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Explain numeric, character and Boolean data types.

Various data types in C++:
Numeric: This is a fundamental type provided by C++ language. Integers, Floating point
types come under this.
Boolean: Can have one of the two values, true or false. It is used to express the results of
a logical operations. They are internally stored as number. A non-zero value is considered
true whereas zero is false.
Void f(int x, int y)
Bool b;
If (x == y)
b = true;

Thus, value of b becomes true if x equals y.

A common use of bool is as the type of the result of a function that tests some condition.
e.g. bool isopen(File *fp);
A variable of type char can hold any character of the implementation’s character set. It
takes 1 byte of storage and it can hold 256 different values.

E.g. char c = ‘a’;

Since character types are integral types, arithmetic and logical operations apply on them.

What is Typecasting. Explain with examples.

Typecasting: C++ is very strict about type compatibility. Different variable types must be
cast when their values are assigned to each other. Type cast operator is used for explicit
type conversion of variables. A type name behaves as if it is a function for converting
values to a designated type.

E.g. average = sum/float(i);

The variable ‘i’ is converted to float and used to calculate the average.

Explain :: operator with an example.

:: Operator: ‘::’ is known as Scope Resolution Operator. C++ is a block structured
language. Different program modules are written in various blocks. Same variable name
can be used in different blocks. Scope of a variable extends from the point of declaration
to the end of the block. A variable declared inside a block is ‘local’ variable. Blocks in
C++ are often nested.
int x = 10;
int x = 20;

The declaration of the inner block hides the declaration of same variable in outer block.
This means, within the inner block, the variable x will refer to the data object declared
therein. To access the global version of the variable, C++ provides scope resolution

In the above example, x has a value of 20 but ::x has value 10.
Similarly, this operator is used when a member function is defined outside the class

Class MyClass
int n1, n2;
void func1(); ---------Function Declaration

public void MyClass::func1() ---Use of Scope Resolution Operator to write

function definition outside class definition
// Function Code

What is const qualifier? Explain with an example.

The qualifier const can be applied to the declaration of any variable to indicate that its
value will not be changed. Once a variable is declared with const qualifier, it no longer
remains a variable (i.e. its value can not be changed). A const must be initialized with
some value.
e.g. const TYPE x = 10; //where TYPE is any data type.
const int x = 5; // This will define x as constant with value 5

Note that once const is defined, its value can not be changed by arithmetic operations or