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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

SASC-S-02
SANITARY WASTEWATER AND SEWERAGE SYSTEMS
This Section contains the operation and maintenance requirements for the treatment and disposal of sanitary
and industrial wastewaters in Saudi Aramco. NOTE: All sub-sections should be read in conjunction with
the applicable Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and any referenced documents listed at the end
of this Code Section.
ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS
ACRONYMS
EPD
HMA
LPD
MEPA
MSO
OM
PCBs
RCSHF
SAES
SAMSO
SO
TCLP
TEL

Environmental Protection Department


Hazardous Material Advisor
Loss Prevention Department
Meteorology & Environmental Protection Administration
Material Supply Organization
Operating Manual
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Reclamation Chemicals Storage and Handling Facility
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard
Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization
Storehouse Operations
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
Tetraethyl Lead

DEFINITIONS
Acidity: Quantitative capacity of aqueous solutions to react with hydroxide ions to a designated pH.
Measured by titration, with a standard solution of a base to a specified end point. Usually expressed
as milligrams per liter of calcium carbonate.
Activated Carbon: Carbon activated by high-temperature heating with steam or carbon dioxide,
producing an internal porous particle structure. Total surface area of granular activated carbon is
estimated to be 1,000m2/gm.
Alkalinity: Capacity of water to neutralize acids, imparted by the waters content of carbonates,
bicarbonates, hydroxides, and occasionally borates, silicates, and phosphates. Expressed in
milligrams per liter of equivalent calcium carbonate.
Anaerobic Waste Treatment: Waste stabilization brought about by the action of microorganisms in
the absence of air or elemental oxygen. Usually refers to waste treatment by methane fermentation.
Approved Facility: Any waste management facility approved by EPD.
Backwash: Process by which water is forced through a filtration bed in the direction opposite to the
normal flow (usually upward). During backwashing, the granular bed expands, allowing material
previously filtered out to be washed away.
Bioassay: Assay method using a change in biological activity as a qualitative or quantitative means
of analyzing the response of biota to industrial wastes and other wastewaters. Viable organisms, such
as live fish or daphnia, are used as test organisms.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): Measure of the concentration of organic impurities in
wastewater. The amount of oxygen required by bacteria while stabilizing organic matter under aerobic

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

conditions, expressed in milligrams per liter, is determined entirely by the availability of material in the
wastewaters to be used as biological food and by the amount of oxygen utilized by the
microorganisms during oxidation.
Biological Oxidation: Process in which living organisms in the presence of oxygen convert the
organic matter contained in wastewater into a more stable or mineral form.
Buffer: Any combination of chemicals used to stabilize the pH or alkalinities of solutions.
Chlorination: Application of chlorine to water or wastewater, generally for the purpose of
disinfections, but frequently for accomplishing other biological or chemical results.
Chlorine Contact Chamber: Detention basin in which a liquid containing diffused chlorine is held for
a sufficient time to achieve a desired degree of disinfection.
Chlorine Demand: Difference between the amounts of chlorine added to the wastewater and the
amount of residual chlorine remaining at the end of a specific contact time. The chlorine demand for
given water varies with the amount of chlorine applied, time of contact, temperature, pH, and nature
and amount of impurities in the water.
Clarification: Any process or combination of processes to reduce the concentration of suspended
matter in a liquid.
Coagulation: Process by which chemicals (coagulants) are added to an aqueous system, to render
finely divided, dispersed matter with slow or negligible settling velocities into more rapidly settling
aggregates. The coagulants neutralize forces that cause dispersed particles to repel each other.
Comminution: Process of cutting and screening solids contained in wastewater flow before it enters
the pumps or other units in the treatment plant.
Denitrification: Chemically bound oxygen in nitrate or nitrate ions stripped away by microorganisms,
producing nitrogen gas, which can cause floc to rise in the final sedimentation process. An effective
method of removing nitrogen from wastewater.
Detention Time: Average period of time a fluid element is retained in a basin or tank before
discharge.
Dual Media Filtration: Filtration process that uses a bed composed of two distinctly different granular
substances (such as anthracite coal and sand), as opposed to conventional filtration through sand
only.
Electrical Conductivity: Reciprocal of the resistance in ohms measured between opposite faces of a
centimeter cube of an aqueous solution at a specified temperature. Expressed as microhms per
centimeter in degrees Celsius.
Food to Microorganism Ratio (F/M): Aeration tank loading parameter. Food may be expressed in
pounds BOD added per day to the aeration tank; microorganisms may be expressed as mixed liquor
volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) in the aeration tank.
Freeboard: Vertical distance from the top of a tank, basin, column, or wash trough (in the case of
sand filters) to the surfaces of its contents.
Grease Skimmer: Device for removing floating grease or scum from the surface of wastewater in a
tank.
Grit Chamber: Detention chamber or an enlargement of a sewer, designed to reduce the velocity of
flow of the liquid, to permit the separation of mineral from organic solids by differential sedimentation.

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Hardness: Characteristic of water imparted by salts of calcium, magnesium, and iron (such as
bicarbonates, carbonates, sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates), which causes curdling of soap, deposition
of scale in boilers, damage in some industrial processes, and sometimes objectionable taste. It may
be determined by a standard laboratory procedure or computed from the amounts of calcium,
magnesium, iron, aluminum, manganese, barium, strontium, and zinc, and is expressed as equivalent
calcium carbonate.
Hydraulic loading: Quantity of flow passing though a column or packed bed, expressed in the units
of volume per unit time per unit area; e.g., ga./min/ft2 (m3/m2.s).
Influent: Wastewater or other liquid (raw or partially treated) flowing into a reservoir, basin, treatment
process, or treatment plant.
Landfarming: A controlled disposal process that uses naturally occurring bacteria to biodegrade nonleaded oily sludges in soil.
Leaded Oily Sludge: Any oily sludges, whether solid or semi-solid, collected from leaded gasoline
and tetraethyl lead tanks and vessels containing 100 mg/Kg total lead or greater.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): Measure of the oxygen-consuming capacity of inorganic and
organic matter present in water or wastewater, expressed as the amount of oxygen consumed from a
chemical oxidant in a specific test. It does not differentiate between stable and unstable organic
matter and thus, does not necessarily correlate with biochemical oxygen demand.
Mixed Liquor Suspended Solid (MLSS): Concentration of suspended solids carried in the aeration
basin of an activated sludge process.
Mixed Liquor: Mixture of activated sludge and wastewater undergoing activated sludge treatment in
the aeration tank.
Neutralization: Reaction of acid or alkali with the opposite reagent until the concentrations of
hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the solution are approximately equal.
Nitrification: Conversion of nitrogenous matter to nitrates.
Non-Leaded Oily Sludge: Any oily sludge, whether solid or semi-solid, containing less than 100
mg/Kg total lead.
Non-Settleable Sludge: Suspended matter that does not settle or float to the surface of water in a
period of 1 hour.
Organic Nitrogen: Nitrogen combined in organic molecules, such as protein, amines, and amino
acids.
Oxidation Pond or Lagoon: Basin used for retention of wastewater before final disposal, in which
biological oxidation of organic material is affected by natural or artificially accelerated transfer of
oxygen to the water from air.
Oxidation: Addition of oxygen to a compound. More generally, any reaction involving the loss of
electrons from an atom.
Oxygen Uptake Rate: Amount of oxygen utilized by an activated sludge system during a specific
time period.
Parshall Plume: Calibrated device developed by Ralph Parshall for measuring the flow of liquid in an
open conduit, which consists essentially of a contracting length, a throat, and an expanding length. A
sill, over which the flow passes at critical depth, is located at the throat. The upper and lower heads
are individually measured at a definite distance from the sill. The lower head need not be measured

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unless the sill is submerged more than about 67 percent.


Physical-Chemical Treatment: (PCT) Plant Treatment sequence in which physical and chemical
processes are used to the exclusion of explicitly biological process (including incidental biological
treatment obtained on filter media or absorptive surfaces). In this sense, a PCT scheme is a
substitute for conventional biological treatment. A PCT scheme following an existing biological plant
may, by contrast, be termed simply a tertiary plant, although it is also a PCT in a general sense.
Polyelectrolyte: Chemicals consisting of high molecular weight molecules with many reactive groups
situated along the length of the chain. Polyelectrolytes react with the fine particles in the waste and
assist in bringing them together into larger and heavier masses for settling.
Primary Settling Tank: First settling tank for the removal of settleable solids through which
wastewater is passed in a treatment works.
Primary Treatment: 1) First (sometimes only) major treatment in a wastewater treatment works,
usually sedimentation; or 2) removal of a substantial amount of suspended matter, but little or no
colloidal and dissolved matter.
Raw Sludge: Settled sludge promptly removed from sedimentation tanks before decomposition has
much advanced. Frequently referred to as undigested sludge.
Recirculation Rate: Rate of return of part of the effluent from a treatment process to the incoming
flow.
Sanitary Sewer: Sewer that carries liquid and water-carried human waste from residences,
commercial buildings, industrial plants, and institutions, together with minor quantities of storm,
surface, and groundwater(s) that are not admitted intentionally. Significant quantities of industrial
wastewater are not carried in sanitary sewers.
Screen: Device with openings, generally of uniform size, used to retain or remove suspended or
floating solids in flowing water or wastewater and to prevent them from entering an intake or passing
a given point in a conduit. The screening element may consist of parallel bars, rods, wires, grating,
wire mesh, or perforated plate; the openings may be of any shape, although they are usually circular
or rectangular. Also a device used to segregate granular material, such as sand, crushed rock, and
soil, into various sizes.
Secondary Settling Tank: Tank through which effluent from some prior treatment process flows for
the purpose of removing settleable solids.
Secondary Wastewater Treatment: Treatment of wastewater by biological methods after primary
treatment by sedimentation.
Sedimentation: Process of subsidence and deposition of suspended matter carried by water,
wastewater, or other liquids, by gravity. Usually accomplished by reducing the velocity of the liquid to
below the point at which it can transport the suspended material. Also called settling.
Skimming Tank: Tank so designed that floating matter will rise and remain on the surface of the
wastewater until removed, while the liquid discharges continuously under certain walls or scum
baffles.
Sludge Age: In the activated sludge process, a measure of the length of time (expressed in days) a
particle of suspended solids has been undergoing aeration. Usually computed by dividing the weight
of the suspended solids in the aeration tank by the daily addition of new suspended solids having
their origin in the raw waste.
Sludge Volume Index (SVI): Numerical expression of the settling characteristics of activated sludge.
The ratio of the volume in milliliters of sludge settled from a 1,000-ml sample in 30 minutes to the

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concentration of mixed liquor in milligrams per liter multiplied by 1,000.


Stabilization Pond: Type of oxidation pond in which biological oxidation of organic matter is effected
by natural or artificially accelerated transfer of oxygen to the water from air.
Submerged Weir: Weir that, when in use, results in the water level on the downstream side rising to
an elevation equal to or higher than, the weir crest. The rate of discharge is affected by the tailwater.
Also called drowned weir.
Suspended Solid: Solids that float on the surface of, or are in suspension in, water, wastewater, or
other liquids, and that are largely removable by laboratory filtering. Also the quantity of material
removed from wastewater in a laboratory test, as prescribed in Standard Methods for the Examination
of Water and Wastewater and referred to as non-filterable residue.
Total Organic Carbon (TOC): Measure of the amount of organic material in a water sample,
expressed in milligrams per liter of carbon. Measured by Beckman carbonaceous analyzer or other
instrument in which the organic compounds are catalytically oxidized to CO2 and measured by an
infrared detector. Frequently applied to wastewaters.
Turbidity: Condition in water or wastewater caused by the presence of suspended matter, resulting
in the scattering and absorption of light rays. Measure of fine suspended matter in liquids. Analytical
quantity, usually expressed in Jackson turbidity units (Jtu) or Nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs),
determined by measurements of light diffraction.
Turbulent Flow: Flow of a liquid past an object so that the velocity at any fixed point in the fluid
varies irregularly. Type of fluid flow in which there is an unsteady motion of the particles and the
motion at a fixed point varies in no definite manner. Sometimes called eddy or sinuous flow.

ENGINEERING DESIGN
Wastewater shall be treated and disposed of by processes that meet the design requirements in
SAES-A-104 Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.
Copies of the preliminary and detailed engineering reports, design drawings, and specifications
prepared in accordance with SAES-A-104 shall be submitted to the Manager, Environmental
Protection Department, (EPD) for review and approval.

PROTECTION OF WATER SUPPLIES


2.1

Minimum Separation Distances


2.1.1

Minimum horizontal separation distances between sewerage components and water


systems shall be as indicated in Table 1.

2.1.2

Sewer line crossing with potable water lines shall comply with the requirements of
SAES-S-010, Sanitary Sewers.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

TABLE 1
Minimum Horizontal Separation Distances
Minimum Distance To Be Maintained From:
Sewer Lines
Septic Tank/Grease Traps
Disposal Field
Seepage Pit
Areas Irrigated with Reclaimed Wastewater
Reclaimed Water Line
Sewage Treatment Plants (onshore)
Sewage Lift Stations (onshore)

Water Wells
m(ft)

Water Lines
m(ft)

15 (50)
15 (50)
30 (100)
45 (150)
150 (500)
15 (50)
150 (500)
90 (300)

3a(10)
3 (10)
3 (10)
3 (10)
15b(50)
3a(10)

a -In the event that these separation distances can not be met, see SAES-S-010.
b - This buffer zone applies to spray irrigation areas only.

2.2

Water Supply and Prevention of Cross Connections


2.2.1

Water Supply: An adequate supply of potable water under pressure that complies
with requirements described in SASC-S-01 shall be provided for sanitary and drinking
purposes, use in the laboratory, and for general cleaning duties around the plant. The
design and construction of all plumbing shall comply with the requirements of the
Saudi Aramco Plumbing Code, SAES-S-060. Where it is not possible to provide
potable water from a public water supply, separate water well may be provided. The
location, design, construction and quality of water obtained from the well shall comply
with SASC-S-01. Since the plant operators and visitors will use this water supply for
sanitary and drinking purposes, it shall be plumbed as outlined above.

2.2.2

Prevention of Cross Connections: Cross connecting the potable water supply with
any non-potable or other water supply of questionable quality is prohibited. The use
of water in a wastewater treatment plant is a necessity, but special precautions are
required to protect the potable water supply. In this regard, two separate water
systems must be provided which are not physically connected in any way; i.e., a plant
potable water system and a plant non-potable water system.
2.2.2.1

Backflow Prevention: Atmospheric vacuum breakers shall be installed for


all potable water wash down hoses. Reduced pressure backflow devices
(RPBDs) or air gap and break tank shall be installed on all potable water
lines serving wastewater lift stations and wastewater treatment plants
unless a totally separate non-potable water system using reclaimed water
is installed for all cleaning requirements and chemical make-up water
requirements. The RPBD should be installed with adequate space to
facilitate maintenance and testing. Adequate clearance from the floor,
ceiling, and walls must be provided to facilitate the removal of the relief
valve. An RPBD shall not be installed in a pit below ground level. The
RPBD must be inspected regularly for indication of failure.

2.2.2.2

Separate Non-Potable Water System: Where water from a separate


potable water supply is used to provide make-up water to the non-potable
water system, then the potable water must be discharged to a break tank
with an air gap of at least 15 centimeters (6 inches) above the maximum
water level, or the overflow outlet of the tank, whichever is higher.

2.2.2.3

Separate Non-Potable Water System Using Reclaimed Wastewater: If


break tank shall not be required between the source of reclaimed
wastewater and the wastewater treatment plant.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

2.2.2.4

Non-potable water systems shall be properly color-coded as identified in


Table 2 of SAES-A-104.

2.2.2.5

All outlets from a non-potable water system shall be posted with permanent
signs and logos (artist's drawing), in Arabic and English, indicating that the
water is non-potable and is not safe for drinking.

WASTEWATER PUMP STATIONS


3.1

Wastewater pump stations shall not be subject to flooding. A suitable superstructure,


preferably located off the right of way of streets and alleys to collect the stormwater shall be
provided. The station shall be readily accessible.

3.2

Pump systems shall be designed to handle unexpected downtime. Design of the pump
facility shall incorporate ease of maintenance and repair. The design of the pumps shall be in
accordance with SAES-S-010.

3.3

Each pump station shall have at least two units of the same capacity. The capacity of
each must exceed the expected maximum wastewater flow. If more than two pumps are
provided, the capacity of the pump system must be such that with one pump out of service,
the capacity of the remaining pumps exceeds the expected maximum wastewater flow. Each
pump shall have a separate suction.

3.4

Pneumatic ejector-type pump stations require at least two pneumatic ejectors unless
the ejector pot has been located in a dry well with all parts accessible for the repair of leaks. If
the ejector pot forms the lower part of the lift, two pots shall be required.

3.5

Pumps handling raw wastewater shall be preceded by readily accessible bar racks with
clear openings not exceeding 5 centimeters (2 inches) unless pneumatic ejectors are used or
special devices are installed to protect the pumps from clogging or damage. Where the size
of the installation warrants, a mechanically cleaned bar screen with a grinder or comminution
device shall be used. Where screens are located below ground, convenient facilities shall be
provided for handling screenings.

3.6

Adequate ventilation shall be provided for all lift stations. Where the pump pit is below
the ground surface, mechanical ventilation is required and arranged to ventilate the dry well
and the wet well independently. There shall be no interconnections between the wet well and
the dry well ventilating systems. In pits over 4.5 meters (15 feet) deep, multiple inlets and
outlets shall be used. Dampers shall not be used on exhaust or fresh air ducts and fine
screens and other obstructions in the air ducts shall be avoided to prevent clogging.

3.7

There shall be no physical connection between any potable water supply and a
wastewater pump station, which under any conditions might cause contamination of the
potable water supply. If a potable water supply is brought to the pump station, it must comply
with conditions stipulated in SASC-S-01

3.8

Alarm systems shall be provided for all pump stations. The alarm shall be activated in
cases of power failure, pump failure, or any cause of pump station malfunction. Where a
municipal facility of 24-hour attendance is not available, pump station alarms shall be
telemetered. Where no such facility exists, an audiovisual device shall be installed at the
station for external observation.

3.9

Force mains shall be a minimum of 10 centimeters (4 inches) in diameter. Air release


valves shall be provided on lines at all peaks in elevation.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

SANITARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS


4.1

General
4.1.1

Industrial wastewater and stormwater run-off shall not be mixed with sanitary
wastewater prior to treatment. The streams may be combined after treatment, prior to
disposal.

4.1.2

Hauling of raw sewage from holding tanks will not normally be considered an
acceptable method of waste disposal unless specifically approved by Manager, EPD.

4.1.3

All outside areas shall be kept free of nuisances and safety hazards (refer to SASCS-18).

4.1.4

All on-shore treatment units shall be located a minimum of 150 meters (500 feet)
from any residential areas, camp areas, or office areas.

4.1.5

All treatment plants and holding ponds shall be surrounded by a Saudi Aramco Type
V Security fence.

4.1.6

Routine housekeeping of buildings and grounds shall be included in the operators


regular daily responsibilities. All buildings and equipment should be routinely
cleaned. Doors, windows, walls and other areas should be kept clean, dry, and in
good repair. Outside grounds should be mowed regularly with the grass clippings
removed promptly. Equipment and piping should be cleaned and painted as required
for appearance and identification purposes.

4.1.7

The direction of prevailing winds shall be considered when selecting the plant site.

4.1.8

Effluent quality requirements for wastewater treatment plants shall conform to


applicable requirements as outlined in: (1) Table 3 of this section; (2) SAES-A-103,
Marine Wastewater Discharges; (3) SAES-A-104, Wastewater Treatment, Reuse,
and Disposal; (4) Meteorology & Environmental Protection Administration Standards;
(5) Jubail or Yanbu Royal Commission Standards; and (6) Al Hasa Irrigation and
Drainage Authority (HIDA).

4.1.9

All municipal wastewater treatment plants shall be operated in accordance with the
latest version of Operation of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants published by
the US Water Environmental Federation (WEF). All industrial wastewater treatment
plants shall be operated in accordance with the latest versions of the applicable
industrial manuals (e. g. API instructions).

4.1.10 Exceptions to Table 1 of SAES-A-104 requirements may be granted on a case-bycase basis for sanitary wastewater that is discharged into an evaporation pond, which
meets the design requirements of Standard 8.1 of SAES-A-104.
4.1.11 Sanitary sewage discharged more than 4 nautical miles from shore does not need to
be treated to meet Table 1 requirements; it shall be comminuted and disinfected prior
to discharge in accordance with SAES-A-103.
4.1.12 Discharges to the land are not permitted unless written approval is obtained.
4.1.13 Sanitary wastewater sludge shall be stabilized (aerobic digestion) prior to drying in
sludge drying beds. Dried sludge shall be disposed of in an approved sanitary landfill
designed as per SAES-S-007 and operated as per Section SASC-S-03.
4.1.14 All sanitary wastewater reuse applications must be designed and installed as per
SAES-A-104. Adequate control measures must be taken to prevent inappropriate

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

alterations in the piping that could result in cross connections with potable water. All
warning signs, backflow preventors, and cross connection control measures shall be
maintained as originally designed. The minimum horizontal separation distances
between sewerage components and wastewater system shall be in accordance to
Table 1 of this instruction.
4.1.15 For any waste or mixture of wastes not specifically mentioned in this instruction or in
the event of incidents involving wastes, the treatment and disposal method must be
approved by Manager, EPD.
4.2

4.3

Preliminary Treatment
4.2.1

All sanitary wastewater treatment plants shall have bar screens, mesh screens,
and/or comminutors. Bar screens shall be located upstream of the grit chambers and
shall be readily accessible at all times to allow inspection and maintenance.

4.2.2

A stairway and/or ladder shall be provided for access if bar screens, mesh screens,
or comminutors are located one or more meters below or above ground level.
Equipment shall be provided to transfer the screenings to ground elevation.

4.2.3

In order to provide for drainage of the screenings, manually cleaned bar screens shall
be constructed having 30 degrees to 60 degrees slope to a horizontal platform. The
bar spacing shall be from 25 to 40 millimeters for manually cleaned screens. The
mechanically cleaned screens shall have spacing as small as 10 millimeters.

4.2.4

An accessible platform shall be provided for the manually cleaned screening facilities.
The operators to rake screenings shall use the platform. A drainage system shall be
provided for the platform.

4.2.5

Auxiliary manually cleaned screens shall be provided where mechanically operated


screening devices are used. The design shall include provisions for automatic
diversion of the entire wastewater flow through the auxiliary screens if the regular
units fail.

4.2.6

Grit removal equipment shall be provided for all sanitary wastewater treatment plants
and shall be located upstream of pumps and comminuting devices.

4.2.7

Equipment to wash the grit shall be provided unless the grit is handled in such a
manner as to prevent odors and fly nuisance. The grit collecting chambers shall be
installed with the capability to be dewatered.

4.2.8

The screenings and grit shall be stored in covered containers.

4.2.9

The screenings and the grit shall be disposed of in a sanitary landfill that is approved
by EPD

Primary Treatment
4.3.1

The waste oil and the oily sludges resulted from the operation of the separators shall
be disposed of in a waste disposal facility that is approved by the Manager,

EPD
4.3.2

Waste oil or wastewater containing oil shall be stored in either an above ground tank
with secondary containment or in a lined pit (or sump). The liner for the pit (or sump)
shall be as a minimum 30-mil high-density polyethylene. The sump or the pit shall be
constructed of reinforced concrete.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

4.3.3

Equalization shall be installed in wastewater treatment plants in order to


protect the biological system from fluctuations in organics, pH, flow rates, and
toxic substances.

4.3.4

Equalization tanks having a detention time of more than two hours shall have
mixers. The air shall be supplied at a rate of 1.25 to 2.0 ft3/103 gal. /min.
(0.01 to 0.015 m3/min.).

4.3.5

Each sedimentation basins shall be provided with walkways with guard rails along the
perimeter. A stairway shall be installed for sedimentation basins with vertical walls
terminating one or more meter above or below ground level.

4.3.6

Sedimentation basins shall be provided with scum baffles and a means for collection
and disposal of the separated scum into the sludge digester. Sedimentation basins
designed for flow rates less than 100 cubic meters per day shall have hydraulic
skimming provided that the scum pick-up is capable of removing scum from the entire
operating surface of the sedimentation basin. Sedimentation basins designed for flow
rates of 100 cubic meters per day or more shall be equipped with mechanical
skimmers.

4.3.7

Sedimentation basin access platforms shall have a pressure hose and hose rack for
cleaning the effluent weirs.

4.3.8

Mechanical skimmers shall be equipped with a means to automatically clean the


weirs. Brushes or scraper blade to be attached to the end of the skimmer can be
used for this service.

4.3.9

Mechanical sludge collecting equipment shall be provided for sedimentation units


with a design flow equal to or greater than 100 cubic meters per day and shall have
provisions for individual inspection and sampling.

4.3.10 A smooth wall finish and a hopper bottom slope of not less than 60 degrees shall be
provided for sedimentation basins that are not equipped with mechanical sludge
collecting equipment.
4.4

Secondary Treatment
4.4.1 The activated sludge process may be used where the wastewater is amenable to
biological treatment; some of the modified processes require a greater degree of
attention and operating supervision. These requirements shall be considered when
proposing this type of treatment.
4.4.2 Biological wastewater treatment ponds (facultative ponds) and associated equipment
shall be designed to meet the wastewater disposal requirements in Table 3 of this
instruction unless the wastewater will be disposed in an evaporation pond.
Discharges to an evaporation pond do not need to meet the Table 3 requirements
provided the treatment pond is designed and operated according to Standard 8.1.1.2
of SAES-A-104 and approval is granted by Manager, EPD.
4.4.3 Pond-based wastewater treatment shall only be used in remote areas. Consideration
shall be given to such factors as prevailing winds, pond configuration, soil conditions,
use of effluent, and distance to populated areas.
4.4.4 Facultative ponds shall either be preceded by facilities for primary treatment of the
raw sewage or shall include a minimum of two ponds in series. The first pond shall

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be used for solids separation and biological treatment and the second pond shall be
for biological treatment only.
4.4.5 Oily wastewater shall be pretreated for removal of free oil before discharge to the
biological treatment system.
4.4.6 A tank-based activated sludge process is the preferred treatment method where the
wastewater is amenable to biological treatment.
4.4.7 Extended aeration and oxidation ditches are the preferred activated sludge treatment
methods; other methods may be used as per the approval of the Manager, EPD.
4.4.8 Extended aeration is the preferred method when high effluent quality and ammonia
removal is required. Extended aeration shall be used in applications where a high
probability of shock loads exists.
4.4.9 The oxidation ditch may be used where treatment needs are similar to those for
extended aeration. All oxidation ditch systems shall provide final clarification and
return sludge capability equal to that required for the extended aeration system.
Provision shall be made to easily vary the immersion depth of the rotor for flexibility of
operation.
4.4.10 If the design flow exceeds 1000 cubic meters per day (250,000 gallons per day), the
total aeration tank volume shall be divided among two or more units, each capable of
independent operation.
4.4.11 Equipment for measuring return sludge, excess sludge, and air shall be provided in
activated sludge plants having a design flow of 7500 cubic meters per day or more.
4.4.12 Aeration tanks shall be constructed of reinforced concrete or steel unless approved by
the Materials Engineering and Corrosion Control Division.
4.4.13 Aeration tank equipment in contact with wastewater shall be constructed of 316
stainless steel unless approved by the Materials Engineering and Corrosion Control
Division.
4.4.14 Surface mechanical aerators are the preferred type of aerators for wastewater
treatment systems that treat greater than 3800 cubic meters per day. Mechanical
aeration devices shall be of such capacity to provide oxygen transfer to and mixing of
the vessel contents equivalent to that provided by compressed air.
4.4.15 The diffuser systems shall have devices for removing and replacing diffusers without
de-watering the tank. They shall also have non-clog diffusers for all systems using
intermittent aeration.
4.4.16 The diffuser systems shall have individual diffuser header assemblies with air control
valves. The diffuser head control valves shall allow for throttling of the airflow.
4.4.17 The air diffuser system, including piping, shall be capable of delivering 150 percent of
design air requirements.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

4.4.18 The blower/compressor units shall be equipped with automatic reset and restart
mechanisms to place the units back in operation after periods of power outage.
4.4.19 Air filters shall provide for a flow rate of 120 percent of the design requirements.
4.4.20 The requirements for the secondary sedimentation units are the same as those for
primary sedimentation units. The secondary sedimentation units shall have dual
skimmers or heavy-duty full-length skimmers.
4.5

4.6

Tertiary Treatment
4.5.1

The flocculation equipment shall be designed and operated in order to obtain


optimum floc growth, control of deposition of solids, and prevent floc destruction at
peak hourly flow.

4.5.2

Polymers are to be used as flocculation aids and shall be introduced into a flash mix
tank upstream of a flocculation tank or into the flocculation zone using several
alternate input points.

4.5.3

Air flotation units shall not be used to treat sanitary wastewater. If the units are used
for industrial wastewater they shall be located downstream of the gravity oil/water
separators and equalization equipment.

Chemical Treatment
4.6.1

Chemical addition equipment shall be provided in cases where the pH of the


discharge is outside of the pH range in Table 3 of this instruction or in cases where
conventional gravity settling or biological treatment is not able to treat the discharge
to Table 1 of SAES-A-104 concentrations.

4.6.2

Chemical treatment systems shall be of multiple-unit flexibility to allow for operational


adjustments in chemical feed point locations, chemical feed rates, and use of
alternative chemicals.

4.6.3

The chemical dosage required shall be the minimum necessary to bring about
optimum treatment. The choice of treatment chemical(s) shall be based upon the
characteristics of the raw wastewater, the quality requirement of the final effluent and
the economics of the process.

4.6.4

Coagulation feed systems shall be provided with standby feeders, adequate chemical
storage and conveyance facilities, adequate reserve chemical supply, and automatic
dosage control.

4.6.5

In instances where only pH correction is needed, holding tanks and metering pumps
may be used when pH adjustment is required. Other simple pH control system with
either acid or base addition can be used when gradual mixing will not provide a
sufficient buffering capacity.

4.6.6

Selection of chemical feed points shall be based on the type of chemicals used, the
type of wastewater treatment process, the reaction times, and the type of
components in use. There shall be flexibility in feed point location with multiple feed
points.

43

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

4.6.7

The dry chemical feeders shall be equipped with a mixing tank which is capable of
providing a minimum 5-minute retention time at the peak hourly flow rate.
Polyelectrolyte feed installations shall be equipped with multiple solution vessels and
transfer piping.

4.6.8

Mixing of the chemicals shall be accomplished using a large diameter low speed
mixer. Flash mixing shall be provided for chemicals such as polymers, metal salts
and pH control chemicals. The flash mixer shall have a mean temporal velocity
gradient, G (sec.), of at least 800. The detention period shall be at least 30 seconds
at peak hourly flow.

4.6.9

Secondary spill containment shall be provided around all chemical feed system
components.

4.6.10 An adequate supply of treatment chemicals shall be provided at the treatment plant.
4.6.11 The liquid storage tanks and tank fill connections shall be located within a secondary
spill containment structure.
4.6.12 Bag or drum storage shall be located near the solution make-up point with trolleys in
order to provide for the convenient movement of drum or bag.
4.6.13 Platforms, ladders and railings shall be provided as necessary to afford convenient
and safe access to all filling connections, storage tank entry locations, and measuring
devices.
4.6.14 Containment areas shall be sloped into a sump area and shall not contain floor drains
that drain into a sewer.
4.6.15 Chemical precipitation sludge shall be disposed of in a facility approved by the
Manager, EPD.
4.6.16 Eye washes and safety showers shall be provided in areas where chemicals are
being handled.
4.6.17 Chemical feed equipment and storage facilities shall either be constructed of
corrosion-resistant materials or have a protective coating as approved by the
Materials Engineering and Corrosion Control Division.
4.7

Wastewater Filtration
4.7.1

Convenient access to the component of the filters shall be provided at the treatment
plants for cleaning and maintenance.

4.7.2

The backwash rate shall be adequate to fluidize each media layer a minimum of 20
percent.

4.7.3

Waste filter backwash waters shall be returned to the inlet of the wastewater
treatment plant. Filtered water shall be used as the source of backwash water.

4.7.4

Selection of media size shall depend on the filtration rate selected, the type of
treatment provided for the filter influent, the filter configuration and the effluent quality
objectives. The manufacturers of the filters should approve the use of local sand.

4.7.5

A manual override for operating equipment and critical valves shall be provided if
automatic control is used.

44

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

4.7.6

The distribution of the backwash air through the under drain system shall be uniform.

4.7.7

The filter shall be equipped with water troughs, a means of measurement and control
of the backwash rate, equipment for indicating filter head loss, surface wash or air
scouring equipment, a positive means of shutting off flow to the filter being
backwashed, and filter influent and effluent sampling points.

4.7.8

Adequate pumping capacity shall be available with the largest unit out of
service, where waste backwash water is returned for treatment by pumping.

4.7.9

The rate of return of waste filter backwash water to the treatment units shall not
exceed 15 percent of the design flow rate to the treatment units.

4.7.10 Filtration rates shall not exceed 110 liters per minute per square meter (3 gallons per
minute per square foot) for single media (sand) filters, 150 liters per minute per
square meter for dual media filters, and 190 liters per minute per square meter for
multi-media filters (based on the design flow rate applied to the filter units).
4.7.11 Intermittent sand filters shall be protected from surface wash and blowing sand.
4.7.12 Gravity or pressure type filters shall be used for wastewater filtration.
4.8

Sludge Handling
4.8.1 The sludge pipe to the beds shall terminate at least 30 centimeters (12 inches) above
the surface and be arranged so that it shall drain. Concrete splash plates for the
percolation-type beds shall be provided at sludge discharge points.
4.8.2 Provision shall be made to maintain sufficient continuity of service so sludge may be
de-watered without accumulation beyond storage capacity.
4.8.3 If it is proposed to de-water or dispose of sludge by other methods, a detailed
description of the process and design data shall accompany the plans. The final
quality of the de-watered sludge must be such that the disposal of the dried sludge
does not create a health hazard.
4.8.4 Filtrate from de-watering units shall be returned to the process for adequate treatment.

4.9

Grease Traps
4.9.1

Grease traps shall be provided for communal kitchens catering to 10 or more

4.9.2

Grease traps should normally be located within 9 meters (30 feet) of the plumbing
fixtures served to prevent congealing of the grease in the lines.

4.9.3

Grease traps shall be maintained in efficient operating condition by regular removal


of accumulated grease and sediment.

4.9.4

The minimum capacity of the grease trap shall be equal to the maximum volume of
water used in the kitchen during a mealtime period or as specified in latest edition of
the Uniform Plumbing Code, whichever is greater. An estimate of 9.5 to 11.3 liters
(2.5 - 3.0 gallons) of water per meal served can be used to determine the required
volume.

4.9.5

Grease removed from the grease trap shall be disposed in an approved sanitary
landfill.

45

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

4.10

Onsite Disposal Systems (Holding Tanks, Septic Tanks and Disposal Fields)
4.10.1 General
4.10.1.1 Onsite disposal systems include holding tanks, septic tanks, absorption
beds, seepage pits, and evapotranspiration beds. Onsite disposal systems
are only acceptable at locations with less than 30 employees where no
connection to a sanitary sewer is available, and the systems are designed
per Standard 12 of SAES-A-104. The Manager, EPD, may allow facilities
with greater than 30 employees conditional approval for the use of an
onsite disposal system on a case-by-case basis. (Any wastewater being
trucked off-site for disposal must be treated in an approved wastewater
treatment plant).
4.10.1.2 All onsite disposal systems (with the exception of holding tanks) shall be
preceded by a septic tank designed in accordance with Standard 12 of
SAES-A-104, Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.
4.10.1.3 Septic tanks with disposal to absorption beds or seepage pits are not
acceptable in areas where the ground water is within 1.5 meters (5 feet) of
the surface.
4.10.1.4 Septic tanks shall be maintained in efficient operating condition by regular
removal of accumulated sediment and sludge.
4.10.1.5 Absorption beds, seepage pits, and evapotranspiration beds shall be
routinely inspected to ensure proper operation. Any evidence of surface
contamination with wastewater must be investigated and the underlying
cause corrected immediately.
4.10.1.6 Effluent from septic tanks contains a high level of pathogenic bacteria and
shall not be considered safe. Appropriate safety precautions such as the
use of protective clothing (e.g., gloves and overalls) shall be used when
contact with the tank contents is unavoidable.
4.10.1.7 Roof drains, foundation drains and drainage from other sources producing
large intermittent or constant volumes of clear water shall not be piped into
the septic tank or absorption area. Such large volumes of water will stir up
the contents of the tank and carry some of the solids into the outlet line; the
disposal system following the septic tank will likewise become flooded or
clogged, and may fail. Drainage from garage floors, or other sources of oily
waste, shall also be excluded from the septic tank.
4.10.1.8 Toilet paper substitutes should not be flushed into a septic tank. Paper
towels, newspaper, wrapping paper, rags, and sticks may not decompose
in the septic tank, and are likely to lead to clogging of the plumbing and
disposal system.
4.10.1.9

Adequate venting is obtained through the building plumbing if the septic


tank and the plumbing are designed and installed in accordance with
SAES-A-104 and SAES-S-060. A separate vent on a septic tank is not
necessary.

4.10.1.10 A chart showing the location of the septic tank and disposal system should
be placed at a suitable location in the facility served by such a system. The
chart should contain brief instructions as to the inspection and
maintenance required. The chart should assist in acquainting operators of
the necessary maintenance that septic tanks require, thus forestalling

46

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

failures by assuring satisfactory operation.


4.10.1.11 Abandoned septic tanks shall be filled with earth or rock.
4.10.1.12 Septage and portable toilet wastes shall be disposed of at an approved
wastewater treatment system designed as per SAES-A-104.
4.10.1.13 Any facility using off-site disposal of wastewater shall maintain records that
can demonstrate that the wastewater shipments were received by the
approved wastewater treatment system (Saudi Aramco 9564).
4.10.2 Percolation Tests
Percolation tests shall be performed to determine the suitability of the soil for
absorption/seepage type systems. Results from the percolation tests shall be used in
conjunction with the standards in SAES-A-104, Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and
Disposal to develop the design of the absorption bed or seepage pit. The Manager,
EPD, must approve all percolation test procedures and results. Percolation test
procedures are as follows:
4.10.2.1 Number and Location of Tests: Six or more tests shall be made in
separate test holes spaced uniformly over the proposed soil absorption
field.
4.10.2.2 Type of Test Hole: Dig or bore a hole, with horizontal dimensions from 10
to 30 centimeters (4.0 to 12 inches) and vertical side to the depth of the
proposed absorption trench. In order to save time, labor, and volume of
water required per test, the holes can be bored with a 10 centimeters (4.0
inches) auger.
4.10.2.3 Preparation of Test Hole: Carefully scratch the bottom and sides of the
hole with a knife blade or sharp pointed instrument in order to remove any
smeared soil surfaces and to provide a natural soil interface into which
water may percolate. Remove all loose material from the hole. Add 5.0
centimeters (2.0 inches) of coarse sand or fine gravel to protect the bottom
from scouring and sediment.
4.10.2.4 Saturation and Swelling of the Soil: It is important to distinguish between
saturation and swelling. Saturation means that the void spaces between
soil particles are full of water. This can be accomplished in a short period of
time. Swelling is caused by intrusion of water into the individual soil
particle. Swelling is a slow process, especially in clay-type soil, and is the
reason for requiring a prolonged soaking period. Carefully fill the hole with
clear water to a minimum depth of 30 centimeters (12 inches) over the
gravel. In most soils, it is necessary to refill the hole by supplying a surplus
reservoir of water, possibly by means of an automatic siphon, to keep
water in the hole for at lease 4.0 hours and preferably overnight. Determine
the percolation rate 24 hours after water is first added to the hole. This
procedure is to insure that the soil is given ample opportunity to swell and
to approach the condition it will be in during the wettest season of the year.
Thus, the test will give comparable results in the same soil, whether made
in a dry or in a wet season. In sandy soils containing little or no clay, the
swelling procedure is not essential.
4.10.2.5 Percolation-rate measurement: With the exception of sandy soils,
percolation-rate measurements shall be made on the day following the
procedure described under item 4.10.2.4 above.

47

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

If water remains in the test hole after the overnight swelling period, adjust
the depth to approximately 15 centimeters (6.0 inches) over the gravel.
From a fixed reference point measure the drop in water level over a 30minute period. This drop is used to calculate the percolation rate.
If no water remains in the hole after the overnight swelling period, add clear
water to bring the depth of water in the hole to approximately 15
centimeters (6.0 inches) over the gravel. From a fixed reference point,
measure the drop in water level at approximately 30-minute intervals for
4.0 hours, refilling 15 centimeters (6.0 inches) over the gravel as
necessary. The drop that occurs during the final 30-minute period is used
to calculate the percolation rate. The drops during prior periods provide
information for possible modification of the procedure to suit local
circumstances. In sandy soils or other soils in which the first 15
centimeters (6.0 inches) of water seeps away in less than 30 minutes, after
the overnight swelling period, the time interval between measurements
shall be taken as 10 minutes and the test run for one hour. The drop that
occurs during the final 10 minutes is used to calculate the percolation rate.
4.10.3 Cleaning of Septic Tanks
Septic tanks shall be cleaned before too much sludge or scum is allowed to
accumulate. If either the sludge or scum approaches too closely to the bottom of the
outlet device, particles will be scoured into the disposal field and will clog the system.
Eventually, when this happens, liquid may break through to the ground surface, and
the wastewater may back up in the plumbing fixtures. When a disposal field is
clogged in this manner, it is not only necessary to clean the tank, but it also may be
necessary to construct a new disposal field.
4.10.3.1 There are wide differences in the rate that sludge and scum will
accumulate from one system to the next. Tanks should be inspected at
least once a year. The depth of sludge and scum should be measured in
the vicinity of the outlet baffle. The tank should be cleaned if either: a) the
bottom of the scum mat is within approximately 7.5 centimeters (3.0
inches) of the bottom of the outlet device; or b) sludge comes within the
limits specified in Table 2.
TABLE 2
Allowable Sludge Accumulation
Liquid Depth
Liquid Capacity of 75 cm (2.5ft)
90 cm (3.0 ft)
120 cm (4.0 ft)
Septic Tank
Distance From Bottom of Outlet to Top of Sludge

150 cm (5.0 ft)

Liters

Gallons

cm

in

cm

in

cm

in

cm

in

2835
3400
3780
7560

750
900
1000
2000

12.5
10.0
10.0
10.0

5.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

15.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

6.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

25.0
17.5
15.0
10.0

10.0
7.0
6.0
4.0

32.52
25.0
20.0
10.0

13.0
10.0
8.0
4.0

4.10.3.2 Scum can be measured with a stick to which a weighted flap has been
hinged, or with any other suitable device. The stick is forced through the
mat, the hinged flap falls into a horizontal position, and the stick is raised
until resistance from the bottom of the scum is felt.
4.10.3.3 A long stick wrapped with rough, white toweling and lowered to the bottom
of the tank will show the depth of sludge and the liquid depth of the tank.

48

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

The stick should be lowered behind the outlet device to avoid scum
particles. After several minutes, if the stick is carefully removed, the sludge
line can be distinguished by sludge particles adhering to the toweling.
4.10.3.4 Cleaning is usually accomplished by pumping the contents of the tank into a
tank truck. Septic tanks should not be washed or disinfected after pumping.
A small residual of sludge should be left in the tank for seeding purposes.
When a large septic tank is being cleaned, care shall be taken not to enter
the tank until it has been thoroughly ventilated and gases have been
removed to prevent explosion hazards and asphyxiation of workmen.
Preferably, workmen required to enter the tank should wear self-contained
breathing apparatus. If not available, a stout rope shall be tied around the
workman's chest under his armpits, with the other end held above ground
by another person(s) strong enough to pull him out if any gas remaining in
the tank should overcome him.
4.10.3.5 The material removed may be buried in an approved sanitary landfill or,
with permission of the proper authority, emptied into a sanitary sewer
system. Sludge should never be emptied into storm drains or discharged
directly into any stream or watercourse. Waste shipments shall be
manifested to the disposal location as per Standard 6.0 of GI 430.001.
4.10.4 Holding Tanks
4.10.4.1 Holding tanks for wastewater may only be used by facilities with less than
30 employees and no connection to a sanitary sewer is available. The
Manager, EPD, must approve design drawings and specifications of
holding tanks.
4.10.4.2 Holding tanks must be pumped out at intervals of sufficient frequency to
prevent overflow of the contents onto the ground adjacent to the tank. A
designated representative of a camp or facility served by the tank must
maintain a written record of these pumping intervals to ensure this
requirement is met.
410.4.3

Any holding tanks which have overflowed, or otherwise have created an


odor or public health nuisance, must be immediately reported to EPD.

4.10.4.4 Contents removed from holding tanks must be disposed of in an approved


septage receiving facility or other approved wastewater treatment facility.
The disposal contractor must provide, when requested by EPD, proof of
proper disposal by submission of the Waste Manifest Form (Saudi Aramco
9564) as a requirement for continuing to provide waste disposal service at
Saudi Aramco facilities
4.11

Operation and Maintenance of Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Plants


All wastewater treatment plants shall be operated and maintained in manner that: (1) risks to
public health and the environment are minimized, and (2) all applicable standards are
achieved. Note: that the following Section is not intended to replace a detailed operations and
maintenance manual. In all cases, the original equipment manufacturers operation and
maintenance instructions should be followed.
4.11.1 Operation and Maintenance Manuals: All plants shall provide and maintain
Operation and Maintenance manuals at the site. All new plants shall submit
Operation and Maintenance manuals to the Manager, EPD, for review and approval.
The degree of complexity of the operation and maintenance manual shall be as
required by the complexity of the wastewater treatment system. A suggested table of

49

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

contents for operation and maintenance manuals follows:

Description of Process

Description of Facilities

Operation and Control

Laboratory Testing

Records

Preventive Maintenance Program

References
4.11.2 No wastewater may be disposed of to the marine environment if it does not meet the
MEPA discharge requirements in Table 3 of these instructions. Discharges to
evaporation ponds and other approved discharge locations must meet Table 3 of
these instructions; however, the Manager, EPD, may waive specific discharge
requirements on a case-by-case basis. No desert dumping of wastewater is
permitted.
4.11.3 Record keeping: The maintenance of good records is essential to the efficient and
orderly operation of any treatment plant. Only by maintaining clear and concise
records of operation will past experiences be of assistance in guiding future
operations. Sanitary wastewater treatment plants shall be sampled per the
instructions shown on Table 5 of this document.
4.11.3.1 At a minimum, the records should include the daily operators log,
laboratory reports, and maintenance activities. The daily operating log
should note any unusual conditions, routine operational and maintenance
activities, etc.
4.11.3.2 Sanitary wastewater treatment facilities shall maintain daily records of
influent and effluent flow rates to aid staff in ensuring that design flow rates
are not exceeded and to warn of possible process upsets.
4.11.4 Wastes discharged shall at no time contain substances in concentrations toxic to
human, animal, plant or fish life. The wastes discharged shall not contain phenols,
cresols, or any other substances in concentration sufficient to impart objectionable
tastes, odors, or foaming to usable waters.
4.11.5 Disinfection: All wastewater treatment plants which discharge effluent or reuse
effluent on land must provide disinfection to achieve the required bacteriological
effluent water quality requirements as identified in sub-section 6 of this Code
Section
4.11.5.1 Chlorination facilities shall be operated to provide an effluent total residual
chlorine concentration of at least 1.0 mg/L (1.0 ppm) after a contact time of
at least 30 minutes at peak hourly flow. The operator for all wastewater
treatment plants shall maintain daily records of total effluent chlorine
residual levels.
4.11.5.2 Other disinfection processes require approval of the Manager ,EPD. Where
other processes are proposed, the design report shall include evidence of
successful disinfection under similar conditions.
4.11.6 Removal, Handling And Storage of Screenings and Grit
4.11.6.1 Screenings and grit shall be wasted, dried, and disposed of in a landfill
approved by the Manager, EPD.

50

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

4.11.6.2 Screenings and grit that are temporarily stored on the premises shall be
bagged or stored in covered containers.
4.11.6.3 Handling of screenings and grit should only be performed with appropriate
protective clothing such as gloves and coveralls.
4.11.6.4 Routinely monitor equipment such as traveling bar screens, comminutors,
etc. for proper operation. Lubricate all equipment as recommended by the
original equipment manufacturer.
4.11.7 Waste Facultative Ponds
4.11.7.1 Facultative ponds shall be maintained to eliminate weeds, floating grease,
floating mats of algae and scum, etc. These materials provide harborage
for insects, which can act as disease vectors. Breeding insects in the
ponds can be treated with an appropriate pesticide such as Abate. Weeds
can be manually removed from the dike areas or carefully sprayed with an
herbicide taking care not to poison the pond. Floating materials can be
removed by vacuum truck and disposed of at an approved landfill.
4.11.7.2 A minimum of 0.75 to 1.0 meter (2.5 - 3.0 feet) water depth should be
maintained in ponds to prevent rooting of plants and minimize odors.
4.11.7.3 Odors resulting from temporary overloading of a pond system may be able
to be mitigated by the addition of sodium nitrate in quantities of 11.2 grams
per cubic meter (100 pound per acre). The sodium nitrate should be spread
evenly across the lagoon.
4.11.7.4 Routine maintenance for permanent facultative ponds requires periodic
removals of accumulated solids, removal of floating materials, correction of
bank erosion, and routine clearing of shrubs and grasses from the dike
area. The Manager, EPD, shall approve disposal of dredged solids.
Protective clothing such as gloves and coveralls should be worn when
working with wastewater or sludge.
4.11.8 Activated Sludge Treatment Process
4.11.8.1 A well operated activated sludge system will generally be brown in color
and should have an "earthy" odor.
4.11.8.2 Maintain at least 2.0 mg/L (2.0 ppm) of dissolved oxygen under all
conditions of loading in all parts of the aeration tanks except immediately
beyond the inlet. Monitor the aeration basin dissolved oxygen level daily. A
dark blackish color may indicate an anaerobic condition caused by low air.
Increase the air to maintain the dissolved oxygen in the appropriate range.
4.11.8.3 Maintain sufficient velocity of movement and turbulence to bring sludge
particles into intimate contact with all portions of the wastewater and to
prevent deposition of solids on the tank bottom.
4.11.8.4 Inspect aeration system frequently to ensure the proper operation of
blowers or mechanical aerators. Clean blower air filters regularly. Routinely
check belt tensioning and alignment. Check equipment oil levels routinely
and lubricate equipment as recommended by the original equipment
manufacturer. Perform all other preventive maintenance as recommended
by the original equipment manufacturer.
4.11.8.5 Monitor the aeration basin total suspended solids levels daily through

51

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

either laboratory determination of total suspended solids, through


monitoring the 30 minute settled sludge volume in a one liter graduated
cylinder, or with the sludge volume index (SVI). A good operating rule of
thumb is to maintain enough sludge in the aeration system to record 300500 mL for the 30-minute settled sludge volume with adjustment as
necessary to cope with process upsets, presence of filamentous
organisms, and other variations on a plant-by-plant basis.
4.11.8.6 Clean floating sludge and scum from the clarifier surface daily. Floating
sludge can normally be forced to settle with a water spray. Scum may have
to be removed manually with a net or other skimming device. Any materials
removed from the surface should be placed in the plant digester or on
drying beds for dewatering with ultimate disposal to an approved landfill.
Check the functioning of the return sludge system to ensure it is functioning
correctly. Take corrective action as required. Routinely check oil levels of
the equipment and perform preventive maintenance as recommended by
the original equipment manufacturer.
4.11.9 Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC): A rotating biological contactor consists of a
series of closely spaced circular disks of polystyrene or polyvinyl chloride. The disks
are partially submerged in wastewater and rotated slowly through it. All RBCs must
be preceded by preliminary treatment to remove rags and other trash and primary
treatment for the removal of solids and oils and greases.
4.11.9.1 Maintain preliminary and primary treatment units in good working order.
4.11.9.2 Observe and record the appearance of the biomass routinely. Note any
unusual changes in the appearance of the biomass.
4.11.9.3 Monitor and record the dissolved oxygen concentration in the first stage
routinely. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below 0.5 mg/L (0.5 ppm) in the
first stage are an indicator that the facilities are overloaded.
4.11.9.4 Routinely perform all preventive maintenance as recommended by the
original equipment manufacturer. Monitor the temperature of the contactor
shaft bearings. Listen for unusual noises from all rotating equipment.
Check lubricant levels in all rotating equipment. Ensure chain drives are
well lubricated. Check belt drives for alignment and tensioning.
4.11.9.5 Clean floating sludge and scum from the clarifier surface daily. Floating
sludge can normally be forced to settle with a water spray. Scum may have
to be removed manually with a net or other skimming device. Any materials
removed from the surface should be placed in the plant digester or on
drying beds for dewatering with ultimate disposal to an approved landfill.
Routinely check oil levels of the equipment and perform preventive
maintenance as recommended by the original equipment manufacturer.
4.11.10 Aerobic Sludge Digestion: All sludge shall be stabilized prior to dewatering. A well
digested sludge will drain rapidly, dry faster, and will not generate an obnoxious odor.
Operation and maintenance of aerobic sludge digestors is similar to operation of
activated sludge systems.
4.11.10.1 Ensure adequate and even distribution of air to provide oxygen for solids
digestion and for solids mixing.
4.11.10.2 Maintain a minimum of 1.0 mg/L (1.0 ppm) dissolved oxygen in the
digester.

52

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

4.11.10.3 Concentrate digested sludge by turning off the air for approximately 4.0
hours prior to decanting supernatant back to the wastewater treatment
system.
4.11.10.4 Ensure proper operation of upstream oil and grease removal equipment
such as grease traps. Excessive levels of oil and grease levels in the
wastewater can cause problems in the aerobic digester and in sludge
drying beds. Oil and grease are oxidized slowly and can be concentrated in
the digester. Too much oil and grease in digested sludge results in a
sludge with poor dewatering characteristics and which is likely to generate
odors as it dries.
4.11.11 Sludge Drying Beds: - Normal Operating Procedures: Sludge drying beds are a
relatively simple method of sludge dewatering. Sludge dewatering is required prior to
final disposal of digested sludge to an approved sanitary landfill.
4.11.11.1Start flow of liquid sludge into bed. Stop flow when the liquid is
approximately 20 to 30 centimeters (8 to 12 inches) deep through out the
bed. Do not apply new sludge on top of a layer of dry sludge.
4.11.11.2 Inspect the beds every few days noting any odors or insect problems.
Remove any weed growth.
4.11.11.3 When sludge is dry (normally up to three weeks depending on weather and
depth of sludge) remove the sludge taking care not to damage the sand
and gravel layers. Remove as little sand with the sludge as possible.
Sludge can be removed by shovel or forks at a moisture content of 60 to 70
percent, but if it is allowed to dry to 40 percent moisture, it will weigh only
half as much and is still easy to handle. If the sludge gets too dry (10 to 20
percent moisture) it will be dusty and will be difficult to remove because it
will crumble as it is removed.
4.11.11.4 After the sludge is removed, inspect the bed, rake the surface of the sand
to level it and to remove any debris, and add make up sand if necessary.
The bed is ready for the next application of sludge.
4.11.11.5 All sludge beds produce some odor when in operation; however, obnoxious
odors are generally not a problem unless the sludge being dewatered is
insufficiently stabilized or there are excessive levels of oil and grease in the
system. Odor control should begin at the source. Inspect the digester to
ensure a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 1.0 mg/L (1.0 ppm).
Increase the aeration if necessary. Inspect the system for signs of
excessive oil and grease such as grease balls in the aeration basin and
ashing (small gray floating globules of grease) in the secondary clarifier. If
grease is a problem, eliminate the source of oil and grease. If operational
constraints prevent the elimination of the odors at the source, chemical
masking agents may be sprayed at the sludge beds or the pH of the
digester contents can be raised to 12 for three hours prior to disposal to the
beds. Raising the pH to 12 with sodium hydroxide or hydrated lime should
inhibit the biological reactions, which are responsible for producing the
odors.
4.11.11.6 Flies may be a problem in certain areas and seasons and shall be
controlled by destruction of breeding and use of traps and poisons. The fly
may be controlled most effectively in the larva stage. Borax or calcium
borate applied to the surface of the sludge will kill the larvae. Neither
chemical is dangerous to man or to domestic animals. These chemicals

53

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

can be sprinkled on the sludge, especially in the cracks of the drying cake.
Other chemicals sometimes used are chloride of lime and sulfate of iron.
The adult fly can be killed by spraying. Fly trapping is particularly suited for
outdoor conditions. A satisfactory form of trap consists of a conical, gauzecovered structure leading into a larger space in which poisoned bait is
placed.
4.12

Safety
4.12.1 General:
4.12.1.1 Adequate provision must be made to protect operators and visitors from
hazards. A brief outline of some of the major safety considerations is given
below. Contact the Loss Prevention Department regarding detailed
requirements for gas piping, and safety features of chlorine installations.
See also SAES-A-104, Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.
4.12.1.2. Wastewater discharges must be disinfected to meet the discharge
standards as shown in MEPA, SAES-A-l03, SAES-A-104 and this
document, as applicable. The hazards of disinfectants must be considered
in the design.
4.12.1.3 Chlorination: Chlorination facilities shall be designed to provide at least 30
minutes at peak hourly flow. The contact structure may be a tank or a
combination of tank and out fall sewer. The structure must be baffled to
prevent short-circuiting. The chlorine feed equipment shall be oversized to
meet emergency situations. Where other disinfection processes are
proposed, the design report shall include evidence of successful
disinfection under similar conditions.
4.12.2 Gas Chlorination Facilities
4.12.2.1 Detailed safety handling, storage instructions and procedures shall be
included in all operation and maintenance manuals for plants using
chlorine gas.
4.12.2.2 A chlorine gas detection system with alarm shall be provided in the vicinity
of the gas storage cylinders.
4.12.2.3 A leakage test kit, consisting of ammonia, water and swab, or other
acceptable chlorine detector, shall be provided in a clearly marked location.
4.12.2.4 At least one self contained, air type, breathing apparatus which provides a
30 minute air supply, such as manufactured by Scott Aviation Company,
shall be provided and hung in a conspicuous place outside the chlorination
room. Larger installations must also have several canister-type masks. Air
packs shall be inspected regularly to ensure proper functioning.
4.12.2.5 A mechanism for flushing the eyes with potable water shall be in close
proximity to the chlorination facility. Operation of the eyewash shall be by
means of a push bar.
4.12.2.6 Gas chlorine cylinders shall be shielded from direct sunlight or from
overheating above 60 oC (140oF) from any source, either while in storage
or in use.
4.12.2.7 Safety chains must be provided to hold the cylinders securely upright, both
on the scales and in storage areas.

54

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

4.12.2.8 Leak repair kits shall be provided for the type of gas cylinder used. Kits are
available for 100 and 150 pound cylinders, one-ton cylinders, and tank
cars.
4.12.2.9 Operator training shall be provided annually in the proper response actions
to be followed in the event of an accidental chlorine leak.
4.12.2.10 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) or Chemical Hazard Bulletins
(CHBs) shall be posted in a conspicuous location.
4.12.2.11 A separate house or room at or above ground level must be provided
exclusively for chlorination purposes. If the chlorination space is a part of a
larger building, the door of the chlorination area must open to the outside of
the building and must be outward-opening. The door shall have a 30 by 30
centimeters (12 by 12 inches) one-light window to allow observance of
conditions in the room prior to entering.
4.12.2.12 Sufficient ventilation shall be provided to allow one complete air change in
the chlorination room every two minutes. The exhaust duct must take in air
for exhausting within 30 centimeters (12 inches) of the floor level. A
louvered fresh air intake must be provided to serve as a make-up air
supply when the exhaust fan is operating. This intake shall be located in
the ceiling or near ceiling level. The exhaust fan must be wired to
automatically activate when the light is turned to the ON position. The
light switch shall be located outside the room. As an additional safety
factor, a pressure-type switch shall be located in the door to the
chlorination room, which shall activate the exhaust fan automatically when
the door is opened in case the operator fails to turn on the light switch. The
exhaust outlet shall be directed away from the fresh air intake and away
from other occupied areas.
4.12.3 Hypochlorination Systems
4.12.3.1 Detailed safety handling, storage instructions and procedures shall be
included in all operation and maintenance manuals.
4.12.3.2 A safety shower with an eye wash mechanism for flushing the eyes with
potable water shall be located in close proximity to the dosing facility.
Operation of the eyewash shall be by means of a push bar.
4.12.3.3 Calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are strong oxidants and
must be stored safely in a cool and dry location.
4.12.3.4 Operator training shall be provided annually in the proper response actions
to be followed in the event of an accidental hypochlorite spill.
4.12.3.5 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) or Chemical Hazard Bulletins
(CHBs) shall be posted in a conspicuous location.
4.12.4 Lifesaving Buoys and Rescue Poles shall be provided adjacent to large bodies of
wastewater.
4.12.5 Sanitary Facilities and Personal Hygiene:
4.12.5.1 Sanitary facilities shall be provided at all manned wastewater treatment
plants per Section SASC-S-12 Places of employment. Ensure that:

Toilet facilities are clean and in good repair.

55

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

Hand washing and shower facilities are clean and in good repair.
For permanent plants with design flows greater than 1000 cubic meters
per day (264,000 gpd), a separate changing/locker room or enclosure
is provided and that it is kept clean and in good repair.

4.12.5.2 Employees at wastewater plants shall wear clean protective overalls,


footwear and gloves as necessary. Employees must wash their hands
regularly, particularly before smoking or eating.
5

SANITARY WASTEWATER EFFLUENT DISCHARGE & REUSE REQUIREMENTS


5.1

General Requirements
5.1.1

Toxic Wastes: The wastes discharged shall at no time contain substances in


concentrations toxic to human, animal, plant or fish life.

5.1.2

Objectionable Wastes: The wastes discharged shall not contain phenols, cresols, or
any other substances in concentration sufficient to impart objectionable tastes, odors,
or foaming to usable waters.

5.1.3

Maximum Allowable Limits: The minimum effluent quality standards for sanitary
wastewater discharges are presented in Table 3 (or the most recent revision of
Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration standards or the standards
of the Yanbu or Jubail Royal Commission, depending upon the location of the
discharge). Additional requirements for effluent reuse are presented in sub-section
5.2. EPD will monitor these standards on a monthly or quarterly basis, through
effluent sample collection and analysis.

5.1.4

Discharges of untreated wastewater to the land are not permitted. Discharges of


treated wastewater to the land require written approval from the Manager, EPD.

5.1.5

The Table 3 limits do not apply to wastewater treatment systems which discharge to
properly designed, lined evaporation ponds and to onsite wastewater treatment
systems. All exceptions to Table 3 requirements must receive approval from the
Manager, EPD.

5.1.6

Sanitary sewage from offshore facilities that is discharged more than 4 nautical miles
from shore does not need to meet Table 3 requirements; it shall be comminuted and
disinfected prior to discharge.

56

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

TABLE 3
- Effluent Discharge Limitations (1)

Pollutant (2)

MEPA Limit

Physical -Chemical Pollutants


Floatable
None
pH Units
6-9
Total
Suspended
Solids (TSS)
15 mg/L
(5)
Temperature
Turbidity
75 NTU (6)
Dissolved Oxygen
Salinity
-

Jubail Royal
Commission Limit (3)
Monthly
Maximum
Mean

Yanbu Royal
Commission Limit (4)
Monthly
Maximum
Mean

None
6-9

None
6-9

None
6-9

25 mg/L
+10C
75 NTU
2.0 mg/L min.
-

10 mg/L
50 NTU
-

15 mg/L

None
6-9
8 mg/L

(5)

(5)

15 NTU
4 mg/L min.
+ 2 ppt

8 NTU
5 mg/L min.
+ 1 ppt

Non-Organic
Pollutants
Aluminum
Ammonia (as N)
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Chlorine (residual) (7)
Chromium (total)
Cobalt
Copper
Cyanide
Fluoride
Lead
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Phosphates
(total, as P) (7)
Sulfide
Zinc

mg/L
(30 day mean)
1.0
0.1
0.02
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.05
0.1
0.001
0.2
1.0

mg/L

mg/L

mg/L

mg/L

25
3
0.5
2.0
0.05
2.0
1.0
2.0
0.5
0.1
25
0.5
1.0
0.005
0.5
2

15
1
0.1
1.0
0.01
0.5
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.05
15
0.1
0.2
0.001
0.2
1

25
3
0.5
2
0.05
0.3
1
2
0.5
0.1
25
0.5
1
0.005
0.5
2.0

15
1
0.1
1
0.01
<0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.05
15
0.1
0.2
0.001
0.2
1.0

1.0

0.1
5.0

0.05
2.0

0.1
5

0.05
1

Organic Pollutants
Biochemical Oxygen
Demand (BOD5)
Chemical Oxygen
Demand (COD)
Total Organic Carbon
(TOC)
Total Kjeldahl
Nitrogen (TKN)
Total Chlorinated
Hydrocarbons
Oil & Grease (8)
Phenols
Biological Pollutants

mg/L

mg/L

mg/L

mg/L

mg/L

25

50

25

30

15

150

350

150

200

75

50

150

50

150

50

10

2.5

0.1
8
0.1

15
1.0

8
0.1

0.5
10
0.5

2.5
8
0.1

MPN/100 mL
1000 (30-day
geometric mean)

MPN/100 mL
2400

MPN/100 mL
1000

MPN/100 mL
2400

MPN/100 mL
1000

Total Coliform

(9)

Notes:
(1) Royal Commission Standards shall apply to Saudi Aramco facilities within the Royal Commission jurisdictions.
SAES-A-103, Appendices I and II for Royal Commission boundary maps.
(2) See SAES-A-103, Table B for analytical methods.
(3) Limits taken from Engineering Manual, Jubail Royal Commission, 1988.

57

See

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)

Limits taken from Environmental Protection Manual, Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu/Yanbu Project, Madinat Yanbu
Al-Sinaiyah, 1991.
To be determined on a case-by-case basis.
Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Also to be determined on a case-by case basis in areas deemed by EED to be biologically
sensitive.
Not applicable for wastewater reuse applications or discharge into evaporation ponds. For Jubail R.C. area, this value should read
Phosphorus reported as total P
Not to exceed 15 mg/L in any individual discharge.
Most probable number

5.1.7

Reuse of treated effluent requires written approval of the Manager, EPD.

5.1.8

Appropriate advisory signs in Arabic and English shall be permanently posted at all
reclaimed wastewater surface impoundments, storage tanks, irrigation areas,
reclaimed water outlets, etc.

5.1.9

All reclaimed wastewater lines and appurtenances shall be clearly marked as such.

5.1.10 To preclude interchange of hoses on potable and reclaimed water lines, where hose
bibs are present on potable and reclaimed water lines, different size hose bibs shall
be used.
5.1.11 Any potable water service connection shall be separated by an air gap of at least 15
cm (6 inches) and shall be approved by the Manager, EPD.
5.1.12 Tanker trucks used to haul reclaimed wastewater shall be clearly marked in Arabic
and English that the water is sewage effluent and is unsafe for drinking or washing.
5.1.13 Reclaimed wastewater shall not be ponded without the written approval of the
Manager, EPD, and other concerned Departments.
5.1.14 Irrigation of areas with unrestricted access to the public shall only be irrigated when
the facilities would not be in use by the public, such as between 9 PM and 6 AM.
5.2

Requirements Applicable to Marine Discharges of Sanitary Wastewater


Each installation shall be reviewed by EPD and other concerned organizations to determine
the need for more restrictive discharge requirements than those specified in Table 3. This
analysis will be based upon proximity to recreational waters or shellfish beds, quantity and
quality of effluent to be discharged, depth of receiving waters, and distance from shoreline.
These regulations apply to all installations discharging sanitary wastewater effluent into
marine environments. Sanitary wastewater discharges shall be in accordance with the
requirements of Table 3 and SAES-A-103, Marine Wastewater Discharge Standard and the
most recent MEPA Environmental Protection Standards, and/or Standards of the Royal
Commission.
5.2.1

Bacteriological Objectives for Recreational Waters: Recreational areas are


marine areas specifically designated by Saudi Aramco or other authorities for water
contact sports (swimming, diving, etc.) or other areas used for such purpose by the
general public. Within these areas the following bacteriological objectives shall be
maintained throughout the water column: Samples of water from each sampling
station shall have a most probable number of coliform organisms less than l, 000 per
100 milliliters (10 per milliliter) provided that no more than 20 percent of the samples
at any sampling station in any 30 day period exceed 1,000 per 100 milliliters (10 per
milliliter), and provided further that no single sample, when verified by a repeat
sample taken within 48 hours, shall exceed 10,000 per 100 milliliters (100 per
milliliter).

5.2.2

Bacteriological Objectives for Shellfish Areas: At all areas where shellfish may be
harvested for human consumption, the following bacteriological objectives shall be

58

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

maintained throughout the water column: The median total coliform concentration
shall not exceed 70 per 100 milliliters, and not more than 10 percent of the samples
shall exceed 230 per 100 milliliters.
5.2.3

Physical and Chemical Objectives for Water: The minimum effluent quality
requirements for marine discharges of treated sanitary wastewater are listed in Table
3. In cases of conflict between SASC-S-02 and any other recognized Standard
(MEPA, Royal Commission, SAES-A-103), the most restrictive standard shall apply.

5.2.4

Principles for Management of Wastewater Discharges to Marine Environments:


Wastewater management systems that discharge into the marine environments must
be designed and operated in a manner that shall maintain the indigenous marine life
and preserve a healthy and diverse marine community.
5.2.4.1

Dilution: Outfalls and diffusion systems must be designed to achieve rapid


initial dilution and effective dispersion to minimize concentrations of
substances not removed by treatment.

5.2.4.2

Location of Discharges: The discharge locations must be determined


after a detailed assessment of the oceanographic and biological
characteristics of the location to assure that:

5.3

Pathogenic organisms and viruses are not present in areas where


shellfish are harvested for human consumption or in areas used for
swimming or other body-contact sports.
Natural water quality conditions are not altered in areas designated as
being of special biological significance.
Maximum protection is provided to the marine environment.

5.2.4.3

Areas of Special Biological Significance: Waste shall be discharged a


sufficient distance and depth from areas designated as being of special
biological significance to assure maintenance of natural water quality
conditions in those areas.

5.2.4.4

Sludge: The discharge of municipal and industrial waste sludge or digester


supernatant directly to the ocean without further treatment, is prohibited.

5.2.4.5

Bypassing: The bypassing of untreated waste to the sea is prohibited.

5.2.4.6

Sewer Outfalls: Body-contact sports or the harvesting of shellfish shall not


be allowed in the vicinity of a sewer outfall. The restricted area shall be
determined after extensive bacteriological and/or viral studies have been
completed and reviewed by EPD.

Requirements Applicable to No-Discharge Systems for Sanitary Wastewater


Wastewater discharged to lined evaporation ponds shall receive primary treatment in a
facultative stabilization pond at a minimum and may be exempt from meeting some of the
effluent quality requirements given in Table 3 of this sub-section. Exceptions to the Table I
requirements may be granted on a case-by-case basis by the Manager, EPD. Wastewater
treated in an existing sanitary wastewater treatment plant prior to discharge to the pond shall
receive a minimum of secondary treatment. Stabilization pond sizing shall be per the
requirements of SAES-A-104. The public health impacts of other methods of disposal will be
evaluated on a case-specific basis.

59

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

5.4

Reuse of Treated Wastewater


5.4.1

5.4.2

General
5.4.1.1

All sanitary wastewater reuse applications must be designed and installed


as per SAES-A-104, Standard 13.

5.4.1.2

Reuse of treated effluent requires written approval of the Manager, EPD.

Reuse of Treated Wastewater within Family Communities


5.4.2.1

Reuse practice within Saudi Aramco family communities includes spraybubbler and drip irrigation of unrestricted areas such as parks, playgrounds
and landscape shrubbery and spray irrigation of restricted areas (spray
fields).

5.4.2.2

All wastewater to be used for irrigation in unrestricted areas shall be a welloxidized, tertiary treated effluent. Tertiary treatment shall mean effluent
from a secondary treatment plant such as activated sludge, which has
subsequently been coagulated, clarified, filtered and disinfected.

5.4.2.3

All wastewater to be used for irrigation in restricted areas shall be a well


oxidized, filtered, disinfected effluent. All restricted areas shall be provided
with a Saudi Aramco Type V security fence with lockable gates. A
minimum buffer zone of 2 times the diameter of the largest spray irrigation
pattern shall be provided between the nearest spray gun and the perimeter
fence.

5.4.2.4

Bacteriological and Viral Quality: The total coliforms as determined by


the Multiple Tube Fermentation Method (MPN) shall normally be less than
2.2 colonies per 100 ml. sample and shall not exceed 23 colonies per 100
ml. on any individual grab sample. Effluent to be reused for irrigation in
unrestricted areas shall be free from enteric viruses. Facility effluent will be
sampled and analyzed on a random basis, at the discretion of EPD, to
ensure compliance with the enteric virus standard.

5.4.2.5

Residual Chlorine Concentration: A total chlorine residual of at least


0.50 mg/L (0.5 ppm) shall be maintained in all parts of the irrigation system
at all times.

5.4.2.6

Effluent Water Quality For Unrestricted Areas: Effluent to be reused, as


irrigation water in unrestricted areas shall meet the requirements in subsection 5.1.3 except as noted below:
BOD5 < 10 mg/L
TSS < 5 mg/L
Turbidity < 2.5 NTU 30 Day Avg/ 5.0 NTU Maximum Daily

5.4.2.7

Effluent Water Quality For Restricted Areas: Effluent to be reused as


irrigation water in restricted, spray irrigation areas, shall meet the
requirements of sub-section 5.1.3 except as noted below:

BOD5 < 20 mg/L


TSS < 15 mg/L
Turbidity < 10 NTU 30 - Day Avg/ 15 NTU Maximum Daily

60

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

5.4.2.8

Special Effluent Monitoring Requirements: Wastewater treatment plants


producing effluent to be reused within family communities shall be
equipped with a continuous recording turbidimeter and a continuous
recording residual chlorine analyzer. Minimum effluent monitoring
frequencies for other parameters are as indicated in Table 4. Records for
turbidity and residual chlorine shall be provided upon request to EPD.
Records for other parameters shall be available for review at the treatment
plant.

TABLE 4
Minimum Monitoring Requirements for Facilities
Producing Reclaimed Wastewater in Family and Non-Family Communities
Parameter
Frequency
Effluent BOD
Effluent COD
Effluent TSS
Effluent TKN
Effluent NH3
5.4.3

3 x / Week
1 x / Week
Daily
1 x / Week
1x / Week

Reuse of Treated Wastewater in Non-Family Communities, Camps and Industrial


Areas
5.4.3.1

These requirements apply to the reuse of wastewater for irrigation of


landscape shrubbery, plants, grasses, and trees within all non-family,
residential and industrial areas and camps.

5.4.3.2

All wastewater to be used for irrigation in work camps and non-family


communities and other restricted areas shall be a well-oxidized, tertiary
treated effluent as described in sub-section 5.4.2 of this Code Section.

5.4.3.3

Bacteriological and Viral Quality: The total coliforms as determined by


the Multiple Tube Fermentation Method (MPN) shall normally be less than
2.2 colonies per 100 ml. sample and shall not exceed 23 colonies per 100
ml. on any individual grab sample. Effluent to be reused for irrigation in
non-family communities, work camps and industrial areas shall be free
from enteric viruses. Facility effluent will be sampled and analyzed on a
random basis, at the discretion of EPD, to ensure compliance with the
enteric virus standard.

5.4.3.4

Residual Chlorine Concentration: A total chlorine residual of at least


0.50 mg/L (0.5 ppm) shall be maintained in all parts of the irrigation system
at all times.

5.4.3.5

Effluent Water Quality: Effluent to be reused as irrigation water in


unrestricted areas in non family camps and industrial areas shall meet the
requirements in Table 3 except as noted below:

BOD5 < 10 mg/L Maximum Day

TSS < 15 mg/L Maximum Day

Turbidity < 10 NTU Maximum

DISPOSAL / REUSE OF SANITARY WASTEWATER SLUDGE & ASSOCIATED WASTES


6.1

Sanitary Wastewater - Sludge


6.1.1

Sanitary wastewater sludge shall be stabilized (aerobic digestion) prior to drying in


sludge drying beds. Dried sludge shall be disposed in an approved sanitary landfill

61

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

designed as per SAES-S-007 and operated as per SASC-S-03.


6.1.2

6.2

Because of the nature and public health risks of the material, dried sludge from
wastewater treatment plants may only be reused with the specific written permission
of EPD. Each application shall be reviewed on an individual basis. The following
regulations shall apply, if permission is granted.
6.1.2.1

The sludge must be well mixed with sand at the time of using.

6.1.2.2
6.1.2.3

There must be a cover layer of 12 to 18 centimeters (4.8 to 7.2 inches) of


sand over the mixed sludge.
The sludge must not be stored where it is readily accessible to the public.

6.1.2.4

The sludge must not be stockpiled for periods of more than 24 hours.

6.1.2.5

Persons handling sludge shall wash their hands frequently, particularly


before smoking or eating.

6.1.2.6

Liaison with wastewater works supervisors on points and times of


collection of the sludge must be undertaken.

Sanitary Wastewater - Grit & Screenings


Screenings and grit shall be washed, dried, bagged (or stored in a covered container) and
disposed in an approved sanitary landfill designed as per SAES-S-007.

6.3

Sanitary Wastewater - Oil & Grease


Oil & Grease collected in a sanitary wastewater treatment system shall be disposed in an
approved landfill designed as per SAES-S-007.

6.4

Septage / Portable Toilet Waste


Septage and portable toilet wastes shall be disposed at an approved wastewater treatment
system.

PUBLIC TOILETS
7.1

Permanent Public Toilets


The plumbing fixtures, piping, and the required number of fixtures shall be in accordance with
SAES-S-060. The building shall be fly-tight, easily cleanable, with the floors sloped to the
drain. Plugged toilets, wash basins, and defective flush tanks shall be immediately serviced
and maintained in good operating condition at all times. The facilities shall be cleaned daily or
as often as necessary.

7.2

Temporary Public Toilets


7.2.1

Temporary public toilets (temporary hammams) shall be used for a period not
exceeding 90 days. After that time period a water carriage disposal system shall be
installed unless the Manager, EPD, authorizes a waiver of the time period in writing.

7.2.2

The only type of temporary public toilet that will be considered for use is the purposebuilt, portable chemical toilet that is provided by a contractor who specializes in the
maintenance and services of portable chemical toilets. Depending on the
circumstances, the Manager, EPD, may approve the use of portable chemical toilets
owned by Saudi Aramco if the toilets will be maintained and serviced by a contractor

62

Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

who has the specialized equipment and trained personnel required to perform the
work in a safe and sanitary manner.
7.2.2.1 Purpose-built, portable chemical toilets shall be designed and constructed
such that the enclosure is structurally safe, screened, has easily cleanable
floors and walls, and is adequately ventilated. The walls, floors and all fittings
shall be made of nonabsorbent, smooth, easily cleanable materials, such as
fiberglass or stainless steel.
7.2.2.2 Purpose-built, portable chemical toilets shall be thoroughly cleaned at least
once daily. The holding tank shall be emptied and serviced at least once
weekly, or as often as is necessary to ensure that the capacity of the tank is
never exceeded.
7.2.3

In emergency situations in remote locations (i.e. major pipeline leak requiring a large
number of employees in a remote area), EPD may approve the use of properly
constructed and operated field-type toilets until proper portable toilets can be
delivered to the site.

INDUSTRIAL WASTE / WASTEWATER TREATMENT & DISPOSAL


8.1

General
8.1.1 All industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants shall be operated in accordance
with the latest approved industrial standards related to the facility. This
Section applies to wastewater disposal systems that discharge to ponds,
injection wells and marine waters. Wastewater disposal to absorption
trenches, seepage pits and evapotranspiration wastewater disposal fields are
covered in sub-section 4.3. The Manager, EPD, shall approve any discharge
of wastewater to ponds or marine waters. The Manager, EPD, with
concurrence of the Chief Hydrologist; General Supervisor, Facilities &
Projects, PE&FOD; shall approve any discharge of wastewater to injection
wells. Industrial wastewater treatment plants shall be sampled per the
instructions shown on Table 5 of this document.
8.1.2 Industrial wastewater shall be treated in a process that will achieve the
discharge limits shown in Table 3 of this document.
8.1.3 No discharge of an oil-based drilling fluid is allowed. Other discharges shall
comply with Table 3 requirements except as allowed in SAES-A-103.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

TABLE 5.
Wastewater monitoring frequency
Seawater
Parameter
Gas
Plant Treatment
Discharges
Plant
Discharges
Flow rate
D
Temperature
D
D
Turbidity
D
pH
D
D
O&G
M
TSS
M
M
BOD
M
COD
M
TOC
M
M
TKN
M
Phenols
M
NH3N
M
C12
M
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Zinc
Sulfite
PO4-P
Total Coliform M

Refinery
Discharges

Terminal
Discharges

D
D
D
D
D
M
M
M
M
M
M

D
D
D
D
D
M
M
M
M
M
M

M
M
M
M
M
M

M
M
M
M
M
M

Cooling
Water
Discharges
D
D

Sanitary
Discharges
D
M

D
W

M
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

M
M

8.1.4

Exceptions to the Table 3 requirements may be granted on a case-by-case


basis for industrial wastewater that is discharged into an evaporation pond
that meets the design requirements of Standard 14.2 of SAES-A-104.

8.1.5

Wastewater disposal to an injection well must be approved on a case-bycase basis. EPD shall be contacted for guidance on the actions necessary to
obtain approval.

8.1.6

Off-site disposal of industrial wastewater must be approved. It shall be


transported and treated by an approved carrier and facility, respectively.
Manifest records shall be kept to assure that the waste arrives at the
intended waste disposal facilities.
Discharges to the land are not permitted unless written approval is obtained.

8.1.7
8.1.8

Industrial wastewater shall not be discharged into a sanitary sewer system


without prior approval.

8.1.9 The discharge of untreated wastewater is prohibited, except for high TDS
wastewater meeting Table 1 of SAES-A-104 requirements, hydrotest water
disposed of per GI-432.000, and injected wastewater when approved by the
appropriate organizations.
8.1.10 Dilution of a wastewater discharge shall not be used to meet effluent
discharge limitations.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

8.2

Hydrotest Water

8.3

SAEP-327, Disposal of Wastewater from Cleaning, Flushing, and Hydrostatic Tests controls
the management of hydrotest water.
Oily Waste / Wastewater
Oily waste shall be characterized through chemical analysis for total oil and grease, lead and
other heavy metals (e.g., cadmium, chromium, etc.) prior to disposal. Mixing of leaded and
non-leaded oily wastes is not permitted.
8.3.1

8.3.2

Non-Leaded Oily Sludge: Non-leaded oily sludge contains less than 100 mg/kg of
total lead or less than 5 mg/L of TCLP lead.
8.3.1.1

Collection and Transport: These wastes shall be collected and


transported in such a manner to ensure that no leakage or spillage takes
place during collection and transportation activities. Oily sludges shall be
transported in tanker trucks, vacuum trucks, dump trucks or drums. The
waste manifest in GI 430.001 (Standard 6) shall be utilized for all waste
shipments.

8.3.1.2

Storage: Oily sludges shall be disposed of immediately after generation. If


logistics prevent the immediate transport to disposal facilities, storage is
allowed for a maximum of 90 days. Storage is allowed in containers such
as drums, tanks, lined pits, and lined ponds (as per SAES-A-104 Standard
7.1.4). Above ground storage requires spill containment.

8.3.1.3

Treatment: As much as is economically feasible, oil shall be recovered


from non-leaded oily sludges and wastewaters. For this purpose, readily
available and cost effective technologies, such as gravity separation and
centrifugation, shall be utilized.

8.3.1.4

Disposal: Oily sludge shall only be disposed of at an approved oily waste


landfarm that has been designed as per SAES-A-104 Standard 11.5.
Disposal of oily sludge requires advanced coordination with the disposal
facilities. To avoid unnecessary storage of oily sludge, facilities shall
contact disposal sites at least 30 days prior to shipment.

Non-Leaded Oily Water: Non-leaded oily water contains less than 100 mg/L of total
lead or less than 5 mg/L of TCLP lead.
8.3.2.1

Collection and Transport: Oily water shall be collected and transported in


such a manner to ensure that no leakage or spillage takes place during
collection and transportation activities. Oily water shall be transported in
tanker trucks or vacuum trucks. The waste manifest requirements in GI
430.001 (Stqandard6) shall be followed.

8.3.2.2

Treatment: Oily water shall be treated to minimize oil content and to


maximize recovery of oil prior to disposal. Oil removal shall be
accomplished through the use of a gravity oil/water separator designed as
per SAES-A-104, Standard 4.4.1.1, or by other approved methods. If the
final discharge of the oily water is to the marine environment, the treatment
system must achieve effluent oil and grease content less than 8 mg/L.

8.3.2.3

Disposal: After treatment, recovered oil shall be recycled (e.g. slop


system, blending with crude, refining). Treated oily water shall be sent for
final disposal to an approved evaporation pond, landfarm, injection well, or
marine outfall.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

8.3.3

Leaded Oily Waste / Sludge (TEL tank wastes, gasoline tank sludge and any oily
wastes that contain lead concentrations in excess of 100 mg/kg total lead are defined
as leaded oily wastes.) Leaded oily waste poses serious health hazards and has
adverse environmental impacts if not handled properly. Special precautions must be
taken during cleanup, collection, transportation, treatment and disposal operations.
EPD and Loss Prevention Department should be contacted to advise on proper
precautionary measures.
Note: If a waste contains over 100-mg/kg total lead and the TCLP derived lead concentration is less than 5
mg/L, the waste shall be disposed of at an approved landfarm.

8.3.4

8.3.5

8.3.3.1

Leaded sludges and oily wastewaters from TEL storage vessels must be
disposed of at an approved incineration facility. Other leaded oily sludge
shall be managed according to the following:

8.3.3.2

Collection and Transport: Leaded oily sludge shall be collected and


transported in such a manner to ensure that no leakage or spillage takes
place during collection and transportation activities. Containers used during
collection and transportation shall be limited to sealed drums, vacuum
trucks and closed tanker trucks.

8.3.3.3

Storage: Storage of leaded sludge is not permitted. If logistics prevent the


immediate transport to disposal facilities, short-term storage is permitted
with the approval of EPD. Leaded sludge shall be transported to an
approved disposal facility.

8.3.3.4

Treatment: Leaded sludge shall be treated in an approved leaded waste


weathering area designed as per SAES-A-104, Standard 11.5.1.8.

8.3.3.5

Disposal: Treated leaded sludge shall be collected and either be


disposed of at an approved landfarm or a Class I Landfill. EPD shall
determine the proper disposal method based on the lead and oil content.

Leaded Oily Water


8.3.4.1

Collection and Transport: Leaded oily water shall be collected and


transported in such a manner to ensure that no leakage or spillage takes
place during collection and transportation activities. Containers used during
collection and transportation shall be limited to sealed drums, vacuum
trucks and closed tanker trucks.

8.3.4.2

Treatment: Leaded oily water shall be treated to recover product prior to


final disposal of the wastewater. Product recovery is accomplished through
the use of a gravity oil/water separator designed as per SAES-A-104,
Standard 4.4.1.1, or by other approved methods. If simple oil/water
separation does not provide sufficient treatment to eliminate floating oil in
evaporation ponds, the ponds must be designed to provide additional
treatment (SAES-A-104 Standard 7.1.2) and oil removal equipment (e.g.
floating booms, skimmers) must be provided for the ponds.

8.3.4.3

Disposal: The wastewater from the separator shall be disposed of in an


approved evaporation pond (designed as per SAES-A-104, Standard 14.2)
or disposed at an approved incineration facility.

Other Industrial Waste


For any industrial wastewater or mixture of wastes not mentioned in this Section, or
in the event of incidents involving wastes, EPD shall be contacted for advice.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

8.4

Industrial Wastewater Discharges


8.4.1

Discharges to Marine Environment from Onshore Facilities: Industrial


wastewater shall be treated in a process that will achieve the discharge limits shown
in Table 3.

8.4.2

Discharges to Marine Environment from Offshore Facilities: No discharge of an


oil-based drilling fluid is allowed. Other marine discharges shall comply with Table 3
requirements, except as allowed in SAES-A-103.
8.4.2.1

Land-based wastewater treatment systems with discharges into the marine


environment shall be designed to meet the discharge standards in SAESA-103 and the most recent MEPA Environmental Protection Standards
and/or Royal Commission Standards, whichever are applicable.

8.4.2.2

The location of a discharge into the marine environment shall be located at


a distance from shore such that proper mixing can take place. Effluent
diffusers shall be used to provide for rapid mixing of the wastewater
discharge. Manager EPD, may add additional restrictions if the discharge
will be located in an area of special biological significance

.
8.4.3

Discharges to an Evaporation Pond: Exceptions to the Table 3 requirements may


be granted by EPD on a case-by-case basis for industrial wastewater that is
discharged into an evaporation pond that meets the design requirements of Standard
14.2 of SAES-A-104.
8.4.3.1

A minimum of one upgradient and two downgradient groundwater


monitoring wells shall be installed around disposal ponds unless otherwise
approved by the General Supervisor, EED.

8.4.3.2

The quality of the effluent discharged from wastewater treatment plants


into lined evaporation ponds shall comply with the criteria set in Table 1 of
SAES-A-104 and shall at no time contain substances in concentrations
toxic to human, animal, plant or fish life. Sanitary wastewater discharges
that have been treated in a properly designed and operated facultative
stabilization pond may be discharged into an evaporation pond without
meeting all of the Table 1 requirements. The Manager, EPD, may grant
exceptions to the requirements on a case-by-case basis.

8.4.3.3

Evaporation ponds shall be sized to maintain a minimum depth of 0.75


meters and a minimum freeboard of 0.6 meters, based on minimum and
maximum operating depths. Multiple ponds in a series configuration may
be used to maintain this minimum depth.

8.4.3.4

The pond embankment walls shall be compacted thoroughly and


compaction details shall be included in the construction specifications. The
interior and exterior slopes of the embankment wall shall not be steeper
than 1 meter vertical for every 3 meters horizontal.

8.4.3.5

Systems to protect embankment walls from wave action shall be provided.

8.4.3.6

The pond's drainage system shall be designed to exclude surface water


from all ponds.

8.4.3.7

The pond design shall provide access areas for truck traffic and the
removal of weeds around the pond. These areas shall be cleared and
maintained for a distance of at least 5 meters from the outside edge of the

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

pond embankment walls. This requirement shall be included in the


Operating and Maintenance Manual.
8.4.3.8

The use of multiple cells in pond systems is required when the ponds have
an area of 6300 square meters (6 acres) or more. The design of the ponds
or cells shall allow operational flexibility, permitting parallel or series
operation and allowing one or more of the ponds or cells to be taken out of
service without affecting the operation of the remaining ponds.

8.4.3.9

Ponds shall be surrounded with a Type V fence, as specified SAES-M-006

8.4.3.10 Evaporation ponds for the disposal of treated effluent shall have a 30-mil
high-density polyethylene liner or, if compatible with the effluent, may be
lined with 0.5 meters of compacted marl (with a permeability of 1x10-5
cm/sec or less). The Manager EPD may make exemptions to these lining
requirements.
8.4.4

Discharges to an Injection Well: Wastewater disposal to an injection well must be


approved on a case-by-case basis. EPD shall be contacted for guidance on the
actions necessary to obtain approval.
8.4.4.1

An Injection Well Proposal shall be prepared and submitted with the


Preliminary Engineering Report prior to approval of an injection well for
wastewater disposal.

8.4.4.2

After approval of the Preliminary Engineering Report and Injection Well


Proposal, a Detailed Engineering Report shall be prepared covering the
treatment system details.

8.4.4.3

Injected wastewater shall meet the quality requirements specified on a


case-by-case basis by the Manager, EPD, with concurrence of the Chief
Hydrologist.

8.4.4.4

Produced water (and desalter water) may be injected into any reservoir
from which hydrocarbons are produced without approval.

8.4.4.5

Produced water (and desalter water) may be injected into any formation
containing groundwater exceeding 40,000 mg/L total dissolved solids
(TDS) with the approval of the General Supervisor, EED and concurrence
of the Chief Hydrologist.

8.4.4.6

All engineering reports are required for the injection of produced water (and
desalter water) into any formation containing groundwater having less than
40,000 mg/L TDS with the approval of the Manager, EPD, and the
concurrence of the Chief Hydrologist.

8.4.5

Discharges to an Off-Site Facility: Off-site disposal of industrial wastewater must


be approved by EPD. It shall be transported and treated by an approved carrier and
facility, respectively. Manifest records shall be kept to assure that the waste arrives at
the intended waste disposal facilities.

8.4.6

Discharges to Land Areas: Discharges to the land are not permitted unless written
approval is obtained from EPD.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

8.4.7

Discharges to Sanitary Sewers: Industrial wastewater shall not be discharged into


a sanitary sewer system without prior approval from EPD and applicable treatment
system operator.

RESPONSIBILITIES
9.1

Wastewater Generators
9.1.1

Contracts for treatment, transportation and disposal of sanitary and industrial


wastewater shall be separate from all other general service contracts. All contracts
for wastewater disposal shall be prepared by the waste generator, in conjunction with
the Contracting Department, reviewed by EPD and procured by the Contracting
Department (for long form contracts) or waste generator according to established
Saudi Aramco Contracting Manual Policies and Procedures.

9.1.2

Waste generators shall contact EPD to obtain a list of all approved company and
private contractors wastewater disposal facilities, (e.g. wastewater treatment plants,
evaporation ponds, incinerators, landfarms, weathering areas, etc.).

9.1.3

Prior to awarding any wastewater hauling contract, proponents and/or Contracting


Department shall, in consultation with EPD, ensure that:

9.1.4
9.2

9.3

The terms and conditions of the contract comply with applicable Saudi Aramco
standards and requirements.
An approved wastewater treatment facility has agreed to accept the wastewater
(in writing).
The hauling contractor is capable of executing the contractual terms/conditions
The hauling manifest is utilized by the hauling contractor and the receiving
facility.

Waste generators are responsible for managing and budgeting funds associated with
wastewater treatment and disposal.

EPD
9.2.1

Provide environmental consulting and technical services to all Company


organizations that generate wastes. This includes services and studies in the areas
of wastewater, air emissions, solid and hazardous waste disposal, and groundwater
monitoring.

9.2.2

Survey contractors facilities to ensure compliance with all pertinent environmental


regulations and standards.

9.2.3

Advise Corporate Management and all Company organizations on waste issues


affecting the environment and occupational health.

Loss Prevention Department


9.3.1

Assist Company organizations in identifying and resolving safety issues associated


with waste generation, handling, and disposal.

9.3.2

As the Responsible Standardization Agent for Class-21 safety materials, assist


proponents in determining appropriate personal protective equipment, labels, and
signs.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

9.4

Material Supply/Storehouse Operations


Storehouse Operations (SO) is the company contact point for handling of redundant, spent, and
expired chemicals. The HMA or designate approves the disposition of these chemicals sent to
SOs reclamation facilities.

9.5

Lab Research & Development Center


Provide specialized technical service support for air, ground and surface water quality
assessment and hazardous waste characterization.

10

WASTE MANIFEST FORM


A waste manifest form (Attachment III of G.I. 430.001) shall be used to track the generation,
transport, treatment, and final disposal of all wastewater and waste covered by this Section. The form
is available at all Stationery Units

REFERENCES:
1. APHA, AWWA and WPCF: Standard Methods for the Examination of
Water and Wastewater, Edition 19, 1995.
2. Environmental Protection Standards, Document No 1401-01/1402H,
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Meteorology and Environmental Protection
Administration
3. Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code 1996
4. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards
5. Sludge handling and conditioning operations manual United States
Environmental Protection Agency, 1978
6. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare Manual of Septic Tank
Practice, 1972
7. Irrigation with reclaimed Municipal Wastewater- a guidance Manual
California State Water Resources Control Board, 1984

70