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Chaps 1-2 Control Mass Analysis on Work, Heat and 1 st Law:

 1. A rigid tank contains air at 500 kPa and 150 C. As a result of heat transfer to the surroundings, the temperature and pressure inside the tank drops to 65 C and 400 kPa, respectively. Determine the work done by the air during the heat transfer process. Ans: 0 W. (CB, p. 119) 2. A frictionless piston-cylinder device contains 0.1 lbm of water vapor at 20 psia and 320 F (specific volume v = volume per unit mass = 7.485 ft 3 /lbm). The piston undergoes a constant pressure expansion process until temperature reaches 400 F (specific volume v = 8.353 ft 3 /lbm). Determine the work done by the steam during this process. Ans: 0.32 Btu expansion work. (CB, p. 119) 3. A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0.4 m 3 of air at 100 kPa and 80 C. The air is now compressed to 0.1 m 3 in such a way that the temperature inside the cylinder remains constant. Determine the work done during this process. Ans: 55.45 kJ. compression work. (CB, p. 120) 4. Consider a system composed of a gas contained in the cylinder. The gas expands from a volume of 1.4 to 1.6 ft 3 while the pressure remains constant at 100 psia. Calculate the work done by the system on the piston. (JD, p. 50) Ans: 2880 ft lbf, expansion. 5. Carbon dioxide is compressed in a cylinder in an equilibrium process from initial conditions of p i = 100 kPa, V i = 0.004 m 3 , to a final pressure of p f = 500 kPa. During the process pV 1.22 = constant. Compute the work. Ans: 0.612 kJ; compression. (JD, p. 51) 6. A system is composed of gas contained in a cylinder fitted with a piston. The gas expands from a state 1 of which E 1 = 70 kJ to a state 2 for which E 2 = -20 kJ. During the expansion, the gas does 60 kJ of work on the surroundings. Determine the amount of heat transferred to or from the system to the environment. Ans: 30 kJ heat out. (JD, p. 147) 7. Determine the final stored energy of a mass of water that has an initial stored energy E = 20 kJ and then undergoes a process during which 10 kJ of work is done on the water and 3 kJ of heat is removed from it. Ans: 27 kJ. (JD, p. 148) 8. A gas expands in a cylinder according to the relation pV 1.3 = constant. The initial volume of the gas is 1 ft 3 and the initial pressure is 200 psia. The final pressure is 15 psia. Calculate the work done on the face of the piston by the pressure forces of the gas. Ans: 4.33x10 4 ft.lbf, expansion. (JPH, p. 50) 9. An ideal gas which obeys the equation pV = mRT (T, absolute temperature) is compressed in a piston-cylinder arrangement such that the temperature remains constant (isothermal process). Derive an expression for the work done on the gas and

calculate the quantity of work when

compressed from 1 atm, 20 C to 1 MPa, holding the temperature constant. Ans:

2.789 MJ, compression. (JPH, p. 71)

2 kg of helium (R = 2078.5 J/kg.K) is

10. A quantity of gas in a closed system expands, performing 34.0 kJ of work while its internal energy decreases by 27.0 kJ. Determine the heat transfer of this process. Ans: 7.0 kJ heat in. (JD, p. 153)

11. Radon gas initially at 65 kPa, 200 C is to be heated in a closed, rigid container until it is at 400 C. The mass of the radon is 0.393 kg. A table of properties shows that at

200 C, the internal energy of radon is 26.6 kJ/kg; at 400 C it is 37.8 kJ/kg.

Determine the amount of heat required. Ans: 4.4 kJ heat in. (JD, p. 154)

12. 0.0804 lbm Neon is held in a cylinder fitted with a piston so that the gas can be slowly and frictionlessly compressed from an initial pressure of 14.3 psia to a final pressure of 44.3 psia. The initial temperature and volume are 75 F and 1.6 ft 3 , and the compression process is such that pv 1.3 = constant. The internal energy of neon in ft.lbf/lbm is given by u = 1.50 pv, where p is in psfa (pounds force per square foot absolute) and v is in ft 3 /lbm. Determine the heat transfer of the compression process. Ans: 2.31 Btu heat out. (JD, p. 154)

13. A 1g quantity of nitrogen (R = 297 J/kg.K) undergoes the following sequence of quasi-static processes in a piston-cylinder arrangement:

 (a) An adiabatic expansion (pv g = constant; g = 1.4) in which the volume doubles. (b) A constant-pressure process in which the volume is reduced to its initial value. (c) A constant-volume compression back to the initial state.

The nitrogen is initially at 150 C and 5 atm pressure. Calculate the net work done on the gas in this sequence of processes and the net heat transfer into the gas.

Ans: 28.43 J, expansion; 28.43 heat in. (JPH, p. 78)