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Lecture 9

Piezoelectric actuators and sensors

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Piezoelectric equations

Equations
E
Sij = sijkl
Tkl + dkij Ek

Dj = dikl Tkl + Tjk Ek


E
Tij = cijkl
Skl ekij Ek

D j = eikl Skl + Sjk Ek

E
D
sijkl
, sijkl
E
D
cijkl
, cijkl

Sjk , Tjk
,
S
jk

T
jk

i,j,k,l = 1 to 3
D
Sij = sijkl
Tkl + gkij Dk

E j = gikl Tkl + Tjk Dk


D
Tij = cijkl
Skl hkij Dk

E j = hikl Skl + Sjk Dk

elastic compliance at constant electrical field and constant


electrical displacement conditions
elastic stiffness at constant electrical field and constant
electric displacement conditions
dielectric permittivity at constant strain and constant stress conditions
dielectric impermittivity at constant strain and
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constant stress conditions

Piezoelectric equations

Equations
piezoelectric coefficients which represent
piezoelectric coupling between the electrical and
mechanical variables

dijk , eijk , gijk , and hikl


E
dijk = eilm slmjk
= gljk ilT
E
e ijk = d ilm c lmjk
= hljk ilS

gijk = h s

D
ilm lmjk

= dljk

T
il

D
hijk = gilmclmjk
= eljk ilS

For a particular problem, the choice of


which coefficient to use becomes clear
when the boundary conditions of the
materials are considered.
In compressed matrix notation, ij and kl
is replaced by p and q with
11 1;

23, 32 4;

22 2,

13, 31 5; thus p, q = 1 to 6.

33 3;

12, 21 6;
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Piezo-Micropumps

Pump structures

(a)
(b)

Principle set-up of a "piston type"


micropump.
Schematic set-up of the saliva dispensing
micropump of "Graphosoma lineatum".

A micro diaphragm pump with active


valves

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Piezo-Micropumps
Pump structures

A planar peristaltic micropump

Micro diaphragm pump with


piezoelectric actuation
Electrostatically actuated
micro diaphragm pump
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Piezo-Micropumps
Pump structures

Valve-less micro diaphragm pump with


piezoelectric actuation: schematic diagram,
and pumping principle
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Piezo-Micropumps
Pump structures

A compact pump and integrated microvalves


Li et al, 1 of 2
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Volume 11, 2005, pp.325-330

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Piezoelectric accelerometers

Accelerometer structures

A Schematic piezoelectric thin film


micro-accelerometer
Piezoelectric thin film elements are connected in (a) series or (b) in parallel.

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Piezoelectric accelerometers

Accelerometer structures

Applying an acceleration along the z direction, one


piezoelectric layer is compressed while the other is
extended due to the intrinsic mass of each device.

When subjected to applied


acceleration

(a) parallel and (b) serial connection of


the two sensing elements

When subjected to the


temperature change
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Piezoelectric accelerometers

Accelerometer structures

When subjected to the


temperature change

An aluminum case containing the


sensing elements and the electronics
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Piezoelectric shear stress sensor

Sensor structures

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Piezoelectric devices

Optical beam deflector

Schematic of the optical beam deflector. Big arrows indicate the


direction of the polarization of the piezoceramics.

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Piezoelectric resonator

Beam resonators

Sensors and Actuators A: Physical


Volume 118, 2005, pp.63-69

Ferguson and DeVoe

Fundamental resonator mode


shapes from composite
ANSYS analysis: (a) freefree
flexural beam, and (b)
torsional anchor.

Theoretical, finite element, and


experimental resonance
frequencies for fabricated
freefree resonator structures
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Thin film resonators

Thin film resonator

Principle of BAW resonator operation: A longitudinal


standing acoustic wave is excited electrically in a thin
piezoelectric film. The layer thickness of the piezoelectric
film and of the electrodes determines the resonance
frequency of the BAW resonator.
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Thin film acoustic wave resonators

AlN FBAR

XRD pattern of AlN film


Micro-machined FBAR fabrication process flow
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Thin film acoustic wave resonators

Thin film resonator

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Thin film resonator and filter

Thin film resonator and filter

BAW filter principle: the electrical impedance curve of the


parallel resonator p is shifted in frequency relative to the
series resonator s by f=fafr. This creates a band-pass
filter characteristics in S21
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Acoustic wave sensors

QCM for sensors

NO2 gas sensor


BVD equivalent circuit for an unperturbed
AT-cut quartz resonator (a) or modified
BVD equivalent circuit for a loaded ATcut quartz crystal resonator (b).
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Piezoelectric devices

Bimorph beam
splitter

Unimorph
pressure sensor

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Piezoelectric devices

Vibration sensor

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Piezoelectric devices

For surface roughness

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Piezoelectric devices

For AFM cantilever

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Piezoelectric devices

Scanning tunneling microscopy

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Piezoelectric devices

Data read/write cantilever

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Piezoelectric devices
Multilayer actuators

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Piezoelectric devices

Mechanical amplifier

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Piezoelectric devices

Mechanical amplifier

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Piezoelectric devices

Impact drive mechanism using piezoelectric actuator

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Piezoelectric devices

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Piezoelectric devices

A micro gripper using


unimorph actuator

Swimming device

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Piezoelectric devices

A dynamic focusing lens

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Piezoelectric devices

A dynamic focusing lens

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