Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

H igh P erfor man ce W indo ws

Wi ndow c onfigura tions th at use l ow-e co atings, s elective

ine rt gas fi lls, and

ne t effect

the se featu res dep ends on the appl ication.

transmi ssion fil ms,

The

of

thermal

breaks c an lead to high er energ y perfor mance.

reduce t he U-fac tor, and the righ t choice

of these measur es is to

Win dow constru ctions with air gaps and inert gasse s to reduce convection b
Win dow constru ctions with air gaps and inert gasse s to reduce convection b

Win dow constru ctions with air gaps and

inert gasse s to reduce convection b etween win dow panes

Win dow constru ctions with air gaps and inert gasse s to reduce convection b etween

Air Gaps and Inert Gase s

U-v alues can

to

film s, since on ly the out er panes n eed to be structural materials l ike glass.

simplest way

do this is t o subdivid e the air s pace by ad ding mor e panes. I nterior pan es are oft en merely thin

be decrea sed by re ducing the

convectio n within t he glazing

unit. The

Air

con duction a nd conve ction. Filli ng an en closed air

between

panes can

be replac ed by de nser gases

like Argo n or Kryp ton, whic h both red uce

or krypto n has the rmal

space wi th argon

ben efits. The se less-c onductive

gases

gr eatly

red uce

heat

transfer

by convec tive curr ents,

pro ducing lo wer U-fac tors. As

a result,

the inner

surface

of

the gl ass

is

ma

intained

at a

tem perature

closer to t hat of the

indoors,

with great er comfor t (because

radiant h eat flow t o or

fro m the win dow surfa ce is redu ced) and l ess chanc e of cond ensation o n the insi de surface . To pre serve this gas fill ove r the life o f the wind ow, a very reliable e dge seal is required.

So me constr uctions fill

con vection, th ough thes e units ar e no longe r transpar ent, so the y can no lo nger be u sed for vie ws.

the spac e betwee n panes w ith cellula r materia ls or batt ing to red uce

Low -Emittanc e (low-ε)

Wh at are Low -E Coating s

The

coa ting on th eir glazing surfaces.

Coatings

performa nce of win dows and skylights

can often

be improv ed by usin g Low-Em ittance (lo w-E)

the

gla zing surfac e of wind ows and s kylight. T wo approa ches to pr oviding lo w- ε films are hard- coat

(du rable, less expensive , but less t hermally e ffective) a nd soft-co at (better t hermal pe rformance but

mo re expensi ve and sub ject to de gradation by oxidati on in the m The se coating s are typi cally appli ed to one glass surf ace facing

glazing pa nes,

red ucing the

one

and

ben efit of the ese films i s their red uction of UV transm ission, th us reducin g fading

layers o f metal o r metallic

Low -E coatin gs are inv isible thin

oxide par ticles dep osited on

anufactur ing stage) . into the a ir gap bet ween mul tiple

gla zings. A lo w-ε coati ng blocks

such coa ting is al

a great de al of the

radiant tra nsfer bet ween the

overall flo w of heat through

most as ef fective as

the windo w and thu s improvi ng the U- factor. Ind eed, adding an other laye r of glazi ng. An im portant ad ded

of objects

other laye r of glazi ng. An im portant ad ded of objects The in tended
The in tended use of the manu f acturers only put

The in tended use of the manu facturers only put

window in the bu ilding should dicta te which surface t he low-E coating

the low-E coating on the #2 surface because of the co ncern in seal failu re of the window.

should be applied to. There are quite

a range of config urations. Some

to. There are quite a range of config urations. Some sur face finish es in room

sur face finish es in room s.

Low -E Coatin g Configur ations and Heat Tra nsfer

Low -E coatin g glass wo rks like a thermal m irror with the low-E

tha t reflects t he heat ra diation. Th e surface bas ed on the climate.

that is trea ted by the

material

on the bac k of the p ane

low-E co ating mate rial is sele cted

In

multi-pane windows, thermal ra diation fr om warme r pane to other pan e is the ma in mecha nism

of

heat flow.

By applyin g low-em mitance m aterial to the interi or or exte rior pane,

depending

on

sid e that heat is meant to be kept , a signific ant amoun t of radian t heat tran sfer is blo cked.

Thr ee commo n types of low-ε coa tings are:

1)

rad iation fro

pan e of glass (surface # 3). This is good for p assive sol ar heating applicatio ns, where a low U-fa ctor

heat

m inside, t he low-E c oating sh ould be d eposited o n the out er surface of the int erior

High-tran smission

low- ε: I n heating -dominate d climate s where y ou want

to block

is c ombined

with a hig h SHGC.

In this ca se the co ating traps

outgoing

infrared

radiation

that

oth erwise wo uld be lost . Summer overheatin g can be

avoided wi th externa l shading

devices.

2. S elective-t ransmissi on low- ε : Where w inter heati ng and su mmer coo ling are b oth impor tant, req uiring low U-factor a nd low S HGC, but w ith a relat ively high VT for da y lighting. The coatin g is on the outer glazing, w here it blo cks incom ing infrare d radiatio n, which a s heat is t hen conve cted

aw

y by outd oor air.

3.

Low-trans mission lo w- ε: In c ooling do minated c limates, w here the s un is the

enemy, lo w U-

fact or, low SH GC, and e ven low V T seem wa rranted. A gain the lo w-E coatin g is place d on the o uter

exterior gl azing, eve n lower S HGC

and

No te that the exact plac ement of the low-E material is not as crit ical as usi ng low-E m aterials in the firs t place.

gla zing, wher e it reject s more of the solar gain. With

a tinted

VLT coul d result.

The following table sho ws the U-v alues for

low -E coating improves the U-Fac tor (see Gl azing Pro perties) of the windo w which re sults in b etter per formance.

various gla zing const ructions. A s it can b e seen, ad ding

 

U-va lue

Gla zing Type

W/m 2 K

BTU/ (h ft 2 )

Sin gle pane

4.8

0.85

Do uble pane, air filled

2.5

0.49

Do uble pane, low-E

2.1

0.37

Trip le pane

2.1

0.37

Trip le pane, lo w-E

1.4

0.25

Therm ally-broken wind ow frame
Therm ally-broken wind ow frame

Therm ally-broken wind ow frame

Therm ally-broken wind ow frame

The rmal brea ks

U-v alues can also be re duced by reducing t he conduc tivity of th e material s in the gl azing unit . As

me ntioned a bove, den ser gases

the

win dow fram e should n ot conduc t heat arou nd the gla ss.

like Argo n conduct

less heat

than air.

More sig nificantly,

Me tal framin g should

be "therm ally broke n" to sep arate inte rior metal

elements

from ext erior

ele ments. W ood or fibe rglass con ducts mu ch less hea t than me tal window

frames.

The framin g of

win dows and

dou ble or tri ple the "c enter of gl ass" U-val ue. Thus fra ming.

other gla zing can

cause so

much hea t loss tha t a unit's

be

it is impo rtant to u se U-value s that inc lude

overall U- value may

rtant to u se U-value s that inc l ude overall U- value may Spe c
Spe c trally selec t

Spe ctrally select

ive windows can block c ertain wave lengths of li ght

t ive windows can block c ertain wave lengths of li ght Sel ective Tran smission

Sel ective Tran smission

You

sele ctive" win dows allo w visible l ight in wh ile blockin g most o ther wavel engths, su ch as infr ared

and /or ultravi olet. The y have a h igh Tvis w ithout a h igh total l ight trans mission. U ltraviolet l ight

can

is heat, an d is

oft en undesir able in wa rm climate s.

Films

which wav elengths

can also

fade and

control

of light th at you tr ansmit int o the spa ce. "Spect rally

otherwise

deteriora te interior finishes a nd furnish ings. Infr ared light

Spectrally selective windows can block certain wavelengths of light

These films admit most of the incoming solar radiation in both the visible and near-infrared (short) wavelengths. Warm objects within a room emit far-infrared (long-wave) radiation. This long-wave radiation is reflected back into the room by the selective film.

These selective films typically are available as separate sheets that can be inserted between sheets of glazing as a window is fabricated. As a separate sheet, a selective film could also be applied to existing windows—for instance, between storm windows and the ordinary windows they protect.