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# Lecture 9

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric equations

Equations
E
Sij = sijkl
Tkl + dkij Ek

E
Tij = cijkl
Skl ekij Ek

E
D
sijkl
, sijkl
E
D
cijkl
, cijkl

Sjk , Tjk
,
S
jk

T
jk

i,j,k,l = 1 to 3
D
Sij = sijkl
Tkl + gkij Dk

D
Tij = cijkl
Skl hkij Dk

## elastic compliance at constant electrical field and constant

electrical displacement conditions
elastic stiffness at constant electrical field and constant
electric displacement conditions
dielectric permittivity at constant strain and constant stress conditions
dielectric impermittivity at constant strain and
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constant stress conditions

Piezoelectric equations

Equations
piezoelectric coefficients which represent
piezoelectric coupling between the electrical and
mechanical variables

## dijk , eijk , gijk , and hikl

E
dijk = eilm slmjk
= gljk ilT
E
e ijk = d ilm c lmjk
= hljk ilS

gijk = h s

D
ilm lmjk

= dljk

T
il

D
hijk = gilmclmjk
= eljk ilS

## For a particular problem, the choice of

which coefficient to use becomes clear
when the boundary conditions of the
materials are considered.
In compressed matrix notation, ij and kl
is replaced by p and q with
11 1;

23, 32 4;

22 2,

13, 31 5; thus p, q = 1 to 6.

33 3;

12, 21 6;
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Piezo-Micropumps

Pump structures

(a)
(b)

## Principle set-up of a "piston type"

micropump.
Schematic set-up of the saliva dispensing
micropump of "Graphosoma lineatum".

valves

Piezo-Micropumps
Pump structures

## Micro diaphragm pump with

piezoelectric actuation
Electrostatically actuated
micro diaphragm pump
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Piezo-Micropumps
Pump structures

## Valve-less micro diaphragm pump with

piezoelectric actuation: schematic diagram,
and pumping principle
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Piezo-Micropumps
Pump structures

## A compact pump and integrated microvalves

Li et al, 1 of 2
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Volume 11, 2005, pp.325-330

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric accelerometers

Accelerometer structures

## A Schematic piezoelectric thin film

micro-accelerometer
Piezoelectric thin film elements are connected in (a) series or (b) in parallel.

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric accelerometers

Accelerometer structures

## Applying an acceleration along the z direction, one

piezoelectric layer is compressed while the other is
extended due to the intrinsic mass of each device.

acceleration

## (a) parallel and (b) serial connection of

the two sensing elements

## When subjected to the

temperature change
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Piezoelectric accelerometers

Accelerometer structures

## When subjected to the

temperature change

## An aluminum case containing the

sensing elements and the electronics
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## Piezoelectric shear stress sensor

Sensor structures

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Piezoelectric devices

## Schematic of the optical beam deflector. Big arrows indicate the

direction of the polarization of the piezoceramics.

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric resonator

Beam resonators

## Sensors and Actuators A: Physical

Volume 118, 2005, pp.63-69

## Fundamental resonator mode

shapes from composite
ANSYS analysis: (a) freefree
flexural beam, and (b)
torsional anchor.

## Theoretical, finite element, and

experimental resonance
frequencies for fabricated
freefree resonator structures
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## Principle of BAW resonator operation: A longitudinal

standing acoustic wave is excited electrically in a thin
piezoelectric film. The layer thickness of the piezoelectric
film and of the electrodes determines the resonance
frequency of the BAW resonator.
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AlN FBAR

## XRD pattern of AlN film

Micro-machined FBAR fabrication process flow
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## BAW filter principle: the electrical impedance curve of the

parallel resonator p is shifted in frequency relative to the
series resonator s by f=fafr. This creates a band-pass
filter characteristics in S21
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## NO2 gas sensor

BVD equivalent circuit for an unperturbed
AT-cut quartz resonator (a) or modified
BVD equivalent circuit for a loaded ATcut quartz crystal resonator (b).
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Piezoelectric devices

Bimorph beam
splitter

Unimorph
pressure sensor

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric devices

Vibration sensor

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric devices

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric devices

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric devices

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric devices

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric devices
Multilayer actuators

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Piezoelectric devices

Mechanical amplifier

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric devices

Mechanical amplifier

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric devices

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric devices

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric devices

## A micro gripper using

unimorph actuator

Swimming device

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Piezoelectric devices

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Piezoelectric devices