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SPSS &Surfer Tutorial

Dr.rer.nat. Thomas Putranto

EDA using SPSS

Open your file data.xlxs and copy your data in SPSS data

Check your Variable View

change type to numeric

EDA using SPSS

SCATTER PLOT for checking stationary

EDA using SPSS




Normal Q-Q Plot



Give your files meaningful names!

E.g. dataset_01_invdist_pow2_20140826.grd
Use a well organized folder structure
Dont mess up different file categories: raw data (.xls,.dat,), Surfer files (.grd), cross
validation result files (.dat), krige standard deviation files (.grd),
Do not change file extensions!

General procedure
Check data consistency and plausability!
Make a scatter plot (e.g. in Excel or in Surfer as post map)
Check data point distribution (spatial and statistical)
Decide which interpolation methods could be appropiate
Do a variogram analysis (even if you dont plan to use Kriging)
Interpolate (simple or Kriging) and visualize
Cross-validation / Krige standard deviation and discussion of results

Interpolation start and choose data file

Interpolation via
Grid-> Data

Data selection (e.g. Excel file)

Check Data column assignment

Interpolation General options

Variation of parameters in Advanced


Choose an interpolation method

simple methods like Inverse
Distance, Minimum Curvature,
Radial Basis Function etc.
-> Kriging

Interpolation breaklines and faults

File Containing Fault Traces

-> File in .bln format (see Surfer
Press OK

Definition of faults and breaklines


not possible for all

interpolation methods

Interpolation - Cross-validation (leave one out)

Important: choose interpolation method and respective options

(Advanced Options) first, before starting cross-validation!

Menu Cross Validate

Choose name and location of save
file (.dat)
- Meaningful file name!
Containing e.g. XV
Press OK
Cross-validation will be
conducted (can take a while)

Creation of the grid file Interpolation finish interpolation

Choose filename and location for interpolated grid file (meaningful


Choose Grid Line Geometry (grid resolution, grid extent)

Start interpolation (Press OK)

Create map for cross validation results

Visualize XV residuals as class map

-> Map -> New -> (Classed) Post Map

Be sure to choose the right
column! (residuals in xv
(.dat) result file you saved in
the Cross validate sub menu)
Number of classes
Choose a Binning Method
or better user defined:
define symmetric classes
according to your data range

Calculate RMS from cross validation results

Grid data choose data click cross validate choose a storage location save as .dat

Copy the data into an excel sheet calculate the last column

Geostatistics Experimental semi-variogram

Experimental semi-variogram

-> Grid -> Variogram -> New Variogram

-> Choose data set (e.g. Excel table)
-> OK

Geostatistics Fitting of the math. model

Fitting of a math. Model to the experimental semivariogram

-> Variogram Properties (right click)

-> Model -> Add/remove component

Geostatistics Fitting of the math. model

Fitting of the selected model

-> Select Variogram Component

-> Change parameters scale und length
-> Click Apply to see changes directly in the semi-variogram

Geostatistics Anisotropy
Check data set for anisotropy

Go to tab Experimental

Change Tolerance (e.g. 40) note angle shown in blue color

change Direction by clicking Step CW/Step CCW
see changes in variogram directly

General settings
Max lag distance / Number of lags
Change scale vertically to avoid
flipping of axis scale

Geostatistics Kriging
Kriging Interpolation (after finishing semi-variogram fitting)
Grid -> Data
Gridding Method: Kriging
Advanced Options

Geostatistics Kriging
Choose variogram model
Manual input of variogram model settings (Add, choose type and parameters)
Better: choose existing variogram Get variogram and select one contained in Surfer
project (note: if you have multiple variograms in your project, name them on the left side
of program window)

Geostatistics Kriging

Krige standard deviation

Output Grid of Kriging Standard Deviations
Choose folder and file name (this is only the Krige standard deviation output file in .grd
format, so better put that information in the filename!)


Different possibilities
-> Map -> New

e.g. Contour Map or 3D Wireframe


e.g. filled contours
Properties -> Levels -> click on Fill
Change labeling properties

Stacking of maps
On the object manager
e.g. drag the contour-map into the 3Dmodel section

Stacking of 3D wireframe, contour

map and post Map