You are on page 1of 217

Rochester Institute of Technology

RIT Scholar Works


Theses

Thesis/Dissertation Collections

6-1-1989

Modal analysis of a robot arm using the finite


element analysis and modal testing
Shashank C. Kolhatkar

Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarworks.rit.edu/theses


Recommended Citation
Kolhatkar, Shashank C., "Modal analysis of a robot arm using the finite element analysis and modal testing" (1989). Thesis. Rochester
Institute of Technology. Accessed from

This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Thesis/Dissertation Collections at RIT Scholar Works. It has been accepted for inclusion
in Theses by an authorized administrator of RIT Scholar Works. For more information, please contact ritscholarworks@rit.edu.

Modal Analysis of a Robot Arm


Using The Finite Element Analysis
and Modal Testing

SHASHANK C. KOLHATKAR
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment
of the
Requirements for the Degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE
in
Mechanical Engineering
Rochester Institute of Technology
Rochester, New York
June 1989

Approved by :

Dr. Richard G. Budynas (Advisor)

Dr. Joseph S. Torok

Dr. Wayne W. Walter

.......
Dr. Bhalchandra V. Karlekar
(Professor and Department Head)

Title of the Thesis

'Modal Analysis of A Robot Arm'

I Shashank C. Kolhatkar hereby grant permission to


the Wallace Memorial Library of R.I.T. to reproduce
my thesis in whole or in part. Any reproduction will
not be for commercial use or profit.
Dated

Title

the Thesis

of

Shashank C.

Kolhatkar

the Wallace Memorial

my thesis
not

be

Dated

for

:
.

in

'Modal Analysis

whole

or

commercial

t/i/si

hereby

Library
in
use

of

part.

or

grant

A Robot

permission

R.I. T.

Any

of

to

to

reproduce

reproduction

profit.

Arm'

will

Abstract

The

objective

modal

UNIMATION five
was

NASTRAN
used

testing

the

size

its

free-free

and

first

large, it
error.

from
was

For

Assurance

discussed.

Hence

only for

of

of

Criterion

The

behavior.

This

structure.

The

element

method

patterns

of

mode

for

which

and

deflection

done

Also,

of

in

was

by

due

to

testing

could

be

are

seen

i i

supported

then

compared.

the

showed

showed

33%

of

seems

computational

less than 10%. The

technique
of

of

called

mode

showed

between

the

Modal

shapes
an

nonlinearities

discrepancies

modal

its

observation

shapes

mode

the

reflect

Due to

to test it in

possible

analyses

correlation

numerical

Measurement

frequencies

could

variation

NASTRAN.

instrumentation

were

the

natural

shapes.

probably

causes

analyses

was

experimental

was

not

the

display

with

Although the difference

shapes

mode

to

hammer.

and

tested

was

The

mode

one

was

both

the modes, the

animated

it

it

from

33%.

to

post-processor was

Kjaer's

&

element

Corporation's

Structural

accelerometer

structure

modes

1%

and

subsequently

using

from the two

results

most

comparison

displayed

the

Schwendler
pre-

Bruel

and

correspondence.

one-to-one

deviation

performed

condition.

thirteen

and

The finite

model.

MacNeai

analyzer,
of

weight

The

condition.

as

of

A PUMA

methods.

the analysis was done

after

software

study the technique

to

experimental

used

model

was

spectrum

and

using

the

shapes

STAR

including

was

Intergraph's Rand Micas

mode

Systems'

work

robot was

performed

code.

modal

The

axis

discretize

to

animated

The

present

using theoretical

analysis

analysis

the

of

the

is

erratic

in

the

finite

discussed in the text. Similar

in the two

analyses.

Acknowledgements

This

is dedicated to my

work

Chandrakant

Kolhatkar
it

encouragement
career.

will

done for

me.

Kaka

and

also

who are

with

influenced

my future

Thank

Dr.Torok

reviewing my

My

hardware

helping

out

me

Finally, my
diversions
of

the

past

and

special

when

two

me when

for seeing

My way

smile.

logical

be

gratitude

my

and

great

of

me

in my

day

need

them!

through this thesis

systematic
source

have

Maoshi

towards

thinking is very

Dr. Walter for spending

smile

thanks
was

years

appreciate

Foley

and

used

with

and

of

much

approach

to

inspiration

in

career.

I really

work.

help

much

will

thanks to Dan

sincere

B&K

and

You

developing

you

there to

very

support

to see this

possible

Shri.

and

to you both for everything you

express

in-depth,

your

problems.

solve

you

patience

by

to

want

constant

whose

been

not

grateful

always

Dr. Budynas, thank


research

be

always

without

have

would

Sau. Rohini Kolhatkar

parents

to

to

our

so

David

own

got

valuable

spent with

will

you.

1 1

time

understanding.

all

the

Hathaway

help

for

with

always

into trouble.

my friends for providing

all

working.

being

Bruel & Kjaer for

of

when

your

your

always

cherish

the

constant
memories

Table

of

Contents

Page

List

of

Tables

List

of

Figures

List

of

Symbols

1.

vii

viii

Introduction

1.1

General Concepts

Motivation

Modal

.2

.3

.4

.3.1

Testing
Applications

Modal

of

Testing

Finite Element Method


1.4.1

Range

of

Applications

of

the Finite Element

Method
1
1
1

.5

1.6

.4.2

.4.3

10

Advantages
Limitations

Comparison

of

of
of

the Finite Element Method

11

the Finite Element Method

11

the Experimental

and

Finite Element

Modal Analysis

12

Mathematical Concepts

15

.6.1

Equations

of

Motion for Single Degree

of

Freedom System
1

.6.2

Equations
of

of

17

Motion for Linear Multiple Degree

Freedom Systems

18

1.6.3

Decoupling

the Equations

Motion

21

1.6.4

Formulating

the Eigenvalue Problem

23

IV

of

Page
2.

Finite Element Analysis


2.1

MSC/NASTRAN

2.2

Finite Element

2.3

2.4

3.

Using

MSC/NASTRAN

28
28

With NASTRAN

Modeling

31

2.2.1

Executive Control Deck

31

2.2.2

Case Control Deck

32

2.2.3

Bulk Data Deck

34

Dynamic Analyis

Using

NASTRAN

36

2.3.1

Inverse Power Method

37

2.3.2

Given's Triadiagonal Method

39

2.3.3

Modified Givens Method

41

Dynamic Reduction

42

2.4.1

Guyan Reduction

43

2.4.2

Generalized Dynamic Reduction

45

2.5

Selection

of

Eigenvalue Extraction Method

48

2.6

Selection

of

Dynamic Reduction Method

49

Experimental Modal Analysis


3.1

3.2

Modal Analysis

and

Related instrumentation

51

51

3.1.1

Vibration Exciters

53

3.1.2

Hammer

55

3.1.3

Accelerometer

57

3.1.4

Dual Channel FFT Analzer

61
62

Curvefitting
3.2.1

Properties

3.2.2

SDOF

of

the Nyquist Plot

Curvefitting

65
68

Page

3.2.3

3.2.4
3.3

4.

Modal

Modeling

3.2.2. 1

Peak Amplitude Method

68

3.2.2.2

Circle Fit Method

71

MDOF

Curvefitting

3.2.3.1

Extension

3.2.3.2

General MDOF

73
of

the SDOF Method

Curvefitting

Autofitting

Testing

and

73
75
76

Procedure

77

Results

84

4.1

Background

4.2

Procedure to Create

4.3

Finite Element

4.4

Modeling

4.5

Results

of

the Finite Element Analysis

1 03

4.6

Results

of

Experimental Modal Analysis

109

4.7

Comparison

4.8

Integration

and

Assumptions

Modeling

for Modal

of

of

and

Analyze the NASTRAN Model


of

the Robot

Testing

87

93

Testing

Experimental

Modal

84

102

and
and

Analytical Results

115

FEM

121

References

123

Appendixes
Appendix A

MSC/NASTRAN Cards Used in the Modal Analysis

Appendix B

MSC/NASTRAN Data File

Appendix C

Modal

Appendix D

Mode Shapes from the Finite Element Analysis

Appendix E

Mode Shapes from Modal

Appendix F

FORTRAN Program for 'MAC Calculations

Testing Coordinate

VI

and

Display Sequence Data

Testing

List

of

Tables

Page

Table

.1

Comparison
Modal

of

the Finite Element Modal Analysis

and

13

Testing

2.1

Comparison

4.1

Natural

of

Dynamic Reduction Methods

Frequency

Results from Finite Element Analysis

using NASTRAN
42
4.3

Natural Frequencies

Comparison
Analysis

and

of

50

106
obtained

from Modal

Testing

113

the Results from the Finite Element

Modal

116

Testing

VII

List

of

Figures

Figure

.1

Page

Procedures for the Finite Element

and

Experimental

Modal Analysis
1

.2

Single Degree

14

of

Freedom System

1.3

Multiple Degree

2.1

NASTRAN Punch Cards

3.1

Constructional Details

3.2a

Time

3.2b

Frequency

3.3

Constructional Details

3.4

Mounting Methods

3.5

Properties

3.6

Peak Amplitude Method

3.7

Circle

3.8

Schematic

3.9

Analyzer

3.10

STARGATE

3.1 1

Driving Point

History

of

of

Freedom System
Data Decks

30

Hammer

of

56

of

56

the Pulse

of

56

Accelerometer

59

for Accelerometer

60

Modal Circle

of

of

and

19

Impact Force Pulse

Spectrum

Fitting

17

of

67

SDOF Curve

FRF Data

72

the Experimental

Setup

70

Fitting

Setup

for

to Measure FRF in the

Modal Test

Frequency

Domain

79
80
81

Measurement in the

Frequency

and

Time
83

Domains
PUMA UNIMATE Robot Arm

4.1

Picture

4.2

Graphic Model Of the Robot

4.3

Various Views

4.4

Features

4.5

Finite Element Model

of a

of

of

86

the Graphic Model

the RAND MICAS Preprocessor


of

85

the Robot

VIII

88
89
90

Figure

Rage

4.6

Various Views

4.7

Features

of

the Finite Element Model

in RAND MICAS for

of

Applying

Loads

91
and

Boundary Conditions

92

4.8

Features

94

4.9

Finite Element Mesh for the Base

4.10

Isometric View

the RAND MICAS Postprocessor

of

of

the Mesh for Two

96

Intersecting

Cylinders

97

4.1 1

Front View

of

the Mesh for Two

4.12

Front View

of

the Main Arm

4.13

Finite Element Mesh

4.14

RAND MICAS Model for Modal

4.1 5

The

4.16a

The Experimental

Setup

110

4.16b

The Experimental

Setup

111

"STAR"

at

Intersecting Cylinders

100

the Main Arm and Forearm Joint

Testing

Model for the Robot Arm

Apppendix

A.1

Details

of

A.2

Details

of

the Bar Element

the TRIA3

and

98

QUAD4 Elements

IX

101
104

105

List

[A]

Residue

Ajk

jktn

c,[C]

Damping

F(t), F(co)

External

FSW

Restoring

Mass

H(co), h(co)

Frequency

hjk(co)

Element in the

Tl

Damping

[I],

or modal constant matrix

element of the residue matrix

constant or

or applied

damping

force

Identity

response

the

system

spring

jth

function

row and

ktn

matrix

column of

[L]

Lower triangular factor

Eigenvalue

or stiffness matrix

or mass matrix

force

N(t)

Generalized

modal

q(t)

Generalized

coordinate or generalized

Q(t)

Generalized

external

Laplace

co

[u], [u]r

matrix

matrix

Stiffness

u,

FRF

factor

k,[K]

Mass

matrix

normalized eigenvector

V-1

[M]

on

force induced in

m,

Symbols

of

Modal

matrix

force

variable

matrix or mode shape matrix

Frequency

of vibration

displacement

List

cor,

con

Natural

of

frequency

x(co)

Response

PFj]

Generalized

[]

'

]"

[
]"

Transpose
'

'

Inverse
'

Symbols (continued)

of

the system

the system to

of

excitation

modal coordinates matrix

of a matrix

of a matrix

Transpose

of

inverse

First derivative

of a

Second derivative

of a matrix

quantity

of a

quantity

DOF

Degree

FEM

Finite Element Method

FFT

Fast Fourier Transform

FRF

Frequency

MDOF

Multiple Degree

SDOF

Single Degree

Im

Imaginary

Re

Real

of

w.r.t

time

w.r.t.time

Freedom

Response Function
of

of

Freedom

Freedom

part of a complex number

part of a complex number

XI

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1

The

GENERAL CONCEPTS

of

study

with

or

structures

their

systems

Hence

take

place

forces, in the

system

under

frequencies.

some

when

Vibration that takes


called
system

forced
is

of

frequencies

of

and

to

bodies

of

engineering
in

vibrations

requires

vibrations

system
of

their

consideration

of

place

to

large

under

When

vibrate

the system,

is

oscillates

at

are

to

the

its

forced.
the

Free

action

are

of

condition

of

may

and
a

natural

dynamical
stiffness

major

with

external

is

excitation

of

its

design

to dynamic forces.

excitation

the

of

the

of

mass

excitation

the

oscillations

more

or

frequencies

coincides

one

exposed

at

and

under

properties

due

Natural

free

externally impressed forces. The

vibrates

structure

excitation

dangerously

of

configuration

vibration.

forced

frequency

All

forces.

applied

generally

frequencies

damping.

and

consideration

motion

oscillatory

subjected

absense

vibration

Natural

of

distribution

free

when

internal

system

are

two general classes

are

vibrations

of

design

their

the

behavior.

oscillatory

There

influence

the

and

operation.

involves

vibrations

without

the

If

the

of

resonance

In

oscillatory,

frequency.

one

result.

forces is

the

natural

is encountered,

the

past,

failures

of

large structures like bridges,

some

because

occured

frequencies is

All

of

vibrating

because

energy

the

damping

dissipated

by

friction

major

made

limiting

the

some

degree

and

other

internal

little

basis

cannot

natural

vibrations.

hence the
the

on

the

to

has very

and

damping

of

in

role

it

small,

be

can

However, the importance


plays

is

the system,

of

frequencies

natural

of

to

damping

of

calculation

subject

are

the natural frequencies

the

have

airplanes

and

importance in the study

major

If the

resistances.

Thus,

resonance.

systems

the

of

of

buildings

be

influence

on

calculations

for

of

no

damping.

amplitude

oscillation

of

it

as

overlooked,

at

resonance.

The

number

motion

free
of

of

of

a system

particle

freedom.

A
of

Furthermore,

coordinate

degrees
may be

is

position

has

and

continuous

positions

to

motion
six

three

elastic

required

to

freedom

of

of

in

space

degrees

body

describe its

assumed to

be rigid,

dynamically

equivalent

Oscillatory

systems

For

linear

and

to one

can

be

systems

the

motion;

having finite

the

its

parts

classified
of

three

orientation.

infinite

hence

degrees

principle

the

the system. A

freedom,

an

may be

system

broadly

of

requires

describe

has three degrees

defining

angles

freedom. However, in many cases,

of

nonlinear.

general

body

rigid

coordinates

the degrees

called

undergoing

components

of

independent

number

it has

infinite

such

bodies

of

considered
of

as

to be

freedom. t19l

linear

superposition

and

holds,

there

and

is

developed

well

differential

equations

analysis

nonlinear

systems

systems

tend

of

All

apply.

amplitude

of

of

The idea
which

R.I.T.

of

structures.

use

computer

manufacturing

assembly

line

robot
of

robot

create

resonance
position.
weld

on

structure

are

high

for

The

precision

The

both

motors

in

to

it.

detrimental

effects

due

cause

undesired

known, the

area.
robot

of

of

might

natural

of

an

the

turning

in assembly
A

typical

frequencies
a

motor,

vibrations.

circuit

it

For

board,

its desired

throw a bead of

frequencies

operated

the

and

on

while

chip from

If

be

robots

natural

resonant

robot

could

of

frequency

in

automobile

accuracy.

the

and

There is

vibrations

welding
the

the

and

to

misplacement

example,

of

of

the

situated

accuracy

in the assembly

robot

role

If any

by

and

analysis

design

study.

function

precision

excited

using

in

modal

the

arm

case

especially

industries.

in

robot

for the

used

production.

six

another

an

due

components.

various

importance

is

could

As

of

structure

while

example,

introduced

also

are

Unimate

today,

critical

very

was

robots

requires

has four to

the

could

of

volumes

is

robots

Puma

laboratory

robotics

large

between

increasing

an

extensive

out

Nonlinearities

increasing

with

assuming

analysis

nonlinear

the

difficult to

and

this work was to study the technique of

of

is

become

to

known,

well

their

for

techniques

contrast,

less

are

connections

MOTIVATION

In

motion.

oscillation.

the complexity

1.2

of

handle

to

theory

mathematical

to

avoid

of

the

these

frequencies.
natural

Otherwise,

frequencies

Although in the
of

the

robot

problems

Modal

analysis

shapes

1.

In

of

Fourier

determination

or

be

could

of

as

used

and

deduced from
process

of

finite

the

data

to

modeled

by

and

elements.

and

the

and

and

numerically

are

residues.

and

polynomial

compared
associated

The

damping
Thus

residues.

Fast

obtained

then
the

many
a

using

is

implements

In this

method,

the

large

number

of

Appropriate

model

at

is

mode

be

can

it is

analysis.

and

into

structure

using

determine

frequencies

problems.

it

curves

mode

response

curvefitted

of

parameters

method

dividing

elastic

applied

for

model

experimentally

parameters

natural

measured

FRF to

of

modal

modal

vibration

are

equations

acquisition

element

approach

of

is

testing,

the

and

The

Functions

as

modal

structure

forms

series

values

or

analyzer.

resulting

known

coefficients

range.

frequencies

natural

frequencies

natural

excitation

the

Response
The

analysis

known

standard

shapes

modal

Transform

functions.

then

study the interest in the

throughout

Frequency

defined

frequency

operating

the

shift

in the field.

with

locations

The

the

to

modified

the structure can be done in two different ways

vibrated

2.

from

be

could

purely academic, it

experimental

with

structure

away

present

was

actual

the

boundary

analyzed

using

theoretical
structure

is

theoretically

conditions

finite

are

element

This

analysis.

method

Damping

structure.

is

the

for

damping

simplicity

The accuracy

of

the

represents

it

times

many

results
real

is

depends

obtained

Modeling

structure.

the analyst play very important

In

the

present

determine the

here

made

correlated

to

by

corresponding
comparison

two

the

and

both

assumptions

The

chapters.

approaches

and

structure

mode

Modal

the

are

limitations

is

and

correlated

The

modes.

analysis.

how close the


and

model

experience

of

are

The

in

an

mention

must

not

exact

since

be

effort

is
are

in

the

are compared

to

frequencies

their

Criteria

used

the robot arm

of

shapes

results.

shapes

to

the

appproaches,

Assurance

assumed

in

approaches

mode

deviation

such

Hence,

components.

skills

mentioned

percentage

value

roles.

different

entirely

obtain

discussed in further
that

above

frequencies

natural

Using

structure.

the

work,

on

the

it is very difficult to

considered

not

of

its

and

structure

various

with

shapes

mode

In general,

model.

associated

and

the

of

property

has to be inputted in the


estimate

frequencies

gives

values

by

direct

(MAC)
made

they

visual

technique
of

the fact

involve

many

as,

linear

have

stiffness

and

damping

properties.

2.

The resulting displacements

3.

The modeling

of

4.

The

of

errors.

process

boundary

are

assumed

conditions

measurement

of

is

the

to be very small.

not exact.
response

involves

some

1.3

MODAL TESTING

For

smooth

structure

in

many

excessive

that the

The

accelerometers

and

objective
or

of

modal

was

used with

on

an

If

vibration

one

few

of

of

the

phenomena

type

called

its

with

then

using

done

under

is

testing

and

testing

of

components

mathematical

In

or

analysis

other

the

of

using

it is

words,

structures

description

detailed

comprising

subsequent

Modal Testing.

known

measured

accurate

very

with

the

their

dynamic

STAR

software

behavior.

testing, Structural Measurement

For

runs

analyzers.

and

testing

obtaining

oscillatory

is

vibrated

is

This

acquisition

is

response

conditions,

result.

involving

process

are

frequencies

vibrations

many

structure

spectrum

curvefitting techniques is
a

corresponding

will

data

response

structural

vibrations

There

controlled.

understand

study,

controlled

information

of

design

Hence it is important

(natural)

resonant

in the

practice.

experimental

excitation.

to

and

major

Resonant

discomfort.

and

vibrations

Vibrations is

applications.

monitored

the

methods

in

encountered

closely

noise

level be

any machine, the

minimum.

Experimental study

reliable

an

of

engineering

determine

to

structure.

In

operation

motion,

vibration

methods

most

safe

be kept to

must

limitation
create

and

t2l

IBM

Bruel & Kjaer 2032 dual

PC/AT

and

is interfaced

Systems'

channel
with

FFT

the

analyzer.

spectrum

STAR

analyzer

using GPIB

impact

interfacing

the

structure

accelerometer to

The

driving

the

affect

tip

frequency

mounted

to

compared

response

the

on

mass

was

excite

are

to

applications

In

use.

transfer

the

and

to which the

the cases,

all

mathematical

The

structure

This

many

put

matrix.

model

the

of

1. Modal

function

applied

applications

testing

frequencies

and

theoretical

developed

For
used

stud

Thus
A

it

was

did

not

rubber

soft

in

the

at

lower

the

is

excitation

is

most

using

finite

finite

element

shapes

is

transfer

the

function

chapter

to

used
of

test
to

undertaken

function
of

response

of

the

frequency
modal

on

the

estimate.

or

any

exact

This

verify

structure

necessary

elements

model,

is very difficult to

the

by

as

the

modal

is

of

test

ratio

widely

This

analysis.

modal

from

co.

testing.

this technique are listed below. W

of

mode

results

represented

theory is discussed further in

Some

4369

range.

There

resonances

APPLICATIONS OF MODAL TESTING

obtain

B&K

the structure.

of

structure.

1.3.1

may be

to

used

accelerometer

structure.

the

of

the

of

was

with

structure

the

of

to

used

and

response

mass

characteristics

hammer

the

of

was

up the

pick

hammer

excitation

For this problem, the

point.

insignificant

known

with

subsequently

accelerometer

A B&K 8202

software.

to

amount

model

the

analytical

of

can

natural

obtained

validate

other

the

model

method.

to

be

modified

by

damping
be

by

using

the

mathematical

Thus,

results.

further

finite

the

transient

measurements

causes

of

be

be

for

used

analysis.

The

insure

good

model

experimental

between

experimental

to

obtained

the

and

discrepancies

any

response

carefully

theory

the

then

can

model

harmonic

should

between

correlation

element

or

from

developed

model

them

so

be

can

that

easily

determined.
2. Modal

testing

can

be

Components

product.

tested

separately
developed

by

incorporated

used

their

into

the

In

substructuring
to

accurate

model

3. A
of

different
force

application

forces

by

caused

process

by

description

the
of

the

model

model

The

components

and

problems

process,

the

component

transfer

used

arise

is

forces

combined

functions
process

the

is very

structure

itself be derived from

of

and

can

be
be

be

can

simplified.

be

may

effects.

A very

test

is that

modal

knowledge

desired

Here,

with

so

it is
via

but
a

the

direct

solution

is

the

mathematical

response

in

order

to

to the accuracy

essential

of

of

structure

sensitive

measurements

be

tested

measurements

whereby
are

the

possible.

not

structures

where

is

vibration

be

then

can

can

can

analysis.

incorporating

Situations

for the

of

assembled

model

study the

and

in this type

also

forces

deduce the forces. This


of

mathematical

elements

causing
these

of

measurement

precise

structure

an

assembly

complex

required

determination.

dynamic

offered

is

an

Thus

improve the

modified

in

unreachable

assembly.

into their basic

of

substructuring

substructuring.

broken
the

are

which

and

for

modal

that the

test.

1.4

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

The

finite

element

whose

active

period

of

of

regions

stresses
often

structural

(the

described

The basic concept

be

can

structure)

finite

by

modeled

separate

in

chosen

finite

being
the

finite

The

method

that

of

composed

behavior

is

element

finite

systems
method

assembly
irregular

in

of

of

approach

the

is

by

directly

still

equations.

in

suitability

and

solution

complex

process

for

and

structures

The

is

behavior

differential
to

of

equation,

the

is

are

described

the

of

the
the

approximate

heterogeneous,

forms in

differential

formation

special

each

of

which

equation,

automation

loading

and

solution

advantages

in the ability to

and

into

the

applicable.

the

requires

total

functions

of

If the

structure

to

representing the

sets

approach

distinct

(the

behavior

the

which

These

structural

applied

subdivision

continuity

total

separate

method

its

an

its

short

relatively

when

functions

single

procedure

continuum

by

continuum.

algebraic

reside

and

ensures

by

If

described

of

region.

method,

that

assumed

represents

many

the

each

complete

equation.

element
of

that

characterized

element

solution

set

form

behavior throughout the


is

is

for

pursued

analytically

elements)

numerical

analytical

of

analysis,

displacements in that

or

structure

an

development has been

time.

problems

is

method

I14l

of

the

the

equation

represent

conditions.

of

of

highly

The

finite

using

element

MacNeal-Schwendler

have

a good

Rand Micas,

is

which

Intergraph CAD
to scale

Corporation's

preprocessor or a

system.

meshed

with

graphic

various

creates

analysis

is

data file
in

done

of

is done in Rand Micas


the

numerical

1.4.1

results

the
the

by
into

of

use

the finite

of

categories

For the

the

of

applications

solution

necessary
perhaps

thermal
problems

to

the

of

find

in

element
on

consists

finite

fluid

file

graphic

capability.

analysis

modal

mode

of

observation

loader program,

the nature of the


of

equilibrium

the

can

method

the

element

problems

shapes

by

converting

be divided

into three

distribution

for

mechanics,

it

10

known

in

for

the

is

solid

solution

to

of

majority

category.

mechanics,

given

necessary

solved.

equilibrium

into this

stress

or

to be

as

The

fall

method

problems

Similarly,

problem

problems.

displacements

temperature

loading.

takes the

using

time-independent

or

problems

elements

graphics.

depending

1. The first category

created

NASTRAN. Subsequently,

by

or

results

is

arm

robot

an

on

available

beam

which

its

using

the

and

solid,

readable

RANGE OF APPLICATIONS

Applications

broad

directly

R.I.T. does have

program

of

translator

NASTRAN

Again, postprocessing

model

finite

MSC/NASTRAN does

of

generator.

element

plate,

Rand Micas. Rand Micas has


and

finite

another

out

carried

purpose

general

version

model

is

structure

robot

NASTRAN. The R.I.T.

element program
not

the

of

analysis

it is

distribution

or

mechanical

or

of

equilibrium

find

pressure,

temperature

or

velocity

distributions

under

steady-state

conditions.

2.

In the

second

fluid

solid

and

often

requires

of

vibration

the

are

category

These

mechanics.

the

of

so-called

determination

structures

or

are

of

eigenvalue

problems

whose

frequency

natural

problems

problems

solution

and

buckling

of

of

of

modes
slender

columns.

3.

In

the

third

propagation
composed
added

1.4.2

is

category
problems

of

the problems that result

of

of

time

is

the time dimension

is

ADVANTAGES OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

irregular boundaries

Highly

2. Variable

be

the

various

material

or

of

advantages
can

element

be

the finite

modeled

properties

element

with

method.

this method.

throughout

the

continuum

modeled.

3. Element

size

number

and

of

nodes

can

be

refined

for

analysis

type.

4. Discontinuous and

5. Non-linearities

mixed

boundary

conditions can

be included in the

can

6. This

method

is very

7. This

method

can

1.4.3

or

This category

mechanics.
when

dependent

to the problems of the first two kinds.

are

can

multitude

continuum

Following
.

the

cost

applied.

model.

effective.

be efficiently

LIMITATIONS

be

computer

1 1

implemented.

The limitations

of

finite

the

element

1. User must have extensive knowledge

finite

with

2. Since

it

as

are

method

and

folllows
in modeling

experience

elements.

involves

many

the

approximations,

results

may

not

be

accurate.

3.

Exact

4.

Damping

5.

Problems

boundary

conditions

is very difficult to

properties

involving
are

of

COMPARISON

MODAL ANALYSIS

Table
modal

(1.1)

shows

analysis

difficult to

in

nonlinearities

computer

OF

represent

in the

material

or

model.

model.

very difficult to

6. The availability

1.5

are

solve

facilities

with

can

EXPERIMENTAL

this

be

AND

structural

method.
major

drawback.

FINITE

ELEMENT

the

comparison

of

methods.

12

the

experimental

and

analytical

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

EXPERIMENTAL MODAL ANALYSIS

Mass, damping

Actual mass,

distribution

and stiffness

properties of the

tested.

Structural geometry is

Very

represented in

tation

Surface
can

and

fine details.

internal geometry

Only

be modeled.

Large

number of

freedom

degrees

Material properties

of

the

The Figure
Modal

of

is

for

are

very

degrees

small.

material properties are

tested.

to the best

be

Actual

assumption

boundary

approximate

conditions or

free-free

tested.

COMPARISON OF FE AND EXPERIMENTAL MODAL ANALYSIS

Testing

associated

accessible

of measurement

freedom

Actual

are assumed

conditions can

(1.1) t20'

mathematical

represen

structure.

conditions are

TABLE 1.1

structure are

geometry

surface

Number

of

or estimated.

modeled

coarse

and

testing.

are considered.

Boundary

the

stiffness of

structure are assumed.

damping

and
model

with

compares

Finite
or

the different

Element

Modal

Method

Model

it.

13

and

approaches

in
the

the

taken

by

formulation

subsequent

the

of

analysis

EXPERIMENTAL

FINITE ELEMENT

MODAL ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS

Dynamic

Discretize

Testing

Model

\/

\/

FRF

Mass, Stiffness,

Data

Damping

Matrices

\ /

\/

Curve

Solve Eigenvalue

Fit

Problem

\/

\/

Modal
Mo del

\/

\/

\/

Local

Forced

Vibration

Modifications

Response

Absorbers

\/

\/

Sensitivity

Animated

Analysis

Display

FIGURE 1.1

PROCEDURES FOR THE FINITE ELEMENT AND

EXPERIMENTAL MODAL ANALYSIS

14

[20]

1.6

MATHEMATICAL MODELING

All

having

systems

Vibrations

vibrations.

the

frequencies
particular

by

frequencies
here that

solution

neglected

of

masses

be

correct

of

and

system

mathematical
parameters.

finite

vibration.
of

of

stiffness

are

the

motion

could

be

model

with

mainly the
minor

system

of

Equations

algebraic

of

motion

equations

and

15

eigenvalue

the

gives

It

namely

differential

an

natural

be

must

damping

of

stated

mass

and

controls

the

term

is

often

point

representation

of

and

can

the

stiffness

freedom

then

matrices.

discrete

as

lumped

are

of

not

be suitably

Many

will

is known.

system

considering

of

distribution

nonuniform

The

by

masses

of

frequencies.

finite.

reduced

equations

Damping

role.

with

every

to

and

To

these

properties

Hence the

natural

not

problem

the system.

of

Thereby, the infinite degrees

number.

using linear

plays

rise

the

are

mechanics,

of

gives

eigenvalue

are

freedom

of

write

at

system.

that

to

simplification

shapes

calculation

unless

laws

place

properties

of

necessary

basic

the

of

of

elements

is

take

frequencies

material

free

undergo

excitations

Natural

transformation

damping

the

The degrees

the

The

mode

amplitude

in

various

frequencies

natural

diminishing

the

and

where

to

using

coordinate

The

system.

it

properties

external

the

of

law.

second

equations

This

system

elastic

any

frequencies

the

Newton's

stiffness

attributable

these

of

problem.

of

configurations

determine

and

without

frequencies

natural

motion

mass

reduced

to

expressed

the

complex

physical

systems can

be

freedom mathematical

is

simplification

necessary to

not

consider

studied

with

possible

in

two degree

or

one

simple

The dynamic behavior

models.

be quantitatively

can

by

represented

these

larger

having

model

hence

case,

system

However

models.

every

the

of

it

such

might

be

degrees

of

the

of

of

number

of

freedom.

In

linear

equations

of

differential

motion

equations

freedom

of

involved
an

allow

with

from

(resulting

undamped

expression

transformation

second

constant

the

system,
of

these

solved

the

to

coupled,

order,

the

It

in

uncoupled

separated.

exists

form.

to

terms

system).

coordinates

Each

ordinary

the coupling

of

coordinates

principal

set

difficult

is

coordinate

principal

equations

coordinates

of

of

set

system

coefficients.

of

choice

out, then these equations can be

But

which

Hence
is

equation can

if

carried

then be

independently.

According
of

is

obtained

dynamic

these equations simultaneously because

solve

for

multi-degree

to

Meirovitch

differential

coordinates

and

I11!,

equations

solving them

simultaneous

solution

of

vectors

multiplied

by

'the

using

the

natural

as

and

linear

coordinates

then

to

set

natural

expressing the

combination

is

uncoupling

transformation

independently

equations

of

process

whole

known

of

as

modal

Modal

Analysis.'

The

following

text

concisely

explains

16

the

formulation

of

equations

of

motion

uncoupling

for

single

the

differential

books. The

following

Meirovitch.

t12l

multi-degree-of-freedom

equations

The theory is very

system.

1.6.1

and

standard

explanation

for

and

systems

multi-degree

be found in

on

the discussion

is based

freedom

of

can

and

many text

by

given

EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SYSTEM

The

spring-mass-damper

model

of

generalization

basic

model

degree

mechanical

degree

of

to

single

further

derive

in

shown

complex

freedom

of

system

system.

of

the

Fig.

freedom

equations

It

is

also

system.
of

is

(1.1)

simple

simple

Consider this

motion

of

multiple

systems.

q(t)

>

F(t)

Fs(t)<r
>

FIGURE 1.2

Consider
q(t)

the

diagram

where

F(t)

is the

the

equilibrium

restoring force

and

damping force

damper

motion

body

SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM

displacement from

the resulting
and

free

F(0

Fd(tK

respectively.

Using

Newton's

is,

17

external

position.

Fs

force

and

F,j

and

are

induced in the spring

second

law, the

equation

of

F(t)
where

Fs

hence,

is

constant

1.6.2

q( t)

q(t

+ c

second

q( t)

k q(

t)

Fd
=

of

the quantity 'q'.

cq( t)

F( t)

linear

order

(2)

ordinary

differential

EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR LINEAR

section

consisting

dampers,
the

equation

with

coefficients.

of

as

presents

masses

shown

typical

mathematical

system.

Consider

mj

(i=1,..n)

m;

is drawn. [131

18

model

connected

in the figure (2.2). Free

masses

MULTIPLE DEGREE

multi-degree-of-freedom

with

(1)

mq(t)

and

OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS

This

q represents the time derivative

But

Which

Fd(t)

-F8(t)-

body

linear

by

of

system

springs

diagrams

and

associated

c2

lJfjHJ}J>M>J>J.

>c2(q2-q1)

Since the
degrees
masses

motion

The

n.

7C3(q3-q2)4

MULTIPLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM

takes place in

freedom

of

displacements

Applying

of

Newton's

ntrtWitiitttnit

k3(q3-q2)

k2(Q2-qi)

FIGURE 1.3

c3

niiirfiiimimnri

the

of

system

masses

law

second

with

coincides

coordinates

generalized

the

q, the total number of

dimension,

one

the

representing

mj is denoted by qj(t)
to

write

the

number

differential

(i=1

of

the

,2,...n).

equation

of

motion,

q(t)

c.+1[q.+1(t)-qi(t)]+k.+1[q.+1(t)-qi(t)]
-c.[q.(t)

Where
can

be

m.q.(t)

Qj(t)

-qM(t)]

represents

the

-m.

-k.[q.(t)-q.

externally

(3)

q,(t)

impressed

force.

Equation

(3)

arranged as

-c.+lq.+1(t) +

(ci

c.+1)qi(t)-c.q..1(t)

-ki+1qi+1(t)^(kj

ki+1)qi(t)

k.q.l(t)

Next using double indices for simplicity,

19

Q(t)

(4)

5ijmi

mij

5jj

i*j

h )

kjj=

cij

Cjj

cy

Where,

-ci

ky

kjj

of

qi.(t)

of

set

equations

for the

damping

and

arranged

in

[my]

Arranging

Eq.

(6)

can

the

mass,

the

be

i
i

matrix

and

of

set

stiffness

equations

of

as

where

second-order

i-1

n).

symmetric

Hence

(6)

,..,n

ordinary differential

qj(t) (i=1,2

are

form.

(5)

k..q.(t)]=Q.(t)

coordinates

damping

complete

written

coefficients

symmetric

i-2,i+2,....,n

1,2,

and

can

we

The mass,
can

be

simplify the

as,

the

[Cjj]

generalized

Qj(t), in the

{Qj(t)>

{q(M

now

[m]{q(t)}

-ki+1

now

ki+1

simultaneous

[m]

generalized

impressed forces,

{Qj(t)}

k,

-kj

Hence

c.jq.(t)

stiffness

the

notation

are

kjj

the system can

is

(6)

above

and

respectively.

X[rr>..
Eq.

ci+1

mjj, Cjj,

coefficients
motion

Cj

cy

kjj

-q

be

written

[c]{q(t)}

[c]

[ky]

coordinates,

column

in the

qj(t),

compact

20

and

(7)
generalized

matrices

(8)

{Q(t)}

[k]{q(t)}

[k]

{Q(t)}

form as,

(9)

These

the equations

are

in

system

the

1.6.3

motion

form.

matrix

damping,

mass,

of

and

The

stiffness

of

[m], [c],

matrices

matrices,

general

undamped

For simplicity

system.

of

mechanical

analysis,

[m]{q(t)}

is

(Q(t)}

where

generalized

column

we

they

symmetric

{q}

coordinates

and

(10)

ordinary

differential

to

may

generalized

any

represent

the

coupled
prior

motion

coordinates

coordinates

a set

equations

involve

of

(9)

freedom

damping
reduces

term

qj(t)

in

to,

whose

[m]

For

[k]

and

elements

elements

the

as

purpose

arbitrary,

vectors

of

this

of

that

except

The

constant.

n-dimensional

the

are

column

generalized

respectively.

represents

be decoupled

equations

the

are

multi-degree-of

neglect

forces.

their

and

{Q}

Thus Eq.

equations

matrix

the matrices

forces

and

[k]

(10)

impressed

externally

consider

matrices

freedom

[k]{q(t)}=qt)

discussion
are

of

respectively.

the equations of motion here onwards. Then Eq.

the

and

DECOUPLING THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION

Consider

need

degree

multiple

to

are

of

with

mass

the

constant
and

final

using

21

can

be

second

order

These

coefficients.

stiffness

,2,....,n).

n)

linear

matrices

which

To facilitate this,

solution.

expressed

vFj(t) (j=1
(i=1,2

simultaneous

different

Linear theory
expressed

set

states

as

of

that

linear

combination

the

of

^(t).!13!

coordinates

Hence

consider

the

linear

transformation,

(q(t)}
in

which

can

is

[u]

(11)

constant

nonsingular

as

an

{q}. Since

[u]

is constant, the time derivatives

{q(t)}
{q(t)}
that

vectors

transforming

the vector

matrix

{}

Eq.

of

into the

(11)

same

{}

and

Eqs.

(12)

transformation

{q}

(11)

the

and

matrix

sides

of

[u]

(10)

the

connects

acceleration

into Eq.

(12)

and

Next, premultiplying both

vectors

{}

velocity
and

[K]

where

[M]

to the

coordinates

and

and

(13)

{Q(t)}
Eq.(18) by

[u]T

results

in

(14)

an

*F:(t) defined by

[K]

[u]T

because

[m]

[u]T

and

[k]

(15)

[k] [u]
Moreover,

are symmetric.

(16)

(Q(t)}

n-dimensional

forces N:

the mass and stiffness matrices corresponding

are

[m] [u]

are symmetric

{N(t)J
is

[u]T

{q}.

yields

IM]W)}+[K]{T(t)}-{N(t)}

give

[u]{(t)}

[m][u]W)}+[k][u]mt)}

[M]

[u]

[u]{*(t)}

the

Substituting

operator

The

matrix.

square

be regarded

vector

So

[u] pp(t)}

associated

vector

with

the

whose

elements

generalized

22

are

the

coordinates

*Pj.

generalized

If

the

inertially

transformation

such

and

is

(11)

consist

to

M^(t)+K. y.(t)

Equations

have

(17)

linear

the

system

transformation

modal

representing the

of

matrix

of

This

exist.

modes

(or

that

as

particular

the

of

The

transformation

of

motion

(14)

differential

referred

shown

can

coordinates

with

23

[m]

[k]

and

is known

[u]

vectors

vFj(t)

procedure

by

equations

of

means

to as Modal Analysis.

that in the

be

solved.

modal

The

coordinates.

undamped

coordinates

previous

was

an

matrix

In the

of

[K]

(17)

diagonalizing

FORMULATING THE EIGENVALUE PROBLEM

equations

and

Eq.

then

of

1.6.4

the

the

the type

the system.

simultaneous

it

of

Hence if

motion.

found,

of

consists

principal)

is generally

section

the

completely

be very easily

can

[u]

matrix

natural

system

modal

and

it

solving the
the

structure

since

natural

of

equations

matrix,

called

are

be

can

[M]

system
of

equations

then

j=1,2,...n

same

simultaneously does indeed


as

[u]

the

be

object

matrices

N.(t)

the

single-degree-of-freedom

does

then

independent

diagonal

independent
matrix

The

to

said

is diagonal,

[K]

uncoupled.

produce

is

(14)

system

hand if

other

only

of

transformation

represents a set of

then

elastically

because

simultaneously,

decouple

be

to

said

diagonal,

On the

uncoupled.

is

system

is

[M]

matrix

easily
the

absence

of

decoupled

modal

matrix

damping,
using

acting

as

transformation
eigenvalue

The free
whose

problem

vibration

solution

[k]{q(t)}

represents

'

'

(t)

j=i

(19),

(j=1,2,....,n)
motion

and

for

in

qj(t)

IJ

qj(t)
where

time

Uj

q(t)

homogeneous differential

where i= 1,2,..

is

(19)

.n

special

in

that

type

which

of

the

all

motion.

solution

the set of

of

coordinates

Physically,
same

this

the index

and

j,

dependence,

time

the motion does not change, except

of

the

ratio

constant

between

during

the

two

any

motion.

coordinates

Mathematically

by,

expressed

(20)

,2,...,n)

is the

q:(t)

implies

Uj/(t)

(20) into (19)


on

to

reduces

that

so

motion

(j=1

which

problem

M31

{0}, Eq. (10)

simultaneous

synchronous

remains

q:(t),
of

eigenvalue

solved.

(18)

configuration

amplitude,

this type

be

must

vibration.

the coordinates have the

all

which

and

of

so-called

{0}

of

namely

execute

the general
the

modes

the

to

the

matrix,

vibration

forces, i.e. (Q(t)}

Here it is necessary to find


equations

free

directly

natural

set

modal

the type

of

j=i

the

with

leads

problem

of external

[m]{q(t)}

equations

associated

yields

In the absence

which

To determine the

matrix.

are

same

constant

for

all

amplitudes

and

the coordinates

recognizing that the function

the

following

equation

24

results

/(t)
qj(t).

/(t)

is

function

of

Inserting Eqs.

does

not

depend

/(t)l

+/(t) k J

u
J

j=i

Equations (21)

'

be

can

where

=0

i =1,2

(21)

'

j=i

in the form,

written

I k..

u.

(22)

/(t)

>

m.. u.
IJ
'

Observe that the left


the

whereas
ratios

right

be

must

function, the

by X,

/(t)

(22)

Eq.

(22)

does

not

depend

to

equal

X/(t)

side

constant

the set

of

side

not

on

real

number.

depend

time,

Assuming

constant.

be

must

does

that

so

that

index i,

on

/(t)

Denoting

is

the

two

real

the constant

yields

(23)

Y
Consider

(k.

solution

/(t)

Xm..)

u.

of

satisfy the

equation

which

or

solutions,

exponential

form

(25)

into (23),

it

be

can

concluded

that s

S2

but
one

must

(26)

roots

negative

magnitude

in the

=0

has two

s-|
If A. is

(23)

(25)

solution

Eq.

est

Introducing

s2

(24)

=0

for

non

trivial

solution

V-A.

(27)

number, then

opposite

in

decreasing

s-j

sign.

and

and

In

the

25

S2

are

this
other

real

case

numbers, equal

Eq.

(23)

has

in

two

increasing exponentially

time.

with

motion,
and

the one that X is

(27)
or

s-|

however,

S2

is

negative

considered.

must

Letting

with

stable

be discarded

co2, where

+ico

co

is

(28)

of

Eq.

A2

ei(0t

A-,

positive

inconsistent

are

yields

that the solution

/(t)
or

solutions,

that the possibility that X

so

real, Eq.

so

These

(28) becomes
e-'wt

(29)

the solution can be expressed in the form

/(t)

C is

where

(cot-<t>)

cos

an

$ its

motion,

every

arbitrary constant,

q:(t)

Eq.

(31)

[m]

and

[k]

and

determinant
expressed

where

(co2) is

called the

possessing

of

the harmonic

matrix

form

(31)

the eigenvalue problem


possesses

the

nontrivial

of

coefficients

Uj

associated

if

solution

with

and

only if the

This

vanishes.

matrices

can

be

in the form

(co2)

of

it

frequency

{u}

co2[m]

represents

is the

Now, writing Eq. (24) in


=

co

angle, and all three quantities are the same for

phase

coordinate

[k]{u}

(30)

ky

-co2mjj |

called

characteristic

in

general,

(32)

the characteristic determinant and Eq.


equation.

distinct

It is

an

roots

26

equation

referred

of

to

degree
as

(32) is
n

in

co2

characteristic

values or eigenvalues.

the

square

roots

frequencies
certain

{u}r

is

cor (r

nontrivial

The

and

are

{u}r
The

represent

denoted co-|2, co22,

roots are

quantities

Associated

{u}r

whose

the eigenvalue

elements

eigenvectors

they

natural

system

are

ujr

real

also

referred

to

natural

modes.

by

modes

is

numbers.

(33)

characteristic

multiplied

natural

1,2,....,n

and

that

such

as

so-called

be

can

shape of the

are

con2

frequency cor

every

problem

known

are

the

are

with

{u}r

physically the

eigenvectors

Hence the

of

co2[m]

vectors

eigenvectors.

l,n).

these

of

vector

solution

[k] {u}r

The

any

as

vectors

modal

or

vectors

Since these
constant.

arbitrary

is unique, but the

amplitude

is

not!

Modal

or

vectors

factors. If

one

of

eigenvectors

the elements

value,

sense,

because it automatically

the

elements

of

elements
elements

natural

normalization.

convenience

the eigenvector

causes

'n-1'

remaining

between any two

called

of

relative

{u}r

displacement
is

then the eigenvector is rendered unique in

certain

of

represent

and

is

modes

The

is devoid

of

by

adjustment
of

virtue

constant.

to

an

render

The

any

physical

27

an

of

in the

values

significance.

ratio

adjusting the

amplitudes
process

absolute

fact that the

process

their

normalization

the

assigned

is

unique

for

is

mere

CHAPTER 2
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS USING MSC/NASTRAN

2.1

MSC/NASTRAN

The

Finite

method

Element
to

used

Since then,

FEM

applications

in

for the

credit

With the
speed

in

of

software

the

oldest

National

Aeronautics
purpose

applications.

Normal

This

in

results!

most

and

method
of

its

of

Complex

eigenvalue

realizing

Much

now

shifted

(Although

of

exist

the

engineers

it

commercial

has

analysis

28

in

range

finite

developed

originally

Administration

Space

analysis

analysis

have

used

capabilities

Buckling

4'

the

and

many

analysis
are

still

).

analysis

modal

airplanes.!1

development

engineering.

gained

to modern digital computers.

which

widely

and

approximate

faster machines, the techniques

technicians.

program

Some

Static

and

of

goes

MSC/NASTRAN

is

software

to

and

analysis

general

FEM

or

structures

way

field

packages

interpret the

One

of

newer

engineers

to

long

every
of

equations.

analyze

numerical

have improved tremendously. There

of analysis

needed

to

come

practically

advent

from

1950's

has

is

(FEM)

differential

advancement

user-friendly
work

Method

solve

importance

some

of

structural

(NASA).

element

by
It

capabilities
analysis

are

the

is

and

f15'

Direct

frequency

Transient
Static

and

Modal

complex

Modal

frequency

The

above

and

analysis

The

random

response

analysis
with

modes

cyclic

with

are

their procedures can

stiffness

eigenvalue analysis

analysis

analyses

differential

with

Modal transient

Normal

response

analysis

analysis

Static

random

cyclic

available

be

called

symmetry

symmetry
formats'

in 'rigid

upon

NASTRAN

of

by simply inputting

and

particular

number.

input

file

for

MSC/NASTRAN

consists

the

of

following

three

the

main

sections.

1. Executive

Control

Deck

functions

subroutine

2. Case Control Deck


of a

NASTRAN

In the past,

was

when

shows

punch

cards.

over

MSC/NASTRAN. [11

defines the

physical

terminals

computer was

on

were

in the form

card.

input

and

to be solved

problem

and

typical

was

NASTRAN

equivalent
program

Although obsolete,

not
of

output

the

by

to

an

set

cards.

of

still

of

Each line

punch

input file.

consisting

literature

29

developed for computers,


punch

complete

'deck'

control

provides user control over the

video

punched

called

user

program.

the input to a

data

provides

specific run.

3. Bulk Data Deck

NASTRAN

of

Fig.

various

refers

cards

(2.1

decks

of

was
)t1

and

to cards and

FIGURE 2.1

NASTRAN PUNCH CARDS AND DATA DECKS

t1]

decks

as

input

file.

2.2

model

coordinate

the

type

of

boundary
model

conditions

by

connected

stress

identifies

as

elastic

of

thermal

analysis

run

shapes

2.2.1

points

for

points

of

modal

for

NASTRAN

stresses

for

card

static

card

of

etc.

elements

number

for

ratio,

mass

isotropic

and

produces

inside the
analysis

analysis.

EXECUTIVE CONTROL DECK

31

grid

points

the same

about

stiffness,

The

property

properties

anisotropic

natural

the

use

can

density

or

in

identification

of

material

outputs

to

elasticity,

used

an

elements.

element

and

has

of

with

according
and

numbers

the

points

element

information

contains

Poisson's

expansion

of

density

Every

and

number

which

material

constants,

displacements,
grid

card

recovery
a

card

property
A

like

are:

orientation

etc.,

This

card.

and

thickness,

loads.

inputs

required

grid

properties

applied

the

connecting

connection
a

the
points

grid

stiffness,

material

the element.

property

or

mass

as

and

to

pointing

element

such

one

of

elements

element,

requires

number

card

system,

properties

NASTRAN

with

location

including

geometry

element

structure

the NASTRAN

of

sections

FINITE ELEMENT MODELING WITH NASTRAN

To

at

indicated by the three basic

was

such

forces

and

such

coefficient

materials.
as

grid

and

frequencies

An

point

moments
and

mode

This deck
with

forms the very first

briefly.

in

the job

which

In the early days the

deck. Most
the

ID

card

NASTRAN program. It starts

part of a

be

to

Executive

control

the analysis procedure was

of

Executive

deck

control

by

the

subroutines

carried

be

out can

to contain

fixed

the sequence

which

specified.

However,

subroutine

sequence

the specified analysis types.

This

user

from

were

to

be

developed

to carry out any

required

in

high level

subroutines

formats

rigid

inputted

is

of

large

available

DMAP (Direct Matrix Abstraction Programming). DMAP is

programming language in

identified

be

to

used

controlled

various

using

be

can

performed

of

the card,

by

SOLKn
Kn

where

is the

can

be

can

be done

format.
results

modified

This
or

card.

is

deck

cards.

In this

specified.

with

card

also

the

If this

This deck is terminated

2.2.2

This

NASTRAN
deck

saved

is

provides
program.

data

is

by

not

of

rigid

matrix

format

operations

option

by

card

of

used,

saving
of

means

intermediate
CHKPNT

or

in this deck is the TIME

by

used

the default time

is

the problem
one

minute.

the CEND card.

over

control

user

selection.

number

CPU time to be

maximum

One

results

important

CASE CONTROL DECK

deck

the

provides

more

card

card.

The DMAP for

the appropriate DMAP sequence in the rigid

previously

One

number.

ALTER

an

by inputting

using

RESTART

format

rigid

of

the

input

the primary functions

of

best

in

This

is

32

stated

and

output

of

the case control

the

'NASTRAN

PRIMER'l16] as> |n thQ Bu|k data


deck Qf pr0grami a user can defjne
number

any
used

at

form

of

name >

<

loads

<name>

analysis

the data

in

data

constraint

is

sets.

by

specified

The

particular

be

directive. The

control

case

to

set

is

selection

card

particular

type

SID
is the

SID

and

and

time

execution

general

where

of

is

the

deck."

Bulk data

the

identification

set

The

be

data to

of

number

following

included

in the

associated

example

with

this

shows

clearly:

CASE CONTROL:

SPC

BULK DATA

SPC, 24, 2, 2356

The SPC

of

24 in the

in the bulk data deck

The

case

data.

It has

data

and

defined
can

set

control

be

24

having

to

matrices

selected

modal

extraction

Case

from

number.

algorithm

method

control

being

also

can

be done

defined

has

can

SPC, SPC1

problems,

analysis

cards

by

to

'n'

card,

the

by

EIGR

be

being

the appropriate

cards

selection

loads to

in the bulk data

selected

MPC

temperature

of

by SPC

or

MPC

in the Bulk data.


an

eigenvalue

the METHOD card corresponding


card

control

33

or

be

structural

etc.

GRAV

n"

or

sets,

Static

Bulk data.

Constraints

geometric

any

constraint

sets,

"LOAD

by inputting

cards, corresponding to the

to the

contain

load

card

24.

of

not

select

input

ID

an

by LOAD, PLOAD, FORCE, MOMENT,

identification

For

directs NASTRAN to the SPC

case control

deck does

cards

direct

in the Bulk data.

the output file. e.g.

TITLE

card

prints

text

prints

top

on

sorted

the analysis

or

of

each

be

element

stresses

forces.

reaction

displacements
card

is

shapes

at

the

deck

control

combination

the

the

This deck
information
element

extraction
analysis.
of

starts

file. A

mention

sets

cases

are

BEGIN

BULK

card

The

the

print

the

output
of

static

be

can

defined

be

large

mode

the

case

analysis,

defined
in

with

individual

all

the

problem

the

made

cards

sorted

here

of

34

grid

can

can

and

for

eigenvalue

modal

thousands

be inputted in any

are

alphabetical

echoed

and

boundary

normal

contain

according to
cards

points

property,

the

all

contains

analysis

technique

in the deck

cards

sorts

static

and

including

material

and

reduction

By default,
must

geometry

for

loads

Bulk data for

names.

constraint

linear

prints

DISPLACEMENT

important function
In

element

dynamic

because NASTRAN
card

cards

A
to

problems

definition.

cards print

SPCFORCES

nodes.

load

structural

applied

code.

ELFORCE

the

with

about

or

from

results

case control.

connectivity,

conditions,

of

and

and

VELOCITY

specified

Another

These

cases.

and

card

ELFORCE, SPCFORCE,

whereas

analysis

subcase

BULK DATA DECK

2.2.3

of

modal

loading

of

in the

subcases

velocities

resonances.

is

load

various

lines

in

used

forces,

and

The

specified.

STRESS

etc. cards.

DISPLACEMENTS

and

as

using STRESS,

printed

DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY
the

the output file. The ECHO

of

bulk data

unsorted

can

page

in the

the PARAMETER card

of

order
order

output

used

in

the bulk data deck. There


the

request

of

special

card

is

used

zero

or

very low

degrees

of

weight

Grid

point

the

start

element

e.g

cards

by

elements which

library

other

used

it

words

allow

PARAM, AUTOSPC

purges

freedom

of

the

with

unconnected

to invoke the grid point

used

cards

start

be any

might

properties

with

the GRID

with

All

of

These

The

card).

are

available

to

set

the

to apply

'P'

the letter

selecting

the

up

properties

local

number of

degrees
enables

using

structural

model

For

and

of

reduction
of

is

freedom in

the

discussed in detail in the

solution

the

subsequent

35

The

etc.

property

cards.

elements,

defined in the
geometry.

cylindrical

analysis,

method
of

and

freedom

procedure

a system
of

cards

'MATi'

There

or

etc.

are

spherical
cards

SPC, SPC1, GRDSET,

modal

degrees

are

card, PSHELL is used as

are

rectangular,

constraints.

number

Dynamic

element

for the corresponding

eigenvalue extraction

reduction.

This

material

loads to the

static

to define the

elastic

FORCE, LOAD, PLOAD, MOMENT

systems.

grids

the elements available

of

inputted

form the basic

cards

The

card.

CQUAD4, CTRIA3, CBAR, CROD

e.g.

geometric

for applying the

used

cards which

the degrees

constrain

NASTRAN.

of

letter 'C.

coordinate

few.

in

stiffness

e.g.

PBAR, PROD (one exception, for CQUAD4

cards.

for

automatically

information is inputted

the property

are

processing features,

freedom. PARAM, GRDPNT is

vast

with

These

PARAM

number of

generator.

connected

in

to

are a

large

are

by

EIGR

in

which

reduced

problems

sections.

the

etc.

cards

DYNRED is

are

are

used

dynamic
the

total

to a selected
easily.

It

is

The NASTRAN

discussed in

2.3

cards

control

NASTRAN

the

the

executive

eigenvalue
motion

in the

for

modes

can

be

[M] is

stiffness
absence

the

mass

As

matrix.
of

of

an

problem.

or

given

undamped

as

(the

Mq
Consider the

system

eigenvalue

'SOL

3'

card

reduction

and

control.

Equations

be

expressed

can

the

The

[C]
in

is

damping

the

The

deformed

of

motion

brackets

are

be

can

can

solution

nontrivial

matrix

previous

problem

frequencies

natural

equations

Kq

(1)

equations

coordinates.

square

freedom

of

matrix,

give the mode shapes or the

The

by

in the case

specified

these

transformation

eigenvalues

This is inputted

explained

damping,

eigenvalue

Real

the

performs

as

[M]q+[C]q+[K]q
where,

are

Methods for dynamic

degree

multiple

analysis

deck.

control

form

matrix

format

rigid

extraction

the bulk data

and

(A).

appendix

analysis or normal

of

case

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS USING NASTRAN

In

in

in the

used

and

and

chapter,

decoupled
then

this

of

be

[K]

the

in

the

using

reduced

to

problem

associated

eigenvectors

shapes.

without

dispensed

external

with

excitation

are

for simplicity)

(2)

nontrivial

gives

solution

of

this

36

equation

in

exponential

form,

q
where

(3)

is

an

M
or

or

( K

co2

Substituting
K

This is
used

to

2.
3.

eicot

co2

co2

co2

available

1.

arbitrary

Substituting

motion.

e'<t

X)

X,
=

standard

extract

eicot

Eq.

is the

(2)

frequency

of

harmonic

gives,

(4)

(5)
0

(6)

gives

0
eigenvalue

eigenvalues

in MSC/NASTRAN

problem.

and

There

are

eigenvectors.

various

Three

techniques

such

methods

are,l7l

Inverse Power Method.

Givens triangularization

method.

Modified Givens Metod.

2.3.1

INVERSE POWER METHOD

The inverse Power


an

in

co

and

this solution
+

constant

initial

guess

method

and

finds

apply this technique, the

is
the

an

t7l

iterative

method

eigenvalues

problem

has to be

in

its

which

starts

from

neighborhood.

placed

in the

To

following

form

(K-MA)u
resulting in
u

If (A.j, Uj)

an

(7)

0.

fixed

[K]'1

is

[M]

point

problem

(8)

u.

eigenvalue

and

associated

37

eigenvector,

then

the

substitution

in

(Xj, u,) into

of

vector

the right hand side. The form

technique

Let un

be the

converges to

current

Wn+1
W

where

next

[K]-1

[L]T

side

estimate

Eq.(8)

of

would

used

to define

result

on

vector

iterative

an

Uj).

the

of

be

can

(Xj,

pair

eigenvector

iteration

first substituting un

by

obtained

The

Eq.(8)

the subscript defines the

where

is

which

hand

right

the left hand side that is identical to the

on

us

the

into

number.

Eq.(7)

after

The

iterations,

next

estimate

to obtain

[M] un

(9)

estimate

of

un is found by,

eigenvector

(10)

"n+i"^
m-1

Then

is the largest

Cn + i

where,

if

the

specified

value,

minimize

the

the

difference.

eigenvalue

whereas

drawbacks,

in

and

its

point.

is

which

Consider
(K-XM)u

un
it

that

accuracy

NASTRAN, in

process

is stopped,
The

gives

the

and

U2
else

Cn

are

slowly

slight

evaluated

u-j

is less than

iterations

eigenvector.

very

Hence

roots

-|.

parameter

the

converges

lost.

Wn +

between

difference

vector

in

element

gives

This

for

the

done to

lowest

has

procedure

close

modification

with

are

eigenvalues

is

respect

used

to

in

shift

again

(11)

38

and substitute

Xo is

or

[K

( Xo

the shift point

called

hence

Xo

M]

p)

and

is the

(K

which

can

Xo

M)

be

substituted

Wn+1

pM

(12)

Eq.(12)

can

be

written

as,

=0

in

M)"1

=(K-Xo

eigenvalue.

in the standard eigenvalue form

shifted

to give the iteration

Eq.(7)

equation,

Mun

(13)

W
"n+i-c^

where'

(14)

n+1

where

to the
are

again

un + i

shifted

few

this

structural

there.

this

is
A

it.

Also the

or

can

The

of

shift

within

Xo

matrices

be

can

also

specific

GIVENS TRIADIAGONAL METHOD

39

effort

this

easily.

convergence

point

point

p.

There

Triangular

is

to

required

encountered

method

is

at
can

One

at

the cost of

frequency

so

more advantage

changed

be

in

useful

have to be nonsingular,

not

be handled

shift point

rate

obtained

does

shift

converges

method.

less

mass

and

Cn+^

to be done to calculate Wn+-|.

banded, hence

matrix

modes

the

this

considerably

stiffness

is that the

are

required

narrow

are

decomposition.

eigenvalues

2.3.2

of

in

noted

is

M)

banded,

to improve accuracy
matrix

Xo

stiffness

body

method

be

to

lot

analysis

that the rigid


of

(K

of

matrix

diagonalize

that is closest to

eigenvalue
points

decomposition

If

converges to the eigenvector and

placed
range.

any

stage

additional

such

that

This
the

is very

method

for

eigenvalues

miss

this

the

of

any

also

positive

definite
it is

as

given

matrices

handled

are

symmetric.

However the

the

whereas

The

from

obtained

stiffness

steps

is

it
be

can

matrices

well.

problems.

small

hence

system,

Sparce

roots.

Dense

method.

methods

long

the

fast for

and

useful

not

all

possible

to

dynamic
matrix

mass

be

can

with

solved

easily

the

matrix

It finds

reduction

has to be

singular

involved in the Givens Method

as

are

as,

LCholesky decomposition

[M]

is done,

<15)

lower triangular

the eigenvalue

reduce

matrix

[L][L]T

is

[L]

where

2. To

the mass

of

matrix.

of

problem

Eq.

to

(6)

its

[L]"

[J

by,

given

[L]"1

I] [W]

0,

premultiply

Eq.

(6) by

and

for [M]. Hence

substitute

and

form

standard

[K]
[L]T

[L]

[L]T

(16)

0.

-X[L]-1

or

[L]"1

-T

(17)

thus,
[L]_1

[L]"1

or

[L]"1'1

[K]

[K]

comparing this

0,

[L]"1'7

with

standard

(18)

0.

[l]){WJ

-X

the

[I]

(19)

0.
equation

eigenvalue

form,

[J-XI]

gives

{J}
3. The

W-X

{J}

matrix

extracted

method

[L]"1

using
to

[K]

is then
the

(2)

[L]"1-1

triadiagonalized

modified

determine

all

and

all

the

Q-R

algorithm.

the

eigenvalues

40

eigenvalues

(Q-R
of

algorithm

are

is

symmetric

triadiagonal

matrix.)

4. Eigenvectors

{W}

are

inverse iteration. The true


vectors

{u}

2.3.3

then found

are

[L]1-"1

eigenvectors

by solving

that

being

the

(MGIV)

shape

mass

As

method,

Givens Method, the

to the

similar

in Givens Method. The

Givens

mode

(21)

nonsingular as

in

the

are

which

using

MODIFIED GIVENS METHOD

modification

eigenvalues

given

(W}.

Modified Givens Method is mostly


only

for the

calculated

does

matrix

steps are as

decompose the

mass

have

not

to

be

follows,

matrix

using

Cholesky

decomposition.

XSM

In this matrix, Xs,


the

optimizes

is

Eq.

[K

Xs

accuracy

(6)
M

if

[K+XSM]
[

of

the

number

the

is

specified

The

solution.

problem

is

by

matrix

the

in

program.

this

equation

formulated.

properly

It

Now,

as,

Xs ) M] {u}

Then premultiplying both

for

(22)

positive

definite

positive

rearrange

[L]T

[L]

sides

(23)

0.
X'

by

-1

Xs)

and

substituting

gives

(L

LT)/(

Now premultiplying

by

Xs) ] {u}
[L]"1

and

(24)

0.

substituting

41

{W}

[L]T

{u}

gives,

{ [Lr1[M] [L]-1-T-X[l]}{W}
hence, {J}

[L]"1

Thus, {J} is
extracted

2.4

of

recovery

(i.e.

solution

since

Computationally,

of

of

equations

the

of

solving

square

or

cube

freedom).

Dynamic
of

assembly
reduced

to

of

eigenvalue

set
of

and

the
the

by

of

which

few

freedom. These

reduction.

They

are

the

selected

system

reduced

methods

two

response

schemes

are, ^

42

of

of

other

stage.

to

be

described
available

in

the

More so,
to

the
of

after

the

freedom

are

words

the

represented

can

and

degrees

applied

In

then

matrices

previously

quantities.

of

second

this

compared

degrees

ones.

are

in

and

important

proportionally

procedure

total

the

most

(number

problem

is

matrices

the

found

increases

matrices
of

is

of

assembly

Obviously,

etc.

expensive

of

recovery

size

assembled

are

system

frequencies

processes,

matrices)

very

reduction

CPU time. There

dynamic

is

the physical

extraction

the

of

eigenvalues

matrices
a

characteristics

degrees

of

eigenvalues

solving

natural

three

displacements

step

of

obtain

following

assembled

this

assembly
cost

of

process

to

motion

and

the

all

solutions

stresses

and

basically

of

equations,

its tridiagonal form

algorithm.!1]

It consists

shapes.

stage

is

analysis
equations

dynamic

some

(26)

DYNAMIC REDUCTION

mode

one

[M]

using the Q-R

differential

(25)

[L]-1>T

then transformed to

dynamic

0.

solved

by

these

with

the

thereby saving
NASTRAN for

1.

Guyan Reduction (or Static

2.

Generalized Dynamic Reduction

2.4.1

The

GUYAN REDUCTION

freedom, in
generalized

the

all

set

[%] (%)
T

where

[Kff] {u{}

for full

stands

The first step is to


a-set

(denoted

degrees

of

associated

keeping

Upon

the

discussion

are

the

of

is

represented

motion

is

degrees

the

all

containing

equations

given

by,

(27)

unreduced

equations.

subsets

the o-set (denoted

used

o-set

of

set

into two

{Uf}

and

of

{uf}. The

by

[Fff]

partition

freedom

static

or

by {ua})

with

vector

following

dynamic

of

[8]

displacement

general

Condensation)

in the
are

solution

the

by

{u0}).

process

eliminated
of

characteristics

referred

from

structure

to

as

the

The

a-set

whereas,

those

the

the

equations,

same.

partitioning

f"al
{Uf}
'
the full

set

i-\
lUJ

of

(28)

equations

^a
H>a

"Kaa Kao

ua
<

Moo, \

in the

>+

partitioned

43

can

be

written

as

"f;

{ 1
^oj lUJ

form

fo_

(29)

Solving

this equation's second row for


u0,

{uo)

^oa} (ua}

{u0}

(30)

where,

{Goa}

K)

and

For

static

drop

hence
the

eliminate

the

analysis,

time derivatives

{u0}

of

of

back in

freedom.

In

simplified

Substituting

u0 do

not

out

Eq.(29), does
to

order

Eq.(30)

Eq.(29)
for

dynamic
and

eliminate

the

the

solution

term. Hence giving the

equation,

{Goa} {ua}
Eq.

(33)

to

Eq.(30)

of

not

simplify

{u00}

entire

in

However

drop

in

term

{u00}

substituted

freedom.

of

Eq.(30)

of

be

can

NASTRAN ignores the

procedure,

following

(30)

degrees

o-set

degrees

(32)

the time derivatives in the

equation

substitution

o-set

(31)

F0-[M0a]ua-[M00]u0

analysis,

out

direct

[Koa]

-[K00r1

(33)

back into Eq. (28),

"I

{ua)
This

value

vibration
solution

for

the

contain

of

{Uf}

problem

of

the

o-set

is then
to

is

far less

substituted

a-set

problem

in

degrees

Eq.(29), thereby reducing


of

is found in terms

recovered
number

(34)

of

using

degrees

44

freedom
of

Eq.(33).
of

a-set

only.

After

DOFs, the

Since

these

freedom, they

can

the

the

solution

equations

be

solved

less

expensively
The

unaltered.

specified

or

The latter

degrees

selected

being

ASET1

cards

should

be

included

with

in

the

uniform

over

method

are

static

of

freedom

automatically

the best choice.

a-set

the

that

such

and

normally

the

can
are

be

the

good

of

both.

of

masses

a-set

within

or

freedom

of

are

points

obtained

and

user-

the ASET

with

large

with

eigenvalues

reasonably

be

can

degrees

distribution

the

system

combination

selected

grids

the

of

{ua}

set

user-specified

The

structure.

in

They

all

that

characteristics

or

NASTRAN. The

chosen

in

the

is

this

with

engineering

accuracy.

2.4.2

GENERALIZED DYNAMIC REDUCTION

Generalized

dynamic

Reduction

Method.

approximate

the vibration

again

the

{Uf}

degrees

It

generalized

of

coordinates

selected

{ua}

coordinates

by inverse

iteration.

{u0}. The

and

{Ug},

and

the

Here

{ua},

vector,

remaining

neglected.

as

{uq}

But in

scalar

is

that,

were

thrown

generalized

points.

Hence

45

in

Guyan

away

physical

Reduction,

when

the

unreduced

and

the

vector

dynamic reduction, set

the

to

{u0} is

vector

displacement

reduced

Reduction

generalized

is

generalized

Guyan

the

of

freedom {u^}. The difference between Guyan Reduction


Dynamic

was

t8l

modificaton

obtained

coordinates,

Generalized

{u00}

modes

The

the

uses

is divided into

eliminated.

eventually
contains

vector

is

reduction

{Uq}

displacement

vector

the

and

corresponding

stiffness

matrix

are

given

as

Kl
[K1

and

Again,

in Guyan

as

Reduction, {u0}

Ktt K,to

Ko, Kooj

(35)

be expressed in terms

can

of

{ua}

as,

( u0 }

{ Goa } { ua }

"u~

Gnn
oq

ot

(36)

A
where,

Thus

[ Got ]

static

degrees

{Goq},

of

the

properties

freedom

{ur}

contains

rigid

body

modes

eigenvectors

{uc}

are

One
of

more

are

approximate

To

and

and

are

in

preserved

the

evaluate

subdivided

{ur}

in the physical

transformation

{u|}.

and

The

matrix

set

{u|} is

to

define

{uc}. Here,
used

points where

rigidly

in

modal

motion

is

restrained

analysis

enforced.

when

the

approximate

calculated.

which

coordinates

are

free

when

approximate

calculated.

are

that

structure

coordinates

important

freedom

the

coordinates

the

eigenvectors

[ Kot ]

{ut}.

{u^}

the

the

are

of

is

{ut}

set

further divided into

{u^}

]-1

[ K00

set

are

vibration

to be

free
modes.

considered

to

displace

Hence

46

is {uv},

containing

during

the

degrees

calculation

of

(37)
The

vibration

modes

are

calculated

by

solving

the

eigenvalue

problem,

[ Kvv
{uv}

is

XMVV ] {uv}

of

approximate

be

given

written

with

0.

{ub}
for

vectors

(38)
{uq}

and

vibration

removed.

modes,

If

[Ovq]

solution

of

is the

Eq.

matrix

(38)

can

by,

{uv}
Hence

{uf},

a set of

[<&vq] {uq}

the

modal

(39)

solution

of

the

entire

{uf}

vector

can

now

be

as,
~$~

ful

f*
1

ur
uc

{Uf}

>

$rv,

KJ
in

Writing Eq.(40)
{uf}

(40)

-O^.

compact

form,

<>

lu
Uq

K)

<

?
_

Ut

tj

1
0
^oq

{uq}

(41)

where,

(*.,)
Substituting

Locqj
Eq.

[<&oqJ {uq}
or,

[Goq]

Hence the

(41)
-

in Eq.

[QoqJ <uq}

[Ooq]

reduced

(36)
+

gives,

[Gotl [*tq] (uq)

(42)

[Got] [Otq]

form

of

(43)

stiffness

are given as,

47

and

mass

matrices

using

Eq.(36)

"O

oq

<

{uf}

qr

o,oq

iut

[KJ

3x,KooGoq

(44)

Ktto G
ot

^q^ooGoq

SYMMETRIC

L*i <%, + q h Go,,

.T

(45)

^T

m + m,0 Ga G; m; + G; Ko g01
+

and

(41)

Ktttt

HJ

{uq}

the reduced dynamic load

is

vector

by,

given

%?o
{Fa}

(46)

Ft+GotFo
where

{Ft} is

the original vector

dynamic loads acting

of

on

{ut}.

2.5

SELECTION OF AN EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION METHOD

The

selection

relative

Modified

of

cost

and

Givens

Generally, they
singular.

The

most cases

the

Inverse

methods.

the

become

eigenvalue

methods

do

not
of

are

miss

any

results
quite
roots

is

fully

not

used

required.

similar
even

l9l

and

very

if the

of

method

is

less

compared

very
as

coupled

good.
method

and

the

and

Moreover,
of

the

accuracy
if

of

solution

GIV

Power

then

or

with

MGIV

obtaining the

Generalized

reduction,

Inverse

48

to

is

Hence in

cost

preferred.

reliable.
matrix

The

is

and

mass
other.

method

the

upon

Givens

each

Unfortunately, the reliability


is

depends

method

the two are comparable to

MGIV

Power

extraction

of

accuracy

costs

eigenvalues
reduction

an

the

method

dynamic
matrices

becomes

impractical.
important
for

Hence

criterion

which

important,
is

reduction

2.6

As

it

is

or

preferred

few

when

its

accuracy

the

Modified

is

Otherwise

method

of

cost

eigenvectors

good.

Givens

the

when

with

if

be

to

are

before,

there

two

are

MSC/NASTRAN,

with

Generalized

dynamic

degrees

200

exceeds
selection

reduction.

the two

many

and

depends

Generally

The

the

are

as

to

freedom
of

cost

upon

reasons

methods

expensive,

of

generalized

roots

very

dynamic

the

given

be

seen

is

of

favored

clearly from the

(2.1) f9l Only

Guyan

preferred.

49

reduction

two

The

methods.

over

Guyan

comparison

in the

works

the

problem

exorbitant.

the

and

when

used

analysis

becomes

cost

reduction

in Table

be found,

hence it is

solution

methods

Reduction

are

dynamic

the

relative

dynamic
can

in

methods

reduction

Guyan

namely

Generalized Dynamic Reduction. These


of

not

used.

discussed

number

an

extracted

is

cost

SELECTION OF A DYNAMIC REDUCTION METHOD

available

is

solution

of

cases where

out

to

be

less

GUYAN REDUCTION

GENERALIZED DYNAMIC
REDUCTION

Accuracy

of modes

Relative Cost

Fair

Excellent

Lower if only fair

Lower if

accuracy
modes

Skill

required

for

of vibration

is required

Selection

of

good

excellent

to

accuracy is

required

A-set

Selection

are

No.

of

DYNRED

points

Labor intensive

Yes, if there
A-set

Troubles

Poor

many

points.

selection of

points

A-set

leads to

inaccurate

modes

Poor selection
parameters

of

DYNREU

leads to
erratic

missing modes,

results or excessive
cost

Diagnostic Aids

Sturm

None

sequence

indicates

missing
Number

of good

One-fourth to

one-half

number

Q-set variables used

the size of the A-set

of

Close Roots

No

May

loose

is too

50

modes

Two thirds the

modes

problems

number of

some

small.

if NIRV

CHAPTER 3

EXPERIMENTAL MODAL ANALYSIS

3.1

MODAL TESTING AND RELATED INSTRUMENTATION

Modal

characteristics

normally has
of

of

stiffness

matrices

modal

analyzer

to

in

motion

coupled

Modal

system.

measured

measurements
model

such

as

1. Excitation

of

the

made

of

measuring the
input force

measurement

the

three

of

the

Transducing

the

3.

Recording

and

about

at

removes

defined

analytically.

ratio

of

the

the

the force
points.

on

entire

of

the

Function

spectrum

mode

Fast Fourier

response

From

to

method

frequencies,

channel

and

from the
of

FRF

can

build

set

structure,

one

structure.

Modal

testing

steps:

structure

response

with

measured

force.

to a measurable form.

analyzing
modal

points

of

response

the mass

experimental

dual

choice

systematic

system

natural

(Frequency Response

measurement

primary

2.

information

parameters

is

analysis

an

system

form due to the

by diagonalizing

testing is

modal

dynamic

the

freedom

of

subsequently solving the

and

between

response

consists

and

before,

FRF). The FRF

of

degree

multiple

damping. This is done using

and

Transform

up

structure.

determining

of

to uncouple these equations

determine the

system

process

coordinate

discussed

shapes

equations

particular

procedure

As

is

analysis

the

parameters.

51

response

to

extract

all

the

There

are

wave,

number

sweep

of

sine,

periodic,

Frequency Response

Where, X(co) is

that

of

complex

frequency

'co'. The

input

amplitude

between

output

output

type

input

and

is

model

used

the

consists

for

mode

modal

model.

degree

of

modal

in the

The

frequencies,

frequencies

and

of

the system and

F(co)

be

of

set

of

to

and

will

produce

the

Thus

modal

output

phase

FRF

the

independent

experimental

This

of

experimental

set

the associated

of

data,
The

52

referred

which

model

shapes

in the

of

any

response

in

terms

giving

modal

conditions

measurements

one

to as the

test may be

frequency

dynamic

FRF

mode

modal

single

structural

is

the

mathematical

conditions.

model

is

The

and

as

FRF

the

of

O(co).

system

An

input

independent differential equations,

from,

measured

measurement.

weak

by

measured

the

under

co

by |H(co)|,

shifted

the

output

frequency.

same

multiplied

will

result of an

showing

the

of

from

complexity

measurement
of

of

The

frequency

measurement.

system

normally
each

for

at

properties

constructed

represents

excitation.

interpretation

physical

input

the

describes the dynamic


signal

sine

transient

or

between

ratio

force

motion

be

will

stepped

excitation.

the

sinusoidal

sinusoidal

random

structure:

Function is defined as,

the

of

represents

function

the

excite

the transform of the response

is the transform

Eq.(a)

to

ways

animated

form.

Some

the

of

instrumentation

in

used

is

testing

modal

described

below.

3.1.1

The

VIBRATION EXCITERS

the

upon

consist

available

are

It

not

very

For

the

by

of

given

electromagnetic

However,

field

is

excitation

the

The

and

from

Pulse

of

exciters

Shakers

electrohydraulic.

the

rotation

of

force

of

an

at

be changed,

once

the

it

need

not

magnitude
of

is

excitation

Contacting

magnitude

cannot

operation

shaker,

to

attached

through

field.

magnitude

noncontacting

W Three types

limited

contacting

and

hammer.

vibration

since

types

is fixed,

this type

shaker

of

is

low frequencies.

electromagnetic

electromagnetic

is

at

two

excitation).

shakers.

depending

available,

structure)

held

force to the

measured

exciters
are

the

generate

But

electromagnetic

measurement.

efficient

to

provides

can

operation.

there

hand

variety

shaker

mass.

is in

verified

shaker

of

transient

frequency. The force

variable

be

or

Mechanical,

mechanical

unbalanced

vibration

using

of

types

Mainly

pulse

obtained

typically

various

continuous

provides

normally

shaker

are

for applying

used

application.

(providing
(which

device

There

structure.

is

exciter

The

power

the

structure.

amplifier

power

force has to be

53

placed

coil

input

and

can

measured

is

be

by

in

varying

The input to the


converted

easily
some

to

the

controlled.

other

device,

the

since

vibration

impedence

of

the

structure

is

much

is just

inertia

smaller

than what

it

to

Hydraulic

for

higher

because
itself.

shaker

near

provide

But

by

be.

to

one

its

of

mass

natural

the

on

and

large, it is

and

the

But this

limitation

heavy

the

of

to

applied

sinusoidal, random or

is

There

structure.

is

these

of

can

This

can

the

of

conditions

They
of

are

natural

the

most

be

in

shakers

advantage

useful

in

they

size

the
of

very

can

operating

this type

of

vibration

the

laboratory.

are

and

and

simulating

test

the

is that

load

static

very

structure

although

greatest

apply

incorporating

power

usually large in

vibrations

is very low. The

it

hydraulic

of

use

excitation.

that

simultaneously.

make

amplitudes

range

drawback

to

used

force

appear

might

of

be determined.

cannot

actual

structure

amplitude

type of shaker.

electromagnets

shaker

be

the

range

exciters

frequency

the

excite

shaker can

the

of

used

provide

to

frequency

frequencies
widely

the

the

with

the force

of

the table,

excitation

operating

changes

of

enough

frequencies. This
periodic

coil

the exact magnitude

and

Because

force

the

of

working

The

main

complicated

and

expensive.

shaker

can

arrangement
structure.

in

one

should

provide

of

Drive

direction
to

be

excitation

drive

rods

and

taken

rod

are

so

must

nylon

flexible

only in

in

that

be

one

made

connectors

all

the

54

the

direction.
while

which

other

operating

Hence

attaching
are

proper

it to the

extremely

directions.

frequency

Also,

stiff

care

range

is

significantly

3.1.2

the natural frequencies

above

HAMMER

transient

or

random

impactor

with

pulse

sets

the details

of

above
of

its

function

The

impactor

the fundamental

head

the

and

is

combined system

Fundamental

The force
wave

which

as

spectrum
vibrations

frequency

pulse
shown

as

in

in

of

the

suspensions.

It

mass

of

Fig.

to

head

the combined

fundamental

an

excite

pendulum
shows

range

excited

and

into

energy

for

(3.1)I31

frequency

the

used

basically
tips

and

handle.

impart

The

is

used as a suspended

it has

of

be

can

contacting

the

system

structure

consisting

frequency

the

of

by,

/contact

Frequency
by

the hammer is in the form of a half sine

of

the

this type has

is

frequency
of

frequency

the

pulse

or

the

impactor,

the

the stiffness

55

of

the

tip

Tc,

range

impact

exciting

(up

the

to a

higher

covered

should

used.

frequency

in

spectrum

the pulse,

larger

fc. Thus to have

effective

frequency

of

of

pulse

the duration

the

upon

pulse

This

portion

duration

ffness

impactor mass

(3.2b).

shorter

sti

(3.2a). A

only in the flat

This duration depends

and

head

of

hammer. The

of

cannot

given

Fig.

fc). The

case

structure.

Fig.

be

can

exciter

structure.

masses

frequency

delivered

of

the

of

different

construction

by it is mainly
stiffness.

excitation

of

hammer, in

transient type

or

frequencies. It

various range of
as

shaker

A hammer is

or

of

For

be
a

by

small.

HEAD

FIGURE 3.1

CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF HAMMER

FfrjuJ
fit)

'e

'I

'

T.

^
i

J^

'

1ms

(a)

100

(b)

!mcact

Force Pulse

ana

-a)

Time History

(b;

Frequency Scectrum

FIGURE 3.2

u,

Hz

:ooo

10000

Ssectrum

DETAILS OF IMPACTOR AND HAMMER

t3l

stiffer

tip,

range

is

the

longer.

preferred,
range

to

it

magnitude

force is

determine

the

in the

crystal

used

of

direction

and

of

creates

all,

the

possibility

chance
might

3.1.3

of

to

available

is

tip

softer

limited

the

frequency

which

of

results

advantage

use.

for

It

measures

It

structure.

proportional

charge

force.

applied

gauge

the

develops

its face. The

The

test depends

be

can

signal

is

charge

measured

from

this

is

problems

ACCELEROMETERS

the

in

Also,

from

signal

structure

all

in

offered

linear

by

inexpensive

structures.

57

this

the impacts

harder

with

the

structure

processing.
which

inelastic (or plastic)

its

relatively

simple

hammer

the operator,

upon

magnitude.

the

of

overloading

be forced into

greatest

convenience
accurate

force

the same

causing double impacts

the

structure

anything else, it is extremely hard to have

same

also

in

tips

metal

Generally

energy

delivered

impacts in

of

bounce

is

the

and

frequency

excited

to compute the excitation to the structure.

of

tips,

plastic

which

across

magnitude

Since the uniformity


than

force

of

applied

force transducer is

more

all

the

and

respectively.

imparts

piezoelectric

rubber,

the hammer is attached to

actual

when

are

shorter

interest.

of

simple

is

stiffnesses,

since

of

The tip
the

There

increasing

with

length

pulse

and

case

region.

method

There

is

gives

the

All

in

the

fairly

An accelerometer is
to

system

transducer

measurable form.

response

is to be measured.

crystal

certain

of

vibrates

the

The

crystal.

be

which

can

only

below

frequency
stiffness
on

the

it is

which

constructions

is

in

used

are

for

accelerometer

may

of

should

than

one

be

is

mounted

magnetic

mounting

and

well

of

whose

piezoelectric

The

Figure

the

exerts

of

the

shows

on

charge

be

accelerometer can

(k/m)1/2.

body

force

it to

converts

used

Hence

the

accelerometer

and

to

connection

(3.3)(31

When

'm'.

mass

then

mass

as

in

the

structure

the different types

wide

impose

mass

the

mass

of

of

is.

accelerometer

hand-held
and

response

the

followed

mounting.

the corresponding

stiffer

in
the

frequency

selecting

the

mass

the

the

on

should

be

Mounting
the

wax,

Fig.(3.4)[3l

response

of

structure

The
no

rule
more

the

of

connection,

connection

by

of

measurements.

structure.

The best

58

range

made

accelerometer

The

sensitivities.

contraints

very important. The

frequency

of

Also,

application.

good

of

be

must

additional

for

range

but the working

mass,

particular

also

methods

structure

of

mass

frequency,

compromise

the

higher the working

response

accelerometers.

avoided

tenth

accelerometer

stud-

as

with

is that the

thumb

seismic

crystal

available

Hence

the

on

consists

seismic

limited by the

mounted.

accelerometer

which

the

fundamental

sensitivity increases
reduced.

and

excitation,

crystal

Accelerometers

is

Basically, it

amplified and measured.

range
of

It is mounted

piezoelectric

its

the

convert

'k'

stiffness

the

under

to

used

is

given

cemented

shows

the

by

stud,

various

characteristics

(C)

/PiCo.i

Acce lercmeter AsseinDiv

>.a;

Construction

v.D)

Simple Dynamic noae l

(c) Construction

FIGURE 3.3

or

of

ComDression Type Accelerometer


Shear T/pe Accelerometer

CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ACCELEROMETER

t3l

Cemented
stud

Thin layer
of

Hand
neid

wax

(t>)

Cemented

Wax

S,U\X

k Hertz

Accelerometer Attachment
of

Attacnment

f. a;

Methods

:b)

Freouencv Response

FIGURE 3.4

of

Different

Attacnments

MOUNTING METHODS FOR ACCELEROMETER

t3]

by

obtained

be

should

the

perfectly

Accelerometers
as

well

3.1.4

are

Fast

channel

the

for

available

output

The

Function.

process, the

analog

process

1. The

excitation

and

input

sampling

rate

the

and

from

record

(weighted) by

and

analysis

of

weighted

window

end

of

all

the

of

the

record

sequence

the

other

fourier

is

and

to

the

of

to

the

transform

of

Frequency

simplified

FFT

used

channel

complicated

box, providing just


get

FRF.

the

sampled

and

The

signals

over

digitized

These

records.

determine

to

records

finite time.

The

the

frequency

be

multiplied

analysis.
sequence

may

function. This tapers the data

each

mobility

follows^22':

or

lengths

continuous

as

sequences

the

of

the

filtered,

are

history

resolution

and

beginning

digital

time

fast

is

analyzer

H(co). One

signals

is

analyzer

mounted.

the same time.

at

and

obtaining

response

is

rotational

the analyzer as a black

signals

of

series

the

2. Each

in the

out

represent

range

Although
use

carried

(FFT)

displays

and

it

exciter

performs

accelerometer

which

freedom

of

the

signals

can

user

analog

give

to

analyzer

input

and

Response

on

measuring

Fourier Transform

connected

accelerometer.

3. The

surface

Frequency Response Function,

is

analyzer

for

also

the

the

of

axis

DUAL CHANNEL FFT ANALYZER

measure

the

to

normal

mobility in three degrees

as

dual

the

The

accelerometers.

record

at

both the

to make the data more suitable

records.

is transformed to the

61

frequency domain

as

complex

by

spectrum,

Transformation'. To

the

use

the spectral

estimate

averaging technique is implemented to


statistical

4. An

complex

is

remove

of

noise

5. When the

products

complex

different

spectrum,

spectrum

is

output

a
and

of

and

then

of

different

conjugate
we

input

of

an

signal,

improve

and

and

one

force

and

response

together

force

and

response

are

and

with

number

is

spectrum

cross

by its

of

such

output.

The

spectrum.
phase

The

shift

quantities

needed

of

Modal

cross

between
coherent

autospectra

of

the

between the

the cross spectrum

exactly the

by

multiplied

representing the

magnitude

in the input

spectrum

spectrums.

the

get

averaging

function showing the

complex

power

by multiplying

calculated

conjugate

independent

product

density

confidence.

autospectrum

the

Fourier

'Discrete

of

for the FRF

estimate.

3.2

CURVE FITTING

Curve

fitting

measurements

is
at

the

Response

numerical

techniques

frequency, damping

obtained,

this

in

which

an

analytical

to

are

individual

for

the

62

structure

curvefitted

shapes.

expression

expression

the

modal

extract

mode

for every

on

points

Functions

and

analytical

phase

second

various

Frequency

process

Test
taken.

are

Frequency Response
matching

FRF

expressed

is

it

is
in

as

such

fitting

curve

closely

The

sophisticated

with

parameters

Basically,

after

is

Function

found.
its

If

series

form, the

coefficients

Thus,

parameters.

deduced

from

squares

method

Generally,
domain.

equations

and

harmonic

[M] {q}
general

When

best

the

however,

of

fit

with

fit the

usually
a

as

well.

The

in

the

methods

of

directly
least

function.

frequency

to

available

modal

the

use

polynomial

response

algorithms

be

can

do

the

curvefitting

given

[coq {q}
be

MDOF

system

with

hysteretic

damping

as,

{ f}

eiut

(1)

expressed

in the form,

ei03t

(2)
back

substituted

Equation

into

The

problem.

eigenvalue

for
are

can

solution

motion

[K] {q}

damping

and

to the

related

Ewins. M

by

excitation

be

can

algorithms

algorithms

are,

explained

q(t)

find

in the time domain

The

The

shapes

curvefitting

the

of

terms

various
mode

The

There

best

the

to

most

curvefitting
are

it.

of

rtn

(1),

this

eigenvalue can

be

leads

to

written

as

complex

\2

<o2

cor is the

where

the

rtn

mode.

properties

(3)

irir)

natural

The

frequency

and

eigenvectors,

[u],

rjr is the damping factor for


demonstrate

by,

given

[u]T

[M] [u]
[u]T[K+

Now for the

orthogonality

icoC] [u]

case

(4)

[mr]

of

(5)

[Kr]

harmonic

excitation

63

and

response,

the governing

equations

of

[K

motion

+ icoC-

The direct

(q)

[K

eicot

eicDt

{ f}

(6)

be expressed

can

icoC

is

[h(co)]
its

constituting
matrix

M] {q}

as,

o^M]"1

as

{f}

[h(co)] {f}

where

co2

solution

are given

h;|<(co)

(7)
"N

the

response

can

be

NH

receptance

model.

given

for

matrix

general

element

the

in

system

this

FRF

as

^
MO)

(8)

Vk7

fm

m=1,N ;

=0;

*k

Hence from Equation (7),

-1'

[K+icoC
Let

[<E>

-co2M]

[h(co)]
the

represent

(mass-normalization

Premultiplying

both

(9)

is

sides

by

mass-normalized

eigenvector

for

eigenvectors).

[<D]T

and

[0]T

[K
or

from Eq.

icoC

co2
-

M] [C>]

(3) following

process

scaling

postmultiplying

by [&],

(10)

[h(co)f [O]

relationship

can

be obtained,

-1

[X;

co2]

[d)] [h()]

(11)

[<D]

[X'

that is

Eq.

(12)

[h(co)J
is

N. Individual

an

(12)

[O]

expression

receptances

for the
can

be

receptance

represented

64

matrix

as

of

the

order

N X

hikN

f
r

In Eq. (13),
point and

(Oj)r

(a>k)r

-co2+

gives the

2-~^

is

(Ajj<)r
form

series

proximity

and

Multiple Degree

Nyquist

the
or

of

the

adjacent

Nyquist

of

Freedom

the

part

does

not

explicitly

must

be

added

particular

to the

of

used

resonance

is

FRF's.

in

used

There

are

upon

the

depending

modes.

is

divided
FRF

the

of

for

used

plane

into

is

give

the

on

are

the

curvefitted

well

to

according

or

whether

is

plot

of

of

frequencies,

the values

In

separated

65

of

vs.

the

Since this

plot

the

Response Function.

values

curve.

methods

curvefitting.

plot

Frequency

by identifying

points

the

It

(MDOF) curvefiting

further

are

Argand

or

Residue. This is

Function.

of

curvefitting

or

Freedom (SDOF) curvefiting

plot

imaginary

to

of

magnitude

circle

Response

PROPERTIES OF THE NYQUIST PLOT

3.2.1

The

from

techniques

whether

Modal Constant

as the

Frequency

coupling

2.

(14)

curvefitting techniques

of

Single Degree

two

as

ITlrC02

the

of

1.

The

the excitation point.

near

written

the resonance

near

-2+

referred to

types

main

be

also

2-

of

deducing information
two

shape amplitude

(Aik)r

rTl

where,

can

V
=

mode

the amplitude

gives

The individual FRF

hik^
J

irirco2

co2

real

this

information

frequency corresponding

Nyquist plot, the


whereas

those

points

close

away from the

resonance

are

clustered

displaying

the

important

(3.5)l3]

shows

together.

resonance

typical Nyquist plot

Response Function. The figure


of

the Nyquist plot

For light

traces out

This

of

damping,
line

vertical

The FRF for

h(co)

is

is
in

region
of

an

some

some

plot

exhibits

the

resonance

the

as

effecive

the receptance

resonance known

through

as

some

frequency

detail.
or

Frequency

the modal circle.

symmetry

sweeps

about

The

(k

m)

(15)

(coC)

i (coC)

(16)

(k
The

m)

right

hand

side

imaginary

parts

as

Re(h)

co2
-

of

(coC)

Eq.(16)

can

co2m

be

separated

Im(h)

into

its

real

coC
=
(coC)'

(k
and

it follows

(k-

-co2m)

x2

lm

is the

co2m)

and

(17)

that

(Re)'

which

given as,

m)+

(k

FRF

from 0 to

'

Fig.

the properties

of

frequency.
co

of

way

follows.

proved as
mode r

it

displays

also

Nyquist

the

complete circle

be

can

a single

passing

Thus

of

(18)

2coC

2coC

equation

<

circle.

66

m(h)

Im(h)

FIGURE 3.5

From

equation

(15)

PROPERTIES OF MODAL CIRCLE

for the FRF

of a single mode,

(19)

co

<(1-

(f-)

+mr)

For any frequency, co, the following relationship


tan y

can

be

written:

(20)

<>2>.

(90

tan

or,

Now,
the

-y)

consider

tan

tan

tan

(9/2)

two points

frequency

natural

From this

(6/2)

(92/2)

(1

cor.

(1

-(co/co,)2)

(21)

/r\T

the modal circle, co-(

on

Then from Eq.(21), it

-(co/,)

below

can

be

and

said

co2

above

that

)/ t|r

(22)
(1

expression,

-(co2/cor)

the

)/ t\f

damping factor

of

the mode

can

be

written

as

ft"?-*?)

For the

case

{co2

of

tan(62/

2)

(23)

tan(e/2))}

light damping, the

above

67

expression

becomes

2 (co

^r

When

co)
]

jov

(tan(e2/ 2)

points

and

TV

tan(61 /2))|

is

light,

not

(26)

points

one

at

technique

near

natural

to

response

curvefitting.
above

coupled.

curvefitting

3.2.2.1

This

This

is

from

is

are

used.

is

other

the

In

single

is easily

be found if the

mode can

the

or

here, is

is curvefitted,

resonance

that

the

response

is completely dominated
closest.

In

other

modes

adjacent

simplest

valid

mode

type

only if the

event

of

of

is

by

neglected

curvefitting

very

are

the

of

that

mode

the contribution

words,

modes

having

far

close

SDOF

in

method.

The

or

they

apart

modes,

MDOF

PEAK AMPLITUDE METHOD

method

any

assumption

resonance

assumptions

not

which

frequency

whose

the

by

of

known.

are

The

time.

structure

are

damping

SDOF CURVEFITTING

further

(24)

eq.

points,

power

It is

power

(25)

Thus using this expression,

3.2.2

half

the

are

damping
nr

half

(24)

to,

simplifies

If the

"

applied

to

Frequency Response

68

Functions

of

the

structure

It

the

uses

the modes

where

simplest

1. Individual resonances

first

The

noted.

in

amplitude

particular

or

modes

mode

Fig.

separated

to

and

in

FRF

plot of the

to

corresponding

gives

is

and

curvefitting

very damped.

not

the

fastest

below:

outlined

frequency

that

mode.

well

approach

The procedure is

method.

are

the

natural

(3.5) graphically

magnitude

the

frequency,

shows

the

maximum

cor,

peak

are

that

of

amplitude

curvefitting.

2. Determine the half


which

is

the

Then

points

on

are

and

co-j

damping

the

either

amplitude

side

C02 for the

ratio

CO

points

to

establish

is fitted. To do this, the

curve

noted.

power

of

the

mode.

of

gives

amplitude,

the two

half

mode.

also gives

3. As

From Eq.(26),

<27>

Eq.(14)

in

modes, the FRF is

the series form of FRF is given as

(Aik)r

hik(co)=X
mode

(28)

2 Tir

X.

For the

and

-co

Cr

in

shown

|h|,

power

damping

Tlr=-V^

and

in

The corresponding frequencies

This bandwidth

for the corresponding

frequency band

maximum

"h/V2"

peak.

question,
given

(29)

neglecting

the

contribution

from

other

as,

A-

(3)

<rir
In

other

words, the

Ar

modal

constant

can

be

written

as

(31)

|h|co2Tir

69

Thus the
modal

mode

shapes

of

(A^),..

constant

FIGURE 3.6

Although this

limitations

damping
that

mode.

single

correctly

Firstly,

depends entirely

inaccuracy
a

it.

Measurements

point

which

measured.

the
on

of

to

simple

implement, there
of

accuracy

one

point,

the

modal

affecting the

mode

when

with

the

Secondly,
modes,

under

modes

other

are

serious

constants

maximum

amplitude

or
of

the FRF may not be very accurate due to

determines the

other

of

combined

PEAK AMPLITUDE METHOD

the instruments and measurement methods

of

contribution

useful

is very

method

to

the structure can be determined from the

maximum

this

method

even

consideration.

are

methods

well

70

amplitude

entirely

though

they

Hence this

separated.

effectively to

used.

give

may

are

be
the

somewhat

method

good

not

neglects

However,
a

Hence

it

is really
can

curvefit.

be

3.2.2.2

CIRCLE FIT METHOD

This

is

peak

amplitude

slightly

vs.

imaginary

plot

for

made

that

the

the

for

modal

effects

Frequency

small

than

method

curvefitting

the Nyquist plot,

uses

traces

mode

extract

frequency

It

part of

single

to

sophisticated

method.

real

circle

more

which

is

the

plot

of

Response Function. A Nyquist

circle.

Again,

parameters.

due to

adjacent

frequency

range.

is found

curvefit

modes

This is

assumption

is

independent

of

an

are

for this

shown

by expressing

the FRF in its series form:

W-l^Z
<4

s=i

J.

w2
-

Vs

^
co2

That is, for


series

small

(32)

:^2

hrco2

-i^U
co2

frequency

rOange

in the vicinity

term is independent of frequency.

from the Nyquist

computed

From Eq.(26), the

damping

plot

m.sco2

Damping

of

of

mode,
mode

r, the
can

be

follows.

as

of a mode

is

given

as

CO2

(34)

^-V1

where

The

9-j

sides

of

circle

90

number

manually
2. A

circle

entire

1.A fixed

92

natural

by

the

fitting is
of

the half power points.

represent

points

carried
are

frequency.

out

as

selected

The

follows:

on

selection

the Nyquist plot on both


can

be automatically

or

operator.

is fitted to the

points

using the least

71

squares

method.

The

selected

points

angles

between

points

(from

are
each

co=0

them are noted.

of

to co=o)

the

increments along

the

natural

given

to the centre

connected

frequency

forming

successive

that

of

Then,

circle

points.

mode.

of

This

the

circle

by calculating

maximum

be

can

the

the rate of sweep of

is found

The

and

seen

rate

gives

in the figure

below. I41
Im

FIGURE 3.7
3.

is

Damping
on

of

modal

frequency
given

by

The

set of points.

4. The

using Eq.

estimated

two sides

resonance.

mean

constants

and

CIRCLE FITTING OF FRF DATA

co

of

the

set

Thus, damping is
gives

the

determined

are

diameter

substituting

value

(34) for any

circle.

damping

knowing

of

points

calculated

and

for

each

ratio.

the

damping,

The diameter

of

natural

the circle is

cor in Eq. (15):

A.

jk

Di^k
or

Thus,

the

(35)

A.^Dia^co2^

mode shape of a particular mode can

72

be determined.

3.2.3

MDOF CURVEFITTING

As discussed earlier, SDOF curvefitting is


cases

where

is

structure

is

system

affected

by

combined

methods

for the

curvefitted

be

can

of

range

modes

m-jto

A..

the

range

represents

whereas

Equation

the

the

frequency

m-j to

above

term,

The

can

the

of

number

close

Thus,

are

the

various

domain.

be

written

are

in

series

form

they

(1/Kjk)R,
of

represents

superscript

73

m-j

as

and

modes

represent

behavior

be further divided

introduced to take into

the range

term,

(1/co2Mjk)R,
The

equation

outside

since

stiffness-like

modes.

(36)

m2.

Hence,

co2M]k

modes

terms,

residual

the

k"

msco2

of

effect

of

response

There

the

-co2+

The last two terms in the


the

as

can

when

functions.

estimated.

some

co2

st^

account

m2

wherein,

frequency

or

resonance.

polynomial

for the FRF

expression

lk

the

used,

using

resonances

of

are

to do this procedure in the

analytical

called

In these situations, the

algorithms

of

modes,

than one mode at a

for

suitable

very

of

coupling

EXTENSION OF THE SDOF METHOD

3.2.3.1

The

effect

close

more

are

modes

damped.

highly

MDOF curvefitting
adjacent

is

there

not

in

high
mass

stands

the

They

m2.

on

each

Equation

frequency
effects

for

the

of

are

side

(36)

modes,

the

low

residuals.

m.

(Aik)s

<*,,.>.
w>

co2

ir)rco2

co2

2+

J
The SDOF
is

side

for

constant

if

analysis,

good

These

the

magnitude

for

frequency
magnitude
results

for

all

data

of

the

of

in

analysis.

(in

h:k(co)

gives

Eq.

the

the

be

be

can

the

the

constant.

analysis

at

as

cor,

each

the

available,

calculated

from

values

from

nri2)

the

at

value

in

calculated

to

m-|

MDOF

resonance,

is

value

range

FRF

the

(hjk(co)). Then

by

Subtracting
the

to

SDOF

around

(37)

in

coefficients

trial

FRF

the right hand

on

assumed

points

measured

modes

adjacent

from

FRF denoted

the

SDOF

the

value

measured

of

which

of

the

set

be

not

found

the bracketed term

of

the

be

could

Consider

it may

Jk

But

range.

be found for the

can

then

)k

bracketed term

frequency

small

estimates

estimates

follows

(Aj|^)r,

term,

second

with

analysis assumes that the

(37)

"ls4

mode

the

under

consideration.

rn

(A;J

k's

h>)
)kv

'

s=m

Thus,

found

by

co2

co2

good

,
(s*r
,

estimate

+ m

.cor

's

for the

parameters

can

be

for any

repeated

mode

to

co2

co2^
|k

coefficient

considering the results from

procedure

<Aik)r

1
2

obtain

an

(Aj^)r

of

SDOF

better

irirco2

the mode

analysis.

estimates

r in the range selected.

74

co2
-

of

(38)

r can

The
the

be

same
modal

3.2.3.2

GENERAL MDOF CURVEFITTING

General MDOF curvefitting is


the

in

measurements

works

minimizing the

on

that determined

and

the

denoted as, hm,

independent

an

case
error

of

coupled

modes.

between the

theoretically.

The

to curvefitting

approach

t5l

measured

individual

The

method

FRF

of

value

measured

the theoretical value can be calculated as

whereas

hi=s=m

In

the

g)2,...

analytical

"Hi

measured

given

at

theoretical

and

jk

the

are

(A,k)i

coefficients

These

unknowns.

are

(A;k)2,.. co^
the

modal

values

for

frequency

which

is

This difference, the

considered.

the measured value is available,

is

as
=

<c

E,=

make

frequency

(40)

-M

(41)

i ef I

the

natural

frequency

measurement

is

interest

of

more

analysis

is

consideration

under

is

is then

general,

considered.

given

higher

given

lower

given

the

The

weighted

closer

modes

weight

weight.

and

error

to

should

unknowns

be

for every
the

mode

those away from the

The

total

error

in

the

by,

(42)

IW1E1

To find the
error

Jk

M;^

and

M?

co2

To find these unknowns, the difference in the individual

each

61

To

K"

iiyo|

expression,

Ki|<

t|2>...,

parameters.

error

<39>

TL?Jr--TT

o/ +

co^

is

value

in

Eq.(39),

minimum.

This

the condition

is

75

achieved

is that the

weighted

by differentiating

the

total

error

them

equating
equations

3.2.4

testing

of

structure.

location
these

manually is
modal

peaks

the

the

table.

existing

long

measurements

modal

final

natural

table.

then

This

These

animated

These

data

is

they

for

single

used

mode

the

all

parameters.

freedom

at a

displacements

shapes

for

the

of
all

the

entire
modes

In this method,

measurement

at

all

the

using SDOF

or

frequency bands corresponding


are

entered

repetitive

values

output

in

of

modal

into

process

and

AUTOFIT

an

on

computes

all

the

all

the

then stored in a shape data table. The

damping
are

modal

resonant

frequency bands

are

test,

modal

the

SMS

the

with

process!

painful

performs

these

using

frequencies and

measurements.

hence

linear,

measurement

These bands

modes.

parameters.

The

method.

extract

The

every

and

curvefitted

computer

be

simultaneous

unknowns.

to a different degree

the

give

of

MDOF techniques. This determines the


to

the

available

to

structure.

and

each

very

for

iterative

part

curvefitted

locations

are

final

the

corresponds

on

Fitting

of

set

and

unknown

be

must

each

not

may

some

using

As

measurement

each

solved

generated

solved

software.

different

generates

be

to

respect

user-friendly feature

measurements

with

This

then

can

AUTOFITTING

Autofitting is

(42)

zero.

equations

have to be

might

Each

to

which

simultaneous

Eq.

by

given

into

further

mode shapes.

76

are

averaged

the

frequency

processing

or

out

for

and

for

all

the

damping

display

of

3.3

MODAL TESTING PROCEDURE

This

describes the

section

SMS STAR

test using
test

There

software.

2.

Setting

up the

experiment and

3.

Setting

up the

computer

Preparation

In

an

or

support

first

degrees

The

they

be

of

the

structure

complete

in

stages

modal

modal

actual

structure

But in

of

is

way
of

all

by

absorbed

some

it from flexible
in

the

of

freedom in

all

the energy

the structure

to

or

springs

its

and

point on
a

is

place

condition.

supported

structure

which

suspended

not

(as in large structures),

cases

is tested

to

identify

it

it
on

The
the

the structure, there

structure

can

be tested.

to be tested are marked on the structure and

points

connected

easiest

of

or

the best results since

preparation

degrees

six

measurements

free-free

analysis,

gives

structure

taking

analyzer

modal

suspend

the

and

spectrum

freedom to be tested. At any

number

are

to

the

in

coordinates

the

the

ground.

possible

step

could

of

excite

foam, hence

the

three

are

the structure

the structure

of

to

applied

not

of

experimental

condition

is

perform

Preparation

its

to

procedure

1.

1.

by

lines.

in

which

the

points

The

points

connection

are

are

lines

determined

computer.

77

numbered

so

can

as

be
to

according to
written.

enter

The

them into

2. Setting

Using

up

the experiment

hammer to

the structure,

excite

hammer is connected to

channel

conditioning

The

amplifier.

response

is

amplifier.

Appropriate

and

accelerometer

the

amplifiers.

instrumentation

Next,
and

response

are

as

of

of

in

its

gives

point

Setting

is

good

The

to

up

pick

the

transducer
are

set to

on

set

the

schematically
for

conditioning

charts

setup

modal

test.

the excitation

measure

is

analyzer

position

upon

up the

modal

test.

Fig.

modal

to

a project,

as

(3.1

undertaken.

number

set

up

the
the

of

0)I211

Various

driving

point

point

point

is the

are

hammer

tested

and

is

one

antiresonances

locations

and

driving

driving

and

response

in

by

finally

in

point.

taking

most

of

driving

resonances

accelerometer

and

is the

Choice

that the

such

whereas

domain. Then

test. A good

Function.

computer

measurements

perform

of

frequency

modal

Response

Taking

open

experimental

in the

seen

maximum

is decided

calibration

is

using

hammer force

shows

analyzer

(3.9).

structure

Frequency

changing the

3.

FRF

Fig.

very important for


which

the

analyzer

using

is displayed in the time domain,

signal

the

(3.8)

again

the

of

used

the

of

the structure. The various parameters to be adjusted

of

the structure is

survey

B,

channel

Figure
and

spectrum

accelerometer

according to their

used

shown

the

of

sensitivities

the dual channel

excitation

to

connected

the force transducer

measurements

important

shows

and

graphically

lengthy
the

stage

procedure

to

test using the SMS STAR software. The first step is

in the STAR software, running

78

on

an

IBM PC/AT.

LU
cn

cn
LU
I
LU

LJ
cn rx

LU

CO

21
a
cn
LU

\> \\
W Ox]
V

LJ
LJ

<

^x-

\l

LTZ

o
LL

\Sft-v

i^K

Q.

k\V^
^
O

'

\ 1

CO

CD

z. cn

CD

z. cn
CD LU

z. cn
o ljj
u_

:0
0

CD
Z. Q_
a 2:
LJ <C

nL

0-,

z. a_
a 21
LJ

-=C

UJ

rr
UJ
Q.

X
UJ
UJ

CO
UJ
h-1

<
a
u_

cn

LU LU

o
^

>-

<C

in

88H!!0
? oooa

198

iSB

<

<c

LJ ^

Ul

aa

X
o

aa

aa

<c

cn

aa

a a

ZD Li-

CD

1 aa

00

nz

CO

LJ

UJ
rr

g
u.

i
|

\
1
.

LJ

Q_

CD

n 11
ja [

".

A.

V
EE
ro-zE

08\S
a
3.

a
a

X
H

mmoo
a.
a.
zaui
U
?U

N
H

~<n

<

>a

u.

cc
u.

U1U1XX

<

.3

uu
ZZNN

zau

r?

.a

<

-X

uc-r
(OB

_i

-z

u.
u.
a

-03Z
.

<

UJ

.>>

hAIEE

in in
nn

f <

o<r

UJ

z
J
GUI

Ul.

z>

rsr^

uii

x:

-nil

3
a.

-.

<i

<

mm

x:

in

jf-

-1

a.;

?-

xx mm

a:
J.

nn

cl.

(AUIXX~

u.
*

2
O
GL

<i

.SCO.

HU.QQ

xta
?
a:

i-f

>a.E
<aa

ztn

h-

UJ
X
U1UI 8

x:

8i_I.J
E E-~
mmu.u.

-u

D
CO

<

UJ
cc

UJ
CO

cc
UJ
N
>

xr

h
llll
azi-+ +aa.

UJ

zuiz
<

caj.

Mmtnz

<<
cn

xuiza
MO

<

at/xa.

.z

xzir-

ma

2UI-J

aa<
LCDW*
Ul
+
UJ

raiHuiMiMau

in
UJ.

r$

x-

...

z
CD N

uiaoa
e . .
U.OOL

.ui

C3

<tuu

UJ

our

ZKXX

K^'

a*i

ecu -a
XUX

uixx

-a.

? HUa<OUIH

l-

aiz^*-1

UJ

QSb-xai

J,
a

a.
*-

a
o

3
2

01

0
3. N

1 J3

E
0
J

c
m
ji

t a

<ZQ

iruiuiuixxuu
1U2ZUUUL

a
in

<_iui
uiirui>
2hQ<

UJ

cc
D

(3

a<m

ae

CO

u.

ui
I-

<
CC

<
co

CO

UJ
cc

After

the

opening

analyzer address

the

project

driving

number and the

units

defined. To define the geometry


all

the

points

points
are

are

into the

by

display

connected

the

necessary preparation, the


degrees
the

freedom

of

response

(3.11)

shows

domain.

and

'Modal

Peaks'

checks

all

averaged

identify

out

driving

point

functions

and

measurements

frequency
also

basic

The
and

allows

response

in

the

all

same

structure

are

mathematical

mode

can

be

All these

model

the

of

shapes

printed

by

steps

the

can

structure

82

for

then

saved,

the

of

it

FRF's

easy

range

peaks

the

all

command

part

to

tested.

in

the

polynomial

rest

the

of

peaks

the

in

parameters

are

displayed

and

be

results table.

be

time
the

using

modal

structural

and

This

The

After

can

from

are

frequency

repeated

the

Fig.

to

makes

curvefitted.

all

point.

transferred

This

the

all

For this

frequency

imaginary

in the

of

the hammer and

executed.

function.

curvefitted,

processing

simulation.

is

process

finished

driving

of

curvefitted

are

damping

further

then

Autofit

animated

is

plots

the

using

with

the

measurements.

are

the coordinates

measurements

STAR

and

measurement

the

in

are

response

performed.

subsequently

the

the

measurements

measurement

extracted.

is

all

the modes of the

all

acquired

every

After

measurements

for

are

location

measurement

and

Having

sequence.

the fixed

measurement

command

the

at

freedom,

of

data table. All these

coordinate

excited, one at a time,

typical

saved.

excitation

measurements

recorded

Every

computer

The

is

are

of

the structure,

of

entered

degree

point

SMS STAR

modification

carried

out

is determined.

or

forced

once

the

3
E
01

>

o
z

UJ

>a

Ul

cc
u_
<

UJ

XX

Ul

ui

cc
3
CO

<
UJ
J
<

o
a.

a
a
(V
<

X
U

z
>
cc
a

XEO
ujaa**

Al

t*dn.

.as.

CO

UJ
..Ul.

o>xu
a

CO

I
*i

^3

2
.

a.
x

3
01

a -i

i n

a. n

3
e
c
o

cc
3

CHAPTER 4
MODELING AND RESULTS

4.1

BACKGROUND AND ASSUMPTIONS

The

objective
arm

robot

in the
find

and

experimentally
software

Fig. (4.1)

techniques.

is

different
to

an

each

infinite

arm

of

fixed

the

that

is horizontalO

locked,

every

assembly

in

Also, it is
are

to

and

of

and

STAR

System's

means

that

there

are

five

oriented.

This

could

give

rise

be

of

is

no

this

of

is

that all
relative

84

structure.

changes.

fundamental

assumed

configuration.

the forearm

at

in

In this

vertical

as

the moving
motion

Since for

Theoretically
frequencies

Hence for simplicity,

combination.

that there is

Puma

The

R.I.T.

which

number

assumed

both

using

robot

distribution

robots

involved

modeling

PUMA

could

mass

line

Element Analysis

Finite

configurations

particular

explicitly
so

it

infinite

be

corresponding
position

of

number

could

the

robot,

which

configuration,

there

are

axis

about

axes

mode

corresponding

Measurement

details

shows

five

and

analyzer.

the

explains

chapter

Unimation

B&K FFT

with

Structural

using

the Puma Unimation

model

frequencies

natural

This is done analytically using

shapes.

This

its

is to

problem

current

typical

ail

the

axes

position,

the

main

which

shown

parts

in
of

Fig. (4.2).
the

between them.

robot

WAIST
(JOINT

1)

SHOULDER
JOINT 2)

FIGURE 4.1

SCHEMATIC OF PUMA UNIMATE ROBOT ARM

cc
<L

h-

O
CD

o
CD
O
cn

O
CC
Ul

X
u.

0
-1

o
^

h-

<r

UJ

2O
X

~Z.
3

Q.

<
CC

0
CM

<E
X
_D

Q_

*r

UJ
cc
3

a
UL

4.2

PROCEDURE TO CREATE AND ANALYZE NASTRAN MODEL

1. The first step in the creation


a

drawing

geometric

fig. (4.2)

Intergraph

The

programs

various

Fig. (4.5)
the

and

profile

and

mesh

Fig. (4. 4). The

material

boundary
options

the

Rand

conditions

available

manipulation

is

meshed

generators

complete

and

dynamic analysis, forces,


in

the

of

robot

moments

Micas.

available

loads,

modal

various

mesh

is

software.

as

For

are

in

to input

static

conditions

and

can

problem,

be

only

the various

shows

conditions

as

shown

opened

analysis

Fig. (4.7)

boundary

R.I.T.

(for preprocessing)

boundary

in

the

Rand Micas

model

create

shown

on

the

using

properties.

to be applied.

need

for

For

and

as

available

meshed

element

is to

model

(4.6). Then the Rand Micas data base is

appropriate

applied

profile

in the Intergraph

available

elements

in the

shown

This

system.

generator

basic

or

the NASTRAN

using CAD software MEDS

(4.3)

and

of

and

element

in Rand Micas.

2. This file is then translated to the NASTRAN bulk data format. One
of

the

data

control

for

problem.

Hence

data file

and

deck

contains

eigenvalue

the

with

problems

using the translator is that it

static

it

is

new

the

extraction

necessary to
case

control

information
methods.

if

even

analysis

edit

about

Finally, the

87

is

the case

modal

analysis

in the translated

deck is

results.

it

creates

added.

This

dynamic
program

NASTRAN

case

control

reduction

is

run

and

to obtain

I
LL

c
X
a

<

cc

c
UJ

ul

o
CO
UJ

>
CO

g
cc

<
>
CO

Ul

CC
3

a
u.
-1-7

\y

-LI

rsj

1^

=i

i
1

z:
<r

a.

-1

<a

CC

==11

LU I to

CD

'

fc

,.

cc

03

X
LU

54

Q.l'n

>-

'

<

r>
uj

3:

3
LU LU

LU CC

a
'_U

CC

z CO

<x

cc^
cd

LJ

j-)

3r
Co

jj.

Q_

^
(

0-UJ
CD
I/)

]M
jn_

'

LU
O

h$

<

LU

^*

"I

LU Q_

UJ
O

1 LU

Z I

LU OC

LC

a
CO"

LU I
LU

LU

X. ?

CNJ

Q_

Z O
LU

LC

CD

CO

in

rr

(_3 rr

(/)

')

u LU a.

J-

CJ
CO

LJ

CO

LU

LU

z X

LU

a
o

LU

cc

LU
U

<r

Q_

LU

LU LJ
z
IU

LU

UJ

a o

(X

ii

LU

a
u

LU

UJ

tz
Q_

CO
cn

CO

u.Q

Q.

-.

~7

a
cn

LJ

u
r-ioaaoa I
aoooo i
,

9\

oonooi

LJpouob t

IA A

\ 1

^A

II

&\ ll

in*

Q_

a
t

cn

LU

'!^.

Cd
e=
a

CO

Jj

-*-

<-)?

,,l

>

_l

C\J
-.

tn

CD

/\,
.T

\
==

CO

'

iujCu

>

L0

N..

o
CD

o
cc

in

UJ

CC

3
o

z
UJ

r
UJ
I
UJ
_

UJ

u_

o
co
UJ

CO

o
cc
'Iiiii!

'I

ill

ill I

Mil

'III!

Hi

Ml

1
L.

_n_T

I1

<
>

'!!
XT-

LU

cc.

^
-i

3
o

j*

IF

jU II
I > it

1'

LU

l\ ^i

r~,

<r

LU

CO

,s;

Z3
Z
hJ
z

fc

CD

'

LU
O

a.
CO

1
j

<^

1
!

LU
o

\A

LU
^
<

<x

-i

<
_

Q_

LU

Y\ I

a.

<
z
LJ

i^

cc

i
_U

a
z

o
LJ

<

LU

\^/

'

CO

_l

CO

z
o

U--

<x

LU

-I

^:co>

<r

_l

1
>-

C3

cc

(3

CO

LU

CL
O

LU

rr->,

7"

-._

"--

h-

LU
LU

CC

<

lu

^-L-U

<r
fT

cc

CJ

cc
o
cr

-v

X
a

"'"

h-

ii

-*-

Q.
a.

a.
>

>

LU

<E

a
Q_
Z
o
u

LU

>-

LU

<s>

rj

i_)

LU

<r

cc

LU

UJ
A

tr

j;
=L

a
UJ

a
cn

cr

Si

<

UJ

cc

CO

<r

I 2-

LU

ui
n

LU

<

_i

CO

CO
UJ

cc

~^

>

'

_l

LU
m
a

LJ

_j

LU
>
U

3. Numerical values

file

is

which

processing

shape

the

with

As

other

any

.F06

NASTRAN. To do the

(post processing

post

file for the

is loaded back to Rand Micas. Animated


form

Rand Micas post-processor

Rand

Micas.

keep
of

up

The

robot

of post

as

can

processing
in the

shown

detail.

Due

complexity
create

the

structure.

the

be done

post-processor

required

grid

is

made
all

hollow

of

the

is

model

robot

up

motors

generated

cylinders

and

and

mechanisms

the weight as low as possible. The base and

shoulder are

cast

aluminum

to
of

the

model

places.

points.

displacements.

of

some

made

In

mode

in

it

the

of

of

not

are

are

the

gives

and

to

actual

in the

model.

stated

the

in

good

results

in the

the

output

displacements

used

the

the

problems,

relatively coarse mesh is


on

made

of

some

possible

to

according

analysis

analysis

structure

are

made

here in

always

problem

which

shapes,

conditions

parts

the

simplifications

this

element

was

exactly

dynamic

the

Finite

Hence,

The only boundary

nature

element
were

rest

these parts is explained

involved

assumptions

consists

all

parts

the

finite

of

the

and

3-dimensional

Hence there

appropriate

element

accomodate

The meshing

aluminum.

finite

the

earlier,

obviously so, to

to

made

the

or

file

punch

by NASTRAN

display

mentioned

shells,

All

from the

directly

FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF THE ROBOT

with

and

results,

by

read

in Fig. (4. 8).

menu

4.3

text output file created


the

of

created

results)
mode

the results can be

of

at

for

model.

the model are that its base is fixed

93

z.
X LU

LU 2:

LU
CD

CNJ

Q_

UJ
CD
<n

CC

o
._

CO
CO

Q_

UJ

o
CC
a.
CO

o
Q_
co

<
u
<XQ_

Z
a

<
cc

z
r^

11

a
u

^n
a
cc

Q_

CD

13
O

CC
CD
LU

LU

LU

<E
u

t-

-;

2: l

my

n 1

<^

<f

LU

fT^j

uO

cr 1

z
a

cn
11
u

11

LU

SI !

!^cV^!

<I

55 i.

-I

UJl
u

cr

jj

JIN
1

jp^

^=ij

a
cn

Z!

-J

<r 1
cr :

CL

>
UJ

CO

to the ground.

in

all

the
of

degrees

materials

Thus,

freedom

of

Since

effect

the

base

on

the

of

have

to take

stiffeners

bending

the

Between

the

joint due to

is

axis.

However,

it

finite

elements,

hence

cylinder

is

between

the

standard

meshing

most

manual

two

elements

the

very

is

it

as

difficult

twelve

techniques

this

can

be

useful

case

seen

in

were

in

are

The

placed

Fig. (4. 10)


corners

The

with

BAR

make

them

cylinder
vertical

joint

The

rigid.

robust

ratio.

the

rotating

is difficult to

modeling

95

the elements do

about

for this

plate

Fig. (4. 9)

horizontal

polygon.

sided

available

are

be

to

cylinders

in

were

model

assumed

intersecting

This

to

circular

using

aspect

rotate

in

eight-sided

modeled

the

can

robot

an

in Fig. (4. 9) to

and

cylinder

The

elements

are

marked

are

of

seen

structural

properties.

high

and

cylinder

vertical

elements

methods.

triangular

is

modeled

the

of

skewness

of

which

membrane

but NASTRAN

shape,

no

parallelopiped

the base. Some

of

vertical

there

hollow

and

mesh

bit

quite
on

as

has

be

to

be

can

analysis.

assumed

suitably

as

it

in the

neglected

modeled

square

all

the weight

computes

robot

independently,

These line elements,

elements.
visible.

be

can

both

good

the base of the

it is

Finite Element

shows the

four

robot

software

of

volume.

standing

So

Also, the densities

zero.

that the

so

near

is

robot.

having

elements

enough

it

Hence it is

polygon.

not

motor

to

equal

its

knowing

small

Fig. (4. 2).

set

inputted

are

the structure

There is

the grids in the bottom have displacements

all

with

horizontal
connection

model

purpose.

as

no

Hence,

individually by
and

(4.11).

in

awkward

The

CO

<

cc
o

CO
UJ

n
I

UJ
LU
I

LU
UJ

0*

LU

CC

ryj/y v

<r

CO

r-

5
cc
o

The

positions.
about
with

the

which

solid

end

main

Fig.(4.11)

seen

displayed
were

The

shaft

modeled

that

the

of

shaft.

rigid

body

grid

point

to

body

main

bar

adjacent

an

the

seen

on

grid

moment

bar

the

transferred

main

at

the

with

plate

is

which

grid

which

gives

rise

is

tackled

extra

Thus the

shaft.

by

common

This

element.

the

of

common

problem

plate

is

arm

properties

Fig. (4. 12) from the

by

model

elements

element

freedom,

This
in

the

modeled

Again,

analysis.

element

also

sides.
of

solid

stiffness

is

degrees

after

is

of

the shaft

the

arm),

and

there

where

of

and

arm

mismatch

modes

element carries

The

area

modeled

in Fig. (4. 13).

shown

between the base


with

situation

main

gear,

degrees

of

Hence the

analysis.

spur

(representing

the

and

initially

was

mismatch

elements

both

extra

an

attaching

gear

to

elements on

plate

points, there is a
to

due

upon

elements

actual

connected to

This

bar

and

Fig.(4.11)

bar

This is

elements.

solid

modes

in

shown
with

rotates.

thick plate elements as

by

replaced

arm

carries

cylinder

between the base

body

rigid

horizontal

However,

elements.

freedom between the


as

the

of

rigid

modes are avoided.

The flat
TRIA3

elements

elements

varies

are

and

ribs

that

region,

motors

of

surface

in the

the

as

main

shown

arm

in

is

again

Fig. (4. 12).

made

The

according to the location. The

also

made

elements

main

arm

of

are

plates.

again

of

up

QUAD4

thickness

stepper

motor

Due to the inconvenient


placed

are simulated

99

manually.

by CONM2

of

dead

these

housing

shapes

The four

point

and

in

stepper

masses.

<E
7*

LU

CO

7^

LU

^J

LU

z
^J
-J

>-

CQ
LU

LU

a
'

>-

cu
cr
T

: 1

ir

u_

<E

JO

Z
CC

<

<
LU

CO
^

LU

z
LU

LU
LU

o
<X

cc

CM

LU

CC
o

co

?
CO

<
CC:

<

UJ

CO
UJ

2:
OCT

UJ
CC-

o.
Ul-

UJ

Ul
CCr.
3.

u.1

These
The

are

placed

the

at

grids

between the two

shaft

where

motors

are

motors

is

actually
a

with

modeled

mounted.

bar

stiff

very

element.

The

forearm is

small

having bending

elements

the forearm

is

covers

both

on

the

and

4.4

membrane

are

in

neglected

Appendix

create

be

must

arm

the

the

need
grid

be

not

drawing

taken

in this

and then

it. This

both

are

of

there are thin

not

structurally

element

data

the

gives

plate

using

The meshing

robot,

finite

the

analysis

file

the

of

To

case

in

which

the

the

the corresponding

must

in

be

The

modal

excited

mesh

is

the

shafts

is

An

inverse
on

is drawn

on

since

the
each

hammer, these

102

is

be

can

in the

robot
of

3-dimensional

generated

testing is that

by

or

mesh

than that of

assumptions

coordinates

structure.

mesh

the mesh, coordinates

robot

the

determining
on

much coarser

motors

generate

testing

modal

many simplifying

be known.

mesh

for

may be

components,

modeled.

the

computer

mesh

and

small

Hence

problems

structure

the

on

model

must

points

after

the

on

as

such

structure.

space

first

structure

Element

Parts

made.

actual

they

(B)

arm

program.

generated

Finite

the

main

properties.

However

arms.

MODELING FOR MODAL TESTING

To

of

the

testing.

modal

NASTRAN

and

in Fig. (4. 13). In the

shown

hence

significant,

exactly like the

modeled

all

or

very difficult
approach

the

computer

structure.

point

points

is

on

must

One
the

be

tested

internal

and

However,
entire

is

the

structure,

the

is

and
all

the

are

moving

Micas. This

data deck

coordinates

has

robot

meshed

the

global

are

entered

two

it is

easy to

Table

for

of

modal

gives

assumed

between

are

are

the grid

system.

These

For

used.

structure

For

or

Z directions,

were

coordinates

sequence.

or

shows

it

is

not

whereas

Z directions.

converted

to

local

renumbered

were

Fig. (4. 15)

local

two

cylinders,

in the R,

coordinates

these,

The

file.

input

coordinate

in the X, Y

the

all

shows

the

the

natural

frequencies obtained from NASTRAN.

103

to

mesh

testing.

RESULTS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

(4.1)

Rand

with

created

coordinate

structure.

display

The basic
stiffners

the coordinates of

the

Then

structure

is translated to NASTRAN. The bulk

in

the

the

of

The shafts,

model

STAR

global

the

the

the

structure

coordinates.

mesh.

into

excite

rectangular

facilitate writing

4.5

the

the

Micas.

Rand

connections

rectangular

systems

considered.

response
on

were

model.

shows

model

cylinders

excite

created

Rigid

the

components

or coarse

NASTRAN data file

feasible to

cylindrical

rough

surface

not

were

up

Intergraph

with

Fig.(4.14)

coordinate

Hence

element

modeled.

cylindrical

rather

picks

internal

of

again

parts.

entire

of

in

points

effect

using

not

components

the

on

points

only

accelerometer

created

meshed

covers

and

for in the finite

is

mesh

profile

parts

since

accounted

The

For this reason,

accessible.

easily

CO

CO

<
Q

z
cc
o

o
o

z
CO

<
(J

/
I

//
\

<
cc

\/

LU

cc
3
CO

Trace
Mode

Frequency
Damping

Undeformed

0
0. 00

0.

.00

HZ
%

FIGURE 4. 1 5

THE STAR MODEL FOR ROBOT ARM

q
[jj

'*<t,i,rt'ininifiiniou)ifiu)(Cvovo

ooooooooooooooo

NCO +

+ + + ++ +

+ + + + + ++ +

umr^rttCSNfflCDOOONinNr-iMn

<20rl^fno^^(n^o(nfn^)(Dn<t
fKCufioooMoiioomMDm^rioin
wu^cvJaJc^^^^^cNl^)cn**tnr-^culnoc^l

2HM*t^i'fncnvOh-fritDOHNior>

U^iHO*incnN*oou(OriHnNOOOo

o o o o o o

o co
H^ioeo Mtntn Ortr-tvocsmr^rnoooooooooo

CO

UJ

u.
Q
< U

>

N
M

ooooooooooooooo
ooooooooooooooo
+++++++++++++++

UJ
I-

[UCJuJUUCULlWIJJuJuJuJCUuJU

h-

^Ti'OCNtvKi'r-tminoor^r^r^inr-i

*c co or~<jocTiMocomooTj'<if-(f^<x)o3
cc co rir^NNComo lo^mincnf- mco
lOcnocnHio^r^oaiooNcoincD

o u

COinCTl^frHvDm Ifl M^) O MlO H <f o ooo oc o o o o

o
rlNMHNHOlHHH<tHHHrlO

LL

<
cc
H

co

CO

OC

2 S onrncrnOH^ri'ominocMoo

OOO OOO

<

OOO
_1

lU

ID
CO
UJ

cc

a
z
CO

>
HHrtHHH(SN(SNNNNNNNNNNNNM NNN
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

+ + + + ++++ + + + +++ + + + + + +

CC CO

---*-+

+ +

UUUUUUUUUUUUIuUUUUUUUUIuUUU
uocnonr^MN

tooifiLC*NrtrN*ioo cn io a*

invoin

o
03
O
05

UJ

LO^^oiNmininoomuiDNPHoino^ifUfiHinHm

UJ

tnttm^voconocstninNtOHO^rntn^rnmo r r*

E-t

o
z

taincQNUiH<nN*or^offio^(so)(DOMnHN*

mommu)OHinmHinu)ioo mno

js-in r-t in co
C>Omr^COr-IOi-(r>>COOr^r-ICSmu30invOVOi-t*Dr-tt-t

DC
U.

CO

CO
>
-I

<
z
<

-J

<

cc
D

<
z
2

3
rn^^^iniriinifitniDtjjvDiDuDvOLOLDiDiD

lo

r^ r

ooo

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

+ + + + + + ++ + + + + ++ + ++ + ++ + -1-++ +
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUlHUUUblUUUUU

Ul

c>i-tN

-1

lJ

<
2
O

co lc uo

III

n
cn

ij3mur*c>)inco^aicaffmt^omi^**f^>x>inior^

mcnri-t<sujr^iinr(nsT>it^ii)r^tsoc^cDT*'i^r>jmrH

OTOcninr^NinrJiOornroMDntNiDvot^NOior^cttn

<

^^(Dr--u3cocnr->ot^oooujcsOTa3inajTi<iricoininr^fH

(T>^io
NinNtOnOO NOPllBMDOHiflMUHNMO moo
r-to^ocnmmmr-ta*in<Nr^mmcnr^r^mrnincnm

i-t
vJOr-ioamr-tcj^'miOr-ir-tr-(iHfNjNCNmi'ininu)r-

CO

oohh

LI

<
Q
O

r-t

uJ

QO
OZ

*r

<s m * tn io

r--

ooo>OHNrnflnfHD

r^

co cn onN ro ># in

1-

UJ

2
Ul
-J

Ul

The
to

file

output

2000

that

so

The

results.

be

must

they

that the

damping,

of

values.

Also,

it

whereas

in the

actual

NASTRAN
it

since

does

is

potentially be
a

to

according
shapes

or

amplitudes

(D)

analysis.

The

not

affect

the mode

shows

carries

main

arm

lot

the

weakest

of

weight.

oscillates

are

the

about

no

So the

part

in

cylinder

can

these

nonlinearities,
as

it

motion

would

the stiffness would

Considering
simplistic

obtained

However
as

these

involves

and

are

complexities

natural

all

be

absolutely

in

the

mode

damping

or

as

the

much

frequencies

are quite

experimentally.

shapes

mode

any

locations (such

frequencies

natural

obtained

It

very

unrealistic.

shapes.

those

with

is

shapes

There

rather

connecting the horizontal

it

force.

mode

sections.

estimate

resonant

the

model

between

arm; if the back of the main

in the

applied

testing

include

not

to

number of

where

The

is

do

agreement

Appendix

of

later

geometric

nonlinearity)

theory.

the

which

nonlinearities

of

NASTRAN

the

inaccuracies.

some

in

point

function

nonlinear

limitations,

difficult

main

cylinder

correlation

does

are

modes

modal

in the

model

any

there are

model

with

good
seen

very

include

not

horizontal

touches the

be

will

the joint of horizontal cylinder and


arm

frequencies up

natural

correlated

show

as

experimentally

noted,

be

can

frequencies

natural

those obtained

values

the

all

Hz, but for this problem, only the first thirteen

considered,

It

NASTRAN contains

of

the

obtained

structure

from the NASTRAN

is

in the base to the

be

seen

the

main

shaft

arm, since

that in the first mode, the

the shaft axis. The shaft has

107

small

bending

and

torsional

The first mode is the

stiffness.

from

expected
about the

bending

small

mode

oscillations

theory.

classical

shaft

connecting the

the shaft

the

of

the second shaft. Thus it is

From the fourth

base

Hence
not

be

can

this

oscillations

for

mode, the

and

is

horizontal

arm

vertical

pure

of

and

bending
are

arm.

torsion

of

Mode

the

of

the

main

ninth

is

this

For

the

of

sixth

local

is

main

Mode
arm

number

only.

is

again

some

108

but the

and

all

bending

pure

slight
of

the

of

the

and

mode of

in the

bending

other components

bending

of

main

is

other components

the

after

vertical

bending

combined

is

fourth

the

shaft

eight shows

it

modes

of

mode shows

bending

shafts.

Also,

is surprising in that it

Again

second

excite.

bending

second

All the

arm.

in

bending

the forearm and also some


seven

in the

oscillation,

mode.

of

shafts.

cylinder

example,

there is local

The

arm.

under

at

the forearm

torsion

mode a

mode

structure

mode

bending

two different

displaying different

starts

and

the

as

vertical

comes

be

oscillation

really high energy to

requires

number

stationary.

The tenth

second

main

entire

mode

The

the

In the fifth

torsion of the

stationary.

bending

components.

cylinders,

cylinder.

structure
and

the

of

structure

cylinder

vertical

mode

of

can

displays torsional

mode

a combined

excite

various

arm

shows

as

to the forearm. It is a

arm

well

entire

to

main

mode

structure

stationary.

bending
main

the

possible

the

main

mode,

mode

as

slight

This

seen.

mode,

arm

mode,

although

easily

second

the second shaft. The third

of

of

The

bending

are

the main

torsion of main and

It

be

must

arise

noted

As

basically

there

which

trully

an

consists

theoretical

of

is

additional

of

is

mode as can

twelve and thirteen are pure

forearm.

They

are

stiffness

second

be

of

two

adjacent

each

This
is

all

is

This is

the

modes

of

limitation

major

mode

in

This

is

components.

bending

the

main

arm

number

the

and

both

of

modes

not

since

model,

complex

very

in

other

from the figure. Modes

seen

third

and

between

mathematical

mode

bending

structure

that point.

at

analysis.

torsion

the

touch

surfaces

eleventh

and

motion

theoretical

linear

bending

a complex

in

The

models.

two

in

nonlinearities

conflicting

the

as

that

point,
a

into consideration

taken

it

soon

there

oscillation,

is

there

whenever

surfaces.

this

at

the

of

components.

The

above

discussion

It

the robot structure.

dangerous for the


it

requires

robot

be

must

very high energy to


are

modes

require

less energy to

careful

4.6

attention

characteristics

it

that although

stressed

quite

in

generally

practice.

They

excite.

any

the higher

all

excite

damped

modes

Hence

vibration

are

structure

to the first three

modes.

Usually
most

should

the

for testing the

and
robot.

b)
It

seem

show

can

the

be

Also, the
first three

dangerous for any


be

designed

with

modes.

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL MODAL ANALYSIS

Figures (4.16a

might

of

to bend and distort as the mode shapes show,

higher

structure.

the

summarizes

actual

seen

experimental

test setup used

from the picture, that the

109

top

fcr
co
-i-

ui

Ql

X
UJ
UJ

CO

Ui.
CC-:

cr

E:

0.
r-

UJ
CO
_l

<
z
Ul

cc
Ul
D.

X
UJ
UJ

X
H
JO
CO
T.

UJ

cc

cover

the

of

driving

point

in

point

the

main

arm

was

point

survey

was

mounted with

was

modal

structure

This

system

were

second

0.5
all

the

should

Hence

modes

global

screen.

local

were
a

redefined

hence

measurements,

(C)

it

frequency

modal

gives

geometric

driving

were

averages

is

system.

of

in the

structure

new

the

on

points

coordinate

systems

systems.

The

It

was

0-800

Hz.

So the test had to be

range

The

determine

0-400

of

analyzer

to

has 800 lines

measured

the

Hz

correct

frequency

important that the

up to

values

for

frequencies

measured.

the

shows

process

range

frequency

to

coordinate

in the

spaced.

very closely

So that the frequencies

be correctly

the

all

cylindrical

frequency

smaller

The curvefitting

Appendix

maximum

accelerometer

structure

rectangular

the modal parameters correctly.

experimental

for the

are

much

the

first test,

the

new

done for

for

on

to be inconvenient to excite the

was

out

In

the

test

Table (4.2)
the

in

the points

Hz.
the

performed

and

measure
on

defined

proved

found that the


carried

were

up

set

that gives

point

driving

antiresonances in the FRF plot. The

accurately.

directions.

correct

be the

to

chosen

initial

an

a stud.

model

were

After

test.

the horizontal cylinder and the

on

Three different tests


its

was

direction. This is the

radial

selected

63

number

number of resonances and


point

for the

removed

the

model

performed

analysis

coordinates

of

the

damping

and

table and

robot

arm

112

for

results

the

on

display
modal

obtained

from

robot

arm.

sequence

table

testing.

Results

Mode

TABLE 4.2

(Freq&Damp)
Freq.

Table

ROBOT. PRJ

(Hz)

Damp

(%)

13.266

4.726

21.136

3.528

35.957

3.942

39.708

2.224

52.201

1.702

66.347

2.134

107.390

1.738

117.405

1.293

151.286

3.742

10

199.078

11

205.468

1.985

12

213.083

1.055

13

224.702

661.696m

620.581m

NATURAL FREQUENCIES AND DAMPING OBTAINED


FROM MODAL TESTING

Curvefitting
function.

The

curvefitted
coupled

measurements

modes

the

using

modes

were

The

test.

(E)

animated

characteristics

are

seen

is very

structure

from

ail

of each

mode

shapes

are

few

This

points

the

is low for the higher


for

be

will

vibrations

resonance.

above

the

The

200 Hz,

wherein

the

the

Some

in the

and

experimental

the

There

possibly
lack

for

reasons

of

points.

neighboring

structure

The

used.

oscillate

oscillations.

the

with

response

components

their

modes

considering the

harmonic

get

and

analysis

of

are

section.

for the lower

modes

modes

The higher

modes.

damped

zoom

in

shapes

mode

structure

To find the

phase

methods

next

damping

of

out

bending

realistic

behavior in

from the

torsional

some

a complex mode shape.

nonlinearities

erratic

and

percent

spaced.

more

Closely
freedom

of

obtained

Pure

the modes.

all

giving

erratic

moving

to

discussed in the

good

an

curvefitting

correlation

is

show

shapes

were

separate

degree

shapes

it is very hard

and

other

show

due

is

improper

The

mode

polynomial

technique.

multi

the components at the same time. The

independent

mode

in nearly

complex

freedom

using the

the

the

using

distinctly

of

This is probably

all.

at

degree

gives

done

was

were

curvefitted

bending
not

which

single

Appendix

technique.
modal

the

of

it

since

out,

above

correct

analysis

measurements

damping

means

thus

of

be

114

the

reducing

200 Hz

natural

in the FFT
can

of

damping

for

the

are

effect

of

of

very closely
of

should
a

modes

amplitudes

frequencies

analyzer

taken

the

and

for the lower

that

partly

frequency

values

is higher

much

modes

be used,
smaller

frequency

4.8

range.

COMPARISON

RESULTS

Table

modal

first thirteen

of mode

than

the

that,

structural

which

frequencies.

animated

show erratic

very ideal,

means

it

Some

of

in

the

is

10%,

trend

no

have

that the

said

good

and

they

good

NASTRAN
mode

two

However,

not show a

shapes

9 (34%). Other

is

which

explained

modes

consistently

concerned.

does

to

other

large deviation in

number

really be

there

are

from

obtained

with

both

is
or

correlate
visual

those

obtained

the

higher

obtained
well

as

inspection

correlation

and

of

or

models

any

positive

none

lower

quite

between
obtained

experimentally

behavior. The mode shapes obtained from NASTRAN are

since

the

be

are

shapes

they do

a number of reasons

between

to

can

1%

finite

and

the frequencies

of

most

and mode

cannot

that

experimentally

mode

modes

(18%)

frequencies

natural

There is

models.

variation

frequencies

natural

experimentally.

be

ANALYTICAL

experimental

be seen, that

variation

The

from

between

tendency

Hence,
and

analytically
as

shows

is

variation

reasoning.

negative,

models

AND

the

of

modes

can

number

The large

reasonable.

the

It

analysis.

frequencies

of

comparison

very closely in the two

match

far

the

shows

for the

obtained

and

EXPERIMENTAL

(4.3)

element

OF

two

not

for

models.

include any

not

getting

Some

of

follows.

115

damping

a good

the

values.

There

could

mode shape correlation

reasons

can

be

cited

as

COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS

Mode#

NASTRAN RESULTS

MODAL TEST RESULTS

PERCENTAGE

FREQUENCY (Hz)

FREOUENCYfhW

DIFFERENCE

1.

12.546

13.266

5.427 %

2.

20.094

21.136

4.929 %

3.

23.654

35.957

34.226 %

4.

37.989

39.708

4.329 %

5.

58.622

52.201

-12.30%

6.

71.853

66.347

-8.298

7.

101.155

107.390

5.805 %

8.

114.958

117.405

2.084 %

9.

1 24.208

151.286

17.898%

10.

185.405

1 99.078

6.868 %

11.

203.095

205.468

-1.154%

12.

21 1

213.083

-0.062

13.

215.696

224.702

4.007 %

.762

TABLE 4.3

: COMPARISON

OF THE RESULTS FROM THE FINITE

ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND MODAL TESTING

1.

The
it

and

is

there

where

components.

at

resonance.
other

to

or

Structural

is

suitable

making

differential

the

nonlinearities

the

be

analysis,

very

well

theoretical

3.

in

used

the

simplifications

the

stiffness

in the

account

like

for

matching

results.

could

The

by

for

the

treat

these

to

performed

nonlinear

into

take

gap

elements

available

other

Hence, from both

good

each

mode

is

analysis

In

of

to

incorrect

algorithm

handled

due

with

phase

damping.

not

may be

points

theory.

reason

not

the

of

doubled

of

out

eliminate

does

the

and

lack

experimental

modal

to

are

the

major

adjacent

performance
of

of

accurately known,

really

moving

curvefitting

analysis.

Incorrect curvefitting

having

It

equations.

be

predicted

theoretical

nonlinearities

and

are

effective

elements

nonlinear

cannot

no

not

some

may

points

distortions

Also,

nonlinearities.

others

lead to

nonlinearities

There

shapes.

of

of

Also, in the

between

not

the

known

not

in the form

damping

are

predict

is

methods.

motion

damping

of

Amplitudes

that

could

structural

relative

theoreticaly

and

This

values

resonance.

damped

highly

is

Since the

difficult

structure

2.

there could be some viscous

structure

friction

it

be estimated from any existing

cannot

actual

in the various components

damping

structural

account

words,

in

well.

any

of

the
of

This

modal

could

between

correlation

in

NASTRAN

aspects

very

terms

by

the

models.

be

stated

robot

as

one

structure

117

more

has

reason

some

weak

for not
points

like

the

two

small

resonances

or

component
element

in the

Poor

mode

measurements

shapes

exciting the
in

the

always

the

after

structure

same

of

the

minimize

the

error

point

is

But

in

results.

for

animated

mode

displacement

The

prime

models
grids

condition

problems.

them.

be

for

this

in

condition

of

to

erratic

conditions

while

the

test,
be

no

10,

was

error

it

at

the grid

type
such

is

other

problems,

methods

118

in

difficult to

correlation

of

considerably.

drastically

point

was

comparison

visual

points

should

which

could

of

very

is

the

of

comparison

the two

way that there

rather

not

that count.

on

correlation

of

driving

error

only from the


are

This is

human factor. In this case,

measurement

could

obtained

Hence in large

show

location.

correctly chosen,

this

There

created

This

Insufficient

attributed

to

prime

same

averaging

not

given

shapes.

values

should

on

are

reasons

above

which

is

structure

the

of

exact

and

carefully chosen, hence there

The

the

One

the

at

used

operator

Also, if the driving


affect

and

hits

algorithm

shapes.

possible, since it involves a lot

number

finite

the hammer is that all the hits should be

with

direction

with

applied.

techniques

cause

curvefitting.

particular

obtained

be

local

to

rise

to

appropriate

should

mode

could

shapes

an

these

give

points
confined

mode

account
on

questionable correlation

4.

the

behavior,

into

available

week

vibrations

in

For this

modes

information

of

seen

analysis.

local

takes

modes

is

as

These

shafts.

that
are

satisfy

of

models.

the

two

matching
in

larger

only frequencies is

done. One

the methods

of

properties

the

of

It

experimentally.

finite

element

FRF

the

with

the two
good

can

it

where

from

analysis.

more

effective

One

noted
of

more

the two

For

on

X-axis.

If

passing

through

correlate

they

Probably
mode

the

on

the

measure

correlation.

for

should

trends

it

the

is

be

good

not

for

This is

observed.

for

possible

in
a

simpler

FRF

an

complicated

plot

problems

degrees

If both the

axes.

all

it

same

of

freedom

eigenvectors

in
are

the points plotted should


origin

and

be

would

at

can

method

by plotting

is graphically

problems

simple

correlation,

frequencies,

directly

inconsistency

synthesize

corresponding

The

the

used.

normalized,

origin.

and

from

plot

compared

any

be

can

structurally

used

of

be

can

line passing through the

analytical

45

to the

straight

be
Vs.

line
to

applied

measured

the X and Y axes.

most

shapes

and

FRF

test. Then

however,

the X and Y

are

natural

frequencies

larger

displacements

straight

particular

generally

on

It

model.
modal

theoretically

an

synthesize

the response

compare

obtained

be easily feasible to

methods

normalized, then

lie

or

will

models

the

of

comparison,

method

the

plotting

to

in the

obtained

be

models

possible

analysis

method

models

two

is

is to

of correlation

widely

used

method

for

numerical

is the 'Modal Assurance Criterion


of

least

deviation

squares

MAC is mathematically

expressed

119

comparison

(MAC)'J61

from

by

It

of

provides

straight

the formula

line

mac(P,x)
where

from

|2

(ox).(d,p):

'p'

subscript

from

the

represents
matrix

in

when

calculated

for

the two mode shapes are


mode,

Ox,

model

resulting

modes

will

that for

be unity

whereas

Practically, it is
but

close

In

correlation

the

the

two

points.

of

Criterion'

about
were

The

comparison.

symmetric

displacements
MAC

be

will

to

and

shapes.

an

attempt

writing

initially

close
ail

zero.

different

correlation

identical

made

FORTRAN

to

be

Thus it

can

be

terms

mode

compute

program.

enough

After

doing

the

there

requires

entire

finite

120

were

should

shapes,

the

'Modal

However,

few

zero.

reasonably

information

very

two

will

respectively indicate

created,

analysis

the

points

the diagonal

exactly

was

and

element

when

these techniques of numerical comparison.


quite

measured

the finite

matching
to

When

terms should be close to

get

zero

of

MAC

square

models.

However,

=1.

the

all

Thus

the displacement from

MAC

mode

by

displacement, Op, from


of

for

models.

in the two

modes

off-diagonal

unity

were

models

available
models

to

of

value

displacement

calculated

form

the

identical,

possible

problem

robot

Assurance

the

all

is

for the

experimental

ideal correlation,

not

close

values

of

stands

displacement

the

or

This

the

all

value

the

the value

and

seen

easily

the

different,

are

different

the

equal

in

in

quantity

(0p). (0p);

'x'

and

and

) (

predicted

mode.

analytical

scalar

(0x).

model

measured

points

matching

for

stands

finite element

the

value

when

was

not

Hence the

matching

almost

identical

models

element

analysis

and

for

modal

testing, it
the

testing

some

very difficult to

was

Therefore,

again.

correlation

FORTRAN

back to

go

although

it

analysis,

did

an

was

MAC

matrix

do

to

made

great

yield

of

the model and do

attempt

not

for the calculation

programs

recreate

The

results.

included in

are

the appendix (F).

INTEGRATION OF MODAL TESTING AND FEM

4.8

In

design

the

the

structure

analytical

and

assumptions

the

design

of

are

and

also

results.

Next,
also

detailed

model

to
more

its

mathematical

preliminary

location

finite

with

account

the

of

driving

the

determine

to

driving

model

element

detailed

and

modal

and
model

is

measured

helps

121

in

modal

for

modal

and

element

flexibilities.

other.

of

combined

in

The

results.
can

be

model

is

model

for

locations
test

will

modal

test

yield

is

test

is

then

correlated.

run,

which

model

can

This

understanding

are

lot

test are then

created

The finite

the test data.

for the

point

each

element

appropriate

survey.

point

be

dynamical

that the

so

of

possible

finite

both

using

they involve

could

best

the

transducers

The initial FEA

compared

adjusted

and

if they

But

yield

could

analyzed

The

by

verified

performed.

it

response

and

since

that

disciplines

two

independently

much

simplifications.

important

very

properties

These

methods.

very

is

for dynamic

completely accurate,

follows:

constructed

it

structures,

verified

work

structure

as

good

not

stage,

constructed

exciters

and

and

analysis

of

experimental

and

them

of

be

should

entirely different
Both

analysis

makes

the

is
be

the

system

completely.

is

Then the dynamic


the

satisfactory,

further

model

like

processing

response

simulation

response

can

be

and

rerun,

When

the

final

performed
changes

This

is

requires
modal

very

correct

final

finite

test

verify

that

both
not

in

the

analysis

of

element

always

analysis

to

possible

the time and money involved. But


procedure

is

forced

dynamic
easier

to

changes.

should

the

be

design

modeled.

in

is

or

the

model

modal

to

if

see

If it

for any

used

any hardware

require

configuration

procedure

It

to

element

completed,

lengthy

expertise

of

is

be

can

studied.

modifications

changes

not

is

model

it

and

The finite

it does

design

accurately

analysis.

because
the

were

any design

or

the

of

dynamic

structural

since

the

of

is complete

improved.

modify

response

and

yields

very

122

good

and

follow

ideally

results.

structures.

It

experimental

all

the

steps

speaking, this is

References

Richard L. Burden
(Boston

Prindle,

J. Douglas Faires, Numerical Analysis.


Weber &Schmidt), pp.470 486.
and

D. J. Ewins, Modal Testing

Hertfordshire, England
Kjaer), pp 2-5.
3

Ibid., pp 95-106.

Ibid., pp 157-168

Ibid., pp

Ibid., pp 222-226

Gockel, M. A.,

Theory

and

Practice.

174-177

ed.

MSC/NASTRAN Handbook for Dynamic Analysis.

MSC/NASTRAN Version 63. (Los Angeles

Corporation), pp 4.2-4
8

Ibid., pp 4.1-1

Ibid.,

p.

(Letchworth,

Research Studies Press Ltd., Bruel &

MacNeal Schwendler

4.2-9

-4.1-10

5.1-2

10 MacNeal, R. H.,

ed.

MSC/NASTRAN Handbook for Linear Static

Analysis. MSC/NASTRAN Version 64. (Los Angeles

Schwendler

MacNeal

Corporation)

1 1 Meirovitch, Leonard, Elements of Vibration Analysis. (New York


McGraw-Hill Company), pp 11-12

12 Ibid, pp 145-148

13 Ibid, pp 157-164

123

14 Reddv. J. N.. An Introduction tn the Finite Element Method. (New

York
15

McGraw-Hill Book Company),

p.

Schaeffer, Harry G., MSC/NASTRAN Primer : Static and Normal


Modes Analysis. (Milford, New Hampshire : Wallace Press, Inc.),
p.2

16 Ibid.

p.

17 Ibid, pp 13-20

18 Ibid.
19

p.

193,236

Thomson, William T., Theory


(Englewood Cliffs

and

Bruel &

of

(Bruel &

with

Applications.

Inc.)

Structures. (Minneapolis

Kit-Mas

Kjaer)

21 SMS STAR Manual. (San Jose

22 Structural Testing

Vibration

Prentice-Hall

20 Seminar Notes. Dynamics

Corporation

of

Structural Measurement

Systems)

Part 1. Mechanical Mobility MEasurements

Kjaer)

124

APPENDIX A
MSC/NASTRAN CARDS USED IN THE MODAL ANALYSIS

ELEMENTS USED IN MODELING A ROBOT ARM


BAR ELEMENT

The

bar

straight

is

element
prismatic

line

element

i.e. the

element,

vary along the length. The


CBAR

element are

and

area

connection

PBAR

two

connecting

cross

of

and

card

not

for this

card

property

is

does

ssection

in the

and are as shown

It

nodes.

image.

card

CBAR CARD
EE>

CBAR

pro

GA

GB

X3

X2

GO

XI,

123

PA

PB

VIA

V2A

V1B

V3A

V2B

V3B

+23

In the CBAR
identification

by

connected

One

of

the BAR

degrees

with

of

BAR
rigid

the

of

freedom

element,

element

X-| X2

and

PB

are

be fixed

arms.

and

the

X3

axis

the
at

can

pin

and

are

the

are

property

grid

points

the components of a

ends

flags for

the

of

can

element.

be defined

ends

and

be

offset

from

by inputting

the

grid

as

B. Six

the two ends in these fields.

This is done

in WA's

GB

orientation

BAR is that its

of

neutral

has

GA

identifies

and

can

connecting

offset vectors

The bar

element.

the element and

represent

respectively.

which

PA

PID

and

the nice features

pinned connections.

the

EID

numbers

point

at

vector

card

In

points

the components

WB's.

extensional,

torsional, bending,

and

transverse

shear

flexibility. All these properties

card.

PID

numbers.

moment

MID

and

'A'

of

is the

area

inertia
J

respectively.

the

are

section.

and

is the torsional

PBAR property

and

material

I-,,

and

property

of cross

about

input in the

are

l2

and

axes

identification

l12

the

represent

product

inertia

of

constant.

PBAR CARD
PBAR

pro

MTO

11

12

NSM

PBAR

123

C 1

C2

K 1

K2

D 1

D2

E 1

F 1

E2

F2

+23

112

NSM is the Nonstructural


per

unit

flexibility
stresses

the

in

or

stiffnesses.

shear

point

length

is
at

in the

the

of

per

section

and

unit

of

unit

area.

their

from
In

points.

that

per

default

Output

grid

cross

C, D, E

element.

By

zero.

coordinates

the

mass

mass

length. It is defined

K-|

K2

and

value

is

NASTRAN
the

BAR

F fields.

Up

mass

the transverse

infinite

generally

element,

the beam can be

point.

are

as

or

that

consists

stresses

recovered

the

at

of

any

by inputting

to four points can thus be specified

The figure

(A.1)t1

81

shows

the

BAR

THE SHELL ELEMENT

There

four

are

different

plate

or

shell

NASTRAN, like TRIA3, QUAD4, TRIA6


each

and

only in their shape, the

other

the

names

number

stress

TRIA3

suggest,

whereas, TRIA6 and

the

model

QUAD4

used

to

at

elements,

e.g.

transition

between

These

shows
card
and

triangular

for both the


the property

to

can

bending

CTRIA3 CARD

places

meshing

elements

combined

since

they

give

where

of

As

in

the

differ from

points

connected

this

it

better

is

work

with

as

unequal

membrane

quadrilateral

center

flat

shell

is the PSHELL
elements

are

as

The
given

In

and

elements

use

of

grid

QUAD4
circle

figure
The

(A.2)t1

or

81

property

connection

below.

or

points.

membrane

elements.

card.

TRIA3

of

or

The

noded

elements are

to

number

properties.

their

respectively.

TRIA3

results.

having bending

four

is

only

feasible

not

in

numbers

nodes

eight

triangular plate or

for these

They

QUAD4

and

and

grid

in

available

discussed here. QUAD4

are

behave

elements
card

six

presented

edges

and

and

of

number

noded

QUAD8 have

hence they

TRIA3

only

three

structure

are used,

preferred
are

the

of

is

QUAD8.

and

points.

recovery

elements

card

CTRIA3

EID

pro

Gl

G2

G3

XX
ABC

XX

T 1

T2

T3

G 1

G2

G3

XXX

+BC

CQUAD4 CARD
CQUAD4

EID

pro

G4

ABC

XX

T 1

T2

T3

T4

XX

+BC

The

shell

the thickness
value

the

0 is

surface.

the

Each

materials.

element

not
card

property

degrees

values

T is

of

of

is

PSHELL CARD

variable

thickness.

in T's corresponding to the


in

specified

and

connection

thickness

material

element

freedom.
not

have

can

elements

property
is

taken

orientation

elastically

Rotation

provided.

is then

card,

about

This is

number

grid

by

G. If the

it has to be input in
as

uniform

angle

connected

the

specified

normal

for

over

the

anisotropic

to

five

of

to

the

surface

the

six
of

PSHELL

pro

MIDI

MID2

TS/T

MID3

121 /T

NSM

BCD

Z 1

Z2

MID4

+CD

In the

MIDI

property card,
for

numbers

membrane

MID3 is for transverse

by inputting

leaving
unit

the

it blank.

length,

normalized

shear

is

are

fourth

the distances
material

membrane

to

take

plane.

ratio

of

of

coupling.

warping

Also the

up to 20

point

results

i.e.
are

fairly

and skewness

shell

four

grids

accurate

do
for

DYNRED Case Control Card

Format

: DYNRED

by
per

is the

thickness and T is
mass

are

not

and

lie

elements

and

input

for

conditioned

well

up to 45.

Z-|

recovered.

be

can

NASTRAN CARDS USED FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

inertia

Rj=TS/T

is to be

elements

selected

deselected

bending

shear

MID4

be

can

or

inertia.

stress

number

when

these

nonstructural

where

The

of

Whereas

respectively.

number

TS is the

NSM is the
a

of

identification

material

normalized

moment

where

identification

bending

some

is the

bending

thickness,

Any

identification

Rj=12*I/T^

the membrane thickness.

Z2

behavior.

shear

the

are

behavior

bending

and

appropriate

where

MID2

and

in

the

with

same
aspect

This

is

case

control

parameters.

Here,

data

Use

card.

Reduction

is

the

to

used

select

is the identification

n,
of

card

this

card

method

applied

of

number

that

means

dynamic

to

reduction

DYNRED bulk

Generalized
the

reduce

Dynamic

assembled

matrices.

2.

DYNRED Bulk Data Card


This

card

data

needed

card

image is

is

inputted into the bulk data deck


to

perform

as

shown,

the

generalized

and

dynamic

it defines the
reduction.

The

DYNRED CARD
1
DYNRED

SID

FMAX

NIRV

NIT

NQDES

ron?

DYNRED
I

Where,
identification

SID

is the

FMAX

is the highest frequency


all

set

number

of

makes

sure

that

the modes below FMAX are accurately represented.

NIRV

is the

number

of

initial

NIT

is the

number

of

iterations.

IDIR

is

integer

random

NODES is the

used

card

to

random

select

vectors.

starting

point

to

generate

initial

vectors.

number

is blank, the

3. METHOD

interest. This

of

generalized

automatic

coordinates

selection

is

used).

to be

used.

(If it

Format

METHOD
This

is

case

extraction

parameters.

EIGR

an

EIGR

card :

This

bulk

card

Here

(inputted

card

parameters

4.

control

for the

data

method

card

real

eigenvalue

identification
deck).

data

number

The

data

the

image is

needed

as shown

to

of

necessary

inputted through the EIGR

are

card

the

select
set

bulk

the

defines

The

eigenvalue analysis.

is the

in

to

used

card.

perform

real

here

EIGR CARD
EIGR

METHOD

SID

Fl

F2

NE

ND

ABC

EIGR

NORM

is the

set

+BC

SID

identification

METHOD this field

specifies

extraction

methods

number.

one of

to

the three

be

F1

F2

Tnis
in

|\E

specifies

which

the

estimates

the

the

frequency

eigenvectors

number

of

The

used.

through one of the literal strings,

will

roots

of

is

method

'INV, 'GIV

range

be

eigenvalue

or

interest

inputted

'MGIV.

or

calculated.

in the

frequency

range

specified.

ISD

This is the desired

number

of

roots

of

Inverse Power

range

Method

and

desired

number of eigenvectors

for Givens

Method.
E

It is the

mass

NORM

specifies

the method for normalizing

Following

methods can

MASS
MAX

is the

is the

It

should

be

normalizes to

5. QSET1
q-set
and

unit

noted

must

of

must

have

of

eigenvectors.

generalized

maximum

of

unit value

identification

point

parameter.

used

unit value

component number

matrix

freedom

be

normalizes to

grid

the eigenvalues
mass

to

normalizes

POINT
G

orthogonality test

number

for NORM

displacement.
the component defined.

for NORM

or

the

found. For Given's

be

positive

mass

are

POINT

POINT

that for Given's


system

mass.

Modified Given's method,

definite.

Hence

all

method

the degrees

all

the
of

properties.

card :

are

the

generalized

component

coordinates

alternate

synthesis.

manually

formats

QSET1 CARD

modal

of

coordinates

or

used

This bulk data

automatically.

the QSET1

for dynamic

bulk data

card

places

Following

card.

reduction

are

these
the

QSET1

Gl

G2

G3

G6

G5

GA

G7

QSET1

ABC

G8

G9

-tc-

+BC

ALTERNATE FORMAT
QSETl

"THRU"

GID1

GD2

QSET1

where,

is the

component

are

numbers

grid

identification

Gj, GID;

5. ASET1

or

grid

points.

scalar

It

are

numbers

point

when

be

must

scalar

identification

point

identification

zero

if

point

points.

number.

card :

This bulk data

card

defines the degrees

Alternately,

by

as

ASET1 CARD

of

by

used

to select coordinates for the a-set.

freedom to be
the

number

in QSET1 card, this

specifying

automatically

is

defines

it

freedom. Again
user

number

the

individual
software.

The

placed

of

in the

selection can

points
card

or

it

image is

degrees

be done

could
as

set.

analysis

independent

be

shown

It

by

of

the

done
below.

ASET1

ASET1

ABC

-ETC-

+BC

ALTERNATE FORMAT
ASETl

"THRU"

EDI

E>2

ASET1

where,

is the

G, ID1, ID2
Please

at

fatal
exist,

are

note

sequence

be

component

ID1

least
error

the grid

that

if

Any

collectively

of

are

identification

point

scalar

later

ID2

degree

results.

or

the

through

one

number

format

is

not required

freedom in the

points

produces

implied
warning

in

all

used,

numbers.

points

in

the

to exist, but there must

a-set

the

for the model,

THRU

message

but

that

is

do

or

not

otherwise

ignored.

6. SPOINT

card :

This bulk data


The format

of

SPOINT CARD

card

defines

this card is

scalar

shown

points

below.

of

the

structural

model.

SPOINT

ID

ID

ID

ID

ID

ID

ID

ID

SPOINT

ALTERNATE FORM
SPOINT

roi

"THRU1

ID2

XXXX X

SPOINT

where,

ID1, ID2, ID3


All

scalar

point

other

structural,

used

to

define

multipoint

are

must

of

identification
scalar

and

scalar

constraint

connected.

degrees

the scalar point identification

are

numbers

fluid

points

equations,

unique

Primarily,

appearing
but to

be

must

points.

numbers.

in

which

this

single

no

scalar

with

all

card

is

point

or

elements

In the Generalized Dynamic Reduction method, the

freedom

in the

{uq}

be defined in the SPOINT

set

card.

are

scalar

points.

Hence

they

APPENDIX B

MSC/NASTRAN DATA FILE

ID
SHANK.
TIME 30

THESIS

SOL 3
CEND

SNORMAL

TITLE=

ROBOT ARM

MODAL ANALYSIS PROBLEM

MODES

ANALYSIS

SUBTITLE=

MODAL ANALYSIS
LABEL = M0DE#
DISP (PRINT, PUNCH )= ALL

OF PUMA UNIMATION ROBOT ARM

SPC=1

DYNRED=20
METHOD

30

BEGIN BULK
PARAM,GRDPNT,0

DYNRED, 20, 500.0


EIGR, 30, MGIV,
,

,15,,,+EIl

+EI1,MAX

SPOINT, 1001 , THRU , 1050


ASET1, 0,1001, THRU, 1050
QSET1, 0,1001, THRU, 1050
PARAM , AUTOSPC

YES

MAT1

1.03+7

3.872+6

MAT1

2
1

1.02+7

3.835+6

GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID

2
3
4

4.94975

.33

.33

2.512-4
.000265

4.94975

123456

2.22-16

123456

4.94975-4.94975

123456

1.11-16-7.

123456

7.

123456

GRID

5
6

-4.94975-4.94975

GRID

-4.94975

GRID

-2.22-16

GRID

4.94975

4.94975

2.
2.
2.

GRID

10

7.

2.22-16

2.

GRID
GRID

11
12

4.94975-4.94975

GRID

-4.94975-4.94975

GRID

13
14
15

2.
2.
2.
2.

-2.22-16

7.

123456

GRID

16

-4.94975

4.94975

123456

GRID

17

-3.18

18

-2.2486

GRID

GRID

GRID

123456

-7.

4.94975

7.

1.11-16-7.

-7.

2.
-2.2486

19
20
21

5.55-17-3.18

GRID

22

GRID

23

-2.50-16

3.18

GRID

24

-2.2486

2.2486

GRID

25
26
27

-3.18

GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID

GRID
GRID

28

GRID

29
30

GRID
GRID

31

GRID

32

GRID

33

2.2486

-2.2486

34

GRID

35

GRID

36

GRID

37

GRID

38

2.
2.

3.18

1.67-16

2.

2.2486

2.2486

2.
2.
2.

-2.2486

22.5
-2.2486

5.55-17-3.18

2.2486

-2.2486

22.5

22.5
22.5

3.18

1.67-16

22.5

2.2486

2.2486

22.5

-2.50-16

3.18

22.5

-2.2486

2.2486

22.5

-7.
-4.94974-4.94974

GRID

2.

1.
1.
i

4.94974-4.94974

1.

7.

1.
1.

4.94974

4.94974

GRID

GRID
GRID

39
40
41

4.94974

-4.94974

GRID
GRID
GRID

42

5.09
3.59917

43
44

3.59917

GRID

45

5.09

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

46

3.59917 -3.59917

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

3.59917
5.09
3.59917

47

48
49
50
51

52
53
54
55
56

-5.09

3.59917 -3.59917
3.18
3.18
3.18
2.2486
2.2486
2.2486
2.2486
2.2486
2.2486
3.18
3.18

57
58

59
60

3.18
2.2486
2.2486
2.2486

2.2486
2.2486
2.2486

1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
7.125
12.25
17.375

7.125
12.25
17.375
7.125
12.25
17.375
".125
12.25
17.375

61

3.18

7.125

GRID

62

3.18

12.25

GRID

63
64

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

65
66

3.18
2.2486

-2.2486

2.2486

-2.2486

2.2486

-2.2486

67

-3.18

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

68
69
70
71
72
73

-3.18

GRID

77

74

-3.18

2.2486

-2.2486

2.2486
2.2486

-2.2486

-2.2486

-2.75396

1.59
2.75396-

-1.59

17.375
7.125
12.25
17.375

7.125
12.25
17.375
7.125
12.25
17.375
24.09
22.926
22.926
24.09
25.68

2.75396

1.59

1.59

2.75396

78

1.59

2.75396

24.09

GRID

79

1.59

22.926

GRID

RO

2. 75396
1

GRID

75
76

3.18

.59

-2.75396

2.75396-

22.926
23.93

GRID
GRID

31

32

-3.18

GRID

-3.18

GRID

83
84

GRID
GRID
GRID

85
36
37

3.18
2.75396-

-2.75396

3.18

-2.75396

3.18

-1.59

3.18

GRID
GRID
GRID

38
89
90

GRID

31

6.3

92

6.3

3.18

3.18

24.09

-1.59

1.59
2.75396

25.68
23.93
24.09
27.27
28.434
28.86
28.434
27.27

-1.59

23.434

93
94

6.3

1.59

28.434

6.3

2.75396

27.27

95

6.3

3.18

25.68

96

6.3

2.75396

24.09

GRID

97

3.7

-2.75396

27.27

GRID

98

3.7

-1.59

28.434

GRID

GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID

28.86

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

99
100
101

3.7

102

7.8
4.74

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117

GRID

118

6.3

GRID

GRID

119
120

6.3
6 3

28.86
19.68
4.5
25.68
31.68
-2.75396
27.27
-1.59
28.434
28.86
1.59
28.434
2.75396 27.27
3.18
25.68
2.75396 24.09
1.59
22.926
22.5
-1.59
22.926
-2.75396
24.09
1.59
28.434
2.75396 27.27
3.18
25.68
1.59
22.926
22.5
-1.59
22.926
-2.75396
24.09

GRID

121

6.3

-3.18

25.68

GRID

122

-3.18

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

123
124
125
126
127

1.59
1.59

25.68
27.27

GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID

128
129
130

-2.78-17

7.8
7.8

4.74
4.74
4.74
4.74

4.74
4.74
4.74
4.74
4.74
4.74
-3.7
-3.7
-3.7

6.3

-2.75396

1.59

-1.59

1.59
1.59
1.59
1.59

1.59
2.75396
3.18

2.75396-

-2.75396

2.75396-3.18

131
132

2.75396-

GRID
GRID
GRID

133
134
135

2.75396
2.75396
2.75396

GRID

136

2.75396

GRID

137

2.75396

-2.75396

2.75396-

-1.59

1.59
2.75396
3.18
2.75396

28.434
28.86
28.434
27.27
25.68
24.09
25.68
27.27
28.434
28.86
28.434
27.27
25.68
24.09
27.27

GRID

138

3.18

-2.75396

GRID

3.18
3.18

-1.59

GRID

139
140

GRID
GRID

141
142

3.18
6.3

-2.75396

GRID
GRID

143
144

3.18
3.18

2.75396
3.18

27.27
25.68

GRID
GRID

145
146

2.75396
1.59

GRID

147

3.18
3.18
3.18

148

3.18

-2.75396

GRID

149

3.18

-3.18

GRID

150

2.75396

GRID

1.59

GRID

151
152

GRID

153

-1.59

24.09
22.926
22.926
24.09
25.68
27.27
28.434
28.86
28.434

GRID

154

-2.75396

27.27

GRID

GRID

GRID
GRID
GRID

155

-1.59

156
157

-1.59

158

-1.59

1.59

1.67-16

1.59

-1.59

3.18

2.75396
1.59

28.434
28.86
28.434
27.27

25.68
27.27

23.434
28.86

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRTD
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

159
150
161
162

163
164
165
166
167

-1.59

-1.59

28.434

-1.59

-2.75396

27.27

-">.

7cS'-i'-)P,

-2.75396
-2.75396
-2.75396

"-,

7.5.68
196

3.13
2.75396
1.59

-2.75396

-2.75396-1.59

GRID

168
169
170
171

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

187
188
189
190

GRID
GRID

191
192

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

193
194
195
196
198

7.8
7.8

199
200
201

7.8
7.8
7.8

197

3.18

-1.59

-2.75396-2.75396
-2.75396-3.18
-3.7
-3.7

4.74
-3.7
-3.7
-3.7
-3.7

-3.18
-3.18
-3.18

-3.18
-3.13

-3.18

7-8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8

7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8

GRID

202

7.8

GRID
GRID

203
204

7.8
7.8

GRID

7.8
7.8
9.8

2.75396
1.59

VI4. 09

25.68
27.27
28.434
28.86
28.434
27.27
25.68
24.09
22.926

25.68
22.5
-1.59
22.926
-2.75396
24.09
-3.18
25.68
3.18
25.68
2.75396 24.09
1.59
22.926
-1.59
22.926
-2.75396
24.09
-3.18
25.68
3.
31.68
5.33333 31.68
2.66667 31.68
8.
19.68
5.33333 19.68
2.66667 19.68
9.669
22.476
10.25
25.68
9.669
28.884
-3.18

5.55-17

-12.3587

27.3894

-12.3587

25.68
25.68
24.2937
25.68
22.2611
21.6968

6.41667
-12.3587

8.33333
-12.3587

-9.6565

21.1324
20.5681
-1.55
20.0037
-12.3587
29.0989
-9.6565
29.6632
-6.95433
30.2276
-4.25217
30.7919
-1.55
31.3563
-12.3587
29.0989
12.3587 29.0989
-12.3587
22.2611
-12.3587
22.2611
-1.55
31.3563
-1.55
31.3563
-1.55
20.0037
-1.55
7.0.0037
^.6565
29.6632
-6.95433

-4.25217

GRID

205
206
207

GRID
GRID
GRID

208

11.8

209
210

9.8
11.8

GRID
GRID

211
212

9.8
11.8

GRID

213
214

9.8

GRID
GRID

7:15

i 1

GRID
GRID

216

11.8

-6.95433

217

11.8

-4.25217

30.2276
30.7919

GRID

218

-9-5565

21.5968

GRID

11.8
.8

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

219
220
221
222

11.3
11.8
9.8
9.8

223
224

9.8

225

GRID

226
227

9.8
9.8

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID

228
229
230
231
232
233

234
235
236
237

238
239
240

9.8

-6.95433
-4.25217

-9.6565

29.6632

-6.95433

30.2276

-4.25217

30.7919

-9.6565

21.6968

-6.95433

21.1324

-17.0111

20.5681
28.1272

-16.5

23.1261

-16.5

28.2339

-4.25217

9.8
9.8
9.8
11.8
11.8
11.8
11.8
11.8
11.8
11.8
11.8
11.8
7.8
7.8

21.1324
20.5681

-18.0345
-18.7457

23.7063
24.5814

-18.7457

25.68
26.7786

-18.0345

27.6537

-17.0111

23.2328

-19.

-16.5
-17.0111

-16.5
-18.0336

-18.7453

23.1261
28.1272
28.2339
23.7056
24.5806
25.6793
27.6535

241
242

7.8

-19.

7.8

-18.0347

GRID

243

7.8

-18.7459

26.7782

GRID
GRID

244

7.8

-17.0111

23.2328

245

7.8

-16.5

23.1261

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

246
247

7.8
7.8

-16.5

248
249
250

9.8
9.8

-18.034

9.8
9.8
9.8
9.8
7.8
7.8

-19.

GRID
GRID

-17.0111

28.2339
28.1272

-14.4293

23.706
24.581
25.6796
26.7784
27.6536
23.2328
28.6664
22.6936

256
257

11.8

-14.4293

28.6664

9.8

-14.4293

28.6664

258

11.8

-14.4293

GRID

259

9.8

-14.4293

GRID

260

7.8

-16.5

22.6936
26.8775

261

7.8
7.8
7.8

-16.5

27.5557

-17.6975

25.68

7.8

-16.5

7.8

-16.5

7.8
11.8

-.4

-.4

25.68
23.8043
24.4825
31.5965
31.5965

-.4

19.7635

-.4

19.7635
28.5181

25.68

GRID
GRID

GRID

GRID
GRID

251
252
253
254
255

262

-18.7455

-18.7458

-18.0346
-17.0111
-14.4293

-18.3487

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

263
264
265
266
267

GRID

268

GRID

269

7.8
11.8

GRID

270

7.8

-1.55

GRID

7.8
7.8

-1.55

GRID

271
272

GRID

273

GRID

22.6936

-1.55

22.8419

7.8

-.4

28.6382

274

7.8

-.4

22.7218

GRID

275

11.3

-1.55

23.5181

GRID

276

11.8

-1.55

25.68

277

11.8

-1.55

22.8419

11

-.4

23.6382

GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID
GRID

279
280

11.8
11.8

281

7.3

GRID

282

GRID

283

7.8
7.8

GRID

284

7.8

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

285
286
287
288

7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8

289
290
291
292
293
294

7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8

GRID

295
296
297

7.8
7.8
7.8

GRID

298

9.8

4.5

25.68

GRID

25.68

-.4

22.7218

GRID

301

11. B
9.8
9.8

4.5

GRID

299
300

-.4

25.68

GRID

302

9.8

-.4

GRID

303

9.8

-.4

GRID
GRID
GRID

304
305
306

9.8
7.8
7.8

-.4

-17.6063

26.1383
25.2217

307

7.8

-17.3468

24.8332

308

7.8

-16.9583

24.5737

309
310

7.8

-15.8753

24.6584

7.8

-15.4341

25.1343

-15.5392

23.6641

7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8

-12.9999

22.9844

-15.4784

26.3047

GRID
GRID

311
312
313
314
315

7.8

-18.1761

25.8872
26.4585

GRID

316

7.8

-17.6907

27.0903

317

7.8

-16.9847

27.4569

318

7.8

-18.1758

24.9014

-17.6902

24.2696

7.8

-16.9847

23.9033

7.8

-14.7651

GRID

319
320
321

7.8

27.4861

322

7.8

-15.9737

GRID

23.6592

323

7.8

-17.0872

25.6138

324

7.8

-16.5

25.68

325

7.8

-16.5008

11.8

25.033
26.8775

GRID

326

-16.5

327

11.8

-16.9583

26.7863

GRID

328

11.8

-17.3468

26.5268

329

11.8

-17.6063

26.1383

11.8

-17.6975

25.68

11.8

-17.6063

25.2217

11.8

-17.3468

24.8332

11.8

-16.9583

24.5737

11.8

-16.5

24.4825

11.8

-15.8753

24.6584

11.8

-15.4341

25.1343

11.8

-15.4784

26.3047

-15.5

25.8775

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID

GRID

GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID

GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID

GRID

330

GRID

331

GRID

332

GRID

333

GRID
GRID

334

GRID

336

GRID

337

GRID

338

335

7.8

7.8

-.4

25.68

-.4

22.7218

-9.6565

23.6884

-9.6565

25.68

-9.6565

27.6716

-6.95433

23.4062

-6.95433

25.68

-6.95433

27.9538

2.25
2.25

23.124
25.68
28.236
28.68
22.68

4.723

28.748

7.196
4.723

28.816

-4.25217
-4.25217

-4.25217

7.196

22.612
22.544

-17.3468

26.5268

-16.9583

26.7863

-17.6063

-13.5752

28.6382
19.7635
31.5965

GRID

339

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

340
341

GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

9.8
9.8
9.8
9.8
9.8
9.8
9.8
9.8

342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357

9.8
9.8
9.8

11.8
11.8
11.8
11.8
9.8

9.8
9.8
9.8
11.8

358

-16.9583
-17.3468
-17.6063
-17.6975
-17.6063

-17.3468
-16.9583

24.5737

-16.5

24.4825

-15.8753

-15.4784

24.6584
25.1343
26.3047

-13.5752

25.8872

-15.4341

-12.3587

24.2937

-12.9999

22.9844

-15.5392

-16.5

23.6641
25.8872
24.2937
22.9844
23.6641
27.5557
27.5557

-13.5752

-12.3587

-12.9999
-15.5392

359
360
361
362
363

9.8

-16.5

11.8

-18.3487

9.8

-18.3487

11.8
9.8

-16.5

364
365

7.6
7.6
7.6

366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375

-16.5

-13.1851
-16.5865

23.4711

-19.766
-19.9879

4.1

-19.6673

4.1

-19.766

4.1

-19.8646

5.85
5.85

-19.9263

-19.6057

-16.5865

377

GRID

378

4.1

-13.4071

GRID
GRID

379
380
381

4.1
5.85
5.85

-13.3084

382

4.1

-16.5865

383
384

4.1

-16.5865

5.85

-19.766

385
386
387

5.85

-13.4071

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

388
389
390

25.68
25.68
23.8043
23.8043

23.4711
25.7211
27.9711
24.7211
25.7211
26.7211
24.0961
27.3461
27.9711
27.9711

-19.5441

7.6
7.6
7.6
7.6
7.6
4.1

376

26.7363
26.5268
26.1383
25.68
25.2217
24.8332

-13.629
-13.4071
-13.5057

-13.2468
-13.5673

4.1

-16.5865

4.1
4.1
4.1
7.6

-18.2865

23.4711
25.7211
24.7211

25.7211
26.7211
27.3461
24.0961
26.7211
24.7211

25.7211
25.7211
25.7211

10.7211

-19.2071

15.3878
20.0545

-18.7468

-18.2865

10.7211

391
392

7.6

-18.7057

14.9711

7.6

-19.1249

19.2211

GRID

393

5.85

-18.2865

10.7211

GRID

394

5.85

-18.7262

395

5.85

-19.166

GRID

396

7.6

-14.0482

GRID

397

7.6

-14.4673

-14.3865

GRID

GRID

GRID

IK1JJ

398

15.1795
19 6378
.

19.2211
14.9711
13.7211

GRID
GRID
GRID

GRID
GRID

399
400
401

7.6
"6
7.6

402

4.1
4.1

403

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

404

5.85
5.85

405
406
407
408
409
410
411

5.85

7.8
7.6
7.6
7.6
7.6

412
413
414
415
416
417

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

418
419
420

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

422

7.6
7.6

7.6
7.6
7.6
7.6
7.6
7.6
7.6
7.6

421

-16.5865
-16.5865
-16.5865
-14.8865

10.7211
10.7211
-16.5865
10.7211
16.5865 27.3461
25.68
25.68
22.5
1.59
22.926
2.75396 24.09
3.18
25.68
28.86
-1.59
28.434
-16.5
25.68
-2.75396
27.27
-3.18
25.68
-2.75396
24.09
-16.5865

-14.8865

1.59
2.75396

4.

1
1
1

3.18
14
33
13
34
12
35

13
34

34
5

33
6

12
35

35
4

11
36
10

36

34
5
35

37

36

37

3
37
2

2
38
1
39

~9

15

40

J9

16
33
6

40

1
1

11
36

10

CQUAD4

10

37

9
38

CQUAD4

11

CQUAD4

1 7.

'fl

'

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

39
7

40

CQUAD4

14
15
16

40

33

CQUAD4

17

CQUAD4

18
19

21
41
22

CQUAD4

20
21
22
73

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

14

1
1
1

43

22
42
23
43
24
44

->4

42

23

4.
4.

27.27
4.

3.18

C QUAD 4

28.434

-3.13

4-

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

22.926

-1.59

-3.18

423
424
425
1
2

10.7211
14.9711
19.2211
10.7211

42
9
43

38

15
16

41

10
42
9

44

43

.15

'..1
7

CQUAD4

24

44

45

CQUAD4

25

17

18

14
46

CQUAD4

26

45

46

13

14

CQUAD4

27

18

19

47

46

CQUAD4

28

47

12

13

CQUAD4

1
1

46

29

20

47

11

CQUAD4

30

19
47

CQUAD4

31

70

?.l

48
11
41

CQUAD4

32

48

41

10

T QUAD 4

"3
-

43

45

;2
4R

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

34

49

35
36
37

50

51

22

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

38
39

52
53

40

2
2

54

42
43

55
56

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

41

44

57

52
53
54
23
55
56
57
24
58
59
60

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

45
46

2
2

24
58

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

47

2
2
2

59
60

50
51
52
53
54
55

2
2
2

61
62
63

2
2
2

18
64
65

19
67

67

32
61
62
63
25
64

68

65

68

69

66

56
57
58
59
60
61

66

69

27

26

19

20
70

70

67

71

68

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

48

49

23

17

67

68

69
20

CQUAD4

62

CQUAD4

63

70
71

72

53
54
30
55
56

59

53
54
30
55
56

60

57

57
31
58

32

31

17

61

61
62

62

58
59

63
25
64
65
66
26

63
18
64
65
66

72

69

28

27

49

70

49

50

71

50

51
29
80
82

72

51
82

64

CTRIA3

65

83

CTRIA3
CTRIA3

66
67
68
69
70

3
3

83
74

3
3
3

25
74
73
29

26

73
82
28

CQUAD4
CTRIA3

60

71
72
21

CQUAD4

CTRIA3

50
51
29
52

73

28

26

26
81

27

80

28

32

27

75

32

76

CTRIA3

74
75

78

32
79

81
23
25
75
30

CTRIA3

76

79

29

30

CQUAD4

77

84

31

32

76

78
79

3
3

84
77

78

30
84
76

31

112
77

113
150

CTRIA3
CQUAD4

CTRIA3
CTRIA3

CQUAD4
CTRIA3

71
72
73

>

CTRIA3
CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CTRIA3
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CTRIA3
CTRIA3

CQUAD4

80
31
82

77
148

84

156

147

83
84

123

85
86
87
88

3
3
3
3

126
179
73
127

155
75
122
125
25
83
126

180

25

124

162

CTRIA3

89

CQUAD4

90

CQUAD4

91

CQUAD4

92

93

2-2TJAD4

78

76
83
152
75
161
151

30

154

151

150

123

74
154

133

128

127

150

77

131

130

122

123

"
--<*

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

94
95

133
134

96

149

97

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CTRIA3
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

98
99

3
3

135
136
137
148
109
149
81

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CTRIA3
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

1 06

108
148
29
149
138
139
140
143

100
101
102
103
104

105
107
108
109

110

3
3
3
3
o

3
3
3
3

138
139
140
141
144

127

127

128
78
129

128
31
95

96

129

130

147
130

131
132
133
107
134

129

3
3

157

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

115

116

CTRIA3
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

117

118

145
158
78
159

119

160

120

CQUAD4

121

CQUAD4

122

CQUAD4
CTRIA3
CQUAD4

123
124

128
129
130

172

L41

114

127

113
126

81
143
144
145
156
144

CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

148
134
135
136
147

143

CQUAD4

125
126

125
126

112
113

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

124
125

3
i
3

80
144
145
146

111

132
133

135
136
137

150
108

131
132
133
134
108
135
136
137

79
151
109
152

157

151

79
158
159

137
153

153
L54

161
163

160

154

83

110

3
3
3

164
77
165

3
3

166
167

109
163
78
164
165
166

168
146
169

145
168

155
128
156
157
158
159
109
160

3
3

152

IfV'

167

;-.

: <-)>->

96

117
156
157
158
159
160
110
161

CTRIA3

131

83

80

122

CQUAD4

132

85

169

161

73

CQUAD4

133

134
135
136

3
3
3

90
111

179
178
177
110

75

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

178
177

162
163
164
118

CQUAD4

137

90

138

3
3
3

89

CTRIA3

155
88

76

3
3
3

37

29
181
180

146
182

168
110
169

181

85

97

176

182

86

86
37

87

88
118
89
90

89

CQUAD4

139

CQUAD4

140

CQUAD4

141
142

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

143

CQUAD4

144

3
3

CQUAD4

145

CQUAD4

146

86
182

89
88
87
86

CQUAD4

147

98

97

CQUAD4

148

99

98

CQUAD4

149

114

99

CQUAD4

150

112

111

CQUAD4

151

115

114

CQUAD4

152
153

116
170

115
115

2"3UAD4

162

163
117
164
77

165

165
166

166

167

168

167

169

111
85
74

38

119
90
177
173

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

154
155
156

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CTRIA3
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

3
3

171
173

3
3

175

157

147

170
171
174
29

158

159

174
172

173
113

178
179
180
111
25
120

160

3
3

176

85

175
74

73

161

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170

3
3
3

171
172
173
174
175

124
129
112

3
3

125
130
113
108
143

3
3
3

107

141
106

3
3
3

181

179
25
181
112
180
121
182

153
80
119
94
106

152
122
120
95
107

93

94

105

106
93

140

106
140
105
139

104

105

105

104

139
104

138
103

92
104
91

138

103
202
203
204
205
207

149
172
207

91
103
142
172
121

176

177

178

179

180

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

181
182
183
184

CQUAD4

185
186
187

107
141

221

222
223
208

92

221
222
223
211
215
216
217
212
224

103
142
203
204
205
206

198
199
200

215
216
217
209
224
225
226

213

221
222
223
211
198
199
200
201

188

209

210

218

724

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

189
190

224

218

225

219

225
226

CQUAD4

191

226

CQUAD4

CQUAD4

192
193
194

249
239
244

220
248
244
245

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

195
196

219
220
214
230
253
228
236
249
232
233
251
250
231
227
234
237
252
235
248
257

CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

CQUAD4

4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4

221
222
223
197

253
241

CQUAD4

197

251

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

198

4
4

252

CQUAD4

200
201
202

228
240
250
251
243
241
249

225
226

242
243
250
246

252

CQUAD4

2 03
204

227

229

227

CQUAD4

205

247

242

206

CQUAD4

207

248
240

253
239

CQUAD4

208
209

246

254
257
202
207

207
208

255

259
258

CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

CQUAD4

199

4
4

CQUAD4

210

4
4

CQUAD4

211

229
254
257

245

CQUAD4

CQUAD4
^unJJT

212

^ **

x j

-w

247

259

256

213
231
248
253

235
250
233
234
252
251
232
229
237

238
227
230
249
229
238
257

256
228
236

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

214
215
216
217
218

255
259

197
209

209

210

259
258

197

195

195
193

198
281
282
283
199
284

281

282
283

193
192

203
284
285

202
281
282

285
286

286

283

204

4
4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

227
228
229
230
231
232

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

233
234

5
5

CQUAD4

235

CQUAD4

236

5
5

CQUAD4

237

277

280

279

276

CQUAD4

238
239
240
241
242

276

278

275

275
101
290

279
278
194
292

267

292
185

212
290
102

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

192
198
281
282
283
199
284
285
286
200
287

289

288
289
201

272

271
270
268
274

407

203
284
285
286
204
287
288
289
205
272
271

271

407

273

270

270

273

266

206

214

269

280

277

200

287

287

288
289

288
201

272

205
272
271
270
206
274

194

196

293

292

292
196
293

185
293
184

CQUAD4

246

CQUAD4

CQUAD4

247
248
249
250

4
4
4
4

CQUAD4

251

295

CQUAD4

407

CQUAD4

252
253

273

293
190
191
188
294
187
295
186
189
101
290

184

CQUAD4

243
244
245

CQUAD4

254

CQUAD4

255
256
257

5
5

268
274
300

100
291

274

CQUAD4

258
259

5
5

301

268
300

407

274

CQUAD4

260

CQUAD4

261
262

CQUAD4

263

302
273
304
266

CQUAD4

264

CQUAD4

265

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

100
291
188
294
187

303

191
183
294
194
295
196
189

291
101
294
194
295

190

196

290

273

102

266

291
101
269
303

274
407

280
300

280
300

279
301
278

302
273

279
301
278
302

206

211

304

211
201

212

267

266

5
5

266
304

213

267

213

214

303
269

268

CQUAD4

268

301

298

299

279

CQUAD4

269

407

101
263

298
315

301
243
242
247

CQUAD4

CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

301
407

CQUAD4

270

241

CQUAD4

271

6
&
6

243

315

316

242

316

317

247

317

261

CQUAD4

272

2QUAD4

273

302
267

304

303

_46

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

274
275
276
277
278
279
280

5
6
o

263
315
316

/-

6
6

281

282
283

284

285
286
287
288
289
290
291

317
241
263
240

318
239
319
244

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CTRIA3
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CTRIA3
CTRIA3
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CTRIA3
CTRIA3
CTRIA3
CTRIA3
CTRIA3
CTRIA3
CTRIA3
CTRIA3
CTRIA3
CTRIA3
CTRIA3

292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307

CTRIA3

308

CTRIA3
CTRIA3

309
310

6
6

310
324
307

CTRIA3

309

325
308

CTRIA3
CTRIA3
CTRIA3

311
312
313
314
315
316

CTRIA3
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

317
318
319

CQUAD4

320

CQUAD4

321
322

CTRIA3
CTRIA3

CQUAD4

6
6
6

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
<-

6
6
6
6
6
6

6
6

6
6
6
6
7
7
T

"7

320
264

264
245
322
312
312
246
254
261
321
321
314
262
323
305
324
296
313
297
306
325
323

310
312
314
311
260
338
297
339
296

262
205
296
297
240
318
239
319
244
320
245
264
322
322
322
311

313
310
193

325
309

341

262
342

307

343
331
344

344

332

331

307

3 08

345

3 44

344
308

345
265

333
346

332
345

-*=>

-*

--*

262

306

CQUAD4

327

343

CQUAD4

328

342
306

329

343

CQUAD4
33TJAE4

331

332
333

329
342
330

338
326
339
327
340

328
341
329
342
330
343

"7

CQUAD4

325

312
339
327
340
328
341

340

325
313

255

305
341

330

324

314
311
195

254
202
321
314
192

307

265

339
296
340
305

265
255
309

323
297
324
260
323

311
314
312
297

308

193
305
306
296

308
310
309

326

CQUAD4

264

260
313
314
195
306
305
323
296
324
297
313
307
323
325
324
310
308

CQUAD4

CQUAD4

320
308

321
192

-7

319
307

261
321

CQUAD4

CQUAD4

318
306

195

197

315
316
317
261
263
262
318
306
319
307
320

260

265
245
309
311
310
255
197

323
324
325

CQUAD4

305
296
297

j j

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

3 34
3 35

265
346

347

347
335

346
334

336

309

310

348

347

337

347

348

336

335

CQUAD4

338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349

310

313

348

348

350
351

352
353

313
349
314
354
195
355
312
356
255
259
311
357
310
348

349
260
338
195
355
312
356
255
259
311
357

349
337

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

8
8

8
8
8
8

8
8
8

8
9
9

309

310
348
314
354

338

326
355
351
356
352
259
258
357
353

261
359

348
336
354
350
359
358

CQUAD4

354
355
3 56

229

357

261
359

246

CQUAD4

229

238

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

358
359
360

262
342

263

CQUAD4

361

361

263
361
241
250

361

CQUAD4

362
353
364
365
366
367

245

9
9

228
264

368
369
371

11
12
10
10

372
373

CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CTRIA3

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

370

260

338

363

264
363
265
346

10
11

415
91

376
92

142

365

91
23
375
415

10

364

374

10
10
10

367

370

368
370

384
364
365

424

374

360
250
232
363
362
346

334
373
413
414
43
376
372
415
384

10

384

377

10

377

381

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

378

10
10

378

385

381

375

CQUAD4

380

10

385

376

381
382

10

367

10

368

383
386

CQUAD4

383

10

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

385

10
4

383
386
387

377

384

C0UAD4

386

388

394

CQUAD4

387

389

395

CQUAD4

388

393

390

394

CQUAD4

389
3 90

4
4

395

391
392

CQUAD4

391

390

399

394
395
370
391
392
354
400

391

400

401

732

401

274

CQUAD4

CQUAD4

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

392

3 93

378
393

228
236
363
362
372
414
416
415
366
365
368

379
385
380
J 68
369
386
382
388
389

376

CQUAD4

342
330
361
360

380
376

CQUAD4

379

359
358

369
384
371

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

352
259
258
357
353
348
336
338
326

371
365
366
385

374
375

CQUAD4

336
349
337
354
350
355
351
356

373
386
382
378
379

378

367

394

395
370
391
392
354

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

394

399

398

395
396
397

400

397

401

387

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

398
399

403
393

CQUAD4

400

CQUAD4

401

CQUAD4

402

396
393
405
390
399
371
406
366
372

405
369

397
396
375
405

403

404
399

402
405

398

404

406

382
379

400
401
374

CQUAD4

403

382
371

CQUAD4

404

406

CBAR
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

405
406
407
408
409
410

13
11

CQUAD4

411

11
11
11
1 1

CQUAD4

412

11

405
409
421
418
413
121
120
119

419
414
142
121
120

CQUAD4

413

11

118

119

419

409

CQUAD4
CQUAD4

414

11

117

409

410

415
416

11

96

410

411

CQUAD4

11

95

118
117
96

411

412

CQUAD4

417

11
11

94

95

412

421

93
416
92
411
408

94
417

421

11
11
11

93
412

420
421

420
408
413
408

415
301

324
355

408

420
290
373

11

CQUAD4

418

CQUAD4

419

CQUAD4

420

CQUAD4

421
422
423
424
425
426

13
14
14

427

14

428

14

429
430

15
15

431
432

15
15

433

CBAR

CBAR
CBAR
CBAR
CBAR
CBAR
CBAR
CBAR
CBAR
CBAR

CBAR
CBAR

14

14

407
415
324
25
63

406
410
420

413

406
380
1.
408

416
416

408
408
408
417

417

418

418

419

409

418

1.
1.
.115154-.

.866025-.

.8

1.
1.

62

61

423

1.

15

423

17

1.

29
51

51

1.

50

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

435

CBAR

436

15

50

49
425

.521677-.

CBAR

437

15

CBAR
CBAR

438

15

439

15

27

CBAR
CBAR

440

69

441

15
15

21
69
68

68

67

CBAR

442

lb

67

422

1.

CBAR

443

15

422

19

1.

CBAR

444

15

57

]_

CBAR

445

15

31
57

56

1.

CBAR
CBAR
CBAR

446

15

56

55

447

15

424
23

1.
1.
1.

1.
i

448

15

55
424

CTRIA3

449

12

422

19

CTRIA3

450

12

425

21

41

CTRIA3

451

423

17

45

C0NM2

452

12
263

C0NM2

^53

.007874

307874

822631
853143

1.

49
425

:*!!

993348
5

-.6

.568576-.

313
63
62
61

CBAR

434

411

407

15
15

CBAR

380
372
373

47

-3.25-17

8.33-17

C0NM2
C0NM2
C0NM2
C0NM2
PSHELL
PSHELL
PSHELL
PSHELL
PSHELL
PSHELL
PSHELL
PSHELL
PSHELL
PSHELL
PSHELL
PSHELL
PBAR
PBAR
PBAR
ENDDATA

454

201

455

204

31312
.02624

456

20b

.02624

457

410

.007874

3
4

1
1

5
6

1
1
1
1
1

10
11
12

1.

1.

.5

.25

1.
1.
1.

2
1
1

1
1

1.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

.11

.35

1.

.25

1.
1.
1.

1
1
2

1.
1.
1.

.25

1.

25.
1.

15

1.

.225

.175

1
2

13
14

.25

.0625

25.
1.
3.255-4

25.

1.
.000326

.8333

.8333

.8333

.8333

.8333

.8333

.8333

.8333

.8333

.8333

.8333

.8333

25.
1.
1.

APPENDIX C
MODAL TESTING COORDINATE AND DISPLAY SEQUENCE DATA

Coordinates

Point

Table

crd

ROBOT. PRJ

#1

crd

#2

crd

#3

Componer

7.000

270.000

0.00

CYLINDER

7.000

315.000

0.00

CYLINDER

7.000

0.00

0.00

CYLINDER

7.000

45.000

0.00

CYLINDER

7.000

90.000

0.00

CYLINDER

7.000

135.000

0.00

CYLINDER

7.000

180.000

0.00

CYLINDER

7.000

225.000

0.00

CYLINDER

7.000

270.000

2.000

CYLINDER

10

7.000

315.000

2.000

CYLINDER

11

7.000

0.00

2.000

CYLINDER

12

7.000

45.000

2.000

CYLINDER

13

7.000

90.000

2.000

CYLINDER

14

7.000

135.000

2.000

CYLINDER

15

7.000

180.000

2.000

CYLINDER

16

7.000

225.000

2.000

CYLINDER

17

3.180

270.000

2.000

CYLINDER

18

3.180

315.000

2.000

CYLINDER

19

3.180

0.00

2.000

CYLINDER

20

3.180

45.000

2.000

CYLINDER

21

3.180

90.000

2.000

CYLINDER

22

3.180

135.000

2.000

CYLINDER

23

3.180

180.000

2.000

CYLINDER

24

3.180

225.000

2.000

CYLINDER

25

3.180

270.000

12.250

CYLINDER

26

3.180

315.000

12.250

CYLINDER

27

3.180

0.00

12.250

CYLINDER.

28

3.180

45.000

12.250

CYLINDER

Coordinates

Point

Table

Crd

ROBOT. PRJ

#1

29

3..180

30

31

3.

32

Crd

#2

Crd

43

Componei

90.000

12.250

CYLINDER

.180

135.000

12.250

CYLINDER

.180

180.000

12.250

CYLINDER

.180

225.000

12.250

CYLINDER

33

.180

270.000

22.500

CYLINDER

34

.180

315.000

22.500

CYLINDER

35

.180

0.00

22.500

CYLINDER

36

.180

45.000

22.500

CYLINDER

37

.180

90.000

22.500

CYLINDER

38

135.000

22.500

CYLINDER

39

180.000

22.500

CYLINDER

40

.180

225.000

22.500

CYLINDER

41

.180

180.000

0.00

HCYL

42

.180

135.000

0.00

HCYL

43

.180

90.000

0.00

HCYL

44

.180

45.000

0.00

HCYL

45

.180

0.00

0.00

HCYL

46

.180

315.000

0.00

HCYL

47

3.

.180

270.000

0.00

HCYL

48

3,

.180

225.000

0.00

HCYL

49

3.

135.000

520.000m

HCYL

50

3,

.180

90.000

520.000m

HCYL

51

3,

.180

45.000

520.000m

HCYL

52

3,

.180

0.00

520.000m

HCYL

53

3,

315.000

520.000m

HCYL

54

3.

.180

270.000

520.000m

HCYL

55

3.

,180

225.000

520.000m

HCYL

56

.180

.180

.180

.180

,180

135.000

1.450

HCYL

Coordinates Table

^oinc

crd

ROBOT. PRJ

#i

Crd

#2

Crd

#3

Componen-

57

3.180

90.000

1.450

HCYL

58

3.180

45.000

1.450

HCYL

59

3.180

0.00

1.450

HCYL

60

3.180

315.000

1.450

HCYL

61

3.180

270.000

1.450

HCYL

62

3.180

225.000

1.450

HCYL

63

3.180

90.000

3.700

HCYL

64

3.180

45.000

3.700

HCYL

65

3.180

0.00

3.700

HCYL

66

3.180

315.000

3.700

HCYL

67

3.180

270.000

3.700

HCYL

68

3.180

135.000

5.950

HCYL

69

3.180

90.000

5.950

HCYL

70

3.180

45.000

5.950

HCYL

71

3.180

0.00

5.950

HCYL

72

3.180

315.000

5.950

HCYL

73

3.180

270.000

5.950

HCYL

74

3.180

225.000

5.950

HCYL

75

3.180

135.000

6.880

HCYL

76

3.180

90.000

6.880

HCYL

77

3.180

45.000

6.880

HCYL

78

3.180

0.00

6.880

HCYL

79

3.180

315.000

6.880

HCYL

80

3.180

270.000

6.880

HCYL

81

3.180

225.000

6.880

HCYL

82

3.180

180.000

10.000

HCYL

83

3.180

135.000

10.000

HCYL

34

3.180

90.000

10.000

HCYL

Coordinates Table

fomt

Crd

ROBOT. PRJ

#1

Crd

#2

crd

#3

Component

85

3.180

45.000

10.000

HCYL

86

3.180

0.00

10.000

HCYL

87

3.180

315.000

10.000

HCYL

88

3.180

270.000

10.000

HCYL

89

3.180

225.000

10.000

HCYL

90

4.615

180.000

10.000

HCYL

91

4.615

135.000

10.000

HCYL

92

4.615

90.000

10.000

HCYL

93

4.615

45.000

10.000

HCYL

94

4.615

0.00

10.000

HCYL

95

4.615

315.000

10.000

HCYL

96

4.615

270.000

10.000

HCYL

97

4.615

225.000

10.000

HCYL

98

7.800

8.000

31.680

MAIN

99

7.800

5.330

31.680

MAIN

100

7.800

2.660

31.680

MAIN

101

7.800

0.00

31.680

MAIN

102

7.800

-1.550

31.350

MAIN

103

7.800

-5.150

30.600

MAIN

104

7.800

-8.750

29.850

MAIN

105

7.800

-12.350

29.090

MAIN

106

7.800

-12.350

26.810

MAIN

107

7.800

-12.350

24.540

MAIN

108

7.800

-12.350

22.260

MAIN

109

7.800

-8.750

21.500

MAIN

110

7.800

-5.150

20.750

MAIN

111

7.800

-1.550

20.000

MAIN

112

7.800

0.00

19.680

MAIN

Coordinates

Point

Table

Crd

ROBOT. PRJ

#1

Crd

#2

Crd

#3

Component

113

7.800

2.660

19.680

MAIN

114

7.800

5.330

19.680

MAIN

115

7.800

8.000

19.680

MAIN

116

7.800

9.990

23.510

MAIN

117

7.800

9.990

27.840

MAIN

118

4.615

180.000

11.500

HCYL

119

4.615

135.000

11.500

HCYL

120

4.615

90.000

11.500

HCYL

121

4.615

45.000

11.500

HCYL

122

4.615

0.00

11.500

HCYL

123

4.615

315.000

11.500

HCYL

124

4.615

270.000

11.500

HCYL

125

4.615

225.000

11.500

HCYL

126

7.800

7.320

27.840

MAIN

127

7.800

7.320

23.510

MAIN

128

7.800

-8.750

27.070

MAIN

129

7.800

-8.750

24.280

MAIN

130

11.800

-1.550

31.350

MAIN

131

11.800

-5.150

30.600

MAIN

132

11.800

-8.750

29.850

MAIN

11.800

-12.350

29.090

133

MAIN

11.800

-14.420

28.660

134

MAIN

11.800

-17.010

28.120

MAIN

11.800

-18.750

26.780

MAIN

11.800

-18.750

24.580

MAIN

11.800

-17.010

23.230

MAIN

11.800

-14.420

22.690

MAIN

11.800

-12.350

22.260

MAIN

135

136

137

138

139

140

Coordinates

roim:

Table

Crd

ROBOT. PRJ

#1

Crd

#2

Crd

#3

Component

141

11.800

-8.750

21.500

MAIN

142

11.800

-5.150

20.750

MAIN

143

11.800

-1.550

20.000

MAIN

144

11.800

-1.550

22.840

MAIN

145

11.800

-1.550

25.680

MAIN

146

11.800

-1.550

28.520

MAIN

147

7.800

-13.080

28.970

MAIN

148

7.800

-16.580

30.720

MAIN

149

7.800

-20.080

28.970

MAIN

150

7.800

-19.480

22.880

MAIN

151

7.800

-18.880

16.800

MAIN

152

7.800

-18.280

10.720

MAIN

153

7.800

-17.780

9.800

MAIN

154

7.800

-17.710

7.550

MAIN

155

7.800

-15.460

7.550

MAIN

156

7.800

-15.380

9.800

MAIN

157

7.800

-14.880

10.720

MAIN

158

7.800

-14

.300

16.630

MAIN

159

7.800

-13.720

22.540

MAIN

160

7.800

-17.010

28.120

MAIN

161

7.800

-18.750

26.780

MAIN

162

7.800

-18.750

24.580

MAIN

163

7.800

-17.000

23.230

MAIN

164

4.300

-13.080

28.970

MAIN

165

4.300

-16.580

30.720

MAIN

166

4.300

-20.080

28.970

MAIN

167

4.300

-19.480

22.880

MAIN

168

4.300

-18.880

16.800

MAIN

Display
Line
l

Sequence

Table

Lift

Pen
X

2
3

17

25

33
33

12

13

17

14

25

15

33

16

10

17

18

18

26

19

34

20

21

11

22

19

23

27

24

35
25
26

12
27

20
28

16

24

32

25

10
11

End

17

start Pt

6
7

ROBOT. PRJ

40

Pt

Display
Line

Sequence

Table

Pen

Lift

ROBOT. PRJ

29

28

30

36

31

Pt

Start

13

33

21

34

29

35

37
X

37

14

38

22

39

30

40

38

41

23

43

31

44

39

45

24

48

32

49

40

50

52

16

47

51

7
15

42

46

Pt

32

36

End

41

39

49

48

55

53
39

54
55

38

56
56

62

Display
Line

Sequence

Table

Lift Pen

57

59

start

35
75

66

35
X

68
X

90

118
118

74

41
39

35

76

82

77

90

78

118

79

89

97

90

72

75

82

81

82

70

73

74

34

65

71

67

36
68

63

69

End

33

62

67

pt

37

63

60

64

ROBOT. PRJ

40

58

61

42

80

49

81

56

82

63

83

68

34

75

125

Pt

Display
Line

Sequence

Table

Lift

Pen

ROBOT. PRJ

Start

85

83

86

91

87

119

88

56

89

37

90

68

91

43

92

50

93

57

94

63

95

69

96

76

97

84

98

92

99

120

100

44

101

51

102

58

103

64

70

104

77

105

85

106

93

107

121

108

109
110

111

112

45

52
59
65

Pt

End

Pt

Display
Line

Sequence

Table

Lift

Pen

ROBOT. PRJ

Start

113

71

114

78

115

86

116

94

117

122

118

46

119

53

120

60

121

66

122

72

123

79

124

87

125

95

126

123

127

47

128

54

129

61

130

67

73

131

80

132

88

133

96

134

124

135

136

137

138

139
140

48

55
62

67

74

Pt

End

Pt

Display
Line

Sequence

Table

Lift

Pen

ROBOT. PRJ

start

141

81

142

89

143

97

144

125

145

33

147

74
X

149
150

98

105
147

152

160

153

159

154

108
X

126

157

114
X

100

159

121

160

99

161

114

163
164

117

166

168

120

126

165

167

113
119

162

163

99

156

158

117

98

151

155

End

62

146

148

Pt

120
127

127

Pt

Display
Line

Sequence

Table

Lift Pen

169
170

Start

111
125

103

124

176

110
X

104

178

128

179

109

180

128

182

124

183

129

184

107
X

187

196

133

105

194

195

132
104

192
193

131
103

190

191

130

102

188
189

130
130

186

129

106

181

185

End

102

175

177

Pt

123

173
174

ROBOT. PRJ

116

171
172

143
111

146

Pt

Display
Line
197

Sequence

Table

Pen

Lift
X

108

162
137

163

138

147

164

164

218
219

148

165

220

221

149

166

222
223

150
167

224

159

147

216
217

161
136

214

215

160
135

212
213

139
159

210

211

134
147

208
209

Pt

140

206

207

End

109

204
205

Pt

141

202
203

Start

110

200
201

ROBOT. PRJ

142

198

199

176

Display Sequence Table

Line

225

Lift

Pen
X

226

227

158

159

147

164

167

176

246
247

157

176

244
245

156

175

242
243

155

174

240
241

154

173

238
239

153

172

236

237

152

171

234
235

151

170

232
233

Start Pt

169

230

231

ROBOT. PRJ

168

228
229

168

175

248

249

169
174

250

251

160

149
252

End

Pt

Display
Line
253

Sequence

Table

Lift

Pen
X

254

255

Start
163

158
151

157
152

258

259

ROBOT. PRJ

150

256

257

145

260

177

261

120

Pt

End

Pt

APPENDIX D
MODE SHAPES FROM THE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

<7
t=

^3

^
rf3tr~~'
^^^^
>'

T-.

'
,.-.

'

^7

^f

i*

^T

^f-

IT
a

\.

rifely/ ,7

Mffltr

to
UJ

~>4-

-IJL&.

TTTT

II

III
n~

-^-f

^^

~vfc-~~'l

II,

!l\i
I

-r^r.

-rf

I-*

ae

r*^
I

y*-

wbb^:\

APPENDIX E
MODE SHAPES FROM MODAL
TESTING

Trace

#1(13.266

Hz)

Mode 4

Frequency
Damping

13.27

Hz

4.73

x-

Trace
Mode

#2(21.136

Hz

Frequency

21.14

Hz

Damping

3.53

X'

Trace a

#3(35.957

Mode

HZ)

Frequency

35.96

Hz

Dampina

.94

X'

Trace
Mode

#4(39.708

HZ)

Frequency

39.71

HZ

Damping

2.22

X'

Trace a
Mode #

#5(52.201

Frequency

52.20

HZ

Damping

1.70

Hz)

X"

Trace a

#6(66.347

Mode

Hz)

Frequency

66.35

HZ

Damping

2.13

X'

Trace
Mode

Frequency
Damping

#7(107.390

Hz)

107.39
1.74

HZ

X'

Trace a

#8(117.405

Mode

Frequency

117.41

HZ

Damping

1.29

HZ)

X"

Trace a

#9(151.286

Mode

Frequency

151.29

HZ

Damping

3.74

HZ)

--TN

x-

Trace a

#10(199.078

Mode

10

Frequency

199.08

Hz

Damping

661.70m

HZ)

X'

Trace
Mode

#11(205

468

HZ)

11

Frequency

205.47

Dampina

1.98

Hz

X'

Trace
Mode

#12(213

083

HZ)

12

Frequency

213.08

Damping

1.06

Hz

X'

Trace
Mode

#13(224.702

Hz)

13

Frequency

224.70

Hz

Damping

620.58m

Z_

X'

APPENDIX F

FORTRAN PROGRAMS FOR


MODAL ASSURANCE CRITERION CALCULATIONS

run

the

Run

normal. for

2.

Run

MAC

Run

where

assign

expl.asc

assign

normal. out

column.

assign

3.

program,

for

for005 ( expmental
for006

forOlO

(file

feal.f06 for015
normal. out

for020

assign

column. out

for006

where

containing

corresponding nodes)
(nastran output file)

assign

for

file)

where

match.dat

assign

mac.

output

assign

column. out

assign

mac

out

for005

for006

Name

:
Shashank Kolhatkar
Description of the program
This program normalizes

from

obtained
*

using

the

experimental

unit

displacements

the

modal

analysis

displacement

maximum

scheme

A
ex

is

the

modal

array

normalized

big

variable

real

do

30

shapes

determine

big

,exl(144,3)

1, 13
(5, A) ( (

ex(l,l)

biggest

big, fact

ex<

j)

i = 1,144
if (abs(ex( i,2) )

j^l

,4)

,i

,144)

20

big

then

.gt.big)

ex(i,2)

endif

if (abs(ex( i

big

,3

) )

.gt.big;

then

ex(i,3)

endif

if (abs(

big

ex(

,4

) )

gt

.big)

then

ex(i,4)

endif

20

enddo

fact
do

110

l/(abs(big) )
i

110

es(i2)

*>

fact

exl(i,2)

ex(i,3)

exl(i,3)

ex(i,4)

fact
fact

(6,M

enddo

enddo

stop
end

1,144
=

write

30

exl(i.l)

write

( 6,*)

obtained

displacement

or

the

i,j,m

read

do

mode

to

none

ex(144,4)

integer

values

from

testing

exl

implicit

displacement

of

ex(

1 )

(exl( 1

j l, 3 )
=

values

factor

in

the
t

array

*
*

Name

Shashank Kolhatkar

Description
This
results

the
*

data

IDF

program
and

finite

for

the

corresponding

no.

of

finite

from

data

collects

file

grid

IDE

the

file

results

element

grids

experimental

and

together

in

puts
column

form

model

element

corresponding grid no. from experimental file


YF, ZF : displacement values from FEM results file
YE, ZE : displacement values from experimental
:

XF,
XE,

file.

results

implicit

none

IDF(426) IDE (144)


REAL XE(144)
INTEGER I,M,F(66)
real

,YE(144)

,XF(426)

,YF(4

26)

,ZF(426)

,ZE(144)

,G(66)

DO

1,66

READ
*

F(I)

(10, A)

G(I)
,
f(i),g(i)

(6, A)

write

ENDDO
DO

1,13

DO

1,426

READ
*

(15, *)

write

(6, A)

IDF(I)
XF( I)

,XF(I)

,YF(

I)

,YF(I)

,ZF(

,ZF(I)

I)

ENDDO
DO

1,144

READ
a

write

(20, A)
(6, *)

IDE(I)
XE( I) , YE( I)

,XE(I)

,YE(I)

,ZE(

,ZE(I)

I)

ENDDO
DO

WRITE
ENDDO
ENDDO
STOP
END

1,66

(6, A)

XF(g(I) )

,YF(g(I)

,ZF(g(I)

,XE(f

(I) )

,YE(f

(I)),ZE(f (I)

Name
*

Shashank Kolhatkar

Description

This
and
A

A
*

fin

ex

mac

program

them

displacement
displacement

values

value

Modal

implicit

values

the

of

the

calculates

arranges

in

the

values

MAC

of

form.

matrix

from the FEM


from the experimental
Assurance Criterion

analysis

none

real

f in(66

real

mac(

13

,3,13)

,13

ex(66,3,13)

,numl

,den2

,den3

,suml,sum2

,sum3

integer m,i,j,e,f
do

10
do

10

1,13
=
1,66

(5, A)

read

10

(f in( i

,m)

j=l

,3

do

200
do

f
100

den2
den3
do i

suml
+

numl

sum2

den2
sum3

ex(

,m)

j=l

,3

1,13
0
.

0.
1,66

f in(i,l,f )*ex( i,l,e) + f in( i


+ find, 3, f )Aex(i,3,e)

-t-

numl

( f in ( i
den2

den3

1
+

f ) **2 ) + ( f in ( i

(ex(i,l,e)**2)
den3 + sum3

100

suml/

(den2Aden3 )

enddo

500

f=l,13

write

format

99
enddo

stop
end

,2,e)

f ) **2 ) + ( f in ( i

f ) **2 )

(ex(i,2,e)**2)-t-(ex(i,3,e)**2)

enddo

do

)*ex( i

sum2

mac(f,e)

,f

suml

enddo

500

1,13

numl

200

enddo

(6,*) (mac(f
(E9.3)

,e)

,e=l

,13)