuning
3Rotation-type tuning

52

Features of Control Mode

Varispeed G7

Specifications

V/f Control

V/f Control
with PG Feedback

Open-loop
Vector Control

Flux Vector
Control

Basic
Control

Voltage/frequency control
(open-loop)

Voltage/frequency
control with speed
compensation

Current vector control


without PG

Current vector control


with PG

Speed
Detector

Not needed

Needed
(pulse generator)

Not needed

Needed
(pulse generator)

Option Card for


Speed Detection

Not needed

Needed

Not needed

Needed

Speed Control
Range

1:40

1:40

1:200

1:1000

Starting
Torque

150% at 3 Hz

150% at 3 Hz

150% at 3 Hz

150% at 0 min-1

Speed Control
Accuracy

2 to 3%

0.03%

0.2%

0.02%

Torque Limit

Disabled

Disabled

Enabled

Enabled

Torque
Control

Disabled

Disabled

Enabled

Enabled

Typical
Applications

Multi-drives
Replacement for existing
motor of which motor
constants are unknown
Auto-tuning is enabled
only for line resistance.

Simplified feedback
control
Applications where
pulse generator is
attached on the
machine shaft

Any variable speed


drives

Simplified servo
drives
High-accuracy speed
control
Torque control

53

Chapter 3
Operation Characteristics

54

Induction Motor 44-quadrant Operation


(FWD Run)

(a) Speed Pattern

Speed

Time

Torque
(FWD)

(REV Run)

(b) Speed-Torque
Characteristics

Forward Phase Rotation

Speed
(FWD Run)

(REV Run)

Reverse Phase Rotation

(REV)

55

Acceleration
Output Frequency f

Motor speed N
0

Overload capacity when inverter


capacity is increased

Overload capacity when inverter


capacity is equal to motor capacity

Rated Current
0

Excessive Slip

Rated Current
0

(a) Proper Acceleration Time

(b) Short Acceleration Time

56

Stall Prevention during Acceleration

Inverter Output Frequency


[Dotted line shows the set
accel. ratio.]

Accel. time becomes


longer automatically.
t

Motor Speed
Peak current is limited to
within the specified value.
Motor Current

57

Stall Prevention during Deceleration


Inverter Output Frequency
[Dotted line shows the
set decel. ratio.]

Decel. time becomes


longer automatically.

t
Motor Speed

DC Voltage

DC bus voltage is limited to


within specified value.

58

Stall Prevention during Running


To avoid overloading by rapid
fluid temperature in hydraulic
machines.

Avoid overloading by
decreasing output frequency.

Inverter
Output
Frequency
t

Load

59

Actual Stall Prevention Function

RUN Signal

DC Voltage
Inverter Output Frequency

Edc.

OVOA
Motor Current

60

Deceleration
Motor Operation Mode

Deceleration Time td
N,

Slip

tdCoasting to a stop time

Motoring (Motoring area)

Plus

tdCoasting to a stop time

Regeneration (power generation area)

Minus

Rapid deceleration
Slip: Minus
f

N
Slow deceleration
Slip: Plus

Slip
(Minus)

0
Set Decel. Time td

61

DC Injection Braking
N, f

N, f

N
F

N, f

DC Injection
Braking Time

Free Run

F
F
DC
Current

DC
Current

DC Injection Braking
Starting Frequency

(a) Frequency Deceleration


(Example of DC Injection
Braking Before Stop)

DC Injection
Braking Time

(b) All-area DC Injection Braking

(c) Coasting to a Stop

62

I/O Power Flow Diagram


Power
Supply

Inverter
Input Power

Inverter

Inverter Loss
Inverter Efficiency

Inverter Output
Output
Inverter Efficiency
Inverter Input
Output + Loss

Motor

Inverter Output
Power

IM

Motor
Output

Motor Loss
Motor Efficiency

Load

Power
Power Supply

Motor Output
Motor Efficiency
Motor Input (Inverter Output)

Motor Output
Total Efficiency Inverter Efficiency Motor Efficiency
Inverter Input

63

Input Voltage / Current Waveform


Power Factor =

Active Power
Active Power
=
Apparent Power Active Power + Reactive Power
=

Inverter Input Power


3 Power Supply Voltage Inverter Input Current

INV input current is a distortional wave current including harmonics. Unified effective current
including harmonics is INV input current. Therefore, the power factor expressed by the above
equation is not always equal to the value measured with general power factor meter.
V
I

(a) Commercial Power Operation

(b) Inverter Operation

64

Typical Connection of DC Reactor


Effect of power factor improvement: power supply factor 93 to 95% (at 100% load)*3
Power Factor Improvement Reactor*2
UZDA-B
U

Wiring distance:*3
5 m or less.

Be sure to remove the connected piece


between terminals.

+1+2
NFB
Power
Supply

R
S
T

Motor
Inverter

U
V
W

*1. The connection cable between the


reactor and the inverter must be 5
m or less, the shorter the better.
The size must be equivalent to the
power supply cable or larger.
*2. Models of 18.5 to 75 kW (200-V
class) and 18.5 to 160 kW (400-V
class) are incorporated with DC
reactors. The power factor
improvement is more than 93%.

IM
*3. The inverter power supply power
factor is normally approx. 60 to
90%, which differs depending on
the power supply impedance.

65

Typical Inverter Input Current Waveform


in Each Power Supply Method (1)
Circuit Pattern

Input Current Waveform

Input Current Spectrum

Harmonics
Content

No countermeasures taken
+

88%
N

Harmonics Order
AC reactor inserted
+

38%
N

5 7

11

DC reactor inserted
+

P
N

33%
1

11

66

Typical Inverter Input Current Waveform


in Each Power Supply Method (2)
Circuit Pattern

Input Current Waveform

12-phase rectification

Input Current Spectrum

Harmonics
Contents

P
+

12%
N

Harmonics Order
PWM control converter
+

3%
N

67

Chapter 4
Inverter Drive Units Selection

General--purpose Inverter Series


General
From General IndustrialIndustrial-use to Consumer Equipment
High-graded Function Current
Vector Control (0.4 to 300 kW)

Varispeed G7
General-purpose Vector Control (0.4 to 300 kW)

Varispeed F7
Small-size Voltage Vector Control (0.1 to 7.5 kW)

VS mini V7
Super Small-size Contactor Type (0.1 to 3.7 kW)

VS mini J7

68

69

Features of Each GeneralGeneral-purpose Inverter

Speed Control
Torque Control

Braking
Method

1:40

2 to 3

VS mini C

Single-phase: 100 V 0.1 to0.75


Single-phase,3-phase: 0.1 to 1.5

3-phase: 0.2 to 1.5

1:40

2 to 3

VS mini V7

Single-phase: 0.1 to 3.7


3-phase: 0.1 to 7.5

3-phase: 0.2 to 7.5

1:40

3-phase: 0.4 to 110

3-phase: 0.4 to 300

Varispeed F7

Varispeed G7

3-phase: 0.4 to 110

3-phase: 0.4 to 300

VS-616R3

3-phase: 3.7 to 37

VS-686SS5

3-phase: 0.4 to 75

3-phase: 7.5 to 75
3-phase: 0.4 to 160
3-phase: 0.4 to 300

2 to 3
1

1:40

2 to 3

1:100

0.2

1:40

2 to 3

1:200
1:1000

Accuracy (%)

3-phase: 0.2 to 3.7

V/f

Control Range

Single-phase: 0.1 to 1.5


3-phase: 0.1 to 3.7

400V Class

Flux Vector

VS mini J7

200V Class

Open-loop

Power
Regeneration

Control Method

Resistor
Discharge

Capacity (kW)

1:40
1:10
1:500

0.2

0.02

2 to 3
0.2

0.02

70

Power
Regenerative
Unit

Power
Regenerative
Converter

For Machine
Tool Spindle

For System

Exclusive--use Inverter Series


Exclusive
Model

Features

VS-676H5

High-graded function type

VS-686HV5S
VS-686HV5
VS-626M5/MR5
VS-626MC5

High-voltage super energy


saving
Exclusive for machine tools
spindle
(high accuracy)
Exclusive for machine tools
spindle (simplified type)

Output Range
200 V: 0.4 to 75 kW 400 V: 0.4 to 800 kW
575 V: 300 to 1200 kW
3300 V: 132 to 1250 kW
6600 V: 250 to 2500 kW
3300 V: 225 to 1800 kW
6000 V: 450 to 3000 W
200 V: 2.2 / 3.7 to 22 / 30 kW
400 V: 3.7 / 5.5 to 37 / 45 kW
200 V: 2.2 / 3.7 to 11 / 15 kW
200 V: 15 to 75 kW
400 V: 15 to 300 kW

Sinusoidal wave PWM


VS-656DC5

Harmonics: 0
Power factor: 1

200 V: 3.7 to 37 kW
400 V: 3.7 to 75 kW
VS-656RC5

Low cost type

71

Capacity Selection
Check Item

Load type and characteristics

What to Decide

Motor Type

Machine specifications
Operation method
Motor selection
Inverter capacity selection

Motor Output
Inverter Output

model
selection
Inverter

Inverter selection

Inverter Model

Peripheral units, options

Peripheral units, Options

Investment effect

Enclosure

Investment effect
Final specifications

72

Typical Load Torque Characteristics

Loads of which output


becomes constant for the speed

Loads of which load torque


varies depending on the speed
Loads having the nature
between the low output load
and the constant torque load

Fan
Blower
Pump
Other fluid loads

Constant tension
force winder of
center drive
Spindle motors of
machine tools
Veneer rotary laths

Torque, Output

1.0

Load Torque
Load Output
0

Torque, Output

Loads of which load torque is


decreased as the speed is
reduced

Conveyor
Crane
Winch
Other friction loads
and gravity loads

Speed Torque Characteristics

Speed

1.0

Load torque is constant regardless of


speed.
Output power is in proportion to speed.
T=k
T: torque
P = kN
P: Output
k: Proportional constant

Load Torque

Load Output
Speed
2.0

Torque, Output

Load torque is constant for


speed.
General friction loads

Typical Load

Torque, Output

Reduced
Power

Constant
Power

Reduced
Torque

Control
Torque

Load Characteristics

Load Torque
1.0

Load Output
Speed
2.0

2.0

Load torque is in proportion to the


square of speed.
Output is in proportion to the
cube of speed.
T = kN2
P = kN3
Output power required by the load is
constant.
Load torque is in inverse
proportion to speed.
T = k/N
P=k
Speed torque/output
characteristics between the
constant torque load and constant
output load

Load Torque

1.0

Load Output
2.0

73

Difference between Inverter ExclusiveExclusive-use Motor


and Standard Motor
Standard Motor

Motor may be overheated


in a low-speed area.

Motor can operate properly even


in a low-speed area.
The motor is designed for inverter drives,
therefore, the temperature is within the
specified value even if the motor is used at a
low speed.
Example:
Allowable Load Torque
(%)

Allowable Load Torque


(%)

Since the min-1 of the external fan becomes


lower in a low-speed area, the cooling
capability is deteriorated. Therefore, the
motor may be overheated unless the load is
reduced in a low-speed area.

Exclusive-use Motor

60

3 20

Standard Motor Output

1:10
Const. Torque Motor
55

0.5

Inverter Exclusive-use Motor Output

<Important>
The above characteristics show the torque that can be allowed at continuous operation. There is no
difference in the torque that the motor can generate in a short time, such as at starting, between the
standard motor and the constant torque motor.

74

Relation between Frequency and Motor Speed


at Accel/Decel

During Accel
NS N

During Decel
(A) Small Load Torque, Short
T

NS N

(NS < N)

(B) Large Load Torque, Long Decel Time (NS >


T
N)

During Decel
(A): NS N
(B): NS N

During Constant Speed

Decel Time

Motor Speed

Inverter Frequency

75

Operation Pattern and Calculation of Load Torque


Can accelerate?
Motor torque exceeding the torque required
for acceleration (Ta+TL) must be available.
Can start?
Motor starting torque must be
greater than load starting torque.

Is motor temperature proper?


Temperature rise must be within the specified value.
Can decelerate?
Brake torque required for deceleration
must be available.
Energy at deceleration can be consumed or
regenerated to the power supply.
Time

9.55

60

Ta

Accel time
Load Torque

TL

Accel Torque

Ta

TL

Td

JN
9.55ta

Required Motor Torque


TaTL

Decel time

fV

Decel Torque

Td

Ta
TL

The volume of the motor output torque is a key point.


Torque depends on the motor output, inverter output,
control method or boost amount.

N
m

JN
9.55td

The inverter regeneration capability is a


key point. The regeneration capability
depends on selection of the inverter
output and braking unit type.
Required Brake Torque
TB=TdTL

76

Selection of Motor and Inverter


N
Vm/min

Calculation of Motor and Inverter Capacities

Drum

Gears

IM

Power
Supply Calculate torque at accel, constant speed or decel.

INV
W kg
: Friction Coefficient

Speed N

N1
(N1 = N)

Total Inertia

: Machine Efficiency
JM : Moment of Inertia
(Rotating Part)

TL =

Ta =

Decel torque

tc
t
TL+Ta

TL
Td-TL

f V
1

2 N

(Nm)
(Nm)
(Nm)

Select the motor that satisfies TL+Ta1.5TM (TM: motor


rated torque, P:Motor Cap.(W)).

td

GD 2
V
2
=W (
) 2 (kgm )
4
2N

J N
9 . 55 t a
J N
Td =
9 . 55 t d

Accel torque

N1 = N (min-1)

ta

JL =

J = JM + JL

Load torque

N2
(N2 = 0)
Load Torque

f = 9 . 8 W (N)

9 . 55 P
(Nm)
N
Select the inverter suitable for the motor output.
In details, calculate the required apparent power (kVA)
according to the motor efficiency and power factor to
select the inverter output (kVA).
TM =

Select the braking resistor (braking unit) according to


Td TL .

77

Power Flow and Regenerative Braking

(a) Motor Mode


Power Flow

Power Flow

i
Commercial
Power

IM

Mechanical Energy

S0
(Motor power factor cos0)

(b) Generator (Regeneration) Mode


Thermal Energy
*1

R
Commercial (i =0
Power

*2
(ON)

Power Flow

IM

Mechanical Energy
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy

S0
(Motor power factor cos 0)

*1 Discharge resistor = braking resistor


*2 Monitors DC voltage and turns ON the transistor when DC voltage exceeds the specified level.
The inverter built-in braking transistor or braking unit is used.

78

Actual Measured Braking Function

STOP
RUN Signal

RUN/STOP Reference
DC Bus Bar Voltage

60Hz

EDC

Inverter Output
Frequency
0Hz

Braking Resistor Current

79

Peripheral Devices and Their Connections


(1) Power supply transformer

(2) Circuit breaker or


(3) Leakage breaker
(6)
Noise filter
(4) Contactor

(7) DC reactor
(8) Noise filter

(13) Thermal relay


(11) Contactor
IM

(5) AC reactor
(9) Braking unit
(12) Contactor for commercial
power backup

(10) Braking resistor unit

How to Select Peripheral Devices


No.

Name

80

Purpose and Selecting Points

Power transformer

Transformer capacity Inverter capacity 1.5

Circuit breaker

Breaks accidental current (shortcircuit current).


Rated current inverter rated current 1.5 Described in the inverter catalog.
Grounding protection
High frequency leak current protection for electric shock accident & leakage current fire.
1. Use a breaker provided with countermeasures for high frequency leakage current.
2. Increase sensitivity current.
3. Decrease inverter carrier frequency.
Since the inverter has the contactor function, any contactor is not needed except for special
cases.
When a braking resistor is used, insert a contactor to make thermal trip circuit.
Perform RUN/STOP at the inverter side and set the contactor to Always ONto use.

Leakage breaker

Contactor

5
7

AC reactor
DC reactor

For high frequency current suppression and improvement of power factor


Install a reactor to protect the inverter when the power supply capacity is large.

6
8

Noise filter or
Zero-phase reactor

Prevent radio noise generated by inverter section

9
10

Braking unit
Braking resistor unit

Used when an electrical brake is needed (when the required braking torque exceeds 20%).

11
12

Contactor for
commercial power
backup

Used for backup at inverter failure or when commercial power supply is used for normal
operations.

13

Thermal relay

Not needed when one motor is driven by one inverter.


(Connected when more than two motors are used.)

81

Chapter 5
Inverter Functions and Advantages

82

Advantages of Inverter Applications (1)


No.

Advantage

Technical Details

Main Precautions

Can control speeds


of the specified
constant-speed
type motors.

Number of revolutions changes


when squirrel-cage-type motor
terminal voltage and frequency
are changed.

Since a standard motor has


temperature rise that becomes
greater at a low speed, torque must
be reduced according to frequency.

Soft start/stop enabled.

Accel/decel time can be set freely


from a low speed.
(0.01 to 6000 seconds).

Set proper accel/decel time after


performing load operation.

Little motor heat generation since


smooth accel/decel is enabled with
little current.

Motor or inverter capacity frame


must be increased depending on the
accel/decel capacity. Check the
accel/decel time and load J.

Because of phase rotation changes


by transistor, there are no moving
parts like conventional contactors
so that interlock operation can be
assured.

When applying the inverter to an


elevating unit, use a motor with a
brake to hold mechanically for
stand still.

2
t

Cushion Start

Highly frequent
start/stop enabled.

Cushion Stop
f

FWD/REV run enabled without main


Inverter
circuit contactor.
4

FWD
Run

REV
Run

RUN Command
FWD
Run
REV
Run

83

Advantages of Inverter Applications (2)


No.

Advantage

Technical Details

Main Precautions

Can apply an electrical brake.

Since mechanical energy is converted into


electrical energy and absorbed in the
inverter at decel, the motor can automatically provide braking force.
DC current is applied to the motor around
zero-speed so that it becomes dynamic
braking, to completely stop the motor.

Braking force is approx. 20% when


only the inverter is used.
Attaching a braking resistor
(optional) externally can increase
the braking force.
Pay attention to the capacity of the
resistor.

Can control speeds of the


motor under adverse
atmosphere.

Since the inverter drives squirrel-cage


motors, it can be used easily for
explosionproof, waterproof, outdoor or
special types of motors.

An explosionproof motor in
combination with an inverter is
subject to explosionproof
certification.

High-speed rotation enabled.

Commercial power supply can provide up


to 3600 min-1 (2-pole at 60Hz) or 3000 min1 (2-pole, at 50Hz).
A general-purpose inverter can increase
frequency up to 400 Hz (12000 min-1) while
a high-frequency inverter can increase it
up to 3000 Hz (180000 min-1).

The speed of a general-purpose


motor cannot be increased by
simply increasing the frequency.
(It can be applied without being
changed if frequency is approx. 120
Hz.)
Mechanical strength and dynamic
balance must be examined.

5
t
Electrical Braking

60Hz

120Hz

400Hz

84

Advantages of Inverter Applications (3)


No.

Advantage
The speeds of more than one motor
can be controlled by one inverter.
IM

8
IM

Inverter

Technical Details

Main Precautions

The inverter is a power supply unit


to the motor, therefore, as many
motors as the capacity allows can
be connected.
These motors do not have to be the
same capacity.

The number of motor revolutions


differs depending on each motor
characteristics or load ratio even at
the same frequency.
(Among general-purpose motors,
speed deviation of 2 to 3% can be
considered.)
Synchronous motors have the same
number of revolutions.

IM

Power supply capacity can be small


when the motor is started up.

Large current (5 or 6 times larger


Transformer capacity (kVA)
than the motor rating) does not
= 1.5 inverter output capacity
flow as with a commercial power
supply start.
Current can be limited to at most
100 to 150% by low-frequency start.

Number of revolutions becomes


constant regardless of power supply
frequency.

Output freq. can be set regardless


of power supply freq. 50/60Hz.

10

85

Motor and Power Supply Current


in Inverter Drives
100% Voltage (100% Speed)

Inverter Output
Voltage

t
150%
100% Current

Inverter Output
Current

Inverter Input
Current

150%

100% Current

86

Minimize the Energy Consumptions

Energy Saving for


General Industrial Machines & Systems

(1)Energy Saving for Mechanical Systems by Means of Variable Speed Drive of Motors
A . Variable Torque Load
B . Constant Torque Load
C . Constant Power Load
(2)High Efficiency Motors
A . High Efficiency Induction Motor
B . IPM(Interior Permanent Magnet Motor)
(3)Change to High Efficiency Drive for Existing Variable Speed Drive
A . Primary Voltage Control of Induction Motor
B . Secondary Resistor Control of Wound Rotor Induction Motor
C . VS-Motor (Eddy Current Coupling Motor)
D . Variable Frequency Drive of Induction Motor
E . Variable Frequency Drive of IPM
(4)Regeneration of Braking (Kinetic)Energy
A . Regenerative Converter
B . Drive Regenerated Energy To Another Inv. Drive
(5)Others
A . ON-OFF Control for Mechanical Systems
B . Inverter Energy Saving (Voltage) Control Method

87

Optimum EnergyEnergy-saving Plan for Facility


Applied Load
Fans
Pumps
Blowers
(Any Variable Torque
Load)
Extruders
Conveyors, etc.
(Any Constant Torque
Load)
Cranes
Elevators, etc.
Rewinders
General Machines

Concept of Energy-saving
Replace with a more efficient motor.
Reduce a redundancy of the facility for the actual loads.
Abate the head loss at valves or dampers.
Change to more efficient drives.
Replace the primary voltage control, secondary resistance
control, eddy-current coupling (VS motors) with a more efficient
control method(Frequency Control).
Collect the regenerative energy at lowering by using the inverter
power supply regenerative function.
Collect the regenerative energy of the rewinders.
Replace with a more efficient motor.
Reduce the starting energy.
(Use the inverter as a starter to stop the operations positively
whenever the load ratio is low.)

(2)
(1)
(1)
(3)

(4)
(4)
(2)
(5)a

88

Air Volume and Wind Pressure


Characteristics of Fan
R50
Hd

( p.u.)
1.0

R
A

Ad

H1.03N0.56NQ0.59Q
RQ

Hi
H0
0

Ai

N50

Rated air volume: 250m3/sec


Rated wind pressure: 433mmAq
Fan efficiency at rated air volume: 0.7
Fan efficiency at 50% air volume: 0.6

Q50
0.5
Air volume (Q)

1.0 ( p.u.)

89

Energy saving Effect in the Fan Application


In the case of damper control
The wind pressure in 50% air volume is Hd = 1.03 + 0.56 0.5 - 0.59 0.52 = 1.16
QH
0.5 1.16
P
=
=
The power becomes D 6120 6120 0.6 0.9 250 433 = 19.0kW
f m

m = 0.9 is the motor efficiency

In the case of inverter control


The wind pressure in 50% air volume is Hi = 0.52 = 0.25

The power becomes Pi =

QH
0.5 0.25
=
250 433 = 3.7kW
6120fmi 6120 0.7 0.9 0.95

i = 0.95 is the inverter efficiency

The electric-power saving quantity


PS = PD Pi = 15.3kW

On the assumption of electric power unit price: \15/kWh and annual continuous running:
8000hours,We can save the electric charge as follows. 15.3 15 8000 = \ 1,836,000

90

Flow Rate and Head Characteristics of Pump


R50

1.5

Squeeze volume

Head (P.U)

HB
1

N
R0
Low speed

Hi
0.5

N50

0.5

Flow rate (P.U)

91

Energy saving Effect in the Pump Application


In the case of valve control
The head in 50% flow rate is HB = 1.25 0.25 0.52 = 1.188

The power becomes PB =

QH
0.5 1.188
=
6 25 = 28.9kW
6.12pm 6.12 0.56 0.9

m = 0.9 is the motor efficiency

In the case of inverter control


The head in 50% flow rate is Hi = 0.7 0.1 0.52 = 0.725

The power becomes Pi =

QH
0.5 0.725
=
6 25 = 13.7kW
6.12pmi 6.12 0.76 0.9 0.95

i = 0.95 is the inverter efficiency

The electric-power saving quantity


PS = PB Pi = 15.2kW

On the assumption of electric power unit price: \15/kWh and annual continuous running:
8000hours,We can save the electric charge as follows. 15. 2 15 8000 = \ 1,824,000

92

Outline of Software Functions (1)


Function Name
Multi-step Speed
Operation

Applications
Feeders, etc.

Accel/decel Changing
Operation

Automatic panel
feeders, etc.

S-curve Time
Characteristics

feeders such as
conveyors, carts,
etc.
Pumps
Blowers
General machines

Frequency Upper/lower
Limit Operation
Specified Frequency
Setting Prohibition
(Frequency Jump Control)
DWELL Function
Heavy-inertia loads
such as centrifugal
separators etc.
Speed Search
Inertia load drives
such as blowers,
winders
Compensation for
General machines
Momentary Power Loss
Fault Retry

Air-conditioning,
etc.

Purpose
Schedule operation
at specified speed

Description
By combining signals, operation is performed at frequency stored
internally (up to 9-step speeds). Connection with the sequencer is easy;
simplified positioning by using limit switch is also possible.
Changing external
Using an external signal can change the accel/decel rate. This function
signal of accel/decel is effective when two motors are driven alternately by one inverter or
time
when smooth accel/decel is needed only in the high-speed area.
Prevention of
Smooth movement can be achieved by setting S-curve delay when
start/stop shock
accel/decel starts or finishes.
Limit of motor
revolutions
Prevention of
machine system
vibration
Smooth accel/decel
of heavy-inertia
loads
Starting of coasting
motor

Frequency reference upper/lower value, bias and gain can be set


individually without adding any peripheral devices.
In order to prevent vibration of the machine system, the oscillation point
is avoided automatically during constant-speed operation. This function
can also be used for dead zone control.
Prevents the motor from stalling by holding output frequency temporarily
during accel/decel.

Continuing operation
at a momentary
power loss
Improvement of
operation reliability

Restart the motor automatically after recovery from a momentary power


loss by using the remaining control power supply to continue the motor
operations.
Resets the fault automatically after the inverter detects a fault and
performs self-analysis and restarts the operation without stopping the
motor. Up to 10 retry operations may be selected.

Performs pull-in operation automatically into the set frequency without


stopping the coasting motor. Motor speed detector is not needed.

93

Outline of Software Functions (2)


Function Name
Applications
Carrier Frequency Setting General machines

Load Speed Display

General machines

Purpose
Noise reduction

Improvement of
monitor function
Pulse Train Input
General machines Improvement of
operability
Pulse Train Output
General machines Improvement of
monitoring
performance
Stopping Method
General machines Stopping method
Selection
suitable for the
machine
characteristics
3-wire Sequence
General machines Simple configuration
of control circuit
Frequency Hold Operation General machines Improvement of
operability
UP/DOWN Operation
General machines Improvement of
operability
Frequency Detection
General machines Frequency detection
to be used for
interlock
Overtorque Detection and Machine tools
Machine protection,
Undertorque Detection
Blowers, cutters, improvement of
extruders
reliability for
continuous operation

Description
Sets the inverter carrier frequency to any arbitrary value to reduce
noise oscillation from the motor and machine system. This function is
also effective for reducing noise.
Can display the motor speed (min-1), load machine rotating speed (min-1)
or line speed (m/min).
In addition to the function as frequency reference, PID aimed value and
PID feedback value at PID control can be input as a pulse train.
Frequency reference, output frequency, motor speed, output frequency
after soft-start, PID feedback amount and PID input value can be output
in pulses.
Selects deceleration to a stop, coasting to a stop or DC injection
braking stop according to the braking torque or machine inertia.

Operation is enabled using automatic-recovery-type pushbutton switch.


Holds frequency increase/decrease temporarily during acceleration or
deceleration.
Speed setting is enabled remotely by ON/OFF operation.
Specifies the set value of output frequency, and outputs to the multifunction output terminal when frequency exceeds the range or becomes
short.
"Closed" when motor generating torque exceeds the overtorque
detection level. Can be used as an interlock signal for machine
protection such as cutting loss or overload detection of machine tools.

94

Outline of Software Functions (3)


Function Name
Stall Prevention

Applications
General
machines

Electronic Overload
Thermal Relay

General
machines

Torque Limit (Droop


Pumps,blowers,
Characteristics Selection) extruders, etc.

Purpose
Machine protection,
improvement of
reliability for
continuous operation
Detection of motor
overload
Machine protection
Improvement of
reliability for
continuous operation
Torque limit
Automatic operation
with maximum
efficiency
Automatic process
control

Energy-saving Control

General
machines

PID Control

Pumps,
air-conditioning,
etc.
Conveyors of
Proper distribution of
distributed drives load
Multi-drive
motors
Elevators, carts Zero-speed stop to
lock the motor

Droop Control

Zero Servo Function

Description
Interrupts accel/decel when frequency reaches each set value during
acceleration, deceleration or running, and continues operation when it
becomes lower than the set value.
Set the motor rated current value and select the allowable load
characteristics for each motor type, and the electronic overload thermal
relay performs overload protection.
Adjusts output frequency according to the load status when the motor
generating torque reaches a certain level.
Optimum for tip-less operation for pumps or blowers.

Supplies sufficient voltage for the motor to reach maximum efficiency


according to the load or rotating speed.
Calculates the PID in the inverter and uses the result of the calculation
as its own frequency reference to perform constant control of pressure,
flow rate, wind amount, etc.
Sets motor speed regulation to an arbitrary value.
Making high-resistance characteristics distributes the loads of several
motors properly.
Holds a motor in the locked status at zero speed whether external force
is applied in the forward or reverse direction.

95

Application for Dust Collection Blowers


Similar Machines
Air-conditioning fans for buildings
Fans for cooling tower
Dust collection blowers
Fans for boilers
Heat treating furnace blowers

Functions Available
Changing of commercial power supply
and inverter operations
Restart from coasting status
Energy-saving control mode at light load
Fault retry

Blower

Dust Collector
Damper

MCB

MC

MC
Inverter
MC

Motor

96

Application for Chemical Feeding Pumps


Raw Water
Flow Rate
Detection

Pump
Chemical

Adjuster
Speed Reference

Similar Machines
Chemical feeding
pumps
Cool/warm water
circulation pumps
Water supply/ discharge
pumps
Hydraulic pumps
Submersible pumps

MCB

(4 to 20 mA)
Inverter

Motor

Functions Available
Energy-saving control mode at low speed
4-20mA reference by instrumentation

PID control
Minimum speed setting

97

Conveyor FollowFollow-up Operation


Similar Machines
Raw material supply conveyors
Shuttle conveyors
Chain conveyors
Steel pipe feeding conveyors

Functions Available
Improvement of constant position stop accuracy
Increasing the starting torque Smooth accel/decel
Changing accel/decel time
Simultaneous control of several motors by one inverter
Hopper
Feeder
Conveyor
Geared
Motor

MCB
Power Supply

Inverter

Geared
Motor

MCB
Inverter

Pulse Train
Input
PG Pulse Encoder

Main
Speed
Setting

Power
Supply

98

Application for Chain Conveyors


Drive Section
Chain Conveyor for Painting Line

Take-up

Take-up
Drive Section
Synchronizer
Receiver

Geared Motor
(Sub)

Synchronizer
Transmitter

Geared Motor
(Main)

Position Controller
MCB

Phase
Meter

Inverter

Power Supply

Main Speed Setting

MCB

Power Supply
Hunting
Signal

Inverter

Adding

Soft
Starter

Functions Available
Synchronous operation (linking operation) of 2 inverters
Proportional operation with other machines

Power Supply

99

Application for Garbage Cranes


Crane Operation
Room

Similar Machines Functions Available


Prevention from slipping
Cranes
Use of brake motors
Prevention from shock when a
Hoists
horizontal traveling motor starts
Stacker cranes
Changing operation of 2 horizontal
traveling motors by one inverter
Elevators
Energy-saving of existing windingtype motors

Hopper
Garbage
Carry-in
To Incinerator

No.1 Hopper

No.2 Hopper

No.3 Hopper

No.4 Hopper
Grab
Trolley

Traveling Traverse

No.1 Crane
(Stopping Position)

Pit

Crane Operation
Room
Garbage Carry-in

(a) Traverse/Traveling Operations

No.2 Crane

Pit

(b) Lifting/Lowering Operations

100

Application for Stacker Crane


(Automatic Warehouse)
(Example where One Inverter Used Both for Traverse and Fork)
Upper Guide Roller

Trolley

MCB

MC

Elevating
Motor

Inverter

Brake
MC

MC
Inverter

MC
Brake

Suspension
Chain

MC

Hoisting Unit
Carriage

Traveling Unit
Fork

For Traveling

Incorporated
Control Panel

For Fork

MC
Brake

101

Example for Crane ExclusiveExclusive-use


Software ( V/f Control )
Speed Reference
Closed

(FWD) Run Command (F)

BF

Output Frequency
IOUTIF
Brake Release Command BR
Brake Release Check BX

FTF
HF

FRF
Closed

BT

HT
Closed

BDT

BDT
Released

Brake Operation
IOUT : Inverter Output Frequency (Actual)
FRF : Brake Release Frequency (Set)
BF : Brake Operation Stand By Frequency (Set)
BT : Brake Operation Delay Time (Set)
IF : Brake Release Current (Set)

BDT : Brake Operation Delay Time (Actual)


FHF : Brake Make Up Frequency (Set)
HF : Slip Down Prevention Frequency (Set)
HT : Slip Down Prevention Time (Set)

102

Connection Diagram for Cranes


Braking
Resistor Unit
(Optional)

Emergency

Main
Switch

OFF

ON

Master

MS
Switch

R(
L1)

S(
L2)

T(
L3)

Va
r
i
s
p
eed

Varispeed
G7

U(
T1)

V(
T2)
W(
T3)

MB MC

Main

MC
Circuit
Conductor

FWD
Run

Stop

REV
Run

S2

REV
Run/Stop

R
REV

Run Command

S7

External
Baseblock

* *

B
Conductor
Brake

S9
S10
S11

Emergency
Stop (NO Contact)
(
a
)

S12
SC

Sequence
Common
(
0V)

Insulated
from (0V)

**External
baseblock
signal

baseblock
at closed
.

Brake Self-holding

Brake
Applying Command

terminal.
E(
G)

2k

MB
A2

2k

P P

*
cable
:
Twisted
pair-shielded

MC

A3
AC

Brake
Release Command

(
)
(Brake
released at closed)
AC2
50V1A
250
VAC,
1
A or less
DC30V1A
30 VDC, 1 A or less

FLT
MA

2k

Brake

BX
Release Check

M1
M2

A1

9 M2
10
M1

BR

Shielded
Sheath Cable

Connection
Terminal

PR

BBX
Brake

Applying Command

Note *

Multifunction
Terminal

S8

Not
Used

Accel/decel
Time Selection 1
1

AC

S6

Multi-speed
Ref 2
2

Multifunction

Analog

Output

11
Analog
Monitor

S5

Multi-speed
Ref 1
1

Multi-speed
Ref 3
3

AF

S4

Brake
Release Check

F
FWD

Run Command

AM

22
Analog
Monitor

S3

Fault
Reset

Class
3 Grounding
(
3)
(100 or more)

S1

FWD
Run/Stop

External
Fault

(
)

[1 [2 1

Fault
Contact Output

250
VAC,
1
A or less
AC2
50V1A
DC
30V1
30
VDC,
1A
A or less
P1

0V

P2

PC
Multifunction

48
V5
V,
0m50
A
mA
P348

C3
P4

C4

PHC Output
or less

103

Principle Diagram of Lathe


Similar Machines
Polishers
Grinders
Small lathes
Plano miller feeders
Milling machines
Drilling machines
Presses

Functions Available
Blade cutting loss prevention
Control by digital inputs

Wide range of constant output power


Vibration control

Spindle

X-axis

Z-axis

Motor

Core
Clamper

104

Mechanism of NC Lathes
X-axis

Coupling
Ball Screw

Turret (Tool Base)


Z-axis Motor

Spindle Position Sensor

Speed Changing
Timing Belt
Spindle Motor

Spindle

Belt

Ball Screw
Coupling
Blade
Core Clamper
Workpiece
Motor for Core
Clamper
Ball Screw Coupling

105

Elevator Application
Functions Available
Improvement of cage landing frequency
Soft-start with S-curve function
Slip prevention at start/stop
Battery operation at a power failure

Converter Section

Braking Resistor, Braking Transistor


(Externally Mounted)
Inverter Section
Induction Speed
Motor
Reducer

AC
Reactor

Elevator Controller
Cage Calling
Signal
Entrance
Calling Signal

Operation
Control
Torque Ref.
Generated
Position
Calculation
Speed Ref.
Generated

Run Operation
PWM Control
Signal
Status Signal AC Current
Fault Signal
Controller
Torque Compensation
Speed Controller

Speed
Ref.

Vector Control
Speed Feedback

Speed/Position Detection
Load Detection

Cage
Balance Weight

Sheave
Current Detection

3-phase AC Power
Supply

Vector Control PWM


Inverter

Load Detector

Similar Machines
Escalators
Rope ways
Cable cars
Electric railcars
Electric
automobiles

106

Chapter 6
Inverter Drives Precautions

107

Installation

(a) Vertical

(b) Horizontal

(b) Side by Side

108

Mounting
Ambient temperature:
50mm or more

Air
120mm or more

-10 to 40
Ambient humidity:
90% RH or less
Vibration:
Less than 20 Hz
9.8 m/s2 or less
20 to 50 Hz
2 m/s2 or less

30mm or more 30mm or more

50mm or more

(a) Right and Left Space

120mm or more
Air

(b) Top and Bottom Space

109

Totally--enclosed Type Control Panel Installation


Totally
Remove the unit top and bottom covers for the 20HP (15 kW)
or less models (200-V class, 400-V class).
Totally-enclosed Type
Control Panel
Top Cover
In-panel Air
Temperature at Top:
10 to +55

Top Cover(One-touch)

( )
Ambient temperature:

+14 to 113F

Cooling
Fin

Cooling Fin

(-10 to 45 )
Ambient humidity:

Open chassis Type


Inverter

90% RH or less
Vibration:

Bottom Cover
Inverter Intake Air
Temperature :
10 to +45
Ambient Temperature 40

Less than 20 Hz
9.8 m/s2 or less

20 to 50 Hz
2 m/s2 or less
Bottom Cover
Bottom Cover Mounting Screw

110

Multiple Inverters Grounding


Inverter
(1)

Inverter
(2)

Inverter
(3)

(a)

Best Grounding

Inverter
(1)

Inverter
(2)

Inverter
(3)

(b)

Good Grounding

Inverter
(1)

Inverter
(2)

Inverter
(3)

(A loop must not be made.)


(c)

Wrong Grounding

111

Allowable Load Characteristics of


Standard Motors
25%ED (or 15 minutes)
40%ED (or 20 minutes)
60%ED (or 40 minutes)
100
90
80

Run

Run

Torque (%)

70
60

Continuous

50

Stop

60

20
Frequency (Hz)

R
ED 100
T

112

Chapter 7
Harmonics, Noise & Surge Voltage

113

Difference between Harmonics and Noise


Frequency Band

Harmonics
40th to 50th harmonics (up to several kHz)

Main Source

Inverter section

Converter section

Transmission Path

Electric wire (conduction)


Space (radiation)
Induction (electrostatic,
electromagnetic

Electric wire

Influence

Distance, wiring distance

Line impedance

Generating Amount

Voltage variation ratio


Switching frequency
Sensor malfunction
Radio noise
Change the wiring route.
Install a noise filter.
Install INV. in a screened
box

Current capacity

Failure
Corrective Actions

Noise
High frequency
(10 kHz or more)

Overheat of capacitor for P.F improvement


Overheat of generator
Install a reactor.
12-phase rectification
Sinusoidal wave power regeneration
converter

114

Harmonics and Noise Sources


Harmonics Current Generated
by Rectifier Circuit

Noise Generated
by High-speed Switching

Motor
+

Smoothing
Capacitor

Commercial Power

Bridge Rectifier

Converter Section

Inverter Section

115

Fundamental Wave + Harmonics = Distorted Wave AC


(Harmonics Superimposed on Fundamental Wave)
Fundamental Wave Current
(at 50 or 60 Hz) 0

Harmonics Current
(Example of 5th Level Harmonics)
(Amplitude Ratio: 0.3)

Distorted Wave Current

116

Generation of Harmonics Current


er

es

et

Power Supply
Phase Voltage
er-s
V
EDC (Without Capacitor)

Power Supply
Line Voltage
Power Supply
Current Waveform
Phase R
ir
Phase S
is
Phase
it

er-s

er-t

es-t

es-r

et-r

et-s

er
es

et

EDC

Converter

117

Reactor Connection

(Harmonics Current Suppression)


Inverter

AC Reactor

Motor

Commercial
Power

(a) AC Reactor

DC Reactor

(b) DC Reactor
Inverter

Motor
Commercial
Power

118

Noise Transmission Paths


Conductive noise
: Noise that flows out through the power supply line or grounding line

Induction (electromagnetic, electrostatic)


: Noise transmitted by electromagnetic or electrostatic integration for the signal
lines provided for the inverter main circuit wiring

Radiation
: Noise radiated into the air through the inverter, motor unit, main circuit wiring
that work as antenna.

Radio

Power Supply
Transformer
Inverter

Machine

Amplifier

Electronic
Device

Sensor

119

Induction Noise Suppression and


Metallic Raceway
Signal Line

Shielding (Steel) Plate

Power Line

Wiring Separation by
Rack or Duct

Metallic Raceway

Metallic Raceway
Inverter

120

Conductive Noise Suppression

Inverter
Power Supply

Inverter

Power Supply

(a) Capacitive Filter

(b) Inductive Filter (Zero-phase Reactor)


Inverter

Power Supply

(c) LC Filter

121

Inverter Noise Prevention


(Shielded Sheath Wire)
Junction Terminal

Inverter

Inverter

0V

0V

(Common)

(Common)

122

Progress and Reflection of Surge Voltage


(Leading Edge of One Pulse)

(Twice Surge Voltage


Applied to Terminals)

Progressive Wave
Inverter

Reflected
Wave

Progressive
wave
reflects
at the
rapid changing


point
(motor
terminal section) of line impedance.

Motor

123

Surge Voltage Suppression by Filter


PWM
Inverter

(a) Test Circuit

IM
Filter
Expanded Diagram

Expanded Diagram
[Inverter Output]

[Motor Input]

(b) Result of Waveform Observation


(5s/div, 250/div)
Without Filter

With Filter

Inverter Output

Motor Input

124

Motor Surge Voltage Suppression by Filter


Motor Terminal Voltage
(Without Filter )
Filter

~~~

PWM Inverter
Motor
Unless any filter is installed, surge
voltage may be generated at the
motor terminal, which may affect
motor insulation.

125

Features of 33-level control


The solution to 400V class inverter drive problems
1. Low surge voltage
Suppresses motor surge voltage, eliminating the
need for the motor surge voltage protection.
2. Low electrical noise (Radiated, Conductive)
3. Low acoustic noise
4. Electrolytic corrosion of motor bearings due to shaft voltage

126

Actual Measurement of Shaft Voltage

(Opposite to Directcoupling Side)

(Rotor)

(Direct-coupling Side)

(Stator)

V: Measuring Device
R: Non-inductive Resistor (1k)

Shaft Voltage
(mV)

(a) Example of Shaft Voltage Measuring Circuit


Inverter: PWM
Motor: 3.7 kW, 200 V, 4 poles
V/f characteristics: Constant torque

Inverter
Commercial Power
Drives

Commercial Power Supply Drives

(Hz)
Inverter Drives

(b) Example of Shaft Voltage Measurement (between Shafts)

(c) Shaft Voltage Waveform

127

Chapter 8
Maintenance and Inspection

128

Failure
Ratio (t)

Failure Patterns
Service Lifetime

Specified Failure
Ratio
0

ta

tb
t
Accidental Failure Period

Initial Failure Period

Wear-out Failure Period

129

Daily Inspection and Periodical Inspection


(From JEMA Information)
Place

Item

Checking Item

Whole

Peripheral environment
Whole unit
Power supply voltage
Whole

Main Circuit

Connected conductor,
Power supply
Transformer, Reactor
Terminal stand
Smoothing capacitor
Relay, Contactor
Resistor

Control Circuit,
Protective
Circuit

Cooling System
Display

Operation check
Component
check

Whole
Capacitor

Cooling fan
Display
Meter

Ambient temperature, humidity, dust, hazardous gases, oil mist, etc.


No excessive vibration or noise.
Check that main circuit voltage or control voltage is normal.
Megger check between main circuit terminal and ground terminal
No loose connections
No traces of overheating in components
Clean.
No distortion in conductor
No breakage or deterioration (cracks, discoloration, etc.) in cables
No odor, excessive beats or noise
No damages
No liquid leakage
No projection (safety valve) or bulge
Measure electrostatic capacity and insulation resistance.
No chattering at operations
Timer operation time
No roughness on contacts
No crack in resistor insulating material
No disconnection
Balance of output voltage between each phase by inverter single-unit operation
No failure in protective or display circuit by sequence protection test
No odor or discoloration
No excessive corrosion
No traces of liquid leakage or deformation
No excessive vibration or noise
No loose connections
Clean the air filter.
All lamps lights correctly.
Clean.
Indicated values are correct.

Schedule
Periodical
Daily
1-yr 2-yr

130

Component Replacement Guidelines


Name
Cooling fan
Smoothing capacitor

Standard
Replacement Period
2 to 3 years

Method
Replace.

5 years

Replace on investigation.

Breaker, relay

Determine what to do on
investigation.

Timer

Determine after checking the


operation times.

Fuse

10 years

Replace.

Aluminum capacitor on
PC board

5 years

Replace on investigation.

Note : Operational Conditions


Ambient temperature : Annually 30 in average
Load ratio : 80% or less
Operation ratio : 12 hours or less per day

131

Precautions on Measurement
Inverter
Input

Output

Approximate Waveform

Element

Meter

Voltage

All effective
values

Moving iron type


voltmeter

Current

All effective
values

Moving iron type


ammeter

Voltage

Fundamental Rectifier type


wave effective voltmeter (Model
value
YEW2017, etc.)

Current

All effective
values

Moving iron type


ammeter *

* Clamp meters available on markets have differences in characteristics between manufacturers.


Especially, measured values tend to be extremely small at low frequency.

132

Inverter

Power Supply

Inverter I/O Measurement


Motor

Load Machine

Torque Meter

Speed Meter

Inverter

Power Supply

(a) Connection in Double Wattmeter Method

Motor

Load Machine

Torque Meter

Speed Meter

(b) Connection in Triple Wattmeter Method


Moving iron type voltmeter
Recifier type voltmeter
Electrodynamometer type wattmeter
Moving iron type ammeter

Motor
Torque meter
Loard
Tachometer

133

Indications by Voltmeters
with PWM Inverter
0.5-class Moving Iron
Type Voltmeter
Digital AC
power meter

Voltage (V)

Tester
(Generalpurpose)

Basic Wave Voltage (FFT)


Tester (in conformance to JIS C12-2 Class AA)
0.5-class Rectifier Type Voltmeter
Inverter : 200V class 7.5kW
Motor : 200Vclass 3.7kW, 4 poles
at no-load

Frequency (Hz)

134

3-phase Power Supply

Hardware Block Diagram


Converter Section

Control
Power
Supply

DC Intermediate
Circuit

Voltage
Detection

Current
Detection

Inverter Section
Motor

Base Drive
Circuit

Reference Input
Circuit Sequence

External Sequence Signal

External Frequency Reference

Input Circuit
Frequency
Reference

Non-volatile
Memory

Digital
Operator

Sequence Signal Output


Circuit

Gate
Alley

Frequency Meter

135

Purpose and Types of Protective Functions


Inverter Protection

Overcurrent OC
Overvoltage OV

Protection

Grounding GF
Main circuit undervoltage UV1
Cooling fin overheat OH
Braking transistor error rr

Warning

Inverter overload OL2


Motor Overheat Protection

Motor overload OL1

Others

Overtorque detection OL3/OL4 lit


CPU error CPF

Operation status is not proper.

Overtorque detection OL3/OL4 (blinking)


Undertorque detection UL3/UL4 (blinking)

Prediction of protective
function operation

Inverter overheat prediction OH2


Radiation fin overheat prediction OH

136

Level at Which Protective Function Operates


Current
200%

160%
150%

100%

DC Voltage
Inverter output
overcurrent : OC

Approx. 410 V
(Approx. 820 V)

Overload anti-time-interval Approx. 380 V


characteristics
(Approx. 760 V)
Stall prevention level
during running
Approx. 365 V
Stall prevention level
during acceleration

Inverter rated
output current

Can be changed.

(Approx. 730 V)

Approx. 190 V
(Approx. 380 V)

Main circuit overvoltage : OV


Voltage at stall prevention
during deceleration

Voltage at braking

Main circuit
undervoltage : UV1

Voltage in the parentheses shows 400-V series.

137

Chapter 9
Reference

138

(1) Difference between Inverters and Servos

General-purpose Inverter

Servos

What to
Control

Mainly number of revolutions


(torque)

Mainly positions

Output

0.1 to 300 kW

0.003 to 55 kW

Motor

General-purpose motors

Exclusive-use motors with encoders

Positioning
Accuracy

0.1 mm

0.001 mm

Maximum
Torque

150%

300%

Start/Stop
Frequency

Small

Large

Price

Less than of servo

Fans, pumps, compressors


Conveyors, lifters, carts
Main
Elevators, electric railcars
Applications Extruders, centrifugal separators
Paper machine
Iron & steel machine

Semi-conductor manufacturing
equipment
Electronics parts mounting machine
Robots
Machine tools, printing,
material handling machines

139

(2) Principle of DC Motors

Magnetic Field Direction

Magnetic Field Direction

Brush
Commutator

: Current direction from front to back of paper face


: Current direction from back to front of paper face

F : Conductor (Rotor) Receiving Force


(View A)

140

(3) Speed Control of DC Motors


Main Circuit Power Supply

Speed
Controller

Current
Controller

SoftStarter

Speed Reference

Thyristor
Converter

Phase
Shifter

Current Reference
Field
Power
Supply

Speed Feed Back

Speed Control Circuit

Field

DC Motor
Speed Detection
Generator (TG)

141

(4) Speed Control of DC Motors


( Block Diagram )

(Phase
Shifter)

(Main
Circuit)

Current
Speed
Feed back Current Detector
Feed back

Motor
Impedance

DC Motor

(Motor + Load)
Inertia
Load
Torque

Tachometer-generator
Thyristor Converter

142

(5) Configuration of IPM Motor Rotor


Stator Winding

Stator

Rotor

Stator
Secondary
Conductor

Permanent
Magnet

IPM Motor

Stator
Winding

Induction Motor

143

(6) Comparison of IPM & Induction Motors


Induction Motor
(100%)

IPM Motor

Output [kW]

Comparison of Weights

Volume [%]

Weight [%]

Induction Motor
(100%)

IPM Motor

Output [kW]

Comparison of Volumes

144

100
100

100

35DOWN
65

50

Efficiency [%]

Electrical Loss [%]

(7) Efficiency of IPM & Induction Motors

95
90
85

5.5UP
86.7
81.2

80
75
70

Induction
Motor

IPM Motor

Motor Loss

Induction
Motor
IPMMotor

Comparison of Efficiencies

Efficiency improved by 5.5% (Example of 37 kW)

145

(8) Rotor Cross Section of Super EconoEcono-Motor


Rotor Core
Slot

Magnet

146

(9) Comparison of IPM (VS(VS-686SS5 Drive) and ISM (Super EconoEcono-motor)


Motor Configuration

Rotor
Conductor

Stator
Winding

Stator

Induction
Synchronous Motor
(ISM) Super Economotor

Permanent
Magnet

Speed

VS-686SS5
Inverter

Rotor
Permanent
Conductor
(Example of 4P)
Magnet

120
P

f(min-1)
r/min

(Speed Feedback)

Primary copper loss


Primary iron loss
Floating load loss
Mechanical loss

Nn = Nsn =

120
P

Inverter loss

Pullout
Torque

Pull-in
Torque
Speed

120
P

Frequency is accelerated
after synchronous pull-in by
inverter.
There is no loss at the
secondary side.
Speed control is performed
by inverter frequency.

fn(min-1)
r/min

Starting Torque by
Rotor Conductor
squirrel(Cage)

N = Ns =

Remarks

Primary (stator) copper By applying 3-phase AC to


the stator winding, a rotating
loss
magnetic field (rotating at
Primary iron loss
synchronous speed) is made.
Secondary copper loss Secondary current flows
because the rotor rotates
Secondary iron loss
slower than synchronous
Floating load loss
speed (slip). Torque is
generated by the rotating
Mechanical loss
(Friction loss, windage magnetic field and secondary
current.
loss)
Therefore, speed regulates by
load torque.
Torque generated by rotor
Primary copper loss
braking winding is used for
Primary iron loss
starting (acceleration). After
Secondary copper loss
completion of acceleration,
(Field winding loss)
field current flows to
Floating load loss
perform synchronous pull-in.
Mechanical loss
(Friction loss, windage Since rotating speed
loss)
regulation is not occurred

Speed

Stator
Winding

Rotor

Pullout
Torque

Pull-in
Torque

N = Ns =

Stator

Rotor

(Example of 6P)

Start Torque by
Braking Winding

Braking
Winding

Interior Permanent
Magnet (IPM) Motor
VS-686SS5

Field
Power
Supply

Torque

Rotor

P : No. of poles f : Frequency

Stator

Field
Winding

120

f(1S)(min-1)
r/min
P
120
SynchronousSpeed Ns =
f(min-1)
r/min
P

Torque

Synchronous
Motor

Speed
Rated speed N =

Commercial Power

Stator
Winding

Load
Torque

Torque

Rotor

Power Commercial

Induction Motor

Loss

Torque

Stator

Power Commercial

Stator
Winding

Characteristics

Configuration

Power Commercial

Type

f(min-1)
r/min

Primary copper loss


Primary iron loss
Floating load loss
Mechanical loss

Acceleration is made by
torque generated by rotor
conductor at starting
(acceleration). When speed
is increased and closed to
synchronous speed, the
permanent magnet performs
synchronous pull-in.
There is no secondary loss
at synchronous speed.
Field power supply is not
needed.
No speed regulation.