for relativity

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 333

for relativity

© All Rights Reserved

- Synthesis of 1-Phenylazo 'sudan 1'
- Physics 73 3rd LE Samplex
- The Ultimate Arciaga
- Physics 73 UPD Syllabus
- Acid Dissociation Constant of Methyl Red
- Chem 31.1 Unknown Analysis Cheat Sheet
- Math 55 LE2 Notes
- Technical Paper - Heat Capacity Ratio
- CHEM 31.1 ex2
- DLRC Chemistry 16 Comprehensive Samplex for Long Exam 2
- Physics 72 Samplex
- Physics 72 Final Exam Set a Draft 3 (With Feeling Answer Key)
- Physics 73 2nd Probset 2nd Sem 13-14
- Physics 73 1st Exam Review
- Physics 72.1 Practical Exam Reviewer
- Physics 73 Problem Set 1
- Synthesis of 1 Phenylazo 2 Naphthol RDR
- Formal Report Chem 31.1
- 01 ProbSet a Answers
- Chem 31.1 Finals Notes

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

An object

in motion, stays in motion.

UP

K E M

frame).

No gravitational force is felt (Earth cannot

be a true IRF, but is approximated as such)

1.2

Newtonian Relativity

This is familiar to you already, recall relative

velocities from Physics 71.

Physics 73

1.3

1.3.1

Special Relativity

First Postulate

of Physics are the same in every inertial reference

frame.

Preface

1.3.2

This handout is intended as a reviewer only and

should not be substituted for a complete lecture,

or used as a reference material. The goal of this

reviewer is to refresh the student on the concepts

and techniques in one reading. But this is more

than enough to replace your notes :)

Second Postulate

all inertial frame of reference and is independent

of the motion of the source.

Examples. Fixed quantities

Numerical value of the speed of light in a

vacuum

Principle of Relativity

1.1

Reference Frames

Newtons First Law of Motion

is simply a coordinate system attached to a particular observer.

which Newtons 1st law is valid

Speed

Time between two events

Physics 73 - 2nd Long Exam

2.1

Kinetic energy

Force

Definition (Spacetime Interval). The interval between two events happening at some points (ta , xa )

and (tb , xb ). The interval, s, is defined by

Electric field

Magnetic field

s2 = t2 x2 = (t0 )2 (x0 )2

1.4

Natural Units

(1)

x = xb xa

To elegantly simplify particular algebraic expressions appearing in the laws of physics (particularly

relativity here), we deal with natural units.

Same unit for space and time

t = tb ta

With the 0 denoting an observation made in another frame of reference. Spacetime interval is invariant, i.e. observations in two different IRFs

has the same spacetime interval.

In natural units, c = 1

vnat =

Flat spacetime

1X

Xnat

=

tnat

c t

Places

(t, x, y, z)

(x, y, z)

invariant interval

invariant distance

s2 = c2 t2 x2

Euclidean space

Events

tnat = ct

Speed is unitless

vs

d2 = x2 + y 2

6.21 1017 m/s

= 0.207

3 108 m/s

2.2

60 s

m

20 min

3 108

= 3.6 1011 m

1 min

s

Spacetime Diagrams

A spacetime diagram is a helpful visual representation of events in spacetime. Note the following:

In one spatial dimension, the vertical axis is

t while the horizontal is x.

in natural units.

A worldline is a curve on the diagram. This

represents the history of events (refer to figure 2.1).

Classifications of spacetime intervals:

has spacetime coordinates (t, x).

Timelike : t2 x2 > 0

Light-like : t2 x2 = 0

Page 2 of 9

Spacellike : t2 x2 < 0

Physics 73 - 2nd Long Exam

Example. Two firecrackers : one blows up 2

years after the other.

event

t

3

firecracker 2

2

worldline

1

firecracker 1

x

Figure 2.1: An example of a spacetime diagram

of light light. That is:

v

<1

c

Denote this ratio . It is related to the inverse of the slope of the worldline in a spacetime diagram. (or the angle between the t

and t0 axis is tan1 )

on a Lab frame. Note that in this reference frame, the two events happened at same

place, x = 0.

whose speed with respect to laboratory is RL = 35

The locus of all event points for a given interval is a hyperbola (figure 2.2).

t0

2

5

3

t

1

x0

k

x

Figure 2.4: Plot of the two events on a Rocket frame moving to the left. Notice that in the lab frame,

the two firecrackers happened in one place.

While in this rocket frame, there is a positive

directed distance from x0 = 0.

connected by a horizontal parabola.

One unit of position in the x and x0 axes are

connected by a vertical parabola.

Page 3 of 9

Physics 73 - 2nd Long Exam

Example. Previous firecrackers on a rocket frame

whose speed with respect to laboratory this time

is RL = + 53

2.3

Relativity of Simultaneity

events are events having the same t-coordinate.

2

Events that are simultaneous in one IRF

may not be simultaneous in another IRF.

53

1

having the same position. These will always

be simultaneous.

x0

(x = 0) should be timelike.

the rocket is moving to the right so the directed distance from the rocket to firecracker

2 is to the left.

with velocity 4/5 wrt lab. Plot the worldline in

the labframe.

(t = 0) should be spacelike.

and B

t

A

t

5

4

A

x0

x

(b) Rocket frame, RL < 0

t0

proton is that we were asked to plot in the lab

frame. In the two previous rockets, we plotted in

the rocket frame given its own relative speed to

A

x0

Remark. You may have noticed that in the proton example, the slope is equal to 1 while in the

two previous rocket examples, the slope is 1 .

Dont be confused.

B

(c) Rocket frame, RL > 0

Figure 2.7: Events A and B are simultaneous in the Lab

frame but not in the Rocket frame.

Page 4 of 9

Physics 73 - 2nd Long Exam

Remark. Suppose youre in a Lab frame and your

friend is in a rocket frame similar to figure 2.7c.

Considering what he saw in the past (event C),

you just saw in the present, what defines past,

present, and future? The next subsection clarifies

the concept of causality.

2.4

affect using light)

2.5

Lorentz Transformation

Weve studied so far the geometric nature of spacetime and the spacetime interval. Now we proceed

with the algebraic treatment.

Light Cones

A light cone is the path that a flash of light, emanating from a single event (localised to a single point in space and a single moment in time)

and traveling in all directions, would take through

spacetime.

on the lab frame is:

t = t0 + RL x0

(2)

x = x0 + RL t0

(3)

y = y0

(4)

future

z = z0

(5)

where

RL : speed of rocket wrt lab

A

sent

he pre

of t

plane

r

e

p

y

h

(6)

: Lorentz factor

1

=p

1 2

(7)

For velocities,

past

concept of causality, summarised below:

Event A can affect other events inside the

future light cone.

Event A can be affected by other events inside the past light cone

Timelike - inside the cones (can affect using

a particle)

Spacelike - outside the cones (not causally

related)

Page 5 of 9

vx =

vx0 +

1 + vx0

(8)

vy =

vy0

1 + vx0

(9)

vz =

vz0

1 + vx0

(10)

above.

The origin of both frames are coincident.

For the inverse Lorentz transformation, replace the primed variables with unprimed

and vice versa, and note RL = LR

At non-relativistic speeds, the transformation reduces to a Galilean transformation.

Physics 73 - 2nd Long Exam

2.6

Synchronisation of Clocks

rulers), measuring time (and position).

by a clock following a world line. The proper time

interval between two events on a world line is the

(unsigned) change in proper time. The proper

time interval is defined by:

p

= t2 x2

(12)

dilation is:

tdilated = p

1 2

it is synchronised, in another it isnt

frame requires knowledge of the distance, D of the

clock from the reference clock, usually the clock

at the origin.

D

(11)

tset =

c

where

(13)

away from each other. You are travelling at

= +0.866 from the House to the Church. Your

bestfriend is situated in the house and is observing

your watch using a telescope. How many minutes

has elapsed in your watch (as seen by your bestfriend) when his has elapsed 50 min?

Using equation (12)

p

= (50)2 (43.31)2

25 min

Using equation (13)

=

c : speed of light

tdilated

50

1.9982

25 min

2.7

Time Dilation

2.8

Time dilation is a difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers moving relative to each other.

Clocks moving at relativistic speeds appear

to run slower than a stationary clock.

Lorentz Contraction

object which is traveling at any non-zero velocity

relative to the observer.

Time dilation is not limited to clocks. Ageing and other biological events dilate too!

Page 6 of 9

shorter along the direction of its motion

compared to its stationary state.

Physics 73 - 2nd Long Exam

Stressing this point again, the dimensions

perpendicular to the direction of motion are

not contracted.

t0

45

l

ig

ht

lin

Definition (Proper length). It is the distance between the two spacelike events, as measured in an

inertial frame of reference in which the events are

simultaneous. It is given by:

p

(14)

= x2 t2

x0

p

1 2

(a) RL > 0

(15)

lin

e

(16)

45

l

ig

ht

L =

Example. A 1 m sword is moving at = 0.866.

What is the contracted length as observed by a

stationary alien.

L =

1 2

p

= (1) 1 0.8662

x0

0.5 m

(b) RL < 0

Figure 2.10: Two-observer spacetime diagrams

2.9

on the lab frame (figure 2.10).

lab is:

OR + RL

OL =

(17)

1 + OR RL

This is called the velocity-addition formula for relativistic speeds.

away from from the t axis.

Draw the x0 axis with an angle = tan1

away from from the x axis.

If < 0, these axes lie on the 2nd and 4th

quadrant respectively (same angle).

2.10.1

hyperbolic tangent function,

tanh OR = OR

tanh RL = RL

2.10

Velocity Transformation

tanh OL = OL

that rocket) that is also moving relative to the lab

Page 7 of 9

tan OL =

tanh OR + tanh RL

1 + (tanh OR )(tanh RL )

Physics 73 - 2nd Long Exam

Note that fapproach > f0 , referred to as blue

shift.

tanh(x + y) =

tanh(x) + tanh(y)

1 + tanh(x) tanh(y)

red shift.

So we conclude that:

OL = OR + RL

(18)

This greatly simplifies the math, as compared to

the velocity-addition formula by Equation (17).

By first getting the velocity parameters in each

reference frames, we just add the two and find

the inverse hyperbolic tangent to get the relative

velocity required.

=

cosh RL =

sinh RL = Rl

fapproach

f0

2

2

1

(24)

+1

Recall c = f

fapproach

f0

Relativistic Momentum

(19)

(20)

stuff. Lol.

The generalisation of momentum is:

p = m

3

3.1

(25)

m is rest mass.

dp

.

Generalising Newtons Second law, use

dt

Not F = ma

when there is a relative motion between the source

(of the wave) and the observer.

Electromagnetic waves travel at c, so we must account for relativistic effects.

3.1.1

(23)

Relativistic energy

principle of conservation of energy are valid.

The generalisation of kinetic energy is:

s

fapproach = f0

3.1.2

1+

1

(21)

s

frecede = f0

1

1+

(22)

Page 8 of 9

K = ( 1)mc2

(26)

m is rest mass.

Applicable only to objects with nonzero

mass.

Lorentz factor should use the velocity of

the object.

Physics 73 - 2nd Long Exam

If velocity of the object is zero, K = 0.

As the velocity approaches infinity, K .

The generalisation of the total energy is then:

E = K + mc2

= mc2

(27)

E 2 = (mc2 )2 + (pc)2

(28)

in natural units,

E 2 = m2 + p2

5.1

(29)

Invariance of Mass

m2 = E 2 p2

This mass is invariant, so for any frame of reference, we have the equation

E 2 p2 = (E 0 )2 (p0 )2

(30)

References

[1] Tatsu Takechi. Synchronization of clocks. online.

[2] Wikipedia. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,

2004.

[3] H.D. Young, R.A. Freedman, and A.L. Ford.

Sears and Zemanskys University Physics:

With Modern Physics. Addison-Wesley, 2012.

Page 9 of 9

- Synthesis of 1-Phenylazo 'sudan 1'Загружено:seryuyuyu
- Physics 73 3rd LE SamplexЗагружено:Miguel Panagsagan
- The Ultimate ArciagaЗагружено:Carlo Jonas Cariño
- Physics 73 UPD SyllabusЗагружено:Rex Angelo Jusayan
- Acid Dissociation Constant of Methyl RedЗагружено:Nece Jean Tagam
- Chem 31.1 Unknown Analysis Cheat SheetЗагружено:Rain Mendoza
- Math 55 LE2 NotesЗагружено:Justin Quintos
- Technical Paper - Heat Capacity RatioЗагружено:datUPstudentdoe
- CHEM 31.1 ex2Загружено:rpableo
- DLRC Chemistry 16 Comprehensive Samplex for Long Exam 2Загружено:kate_acama
- Physics 72 SamplexЗагружено:Anonymous ee5dOj
- Physics 72 Final Exam Set a Draft 3 (With Feeling Answer Key)Загружено:Ronaldyn Dabu
- Physics 73 2nd Probset 2nd Sem 13-14Загружено:Gerald Quiachon
- Physics 73 1st Exam ReviewЗагружено:Marco Conopio
- Physics 72.1 Practical Exam ReviewerЗагружено:Jannel Paet
- Physics 73 Problem Set 1Загружено:continentalfloss
- Synthesis of 1 Phenylazo 2 Naphthol RDRЗагружено:NashDanielSilava
- Formal Report Chem 31.1Загружено:Elah Palaganas
- 01 ProbSet a AnswersЗагружено:Shan Dela Vega
- Chem 31.1 Finals NotesЗагружено:Elah Palaganas
- Expt 9 Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron in Aqueous Solutions as a Complex of 1,10-PhenantЗагружено:Christine Angelica Evangelista
- Lecture Notes in Math 55Загружено:Azel Lai Dominguez Deleon
- ATQ14 CHEM 31.1Загружено:Sheannen Tan
- Quantitative Determination of Dissolved Oxygen Content By Winkler Redox TitrationЗагружено:neesan222
- Chem 31.1 ATQ Experiment 1Загружено:Ying Yang
- Specific Heat RatioЗагружено:Tj Rentoy
- Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron in Aqueous Solutions as a Complex of 1,10-PhenanthrolineЗагружено:Jaimie Loja
- Math 55 Samplex 1Загружено:Madel Tutor
- POST LAB 2Загружено:Shejay Mandaing
- Group1 - RecrystallizationЗагружено:Franco Sison IV

- Never Enough Final-Score and PartsЗагружено:Justin Quintos
- Linear TransformationsЗагружено:Justin Quintos
- Relativity reviewerЗагружено:Justin Quintos
- Math 53 LE 3 Reviewer problemsЗагружено:Justin Quintos
- Math 53 LE 2 ReviewerЗагружено:Justin Quintos
- Math 54 Reviewer problemsЗагружено:Justin Quintos
- Math 55 LE2 NotesЗагружено:Justin Quintos
- Math 55 LE1 Reviewer notesЗагружено:Justin Quintos
- Chemistry 17 ReviewerЗагружено:Justin Quintos

- Design for ShearЗагружено:Muhammad Saqib Abrar
- Aero engineering thermodynamics Question bankЗагружено:murjass85
- workenergyIIЗагружено:Nikhilbel
- Moment of InertiaЗагружено:jack
- Projectile Motion With Air ResistanceЗагружено:Gra Vity
- r15syllabusЗагружено:kpk
- Thermodynamics.pdfЗагружено:Anonymous 9uu04el
- A Brief Introduction to Hydrocode Modeling of Impact CrateringЗагружено:Richard Hilson
- Sample - Physics Form 4 Yearly Lesson Plan 2011Загружено:Hasnor Izwandy Hashim
- JE_Ele_Ba_HxgFSDZ(1)Загружено:basavaraj
- Vibration Lab 4-Mass Spring System b Lab 4Загружено:Fajobi Abeeb
- Chapter 5 WebЗагружено:Gaurav Agarwal
- Structure Assignment FinalЗагружено:Beza Getachew
- SIMPLE DrivenCavityЗагружено:ANLegend91
- L5 ConductionЗагружено:Ronel Mendoza
- 1. Centre PressureЗагружено:Mohd Syafiq Akmal
- Journal of Vibration and Control 2015 1987 98Загружено:Sudarshan Dhua
- 58147251 Design of Plate Frame HeatЗагружено:idalponte
- New Microsoft Office Word DocumentЗагружено:momin76
- Tutorial 14 01Загружено:David Begg
- 1219763712_lgurovic_sec4_pos0Загружено:Karthick Venkatesh
- External ConvectionЗагружено:Jon
- STI0802 Drucker PragerЗагружено:Cristian Camilo Martinez Jimenez
- Advanced Prestress.pptxЗагружено:Naveen B O
- MET-3B.pdfЗагружено:Visakh Radhakrishnan
- Frenet Eq in PhysicsЗагружено:Iberê Souza
- Ch 15-1 Guided ReadingЗагружено:townsenr94
- Arcticle on Tall Building by Niyat PatelЗагружено:Niyat Patel
- AISIWIN V8.0 Manual Clark WesternЗагружено:b_a_prakash
- pin finЗагружено:Rahul Mondal