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Time of flight, T

Maximum range, R

STPM PHYSICS FORMULAE SHEET

Name:
TERM 1
1 Physical Quantities And Units
1.1 Base Units and SI Units /
1.2 Dimensions of Physical Quantities
Quantity
time
mass
length
current
temperature
amount of
substance
light
intensity

Prefix
peta
tera
giga
mega
kilo
hector
deka
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico
femto

SI Unit
second
kilogram
metre
ampere
kelvin

Symbol
s
kg
m
A
K

Dimension
T
M
L
I

mole

mol

candela

cd

Power
1015
1012
109
106
103
102
101
101
102
103
106
109
1012
1015

Abbreviation
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m

n
p
f

1.3 Scalar and Vectors


Resultant vector, C = Vector A + Vector B
x-component: F x F cos
y-component: F y F sin
angle =

Fy

tan 1 (

u2
, where 45
g

3 Dynamics
3.1 Newtons laws of motion
Newtons First Law: A body at rest will
remain at rest, a body that is moving will
continue with constant velocity, unless acted
upon by an external force.
Newtons Second Law: The rate of change
of momentum of a body is directly
proportional to the resultant force acting on it
and is in the same direction as the resultant
force.
Force, F = ma (unit: N or kgms 2 )
Impuls, Ft = mv mu (unit: Ns or kgms 1 )
Newtons Third Law: Every action has a
reaction which is of the same magnitude but
opposite in direction.
3.2 Linear momentum and its conservation
Momentum, p = mv (unit: kgms 1 )
Total linear momentum before collision
= Total linear momentum after collision

m1u1 m2 u 2 m1v1 m2 v2

v u
1
(ms 2 ) a (u v)t
t
2

W = mg, W F = ma
Greatest height, H
Range, R

u sin 2
g
2

u sin
2g
2

a v

a r 2

v2
r

where a = centripetal acceleration,


= angular velocity, v = velocity, r = radius
of the circle
5.2 Centripetal force

F mv

F mr 2

mv 2
mv 2
T
r
r

where F= centripetal force, m= mass,


= angular velocity, v = velocity,
r = radius of the circle, T = tension

6 Gravitation
6.1 Newtons law of universal gravitation

F G

m1m2
r2

m1u1 m2 u 2 (m1 m2 )v

g G

3.4 Centre of mass


Coordinates of center of mass

6.3 Gravitational potential


i n

(mi xi )
m1 x1 m2 x 2 ... mn x n
i 1
x

i n
m1 m2 ...mn
mi

(mi yi )
m1 y1 m2 y 2 ... mn y n
i 1
i n
m1 m2 ...mn
mi
i 1

PQ = PQ cos , |P Q| = PQ sin

1
s ut at 2
2

where T = period, = angular velocity,


2= angular displacement of a complete
circle, v = velocity, r = radius of the circle
5.2 Centripetal acceleration

Acceleration due to gravity,

v u 2as

v r

Non-elastic collision is where kinetic energy


is not conserved.

2f

F Fx2 Fy2

m1u1 m2 u 2 m1v1 m2 v2

2 Kinematics And Dynamics


2.1 Linear motion 2.2 Projectile

where G = 6.67 x 10 11 m 3 kg 1 s 2
6.2 Gravitational field
Gravitational field strength,

1.4 Uncertainties in measurements


If l l, where l is absolute uncertainty
Fractional uncertainty = l / l
Percentage uncertainty = l / l 100%

5.1 Angular displacement and angular


velocity

3.3 Elastic and Non-Elastic Collisions


Elastic collision is where kinetic energy is
conserved.

i 1
i n

Fx

s
v (ms 1 )
t
v u at

5 Circular Motion

2u sin
2g

3.5 Frictional forces


Limiting static friction,
Kinetic friction,

Fs s R
Fk k R

4 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER


4.1 Work
Work done W F s = Fs cos
(Nm, J or kgm2s2)
4.2 Potential energy and kinetic energy

1
mv 2 (J or kgm2s2)
2
Potential energy, U = mgh
Kinetic energy, K =

Total energy,
4.3 Power

W
t

(unit: Js

E=K+U
1

or W or

3.4 Efficiency

Efficiency

Poutput
Pinput

100%

kgm 2 s 3 )

F
m

M
R2

(unit: ms 1 )

Gravitational potential energy, U G


Gravitational potential, V G

Mm
r

M
1
(Jkg )
r

gR2 = GM
6.4 Satellite motion in a circular orbit
Velocity of satellite,

gR 2
GM
1
or v
( ms )
r
r

Total energy of satellite, E = U + K


= GmM GmM
r
2r
= GmM
2r
6.5 Escape velocity
Escape velocity, ve

2GM
2 gR
R

7 Statics
7.1 Equilibrium of particles
F1 + F2 + F 3 = 0
6.2 Closed polygon
F1 + F2 + F 3 + F4 + F5 = 0
7.3 Equilibrium of a rigid body
Resultant force on a rigid body = F + (-F) = 0
Fd = I
where I = moment of inertia of the rigid body
about the axis of rotation
Torque produced by a couple = Fd
where d = perpendicular distance between
the two forces of magnitude F

7.4 Frictional forces


Limiting static friction Fr =

10 Thermodynamics Of Gases
10.1 Heat Capacity

s R

Specific heat capacity, c C

s = coefficient of static friction


between the surface areas, R = normal
reaction
where

where F = force, A = cross-sectional area,


e = extension, l 0 = original length
8.2 Force-Extension Graph and Stress-Strain
Graph
F
Fl
Youngs modulus,
Stress
E
A 0
Strain e
Ae
l0
(unit:Nm2, dimensions ML1T2)
Hooks Law, F = ke
8.3 Strain Energy
Work done, W Fx
Work done / Stress energy = 1 Fe
2

Boyles Law

Charles
Law

GayLussacs
Law or
Pressure
Law

p1V1 p2V2

V1 V2

T1 T2

p1 p2

T1 T2

Ideal Gas Equation

pV nRT

pV nkT

(k=Boltzmann constant, 1.38 x 10

23

JK

9.2 Pressure of a Gas

1
1
c 2 or p nm c 2
3
3

9.3 Molecular Kinetic Energy


Average translational kinetic energy of
the random motion
1
3
m c 2 kT
2
2

Translational kinetic energy per mole on an


ideal gas =

3
RT
2

c2

cr.m.s.

3kT or

3RT

9.5 Degrees of Freedom and Law of


Equipartition of Energy
Average total energy of a molecule with f

1
2

degrees of freedom = f ( kT )
9.6 Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas
f
1
f
U N A f ( kT ) ( N A k )T RT
2
2
2

v mp v av v rms

10.3 First Law of Thermodynamics

and the ratio

v mp : v av : v rms
is 1.00 : 1.13 : 1.23

f
f 2
CV ,m R
C p ,m
R
2
2
Ratio of principal molar heat capacities
C p ,m
f 2

C V ,m
2

dQ
d
where
kA
dt
dx

k = thermal conductivity ( Wm1 K 1 )


A = cross-sectional area ( m 2 )
d temperature gradient ( Km 1 )

dx

Thermal resistance = l where


kA

l= length of rod
k= thermal conductivity
A= cross-sectional area
11.2 Convection / 11.3 Radiation / 11.4 Global
warming
Stefan Botzman law:
P = eAT 4, Pnet = eA(T 4 T0 4)

For a point charge Q,

40 r 2

4 0 r
dV
E =dx

V=-

Edx

13 Capacitors
Energy stored in capacitor,
E = CV2 = QV = Q2/C
E
Charging capacitor: Io =
R
t
t
t
CR
I I o e CR
CR
; Q = Qo(1- e
); V = E (1- e
)
t
Discharging capacitor : I = Ioe CR ;
Q = Qo e
t
CR ;

ne 2
m

Temperature coefficient of resistance,


= (R R0)/R0
15 Direct Current Circuits
Emf E = I (R + r )

E
Rr
=
V
R

Kirchhoffs Law I = 0 & (IR) = E


16 Magnetic Fields
Fm
= qvB sin
= BI sin
Magnetic field due to current
I
For a straight wire, B = o
2x
o NI
For a circular coil, B =
2r
For a solenoid, B = onI
For two parallel conductors, force per unit length
II
F
= o12
2d

Torque on a coil = IBAN


BI
Hall voltage VH =
nte

Self inductance for a solenoid , L =

F
q

E=

4 0 r 2

Conductivity =

= EA

Coulombs Law Fe = Q1Q2

RA

17 Electromagnetic Induction
Magnetic flux = BAcos
d
Faraday Law, E = dt
Induced emf, E = Bv straight conductor
E = R2fB rotating disc
E = NBA sin t rotating coil
dI
E=-L
; L = self inductance
dt
N = LI

TERM 2
12 Electrostatics

Electric field strength E =

dt
Current density, J = I/A

Resistivity =

= increase in internal energy, W = work done


by gas)
10.4 Isothermal and Adiabatic Changes
C p.m
Cv,m CV ,m R

CV ,m

Gausss Law Q =

9.4 The R.M.S. Speed of Gas Molecules

c r.m.s.

v1

Q U W
(where Q = heat energy supplied,

Current I = dQ = nAve
2
Power P = VI = I2R = V
R

v2

W pdV

11 Heat Transfer
11.1 Conduction

9 Kinetic Theory Of Gases


9.1 Ideal Gas Equation

Vo
R

14 Electric Current

1000

(where m= mass of substance, c


= specific heat capacity, C = heat capacity)
10.2 Work Done by a Gas

F
e
(Nm2), Strain =
(no unit)
A
l0

; Io =

Time constant = CR

Molar heat capacity, C mx c


m

8 Deformation Of Solids
8.1 Stress and Strain
Stress =

V = Voe CR

N 2 A

Energy stored in an inductor , E = LI2

18 Alternating Current Circuits


Capacitor in ac circuit,
V =Vosin 2ft
I = Io cos 2ft = Io sin (2ft +

)
2

Vo
1
=
2fC
Io
Inductor in ac circuit,
I = Io sin 2ft

Reactance Xc =

V =Vo cos 2ft = Vo sin(2ft +


Reactance XL =

Vo
= 2 f L
Io

)
2

20 Wave Motion

TERM 3
19 Oscillations
For SHM, a = 2 x ( 2 = positive constant)
F = kx ( k = positive constant)

2
Angular frequency,
T
Period, T = 1/f
Displacement, x

1
m 2 ( x02 x 2 )
2
1
Internal Energy, U =
m 2 x 2
2
1
Total energy, E =
m 2 x02
2
dU
2
Force, F =
= m x
dx
=

Spring-mass system ,
Period,

T = 2

l
Simple pendulum, T 2
g
2

g
l

(l = length of pendulum,
g = acceleration due to gravity)
Spring-mass system, f 1

where f = frequency, v = velocity,


wavelength, = phase difference

x)

k
m

(k = force constant, m = mass of load


Torsional pendulum, T 2 I
C

1
a2 2
r

Wave Intensity, I

Standing wave equation

y (2a cos

Interference

ax
D

for 1st minimum


a
Diffraction grating d sin n = n ; highest order nmax
d

intensity of transmitted polarized wave I = Io cos2


1
Speed of light c =
o o
Single slit diffraction sin =

Interference

(where I = intensity, a = amplitude, r =radius


of sphere)
Principle of Superposition:
Displacement of y at the point due to two
waves, y y1 y2

ax
D

for 1st minimum


a
Diffraction grating d sin n = n ; highest order nmax
d

intensity of transmitted polarized wave I = Io cos2


Single slit diffraction sin =

x) sin t
24 Quantum Physics

21 Sound Waves
Fundamental frequency
Along a stretched spring

f0

m
e
2
k
g

Simple pendulum, f 1

v f 2 ( )

(+) for negative Ox=direction and


(-) for positive Ox-direction

2
2
Velocity, v x0 x
Total energy, E = U + K

1
f

y a sin(t

2 x0 sin t 2t

Kinetic Energy,

Equation of progressive wave

x0 sint x

dx
Velocity, v
x0 cos t
dt
Acceleration, a

Period,

23 Wave Optics

v
1
1

2l 2l 2l

T (unit: Hz)

Vibrating air column, f 0

hc

Einsteins photoelectric equation


2
hf = W + 1 mv max
where
2
work function W = hfo ; fo = threshold frequency
1 2 = eV ; V = stopping potential
s
s
mv max
2
h
h
de Broglie wavelength: =
=
p mv
Energy of photon E = hf =

Tube open at both ends, f 0

v
4l

v
2l

I
Intensity level, 10 log10
dB
I0

25 Nuclear Physics
Work function, hf = Ef - Ei

(where I = intensity of sound,

Shortest wavelength, min =

I 0 1 10

12

2 )

Wm

Beat Frequency,

f ( f1 f 2 )

Doppler Effect:
Apparent frequency,

f' (

v u0
)f
v us

22 Geometrical Optics
r
f=
2
refraction at curved surface,

n1 n 2 n 2 - n 1

u
v
r
lens makers formula,
lens formula,

1
n
1 1
( 2 - 1 )( )
f
n1
r1 r2

1 1 1

f u v

hc
eV

Braggs Law: 2d sin = n


E = mc2 ; m = mass defect
dN
ln2
- N ;
Radioactivity,
Half life T =
dt

-t
n
1
N = No e
= ( ) No where n = no of half life
2
Reaction energy, Q = [(Mx + mx) (My + my)]c2

STPM Physics Syllabus


TERM 1
1 Physical Quantities And Units
1.1 Base Units and SI Units /
1.2 Dimensions of Physical Quantities
1.3 Scalar and Vectors
1.4 Uncertainties in measurements

TERM 2
12 Electrostatics
12.1 Coulombs law
12.2 Electric field
12.3 Gausss law
12.4 Electric potential

2 Kinematics And Dynamics


2.1 Linear motion
2.2 Projectile

13 Capacitors
13.1 Capacitance
13.2 Parallel plate capacitors
13.3 Dielectrics
13.4 Capacitors in series and in parallel
13.5 Energy stored in a charged capacitor
13.6 Charging and discharging of a capacitor

3 Dynamics
3.1 Newtons laws of motion
3.2 Linear momentum and its conservation
3.3 Elastic and Non-Elastic Collisions
3.4 Centre of mass
3.5 Frictional forces
4 Work, Energy And Power
4.1 Work
4.2 Potential energy and kinetic energy
4.3 Power
3.4 Efficiency
5 Circular Motion
5.1 Angular displacement and angular
velocity
5.2 Centripetal acceleration
5.3 Centripetal force
6 Gravitation
6.1 Newtons law of universal gravitation
6.2 Gravitational field
6.3 Gravitational potential
6.4 Satellite motion in a circular orbit
6.5 Escape velocity
7 Statics
7.1 Equilibrium of particles
7.2 Closed polygon
7.3 Equilibrium of a rigid body
7.4 Frictional forces
8 Deformation Of Solids
8.1 Stress and Strain
8.2 Force-Extension Graph and Stress-Strain
Graph
8.3 Strain Energy

14 Electric Current
14.1 Conduction of electricity
14.2 Drift velocity
14.3 Current density
14.4 Electric conductivity and resistivity
15 Direct Current Circuits
15.1 Internal resistance
15.2 Kirchhoffs laws
15.3 Potential divider
15.4 Potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge
16 Magnetic Fields
16.1 Concept of a magnetic field
16.2 Force on a moving charge
16.3 Force on a current carrying conductor
16.4 Magnetic fields due to currents
16.5 Force between two current-carrying
conductors
16.6 Determination of the ratio e/m
16.7 Hall effect
17 Electromagnetic Induction
17.1 Magnetic flux
17.2 Faradays law and Lenzs law
17.3 Self induction
17.4 Energy stored in an inductor
17.5 Mutual induction
18 Alternating Current Circuits
18.1 Alternating current through a resistor
18.2 Alternating current through an inductor
18.3 Alternating current through a capacitor
18.4 R-C and R-L circuits in series

9 Kinetic Theory Of Gases


9.1 Ideal Gas Equation
9.2 Pressure of a Gas
9.3 Molecular Kinetic Energy
9.4 The R.M.S. Speed of Gas Molecules
9.5 Degrees of Freedom and Law of
Equipartition of Energy
9.6 Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas
10 Thermodynamics Of Gases
10.1 Heat Capacity
10.2 Work Done by a Gas
10.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
10.4 Isothermal and Adiabatic Changes
11 Heat Transfer
11.1 Conduction
11.2 Convection / 11.3 Radiation / 11.4 Global
warming

TERM 3
19 Oscillations
19.1 Characteristics of simple harmonic
motion
19.2 Kinematics of simple harmonic motion
19.3 Energy in simple harmonic motion
19.4 Systems in simple harmonic motion
19.5 Damped oscillations
19.6 Forced oscillations and resonance
20 Wave Motion
20.1 Progressive waves
20.2 Wave intensity
20.3 Principle of superposition
20.4 Standing waves
20.5 Electromagnetic waves
21 Sound Waves
21.1 Propagation of sound waves
21.2 Sources of sound
21.3 Intensity level of sound
21.4 Beat
21.5 Doppler effect
22 Geometrical Optics
22.1 Spherical mirrors
22.2 Refraction at spherical surfaces
22.3 Thin lenses
23 Wave Optics
23.1 Huygenss principle
23.2 Interference
23.3 Two-slit interference pattern
23.4 Interference in a thin film
23.5 Diffraction by a single slit
23.6 Diffraction gratings
23.7 Polarisation
23.8 Optical waveguides
24 Quantum Physics
24.1 Photons
24.2 Wave-particle duality
24.3 Atomic structure
24.4 X-rays
24.5 Nanoscience
25 Nuclear Physics
25.1 Nucleus
25.2 Radioactivity
25.3 Nuclear reactions