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Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS)

Primary Survey
*Primary survey: Aim: To find and treat life-threatening condition (within 10 minutes)
Mnemonic : DRS ABCDE
DANGER
-

Assess danger of the surrounding


Wear proper PPE (goggles, mask, glove and apron)

RESPONSE - Tap the shoulder and ask Are you ok,sir/madam/miss?

Sign of
airway
obstructio
n
- Stridor
- Cyanosis

SHOUT FOR HELP/ASK TO PREPARE AIRWAY, BREATHING AND CIRCULATION


Airway: ETT, adjunct airway (OPA/NPA), laryngoscope, stylet etc
Breathing: Oxygen, SpO2
Circulation: Insert two large bore branulas and run 1 L of warm NS, send blood for investigation,
vital signs monitoring (blood pressure, heart rate)
AIRWAY & CERVICAL IMMOBILISATION
- Open airway & suction [remove foreign body, blood, secretion, check gag reflex]; no gag
reflex, insert OPA (use appropriate size to avoid blocking the airway)
*always make sure the cervical spine is protected
*open airway via jaw thrust, chin lift (no head tilt in trauma, prevent cervical spine injury)
*jaw thrust: hand at angle of mandible and lift the mandible forward
- Give O2 [ ~ 10-15L / min ] (can give high flow oxygen via ambu bag mask without positive
pressure ventilation)
*you may check for neck swelling, laceration, haematoma & JVP before any immobilization
device in place
- Protect cervical spine by immobilization [manual inline immobilization, apply cervical collar,
head immobilizer at spinal board]
*cervical collar measured from angle of mandible to base of neck
- Check SpO2
*if normal/acceptable range and airway patent: put HFMO2
*intubate if presence of inhalation injury or other airway compromise
Lethal 6 assessment:
1) Airway Obstruction

LETHAL 6
Airway obstruction
Tension pneumothorax
Open pneumothorax
Massive haemothorax
Flail Chest
Cardiac tamponade

Prepared by Leow Zhe Eu Group 4 Year 5


2014/2015

BREATHING AND VENTILATION


INSPECT Observe breathing, chest movement, Wounds, JVP, Tracheal tug
PALPATE

Tracheal deviation
tension pneumothorax
Chest spring (anterior, lateral)
rib fracture
*Careful if visible chest wound/flail chest
Crepitus
emphysema

PERCUSSION Hyperresonance (pneumothorax) / Dull (haemothorax)


AUSCULTATION - Breath sound. Muffled heart sound in cardiac tamponade with distended
neck vein, hypotension.
Lethal 6 assessment:
Inspection
2) Open pneumothorax
3) Flail chest
Percussion/auscultation
4) Tension pneumothorax
5) Massive hemothorax
Auscultation
6) Cardiac tamponade

Tension pneumothorax
S : Tracheal deviation
: Reduce chest expansion
: Reduce air entry
: Hyperresonance
: Dyspnoea & tachypnea
: Hypotension
: Mediastinal shift
Mx: Needle thoracocentesis
immediately (temporary
measure)
*2nd ICS, mid-clavicular line
*Green needle and above
: Chest tube (definitive)

Open pneumothorax
S: Bubbling at wound site
: Open wound >2/3 of
trachea size or 2 cm [N=
~3cm]

Mx: 3-sided occlusive


dressing
(temporary)
: Chest tube (definitive)

Massive haemothorax
S: : Reduce breath sound
: Unequal chest rise
: Dull percussion
Blood drained
: 300ml/h for 2 hours
: 200ml/h for 3 hours
: 600ml / 6 hours
: 600ml / 1 hour
: 1.5L one go
clamp chest tube if more 1L
for tamponade effect, prevent
further blood loss,
decompression acute
pulmonary oedema
*200-300ml blunt
costophrenic angle in CXR

Prepared by Leow Zhe Eu Group 4 Year 5


2014/2015

Mx: Chest tube insertion


: Refer cardiothoracic
Flail chest
S: > 2 segmental # with > 2
ribs
*may injure lung parenchyma
Mx: Analgesia
(morphine/fentanyl
infusion)
*BP lowfentanyl
*NO NSAIDS > bleeding risk
: Oxygen
: Chest tube if indicated

Cardiac tamponade
S : Becks triad
-Hypotension
-Elevated JVP
-Muffled heart sound

Extras
Intra-pleural pressure
:Inspiration = ~ -8 mmHg
:Expiration = ~ -5 mmHg

Mx: Pericardiocentesis
(ultrasound-guided vs blind)
*withdraw about 50-80ml
A: Left lateral subxiphoid
*gray needle and above or
angiocath
: Aim 45o to tip of left
shoulder
: Advance with continual
aspiration
: if ECG shows ST
changes/artifact,
pull back as needle is
touching myocardium

Pathophysiology
1) Tension pneumothorax
- T.P. Compress or distort large vessels in the thorax Decrease Cardiac output
Hypotension
2) Cardiac tamponade
- Right ventricle affect first due to low pressure system
- Pericardial fluid accumulates and impedes RV Decrease venous return
Decrease preloadDecrease CO
-

CIRCULATION AND HAEMORRHAGE CONTROL


Insert 2 large bore IV branula and run 1 L of warm NS
Check BP and HR
Blood for investigation
Look for source of bleeding Scalp (check using hand swipe)
- Facial fracture
- Neck swelling, haematoma, laceration
- Chest (done in breathing)

Blood loss
# UL 1-2 L
# LL 2-3 L
# Hip 3-4 L
# pelvic drain all
blood

Prepared by Leow Zhe Eu Group 4 Year 5


2014/2015

Abdomen (distended/tender)FASTif massive


intraabdominal bleeding, get GXM 4 pint PC, DIVC regime,
refer surgery
Genitalia (begin with pelvic spring, blood in external meatus,
perineum)
Check for #, open bleeding, feel for pulse
Upper limbs
volume and hand swipe for posterior part,
Lower limbs
(also check posterior part of trunk during
log roll)

*scalp bleed a lot due to presence of vessels and loose tissue/no tamponade effect
hypovolemic shock Mx: Hemostatic Suture
- STOP bleeding Compression [ technique: spiral or figure of 8 ]
- Suture if at scalp
- Torniquet if amputated limb/unsalvageable or 30mins for severe bleed
(* Cx: Damage blood vessels; limb ischaemia, Rhabdomyolysis Renal
failure)

Priapism: spinal injury vessels cant vasoconstrict (symphatetic


disruption) pooling of blood priapism
Destot sign: Scrotal/perineal haematoma indicating pelvic #

DISABILITY AND NEUROLOGICAL


- GCS (done in primary survey according to ATLS 7th Edition) GCS 8, prepare for intubation for
cerebral protection during 2 survey if no airway/ventilation problem)
- Pupil
*Constricted: bleeding at pons causing irritation affect craniosacral outflow (parasympathetic)
at pons CN III constriction
*Fixed, dilated: brain death
Bleeding no blood supply to pons pons dead no inhibition from parasympathetic
outflow Increase in sympathetic activation (thoracolumbar outflow) fixed, dilated
EXPOSURE AND ENVIRONMENT
- Look and treat for injury
- Log-roll to check posterior Head/scalp
- Spine (tenderness, stepping sign)
- Laceration wound/ open pneumothorax at back
- Bleeding/ hematoma (may suggest retroperitoneal bleed)
- Muscle tear
- Do Per-rectal Anal tone, High riding prostate, bleeding
Decrease anal tone spinal cord injury loss of anal sphincter lumbosacral
injury
Prepared
by Leow
Eu Group
4 Year 5
If lax, proceed with bulbocavernous reflex
[tugging
on anZhe
indwelling
Foley
2014/2015
catheter ]

- Maintain temperature Blanket, give warmer to prevent hypothermia prevent coagulopathy

ADJUNCT (can be done at any time during primary survey)

2+2+2+2

2 Tubes

: Ryles tube (via mouth, do not insert via nose in suspected skull/facial bone #)
: CBD (do not insert in suspected urethral injury refer Uro, may need SPC)

2 Imaging

: Chest
: Pelvic
: *Cervical if suspected (AP, lateral (swimmers view)

2 Investigations

: ECG
: FAST (Focused Assessment with Sonography of Trauma)

2 Drugs : Anti-tetanus toxoid (2 drugs not included in primary survey but still important)
: Analgesia

LETHAL TRIAD OF TRAUMA


ACIDOSIS
HYPOTHERMIA

cause decrease myocardial contractility


- Hypoxia/tissue hypoperfusion is the No. 1 cause of acidosis
- Disrupt cellular metabolism (<36.2C), causing coagulopathy
- usually iatrogenic (cold ER, saline)

COAGULOPATHY - Transfuse blood/packed cell if massive bleeding


- DIVC Regime
: 4 Fresh frozen plasma (all coagulation factors)
: 4 platelet concentrates (some center only give if platelet <50)
: 6 cryoprecipitates (contain labile factors eg F 5,8,13)
-give IV Tranexamic acid 1g if no contraindication

Prepared by Leow Zhe Eu Group 4 Year 5


2014/2015

Secondary Survey: Examine from head to toe


also look for HIDDEN 6 (PATMET)
PULMONARY CONTUSION
Mechanism
Signs
Investigations
Management

Blunt trauma direct impact or # ribs(flail chest) haemorrhage into


lung parenchyma HYPOXEMIA ( worsen over 24-48 hours )
- Haemoptysis
- Blood in ET tube
- Chest Xray findings delayed (can take up to 5 hours post injury)
- Contrast-enhanced CT scan
Mild : Oxygen
: Analgesia
: Aggressive pulmonary toilet
Severe : Mechanical ventilation
: Prevent fluid overload pulmonary edema/ARDS

AORTIC DISRUPTION
Mechanism
Signs
Investigations
Management

- Automobile collision
- Fall from great height
- BP discrepancy between left and right arm/ UL & LL
- Widened pulse pressure
- Chest wall contusion
- Erect Chest X-ray widened mediastinum
- Immediate open operative intervention
- Conservation(for physiologically unstable patient eg trauma elsewhere)
- Control systolic pressure > 100 mmHg

TRACHEOBRONCHIAL DISRUPTION
Mechanism
Signs
Investigations
Management

Severe subcutaneous emphysema with respiratory compromise


- Large air leak at chest tube
- Collapse lung fail to re-expand
Diagnostic bronchoscopy
Intubation of unaffected bronchus operative repair

Prepared by Leow Zhe Eu Group 4 Year 5


2014/2015

MYOCARDIAL CONTUSION
Mechanism
Signs
Investigations
Management

Blunt cardiac injury


- Chest pain
- Palpitation
- Hypotension/ hypoxia
- 12-lead ECG to monitor for 24 hrs for dysrhythmias
- ECHO
- Cardiac markers
Haemodynamic stabilisations

ESOPHAGEAL TRAUMA
Mechanism
Signs

Investigations
Management

Penetrating injuries
- Odynophagia
- Subcutaneous/mediastinal emphysema
- Pleural effusion
- Retro-esophageal air
- Unexplained fever in 24 hours
Esophagram in decubitus position + esophagoscopy
Operative

TRAUMATIC DIAPHRAGMATIC RUPTURE


Mechanism
Signs

Investigations
Management

- Stab wound below nipple line


- Blunt diaphragm rupture often miss due to associated injuries
*normal expiration diaphragm rise up to 5th ICS
- Difficulty in breathing
- Tracheal deviation
- Asymmetrical chest expansion
- Absence of breath sound dt lung displacement
- Bowel sound during auscultation over chest
- CXR after NG tube insertion
- CT scan
Operative repair

CREDITS
I would like to express our gratitude and appreciation to Dr Ariff Arithra and Dr Junainah
Nor for their guidance and teachings throughout resuscitation week for Year 5 2014/2015.
Special thanks to Tan Chung Yung from Group 5 for his assistance in preparing these
notes. Thanks to all who had assisted directly and indirectly.
Prepared by Leow Zhe Eu Group 4 Year 5
2014/2015

Prepared by Leow Zhe Eu Group 4 Year 5


2014/2015