Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

R2SonicLLCMultibeamTrainingOffsetmeasurements

OffsetMeasurements
1 LeverArmMeasurementOffsets
Eachcomponentorsensorthatproducesinformation,uniquetoitsposition,willhaveapointthatis
consideredthereferencepointofthatsensor.TheSonic2024,themotionsensor,andtheGPS
antennawillhaveadocumentedpointfromwhichtomeasure.Thegyrocompassdataisnot
dependentonitspositiononthevesselso,therefore,doesnotrequireanoffsetmeasurement.

1.1 VesselReferenceSystem
Whenallequipment(Sonic2024sonarhead,motionsensor,gyrocompassandGPS)havebeen
permanentlymounted,thephysicaloffsetstoacentralreferencepoint(CRP)mustbemeasured.
Thecentralreferencepoint(CRP)orvesselreferencepoint(VRP)isthatpointthatthesurveyor
choosestobetheoriginfortheXandYgridthatwilldefinethehorizontalrelationshipbetweenall
ofthesensors.TheverticalorZreferencecanbethewaterlineorotherlogicalverticalreference.
Generally,theCRPcorrespondstothecentreofgravityorrotationofthevessel.Allofthesensors
musthavetheirphysicalrelationshiptoeachothermeasuredandenteredintothedatacollection
softwareortheprocessingsoftware.
Alloffsets,betweensensors,aredefinedbyanX,YandZoffsetfromareference(CRPorVRP)point.
TheXaxisrunsathwartship,i.e.fromtheportsidetothestarboardside.TheYaxisrunsalongship
fromthebowtothestern(somesoftwaremayreversetheseaxes).TheZaxisrunsperpendicular
throughthereference.Theorigincanbeanypoint;theoriginwillremainthesameforallsensors.
SomesurveyorstaketheGPSantennaastheoriginforallmeasurements,otherstakethesonarhead
itself,whileothersmighttakethemotionsensor(especiallyifitonthecentreofrotationforthe
vessel).ThesignconventionisstandardforaCartesianplane,translatedtoavessel:starboardof
thereferencepointispositive,forwardofthereferencepointispositive.ThesignforZmaydiffer,
dependingonthedatacollectionorprocessingsoftware.

Figure1:VesselHorizontalandVerticalreferencesystem

2009,R2SonicLLC

C.W.Brennan,ChiefHydrographicEngineerR2Sonic

Page1of3

R2SonicLLCMultibeamTrainingOffsetmeasurements

1.2 MeasuringOffsets
Theaccuratemeasurementofoffsetsisvitaltotheaccuracyofthesurveydata.Ifpossible,the
vesselwillbeputonahardstandsothatitcanbeveryaccuratelymeasuredusingstandardland
surveyequipment,suchasatotalstation.However,thismaynotbepossibleandtheoffsetswill
havetobemeasuredusingatapeandplumbbob,whichisdetailedbelow.
1.2.1

Sonic2024AcousticCentre

Figure2:Sonic2024AcousticCentre

1.2.2 HorizontalMeasurement
Allmeasurementsshouldbemadewithametaltapemeasure.Aclothtapecanstretch,itcanalso
beknottedorkinked,unknowntothepersonsmakingthemeasurements.Ataminimumtwo
peopleshouldbeassignedtotakethemeasurements,threepeoplewillworkbetterwiththethird
personwritingdownthemeasurements.Onepersonwillbetheholderandtheotherwillbethe
reader.Startingateitherthereferencepointorthesensorthedistancewillbemeasured.When
eitherthereferencepointorthesensorisreached,thetwopeoplewillreverseroles:theholderis
nowthereaderandthereaderistheholder,thetransverseismadebacktothepointofbeginning,
butnotusingthesamepath.Ifreferencemarksweremadeonthefirstleg,theyshouldnotbeused
onthesecondlegback.Ifthemeasurementfromthesensortothereferencepoint,inonedirection,
agreeswiththemeasurementintheoppositedirection,madebyadifferentreaderandholder,then
theoffsetisgood.Ifthereisasmalldisagreementinmeasurements,thetwomeasurementscanbe
averaged.Ifthereisalargedisagreementthentheprocessshouldberepeated.Whatisasmall
disagreement?Afewcentimetrescanbeexpected.

2009,R2SonicLLC

C.W.Brennan,ChiefHydrographicEngineerR2Sonic

Page2of3

R2SonicLLCMultibeamTrainingOffsetmeasurements

1.2.3 VerticalMeasurement
TomeasureelevationsortheZoffset,theuseofaplumbbobisrequired.Thiscanbesomethingas
simpleasaspannertiedtoalengthoflineandloweredfromonedecktothenext.Theplumbbob
willalsoallowforaccuratemeasurementsintheXandYdirectionwhentransposingthemfromone
decktotheother.
Theplumbbobworks,ofcourse,bygravitysogenerallypointstothecentreoftheearth.Thisbeing
thecase,ifthevesselisnotingoodtrim,i.e.hasalist,therestingpositionoftheplumbbobmaynot
beatthetrueverticalpointundertheplacefromwhichitisbeingheld.Thisisverycriticalwhen
transposingXandYmeasurementsfromonedecktoanother.
Thedraftofavesselwillnotbeconstant.Priortogoingoutonasurvey,thefuelandwatermaybe
filledup,causingthevesseltosettlelowerinthewater.Possiblylesspeopleareonboardcausing
thevesseltorisehigherinthewater.Themainconcepthereisthatthedraftofthesonarhead
changes.AllXandYoffsetsremainthesameaslongasthesensorsarenotmoved,buttheZoffset
changesconstantlydependingonthedraftofthevessel.
Ifpossiblethepoleshouldbemarkedtoshowthedepthofthehead.Measuringupfromthesonar
headsacousticalreference,ringscanbepaintedonthepolein10cm(orother)increments,with2
cmhatchingbetweenrings.Thesurveyormayhavetoobservethepoleoverthecourseofafew
minutestodeterminewherethewaterlineisandwouldthenestimatethedepthbyinterpolating
betweenthe10cmdepthrings.
Anothermethodwouldbeforthesurveyortoinitiallymeasurefromthesonarheadsacoustical
referencetothetopofthehydrophonepole.Thisisthetotalpolemeasurement.Atthestartofa
surveydaythesurveyorwillgotothepoleandmeasurefromthetopofthepoletothewaterline
(usingthetapemeasureandplumbboborsimilarweight),thisiscalledthedrymeasurement.
Takingthedrymeasurementfromthetotalpolemeasurementyieldsthewetmeasurement,which
isthedraftofthesonarhead.Duetowavemotion,thesurveyormayhavetotakeaseriesof
measurementstoensureanaccuratereading.
WhenthedraftorZofthesonarheadisdeterminedtheZfortheGPSantennaandthemotion
sensorcanbeadjustedaccordingly,iftheZreferenceisthewaterline.Inmostdatacollection
softwareaZshift,inrelationtothewatersurface,canbeenteredinfortheCRP,whichwilldothe
verticaladjustmentforalloffsets
Itisveryimportantthatwhenmeasuringthedraftonsmallvesselsthatthepersontakingthe
measurementdoesnotundulycausethevesseltolisttowardsthatside.Havingsomeonecounter
balancetheweightofthepersontakingthemeasurementisagoodidea.Thisisalsotrueofany
temporarylistthevesselisexperiencing.Onsmallsurveyvessels,apersonleaningovertheside,to
takethedraftmeasurement,caninduceupwards,orexceedinga10cmerrorindepthreadings
duringsurveyoperation.
Onsomevesselsitisadvisabletotakedraftreadingsduringthesurveyorimmediatelyafter
completionofthesurvey,asthedraftwillchangethatmuch.
Alloffsetinformationshouldberecordedinthedailysurveylogandthevesselspermanentsurvey
record.

2009,R2SonicLLC

C.W.Brennan,ChiefHydrographicEngineerR2Sonic

Page3of3