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Water Financing Partnership Facility RETA 6498: Knowledge and Innovation Support for ADB’s Water Financing Program

Pilot Demonstration Activity Request Form

Activity Title: Validating Community-Based Water Resources Management Approaches for Hill and Mountain Ecosystems in Nepal: A PDA Follow-up

Proposer (Name, Div/Dept): Agriculture, Natural Resources and Social Services Division

Request Date: 8 June 2009

Country (DMC) : Nepal

Region: South Asia

Activity Proposed Start Date: 1 September 2009

Activity Proposed Duration: 1 year

Cost Estimate: US$ 50,000.00

Implementing Organization Contact: ECARDS-Nepal, Mr. Rudra P. Devkota, Executive Director: Telephone No. 977-1-4602234

Collaborating Institutions:

1. Community Managed Irrigated Agriculture Sector Project, Project Director

2. ICIMOD Dr. Eklabya Sharma, Programme Manager, NRM,

ADB Activity Officer – Susanne Nebel, Rural Development Specialist, Agriculture, Natural Resources and Social Services Division, 6326325276, snebel@adb.org

A. BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE

1. The Pilot and Demonstration Activity on “Testing and Demonstration of Community-

Based Water Resources Management Approaches for Hill and Mountain Ecosystems in Nepal” was proposed and approved to support the implementation of ADB’s Community- Managed Irrigated Agriculture Sector Project (CMIASP) by complementing the irrigation subprojects with activities for improving sloping agriculture, watershed management, multi- use water systems and soil stabilization. The testing sites used for the PDA were two CMIASP-covered areas: (i) Nuwakot, representing the hill district, (ii) Rasuwa, representing the mountain district. The results from this PDA indicate that implementing IWRM approaches that specifically address hill and mountain ecosystems are found useful to poor and small farmers. Among the specific lessons learned include:

MUWS schemes were found effective in water scarce areas especially for poor and small farmers and found effective to reduce workload of rural women

Low cost bio-engineering activities are found effective in controlling landslides along the irrigation canal in mountain and hill region.

Inclusion of hygiene and nutrition components in MUWS is crucial

Collaboration with the Department of Irrigation is a must to ensure integration with other related agencies (DSWCO, DADOs and DLSOs)

Social preparation and technical capacity building of intended beneficiaries proved effective for putting in place sustainability strategies.

Strategic planning is important for further testing and scaling up of the technologies to a wider geographical area.

Verification of diverse technologies in various socio-economic conditions is prerequisite for wider adoption and scaling up.

2. The lessons learned from the first phase of project implementations clearly indicate

that the demonstration of IWRM approaches were found useful to poor and small farmers but the technologies tested were limited to a narrow geographical location and certain type of socio-cultural setting. Nepal is a country of diversity in terms of social, cultural and natural conditions and such diversities are found even within the same irrigation system in

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the same watershed. It is still inappropriate to generalize the suitability of the approaches to communities in varying conditions. To validate the robustness and replicability of the IWRM approaches tested during first phase, this follow-up PDA is being proposed to cover adjoining areas under a different irrigation system and different sub-watershed

B.

OBJECTIVES

3.

The major objective of Phase 2 is to validate the approaches developed and tested

during phase 1 by applying them in adjoining communities in the same watershed but in a different irrigation system and a different sub-watershed that have unique characteristics different from those communities included in the initial testing. Validating the approaches

using as many samples of communities as possible will enhance the findings and recommendations that the PDA aims to put forward as to the community-based water resources management approaches that should be adopted for hill and mountain ecosystems in Nepal and other countries in similar situations.

C.

SCOPE AND LOCATION OF WORK

4.

This follow-up phase will still be implemented in two districts (Rasuwa, representing

a mountain site, and Nuwakot representing hill site), but in a new irrigation system and in a different sub-watershed having different socio-economic and natural settings. The users of

the selected irrigation system will be the beneficiaries of this phase.

D.

DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES

5.

The ECARDS central office and the field offices in Rasuwa and Nuwakot will remain

operational. This is the learning project and requires close monitoring of field activities. The major activities demonstrated in the Phase I of the project will be further tested using diverse community and diverse condition for further validation.

Program Mobilization

6. Mobilization of Project Team.

Social Mobilizers will be involve for the effective implementation of the project activities.

One project manager, two Field Officers and two

7. Mobilization of WUAs. The project will be implemented jointly with Water Users"

Association (WUAs) of selected irrigation system. Efforts will be made to mobilize the WUAs for effective implementation of project activities. The project will be focused on further testing and validation of IWRM approaches under a different socio-cultural natural setting from the first phase. Specific users' groups of the participating farmers will be formed and mobilized as per the need.

8. Participatory Planning of Field Activities. Activity planning will be carried out in a

participatory way. The planning activities will be performed at the field level. Just after approval of the project, a planning workshop will be held at the field. The members of the

project team, experts, representative from DOI and other local institutions, members of WUAs and the beneficiaries will participate in the planning workshop.

Community based IWRM Activities

9. Testing of Plastic-lined Conservation Pond. A plastic-lined low cost dugout

plastic pond will be constructed as per the real need of the beneficiaries. The rain/running

water will be collected in the ponds and used for irrigation of high market led crops and Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs). The size of the pond will vary depending on the area available, soil characteristic and the participating user farmers. The ponds will be

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constructed during the dry season by considering the catchment areas to collect sufficient water for storage. Efforts will be made to utilize the collected water to produce the market led agriculture commodities so that the farm income of the participating farmers could be increased.

10. Testing of Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting Technology. Many households

residing above the irrigation system in hill and mountain region of Nepal suffer from water

shortages during dry season. Technology for harvesting roof water during rainy season for later use has been developed by ICIMOD. This technology will be tested in the project site. Efforts will be made to collect and utilize the kitchen drain for productive propose.

11. Testing of Multiple Use Water Systems (MUWS). Water is a scarce resource

and improved water management practices are critical for ensuring availability of water for drinking and productive purposes as well as meeting the need for biomass and improved living conditions. The benefit of Irrigation systems goes to the farmers who have land below the canal but the farmers having less land or residing just above the canal are lacking such benefits. The water system designed and developed by incorporating domestic and productive needs using scare water resource are called Multiple Use Water System (MUWS). ECARDS Nepal with active participation of users will test MUWS as per the decision made by the beneficiaries.

12. Kitchen-drain Plastic Pond Construction. Small plastic ponds will be

constructed in the highly scarce areas and kitchen-drain and other surplus water will be

collected and utilized for kitchen gardening.

13. Testing of Water-lifting Technology for Irrigating Purpose. The land just above

the irrigation canal or near the river basin has no access to irrigation water that limits the growing of market led crops. In such situation, technology for lifting water from the irrigation canal or from the river and irrigating the market led crops will be beneficial for the small farmers. Testing of hydraulic ram and fuel based technology will be tested in such situation.

Soil and Water Conservation

14. Landslips and Canal Stabilization Treatment. The irrigation systems in the hill

and mountain region of Nepal suffer from frequent landslips, gully formation and canal sliding. Canal stabilization in these region have been severely affected the by these processes and require more resources for maintenance. A combination of engineering and biological measures will be tested to prevent landslips and canal stabilization of selected irrigation system.

15. Water Source Protection and Rehabilitation of Degraded Land. The sources of

drinking and productive water under MUWS are generally small and degraded watershed due to which the natural spring is getting drying. The watershed management activities will be continued in the present site and the new watershed management demonstration will be implemented as per the need.

16. Testing of On Farm Soil Conservation Practices in Sloping Land. Depletion of

plant nutrients due to high surface erosion and soil degradation in sloping agriculture is the common problem in hills and mountains regions of Nepal. On farm soil conservation practices will be tested to improve soil nutrient there by the productivity of agricultural land.

17. Demonstration of Productivity Improvement Practices. Market led agriculture

technologies will be demonstrated to improve the water use efficiency of irrigation system and farm income of participating farmers. The major technologies to be tested in this project will be:

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Demonstration of System of Rice Intensification (SRI). The production and productivity of rice in hill and mountain region is limited due to lack of sufficient irrigation water and irrigation infrastructures. The SRI has been developed to improve the possibilities of rice production in such situation. The SRI will be demonstrated in the hill and mountain region.

Kitchen Garden Demonstration. Kitchen garden demonstrations (seasonal and off-season) will be conducted by utilizing the kitchen drain and other surplus water. This will help to increase the vegetable consumption of small farmers and get extra income from the selling of surplus.

High Value Vegetable Production Demonstration. Demonstration of high value vegetables will be carried out to the water users of irrigation system and the farmers under the canal irrigation system.

Improved FYM/Compost Production Demonstration. Demonstration of improved FYM/Compost production technology will be conducted at the farm level (FYM, Biodynamic, vermin-compost, EM compost)

NTFP/Cash Crop Production Demonstration.

Demonstration of cash crops

such as coffee, ginger, turmeric, garlic etc will be held and disseminated to other farmers.

Distribution of Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation Seats. Improved version of drip irrigation and others forms of irrigation will be demonstrated in water scare season as per the suitability and interest of the farmers.

Training and Capacity Development

Central Level Training, Exposure Visit and Workshop

18. Training on IWRM practices: A five days training on management of IWRM

practices will be provided to the project team of the ECARDS Nepal. This will be necessary as there will be some change in the project team

19. Exposure Visit: A three days exposure visit will be organized to the project staffs

and management team of ECARDS Nepal.

20. Central Level Workshop: A central level workshop will be organized. The main

purpose of the workshop is further scaling up of proven practices.

Community level

21. Different training will be organized at the community level for the beneficiaries from both new and existing sites. The duration and subject matter coverage of the training will vary based on the actual need of the beneficiaries. The major topics of the training will cover but not limited to:

Community Planning Training

Social Mobilization Training

Record Keeping and Group Management Training

Training on Off-season Vegetable Production

Training on NTFP

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Training on Cash Crop Production

Training on Productivity Improvement under Irrigation System

Training on FYM and Compost Preparation and Use

Training on Bio-briquettes production and use

Training Drip Irrigation System Installation and Maintenance

Training on Operation and Maintenance of IWRM schemes

Water and sanitation campaign

Community Level Workshop

Exposure Visit

22. Activities for Documentation of Proven Approaches. Efforts will be made to

document the Learning or the proven technology for scaling up of the proven approaches. The major activities will include:

Publication of Books/reading Materials/posters and Pamphlets

Production of VDOs of Proven Technology

Technology Dissemination Workshops at District Level

Monitoring, Supervision and Reporting

23. Monitoring. ECARDS-Nepal will adopt the participatory and self-monitoring during,

planning, implementation and monitoring & evaluation phase of the project for efficient and effective performance of the project. A detailed work-plan will be finalized at the beginning of the project that sets out specific activities, a timeline for completing the activities, and milestones for outputs to be achieved. The personnel policy of ECARDS Nepal is to have each staff person prepare and get approval for a monthly work plan to guide the activities of each month and submit the activities performed in each month. The project manager along with his team will be responsible to monitor and maintain progress. ECARDS Nepal management team and the team of the experts will also be involved in monitoring and supervision of field activities. The following activities will be implemented for the monitoring and evaluation of the purposed program.

Regular Site and Reporting by Project Team

Monitoring Visit by Expert Team

Monitoring Visit by ECARDS Management Team

Review Meeting at Central Level

Review Meeting at District/Community Level

Public Audits

Evaluation at the End of the Year

24.

Reporting. ECARDS-Nepal as will prepare and submit the following reports;

Inception Report,

Mid-term Report,

Project Completion Report

E.

MANAGEMENT APPROACH AND IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE

25.

ECARDS-Nepal will be responsible for overall implementation of the assignment.

The project coordination committees with the ECARDS Nepal management team will prepare the implementation directives for the assignment. Project manager will be responsible for the actualization of the activities at the field level. The implementation

approach of the proposed assignment will focus on the following points:

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Social Mobilization will be the integral component of proposed assignment. The social mobilization process will follow three basic steps namely: Social

Preparation and group formation, enhancing capacity and institution building. Under social preparation, the beneficiaries will be organized into groups; involved in identifying local resource potential, planning and prioritizing activities. In capacity building, groups are provided with various practical trainings and exposure visits. In the institutionalization process, these groups will be organized into a larger organization and linkage will be developed with other service providers. Strong coordination and linkage will be developed with ICIMOD, CMIASP and DOI. The Project Coordination Committee (PCC) formed for the first year of implementation will continue which will provide necessary and useful guidelines in the project implementation. The ECARDS-Nepal central management in close coordination with PCC will guide and supervise the project manager and his team for effective implementation of the programme. The implementation of proposed assignment will be decided jointly be project team, WUAs and beneficiaries and will focus on participation of the beneficiaries in planning, implementation, monitoring and benefit sharing of project activities. All the activities at the field level will be planned and implemented in close coordination with DOI and other local level organizations. Emphasis will be given on community participation in planning, implementation and monitoring of the programme. The gender and ethnic impartiality will be maintained and will be focused on culture of transparency and strengthen service credibility. Participatory and inclusive approaches will be used for monitoring and information collection.

will be applied in this project. Beneficiaries will be encouraged and facilitated for the participatory and self monitoring. Emphasis will be given for capacity development of the beneficiaries and their institutions so that they could manage and utilize the assets and resources generated by the project in sustainable way. Short and concise document/s covering specific learning will be developed, published and distributed for further scaling up of the proven IWRM approaches.

ECARDS-Nepal has its own internal monitoring and evaluation mechanism and

The process of project implementation is given in the Chart 1.

Chart 1: Flow Chart of Implementation Process

Mobilization of Project Team

Identification of the Demonstration Location and Activities

Participative Activities Planning and Setting Monitoring Standards

Design of Construction Activities and Action Plan

IWRM Capacity building for ECARDS staff and farmers

Agreement (MOU) between farmers and Project

Implementation of Activities

Monitoring and Supervision by Experts and ECARDS-Nepal Central Office

Evaluation and Reporting of Activities

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26. Strong coordination and linkage developed with ICIMOD, CMIASP and DOI in

Phase 1 will be continued. In particular, coordination with ICIMOD is crucial in ensuring

that the PDA will continue to benefit from ICIMOD’s successfully established IWRM approaches in its Demonstration Farm in Godavari in the Kathmandu Valley.

27. The Implementation Schedule.

of 12 months. The detailed implementation schedule is provided in Figure-1 below.

This project has been proposed for a total period

Figure 1: Implementation Schedule of the Assignment

Activities

 

Implementation Schedule (Month)

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Program Mobilization

 

****

****

                 

Community based IWRM Activities:

   

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

 

Water Management

   

****

****

****

****

       

****

 

Soil Conservation and Landslide Management

     

****

****

****

****

       

****

Income Generating

                       

Activities

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

Use of Appropriate Technology

   

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

 

Training and Capacity Development

                       

Central Level Training, Exposure Visit and Workshop

****

****

                   

Community level

 

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

 

Activities for Scaling up of Proven Approaches

                   

****

****

Monitoring, Supervision and Reporting

                       

Monitoring and Evaluation

****

****

****

****

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F.

EXPECTED RESULTS (OUTPUTS AND OUTCOMES)

28.

The activities implemented in these demonstration sites will be document and can

be up scaled in similar areas under CMIASP or other projects. However, the specific results will be:

Replicable approaches for landslips and canal stabilization along the irrigation canal for hill and mountain ecosystems developed.

Integrated water resources management approaches focusing on domestic and

productive use of water promoted Landslides situation in the area decreased and soil fertility status of the area improved.

Increased sustainable production and annual sales of high-value vegetables and NTFPs

Enhanced capacity of community people for integrated water resources management and livelihood improvement.

Educational materials of best practices for introducing land slide management and water harvesting, storage, and micro irrigation for market based crops developed

Increased adoption of improved technology

Video on best practices produced.

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Measurable Performance Indicators

29. At the beginning of the project implementation, a baseline study of the project will

be carried out. The study will record both qualitative and qualitative indicators of the areas that will be helpful in assessing the performance of the project, after its completion. Some

of the measurable indicators will be:

 

no. of farmers participated and benefited from the activities.

no. of MUWs developed and number of farmers benefited.

no. of landslips and canal stabilization approaches developed

no. of training held and number of farmers participated in training, exposure visit

and workshop. no. of demonstrations held and number of farmers participating in

demonstration no. of drip irrigation and plastic tunnel installed

no. and types of booklets published

no. of farmers participating in producing market led high value vegetables and

NTFP average net income increased from high value commodity

no of water and sanitation campaign and number of beneficiaries

status of participating farmers in the society enhanced.

positive effect of the programme in the neighboring communities or villages.

G.

STAKEHOLDERS PARTICIPATION

30.

The beneficiaries of the projects, the local leaders, the line agency staff as well as

the implementing agencies are the major stakeholders of this project. Their participation will be made mandatory by coordinating the activities with them and also formalizing these through their central as well as regional or district offices. It has been taken due care that there will have to be programmes that will bring all the stakeholders, mainly the most disadvantaged communities, together. ECARDS-Nepal has the experience that activities that generate cash comparatively quickly are more accepted by such communities.

31. ECARDS-Nepal gives top priority to sustainability of the projects it implements.

Thus, even after completion of Phase 1, ECARDS-Nepal has been in constant touch with the beneficiaries of the project to help them get more from the achievements of Phase-I and continue to benefit from them. ECARDS-Nepal experts have visited the project area, 3-4 times even after the completion of Phase-I in Dec. 2008, at ECARDS-Nepal's own cost. This will be continued even after Phase- II of the project. Further, it has been well understood by the beneficiaries during the discussion for preparation of the proposal for Phase-II that they will have to contribute the cost during the project implementation. However, it was expressed by the beneficiaries that cash contribution from low income groups would be difficult but in-kind contribution (such as labour) would be more within their capacity as was done during Phase-I.

32. Other agencies like ICIMOD, DOI, CMIASP were also helpful in providing free

services in different occasions and are expected to contribute more in Phase-II of the

project. Thus, ECARDS-Nepal and other stakeholders are ready to demonstrate their contribution for the PDA Phase-II.

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H. COST ESTIMATES

   

Total Costs

SN

Inputs/Expenditure category

(US$)

1

Civil Works

5,000.00

 

Civil works will be the structures for bio-engineering, MUWS and other water harvesting structures (cost for skilled labour, cement, gabion wire etc)

 

2

Equipments and Supplies

12,500.00

 

These will be: Polythene pipes, plastic sheet, water taps, stones as well as implements for masonry, saplings of fruit and fodder trees, seeds of grasses and vegetables, Planting materials of NTFPs, beehives with bees, equipments for use of hydraulic ram, bio- briquettes etc.) and other material needed for income generation and promotion of appropriate technologies. This cost also includes the cost for group formation and mobilization.

 

3

Training, workshops, seminars, public campaigns

 

8,800.00

 

a). Cost for Central level training and workshop

- $1,985

 
 

b). Cost for field level training and workshops

- $6,115

 
 

c) Cost of Materials during Training

-

$

700

 

4

Monitoring and Reporting

2,500.00

 

These include the publication of books/reading materials/posters/pamphlets and VDO including the hiring of an artist and also include monitoring and evaluation cost for experts and management team.

 

5

Specialists Services

16,000.00

 

ECARDS would engage the Specialist Services of a Project Manager (a well experienced Agricultural Specialist with more than 30 years of experience),Two Site In-charges, with at least a B.Sc. degree in agriculture/forestry sciences and 2 local social mobilizers. This also includes the cost of the irrigation engineer and soil-conservation (bio-engineering) expert to be engaged during the models development. This also includes the transportation cost of the experts and cost of support staff at the central office of ECARDS Nepal.

 

6

Project Management and Reporting (10% of the of the total estimated grant fund)

4,480.00

7

Contingencies

700.00

 

Total PDA grant financed

49,980.00

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