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EXPERIMENT NO-01

Object: To determine the hardness of the given specimen using Rockwell


Hardness Testing Machine.
Experimental set up/Equipment/Apparatus/Tools Rockwell hardness
testing machine, specimen of high speed steel or alloy steel.
Theory and application: The hardness of a material is its resistance to
penetration under a localized pressure or resistance to abrasion.
Hardness tests provide an accurate, rapid and economical way of
determining the resistance of material to deformation. There are three
general types of hardness measurements depending open the manner in
which the test is conducted.
(i)
Scratch hardness measurement (ii) Rebound hardness
measurement and (ii) Indentation hardness measurement.
In scratch hardness method the material are rated on their ability to
scratch one another. In rebound hardness measurement, a standard body
is usually dropped on to the material surface and the hardness is
measured in terms of the height of its rebound. The general means of
judging the hardness is measuring the resistance of material to
indentation. The indenter is usually a ball, cone or pyramid of a material
much harder that the being tested. In indentation test a load is applied
by pressing the indenter at right angles to the surface being tested. The
hardness of the material depends on the resistance which it exerts.
During a small amount of yielding or plastic straining.
The test consists of forcing an indenter of standard cone or ball in to the
surface of a test piece and measuring the permanent increase in depth
of indentation of this indenter under specified condition. From this
Rockwell hardness is deduced. The ball (B) is used for soft materials (e.g.
mild steel, cast iron, aluminium, etc.)And the cone (C) for hard cones
(e.g. high carbon steel, high speed steel etc.)
Experimental Procedure: it is performed in the following sequential
manner.
Insert indenter on to the machine.
Make the specimen surface clean by removing the dust, dirt, oil and
grease etc.
Select 150kg load.
Make contact between the specimen surface and the ball by
rotating the jack adjusting wheel till needle touch red mark.
Pull the load release lever and wait for minimum 30seconds. The
load will automatically apply gradually.

Note the hardness reading


Repeat the entire operation, three times.

Observation:
Hardness

Mean Hardness(HRC)

1
2
3
Result:
Rockwell Hardness of given specimen =-------------------HRC
Precautions and sources of error
Ensure proper indenter is fixed on the machine.
Use V-Block for round jobs
Select proper load
Move wheel gradually & slowly.
Do not cross the red mark on the smaller dial.
Ensure surface is smooth & polished.
Related short questions:
What is hardness?
How many types of method to check hardness of materials.
How many scales in Rockwell hardness.
B and C scale where use?
Can we check soft materials hardness in this method?

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02

Experiment N0-02
1. Object: To determine the hardness of the given specimen using Brinell Hardness Testing
Machine.
2. Experimental set up/Equipment/Apparatus/Tools
i. Brinell hardness Testing Machine.
ii. Specimen of mild steel/Cast iron/non ferrous metals.
iii. Optical microscope.
3. Theory and application:
Formula used:

Loadapplie d (inkg )
BHN = Sphericals urfaceareaofindentation

4.

B.H.N =

Where

2
D D2d

D
2P

P is applied load in kgf


D is dia of ball
d is dia of indentation
5. Experimental Procedure: It is performed in the following sequential manner.
1- Insert indenter on to the machine.
2- Make the specimen surface clean by removing the dust, dirt, oil and
grease etc.
3- Select 250 Kg load.
4- Make contact between the specimen surface and the ball by rotating the
Jack adjusting wheel till needle touch red mark.
5- Pull the load release lever and wait for minimum 30 seconds. The load
will automatically apply gradually.
6- Unload by pulling the load lever back to normal position.
7- Remove the specimen from the support table, and locate the indentation so made.
8- View the indentation through optical microscope and measure its diameters by
micrometer fitted on microscope, or by any other available means.
9- Take two readings of the indent right angles to each other.

10- Repeat the entire operation, three times.


6. Observations:
Following observations are recorded from a test on steel specimen using a hardened steel
ball as indenter. The diameter of indentation is viewed by an optical microscope of
magnification 10X.

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03

Total load P = ------------- Kg


Diameter of ball D = ------------mm
S no.

Diameter of indentation
(mm)
d

BHN

Mean BNN

1
2
3
7. Calculations: The Brinell hardness is calculated as follows.

B.H.N =

Where

2
D D2d

D
2P

P is applied load in kgf


D is dia of ball
d is dia of indentation

8. Result: BHN of steel specimen is -------- Although the BHN is expressed


in kg/mm2 but this unit is generally not written.
9. Precautions and sources of error
Ensure proper indenter is fixed on the machine.
Use V-Block for round job
Select proper load
Note the diameter of the indent carefully.
Do not cross the red mark on the smaller dial.
Ensure surface is smooth & polished

10.Related short questions:


What is the significance of hardness in general life give example?
What is difference between Rockwell and Brinel Hardness?
Which types of materials you can check hardness shoft or hard?
Which type indenter use in Brinel hardness?
If steel ball not Hard then what will be happen?
How you can make surface scratch proof?

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EXPERIMENT

04

NO-03

1. Object: To find the spring constant and Modulus of Rigidity of a given spring using
spring testing Machine.
2. Experimental set up/Equipment/Apparatus/Tools -Spring testing Machine/ spring/
Vernier caliper/out side caliper/ Micrometer
3. Theory and application: Spring index K (or spring stiffness) is defined as the load
W that causes unit deflection in the spring. This deflection is in the form of
contraction in a compression spring and in the form of extension form in tension
spring. Thus spring index or stiffness K=

Spring index is an important parameter in selection of spring for a particular use. It is


expressed in N/mm or Kg/mm. The nature of load vs. deflection curve decides
whether the behavior of spring is linear or non-linear. Mostly close coiled helical
springs have linear nature.
3

8W (Dm) n
4. Formula used: Modulus of Rigidity, C=
d4
W
Stiffness K=

N/mm2

5. Experimental Procedure:
1- By using the vernier caliper/Micrometer measure the diameter of the wire
of the spring.
2- By using the vernier caliper measure the diameter of spring coil.
3- Count the number of turns of the spring.
4- Measure the original length of the spring
5- Insert the spring in the spring testing machine and load the spring by

suitable weight by opening the control valve slightly and slowly.


6- Note the corresponding axial deflection in tension or compression.
7- Increase the load and take the corresponding axial deflection reading.
8- Repeat the procedure for at least four times.
9- Open the release valve slowly after the experiment.
6. Observation: Diameter of the spring wire (mean of the three readings), d = --------mm
Diameter of the spring coil (mean of the readings), D =-----------mm
Mean coil diameter,

Dm =D-d or D+d = -----------mm

Number of Turns n = -------University of Petroleum & energy studies Dehradun

S.no

Load W
(in Kg)

Load W
(in Newton)

Deflectio
n
(cm)

Deflection
(mm)

05

Stiffness, K= W/
N/mm

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
7. Calculations:
Stiffness K =

N/mm
3

Modulus of Rigidity, C=

8W (Dm) n
d4

N/mm2

8. Result: Stiffness of given spring is = ----------- N/mm


Modulus of rigidity of given spring is = ------ N/mm2
9. Precautions and sources of error
Place the spring centrally and accordingly whether its tension or compression spring.
Take the mean diameter of the coil as the average of external and internal coil
diameter.
Do not load the spring beyond the elastic limit.
10-Related short questions:

What is Stiffness?
What is modulus of rigidity?
What is the significance of modulus of rigidity?
Which type of spring you have checked?
Tell the name of different types of spring?
Give the example where springs are useful in general life.

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06

EXPERIMENT NO-04
1. OBJECT: to conduct the tensile test on a UTM and determine the ultimate tensile
strength and percentage elongation for a steel specimen.
2. Experimental set up/Equipment/Apparatus/Tools
Universal Testing Machine
Mild steel specimen
Vernier caliper/out side caliper
3. Theory and application: Various machine and structural components are subjected to
tensile loading in numerous operations. For safe design of these components, their ultimate
tensile strength and ductility are to be determined before actual use. For that the above test
is conducted.
A material when subjected to a tensile load resists the applied load by developing
internal resisting force. This resistance comes due to atomic bonding between the atoms of
the material. The resisting force per unit cross-sectional area is known as stress. The value
of stress in material goes on increasing with the increase in applied tensile load, but it has a
certain maximum limit too. The maximum stress, at which a material fails, is called
Ultimate Tensile Strength. (UTS).
All known materials are elastic in nature and so is the steel specimen also. Its initial
length increase with increase in applied load followed with corresponding decrease in its
lateral dimensions. Increase in length is called elongation which is a measure of ductility.
The change in length over the original length is called strain. The ratio of stress to strain
within the elastic limit is termed as modulus of elasticity. The end of elastic limit is
indicated by the yield point. With increase in loading beyond the elastic limit, original area
of cross-section goes on decreasing and finally reduces to is minimum value when the
specimen breaks.
4. Formula used:

ultimateload
Ultimate tensile strength ult = original , cross , sec tional , area ( Ao)
Extendgaugelength( Lf ) origina lg augelength( Lo)
X 100
origina
lg
augelength
(
Lo
)
Percentage elongation =
Loadonyiel dpo int( N )
Yield strength = Originalcr oss sec tionalarea ( Ao) N/mm2
Ao Af
X 100
Percentage reduction in Area= Ao
Load (P) Newton
Stress () = crosssectional area of specimen (Ao)
l

Strain () = Lo

l- is change in length
Lo- Original length

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5. Experimental Procedure: The experiment is perormed in the following sequential


manner
1. First of all the gauge length is marked on the specimen. Its diameter and gauge length
is also measured. The length may either be gauge length or the total length of the
specimen.
2. The load range of machines operation is selected, say 40 tones. It should be
sufficiently higher then the expected value.
3. Bring the dummy pointer on the load indicator close to the live pointer.
4. Now the specimen is gripped between the upper and middle cross-head jaws of the
machine.
5. The machine is switched on by pressing the appropriate button on the control panel
and the load is applied gradually by turning the control valve slowly.
6. The elongation of the specimen is recorded for a certain specified load. The
elongation can be measured with the help of vernier calipers. More frequent readings
are taken as the yield point is approached.
7. Continue the test till fracture occurs.
8. Note down the maximum load at fracture indicated by the dummy pointer on the load
indicator.
9. Joined the cooled broken parts manually, and measure the extended gauge length and
reduced diameter of the specimen.
6. Observation:
Following data are recorded during the tensile test.
Original dimensions (Before fracture)
Gauge length (Lo) =
--------- mm
Diameter (Do)
=
------------ mm
Cross sectional area (Ao) = ---------- mm2

Final dimensions (After fracture)


Length (Lf)
=
------------ mm
Diameter (Df)
=
-----------mm
Cross-sectional area (Af) =
---- mm
S No
Applied load (P) Elongation l Stress
KN
(mm)
(N/mm2) P/Ao

Strain
l/Lo

Yield
Load

1
2

20
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7. Calculations:
Ultimate load (P) = ---------- KN
= ---------- N
Yield load (Yo) =--------- KN
=-----------N
ultimateload
N / mm2
original

cross

sec
tionalarea
(
Ao
)
Ultimate tensile strength ult =
Extendgaugelength( Lf ) origina lg augelength( Lo)
X 100
origina
lg
augelength
(
Lo
)
Percentage elongation =

Yield strength =

Loadonyiel dpo int( N )


Originalcr oss sec tionalarea ( Ao) N/mm2

Ao Af
X 100
Percentage reduction in Area= Ao

8. Result:
Ultimate tensile strength =----------N/mm2
Percentage elongation = -----------%
Yield strength =
------------ Percentage reduction in Area= ---------

Specimen description

08

l= 5.65 A for circular cross-section


l= 4 A for rectangular cross-section,
Where A is the cross-section area of the specimen .

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9. Precautions and sources of error


Ensure that the specimen is tightly gripped in the jaws
Open the control valve slowly.
Loosen the locking nuts slightly as soon as load pointer starts moving.
Close the control valve immediately after fracture of specimen.
Open the release valve slowly after operation
Do not touch the specimen immediately after fracture.
10.0 Related short questions:
What is strength?
What is gauge length?
What is poison Ratio?
What is Hooks law?
Which material are more elastic steel and rubber?
What is stress?
Tell the different types of stress?
Draw the stress and strain graph of hard and ductile material.
Which material has high tensile strength hard or ductile?
What is bulk modulus?

09

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10

EXPERIMENT NO-05
OBJECT:
To conduct Torsion test on Mild steel or cast iron specimen to find out modulus of
rigidity
Experimental set up/Equipment/Apparatus/Tools
Torsion testing machines
A steel rule and caliper or micrometer
Standard specimen of mild steel
Theory and application:
A Torsion test quite instrumental in determining the value of modulus of rigidity (ratio of
shear stress to shear strain) of a metallic specimen. The value of modulus of rigidity can be
found out through observations made during the experiment by using the torsion equation
Formula used:
T
Ip

=
Where

C
l

therefore, C=
T

Tl
Ip

= Torque applied (N-m)

Ip = Polar moment of inertia (m4)


C

Modulus of rigidity

= Angle of twist (radians)

gauge length (meter)

Experimental Procedure:
Select the driving dogs to suit the size of the specimen and clamp it in the machine by
adjusting the length of the specimen by means of a sliding spindle.
Measure the diameter at about three places and take the average value.
Choose the appropriate unit of torque on the microprocessor based load indicator.
Reset the load indicator to zero.
Set the protector to zero for convenience and clamp it by means of knurled screw.
Carry out straining by rotating the hand wheel in appropriate direction.
Load the machine in suitable increments, observing the recording.
Then load out to failure as to cause equal increments of strain reading.
Plot a torque- twist (T- ) graph.(T in N-m and in radian)
Read off co- ordinates of a convenient point from the straight line portion of the torquetwist (T- ) graph and calculate the value of C by using the relation:
T
Ip

C
l

Also calculate the value of C from the slope of the T- curve

Observations:
Gauge length of the specimen (l) =
Diameter of the specimen
Polar moment of inertia

(d) =
Ip

d
32 4

m4

Observation table:

S No

Angle of twist

Angle of twist
(radians)

(degree)
30

60

90

120

150

Torque (KN-m/ Kg-m )

Torque (N-M)

Calculations:
Slope of the straight portion of the torque-twist curve m =
CIp
Slope m = l

Therefore C =

ml
Ip

Results:
Modulus of rigidity C =

N/mm2

Precautions and sources of error


Change the angle of twist to radians before plotting the graph
Do not untwist the specimen during operation.
Keep distance from the chain- pulley mechanism.
Related short Questions:
What is torsion?
What is modulus of rigidity?
What is torsion rigidity?
Which shaft is strong in torsion solid or hollow?
Why railway track made of I- section?

13

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EXPERIMENT NO-06
1. OBJECT: To Conduct the Izod Impact test on Impact testing machine and find the
impact strength and modulus of rupture of a given specimen.
2. Experimental set up/Equipment/Apparatus/Tools
i-Impact testing machine
ii-Izod test specimen of mild steel (75X10X10 mm) with 2mm notch
3. Theory and application: An Impact test signifies toughness of material that is
ability of material to absorb energy during plastic deformation. Toughness takes into
account both the strength and ductility of the material. Several engineering materials
have to withstand impact or suddenly applied loads while in service. Impact strengths
are generally lower as compared to strengths achieved under slowly applied loads.
The test measures the notch toughness of material under shock loading. Values
obtained from these tests are not of much utility to design problems directly and are
highly arbitrary. Still it is important to note that it provides a good way of comparing
toughness of various materials or toughness of same material under different
conditions.
4. Formula used: Notch impact strength I=
U
Ve

U
Ae N/m

Modulus of rupture =
Jule/mm3
Where Ae is effective area of specimen (in meter)
Ve is effective volume of specimen (in mm)
5. Experimental Procedure:

(1Jule=1 N-M)

Following procedure should be adopted to conduct the test


First measure the length, width and thickness of the specimen.
Set the machine at 164Jules dial reading and lock the striking hammer in its top
position at 800 with the vertical
Now press down the pendulum release lever so that the hammer falls and sings
past the bottommost position. Note down the reading on dial. This is initial
reading(X). Remember that this reading is without any specimen and indicates
frictional and windage (air) loss of energy of the hammer.
01
Now put the test- specimen on the support as a cantilever with the help of
specimen setting fixture in proper manner such that notch is on the tension side.
Release the lever so that the hammer strikes the test-piece and break it. Note down
this reading. This is final reading(Y)

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14

Make use of brake handle to stop the motion of hammer after its swing.
Repeat the experiment on the other specimen(reading of three specimen is desired)
6. Observation Table:
Specimen
Size
of Depth
of Initial
No
specimen
notch (mm)
reading
(lXbXh) mm
(X) Jules

7. Calculations:
Impact Energy U

= Y-X Jules

Notch impact strength I =

U
Ae N/m (1Jule=1 N-M)
U
Ve
Jule/mm3

Modulus of rupture
=
Where Ae is effective area of specimen (in meter)
Ve is effective volume of specimen (in mm)
8. Results:
9. Precautions and sources of error

Measure the dimensions of the specimen carefully

Final Reading
(Y)Jules

Place the specimen carefully so that the hammer strikes at the centre of the specimen

Note down reading carefully

Operate the machine from outside the boundary


10.Related short Questions:

What is toughness?
What is proof resilience?
What is resilience?
Which material is tough hard or ductile?
If temperature increases the toughness increase or decrease?
Why notch provide in specimen?
If notch not provide in specimen then which type of fracture accurse?
Give any examples where tough is importance?

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15

Experiment No-07
1. Object: To conduct the charpy Impact test on Impact testing machine and find
the Impact strength of a given specimen.
2. Experimental set up/Equipment/Apparatus/Tools
i- Impact testing machine
ii- Charpy test specimen of mild steel( 55X10X10 mm) with 2mm notch
3. Theory and application: An Impact test signifies toughness of material that is ability
of material to absorb energy during plastic deformation. Toughness takes into account
both the strength and ductility of the material. Several engineering materials have to
withstand impact or suddenly applied loads while in service. Impact strengths are
generally lower as compared to strengths achieved under slowly applied loads. The test
measures the notch toughness of material under shock loading. Values obtained from
these tests are not of much utility to design problems directly and are highly arbitrary.
Still it is important to note that it provides a good way of comparing toughness of
various materials or toughness of same material under different conditions.
4. Formula used: Notch impact strength I=
U
Ve

U
Ae N/m

Modulus of rupture =
Jule/mm3
Where Ae is effective area of specimen (in meter)
Ve is effective volume of specimen (in mm)

(1Jule=1 N-M)

5. Experimental Procedure:
Following procedure should be adopted to conduct the test
First measure the length, width and thickness of the specimen.
Set the machine at 300 Jules dial reading and lock the striking hammer in its top
position 1600
Now press down the pendulum release lever so that the hammer falls and sings
past the bottommost position. Note down the reading on dial. This is initial
reading(X). Remember that this reading is without any specimen and indicates
frictional and windage (air) loss of energy of the hammer.
Now put the test- specimen on the support provided as simply supported beam
with the face with notch on the tension side. Release the lever so that the hammer
strikes the test-piece and break it. Note down this reading. This is final reading(Y)
Repeat the experiment on the other specimen(reading of three specimen is desired)

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Observation Table:
Specimen
Size
of Depth
of Initial
No
specimen
notch (mm)
reading
(lXbXh) mm
(X) Jules

7. Calculations:
Impact Energy U= Y-X Jules
U
Notch impact strength I= Ae N/m (1Jule=1 N-M)
U
Ve
Modulus of rupture =
Jule/mm3

Where Ae is effective area of specimen (in meter)


Ve is effective volume of specimen (in mm)
8. Results: Impact energy of given specimen is =
Notch Impact strength of given specimen is =
Modulus of rupture of given specimen is =
9. Precautions and sources of error
Measure the dimensions of the specimen carefully

16

Final Reading
(Y) Jules

Place the specimen carefully so that the hammer strikes at the centre of the specimen

Note down reading carefully

Operate the machine from outside the boundary


10.0 Related short questions:

What is toughness?
What is proof resilience?
What is resilience?
Which material is tough hard or ductile?
If temperature increases the toughness increase or decrease?
Why notch provide in specimen?
If notch not provide in specimen then which type of fracture accurse?
Give any examples where tough is importance?

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17

Specifications: Specifications:
Pendulum drop angle
1400
Pendulum effective weight
20.59 kg
Pendulum speed
5.3465 m/sec
Distance of Axes of hammer rotation and center of test piece
Impact energy
300 Jules

825mm

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18

Experiment No. 8
Object:
To perform the shear test on UTM.
Apparatus used:
A UTM, Specimen, shearing attachment, vernier caliper or outside caliper etc.
Theory and application: - A type of force which causes or tends to cause two contiguous
parts of the body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of
contact is called the shear force. The stress required to produce fracture in the plane of
cross-section, acted on by the shear force is called shear strength.
Formula used:
ultimate load Newton

Ultimate shear strength = crosssectional area of specimen N/mm2

s =

W
2
2x d
4

N/mm2

Experimental procedure: First measure diameter of specimen (pin) by using our side caliper or vernier caliper
Take the suitable test rig (shear die) and insert the pin in given hole in test rig
Put the test rig on the bottom carriage.
Select the suitable range of loads on machine.
Adjust the middle carriage over the test rig through electrically system.
Bring the dummy pointer on the load indicator close to the live pointer.
The machine is switched on by pressing the appropriate button on the control panel
and the load is applied gradually by turning the control valve slowly.
Continue the test till fracture occurs.
Note down the maximum load at fracture indicated by the dummy pointer on the load
indicator.
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Observation: Applied compressive force (W) = ------- Newton


Diameter of specimen d = ------ mm.

Calculation: - Cross sectional area of the pin (in double shear) = 2x 4 d2 mm2
Load taken by the specimen at the time of failure, W = ---- (Newton)
The shear strength shall be calculated from the following formulae: s =
Whered is the actual diameter of the specimen

2 x d2
4

N/mm2

Precautions and sources of error: The specimen should be all place equal dia.
Measure the diameter of specimen carefully.
Take reading more carefully.
After shearing specimen stop to m/c.
Related short questions: Does the shear failure in wood occur along the 45 shear plane?
What is budging? Why does it occur?
What is single & double shear?
What is finding in shear test?
What is unit of shear strength?

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20

Experiment No. 9
1.0 Object: To conduct the compression test on a UTM and determine the ultimate
compressive strength for a given specimen (C.I, Brick, wooden)
Equipment:
2.0 Experimental set up/Equipment/Apparatus/Tools
Universal testing Machine
Vernier caliper/out side caliper
Test specimen( Brick, wooden or C.I)

3.0 Theory and application: Various machine and structural components are subjected
to compressive load in numerous operations. For safe design of these components their
ultimate compressive strength are to be determined before actual use. For that the above test
is conducted.
Failure mode: The procedure of experimentation and observation of data are almost similar
to that of the tension test. Most compressive test are performed on brittle materials.
Generally they failed in shear. Shear develops along a diagonal plane. The maximum shear
stress develops on a plane inclined at 450 from the direction of compressive load. However
the spread of shear cracks may be deviated from this plane due the effects of end restraint. It
can be noticed cast iron and concrete. The directionality of grains in wood also effects the
shear failure along the 450 shear plan.
4.0 Formula used: Ultimate compressive strength =

Ultimate load
Crosssectional area

N/mm2

Load (P) Newton

Stress () = crosssectional area of specimen ( Ao)


Strain () =

l
L

l- is change in length

L- Original length

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21

5.0 Experimental Procedure:


The experiment is performed in the following sequential1. First measure the dimensions of specimen and calculate the cross-sectional area.
2. The load range of machines operation is selected as required
3. Bring the dummy pointer on the load indicator close to the live pointer.
4. Now the specimen put on the bottom carriage.
5. The machine is switched on by pressing the appropriate button on the control panel
and the load applied is gradually by turning the control valve slowly.
6. Elongation of the specimen is recorded for a certain specified load.

7. Continue the test till fracture occurs


8. Note down the maximum load at fracture indicated by the dummy pointer on the load
indicator.
6.0 Observations:
Diameter of specimen (D) = ---------- mm
Cross-sectional area (A) = ---------- mm2
Or
Dimensions of specimen
Length (l)= ------- mm
Width (b) = ------- mm
Cross-section area (Ao) lXb =---------- mm2

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S.No.

22

Applied load

Elongation

Stress()

Strain()

(P) N

(l) mm

P/Ao

(l)/L

(N/mm2)

7.0 Calculation:
Ultimate load (P) = KN
=N

Ultimate compressive strength =

Ultimate load
Crosssectional area

N/mm2

Load (P) Newton

Stress () = crosssectional area of specimen (Ao)


Strain () =

l
L

l- is change in length

L- Original length
8.0 Results: Ultimate compressive strength of given specimen= -----9.0 Precautions and sources of error:
Open the control valve slowly.
Loosen the locking nuts slightly as soon as load pointer starts moving.
Close the control valve immediately after fracture of specimen.
Open the release valve slowly after operation
Do not touch the specimen immediately after fracture.
10.1 Related short question:
Compression tests are generally performed on brittles materials-why?
How do ductile and brittle materials in their behavior in compression test?
What is column action? How does the h/d ratio of specimen affect the test
result?

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23