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ANTI-ARMOR DEFENSE DATA STUDY


(A2D2)
PHASE 1

N1q

FINAL REPORT
VOLUME IV -- US ANTI-TANK DEFENSE AT

KRINKELT-ROCHERATH, BELGIUN (DECEMBER, 1944)

15 FEBRUARY 1991

An Employee-Owned Company

QTIC
ECTE~

I___

II

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INaM

9 1

SAIC RPT 91-1012

ANTI-ARMOR DEFENSE DATA STUDY


(A2D2)
PHASE II
FINAL REPORT
VOLUME IV -- US ANTI-TANK DEFENSE AT
KRINKELT-ROCHERATH, BELGIUM (DECEMBER, 1944)

15 FEBRUARY 1991
Charles M. Baily
Joyce B. Boykin
Lloyd J. Karamales
Victoria I. Young

DTIC
ELECTE
MAR 141991
PREPARED FOR
THE US ARMY CONCEPTS ANALYSIS AGENCY
UNDER
CONTRACT NUMBER DAALO1-90-C-0071
DELIVERY ORDER 3

"The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the
authors and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army
position, policy, or decision unless so designated by other official
documentation. Comments or suggestions should be addressed to Director, US Army
Concepts Analysis Agency, 8120 Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814-2797."
SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION
Military Operations Analysis Division
1710 Goodridge Drive, T1-7-2
McLean, Virginia 22102

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Anti-Armor Defense Data Study (A2D2), Vol IV-US Anti-Tank Defense At Krinkelt-Rocherath, BE
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Young, Victoria; Baily, Charles; Karamales, Lloyd J.; Boykin, Joyce B.


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FIELD

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Anti-armor, WWII,
database

historical analysis, weapon degradation,

19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number)

The objective of the effort was to collect historical data on at least fourteen actions
where the US was in defense of enemy armor. The data will be used in a joint US/UK
analysis of the degradation in anti-armor defense effectiveness under combat conditions.
29 combat actions were described in detail from the engagement at Krinkelt-Rocherath,
Belgium in December 1944. The combat actions are presented in both narrative form and in
data tables with all identified data displayed. A database and hard copy file will also
be delivered as a final product. This volume also contains a "How To Research" Guide
describing the necessary information to successfully conduct research for this study.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER

PAGE

TITLE
INTRODUCTION ................................................

THE ARDENNES: THE BATTLE FOR THE NORTHERN SHOULDER ..........

ACTIONS FROM THE KRINKELT-ROCHERATH ENGAGEMENT .............. 17

APPENDICES
A

BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR KRINKELT-ROCHERATH ACTIONS

INDEX TO FILES ON KRINKELT-ROCHERATH ACTIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR ANTI-ARMOR DEFENSE DATA (A2D2) STUDY

PERFORMANCE OF US ANTITANK WEAPONS AGAINST GERMAN TANKS

ACTIONS COMPLETED BY SAIC SORTED BY DATE, LOCATION, AND TYPE

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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES


FIGURE

TITLE
.....
The German Plan and Actual Penetration...
16 December 1944 ...........................................
17 December 1944 ........................................
...
18 December 1944 ...........................................
19 December 1944 ...........................................
20 December 1944 ...........................................
Assault
Gun at
Losheimergraben .............................
Sideshow
...............................................

1
2

3
4
5
6
7
8The
011

4
8
10
13
15
16
19
26

KG Peiper Reaches Honsfeld ................................. 34


45
of Hinningen ...................................
The
The Defense
Forest Battle .......................................... 59
84
Death of a Battalion .......................................
Pocket of Resistance, 17 December .......................... 136
Pocket of Resistance, 18 December .......................... 143
Pocket of Resistance, 19 December, Early Morning ........... 148
Pocket of Resistance, 19 December, Morning................. 151
Pocket of Resistance, 19 December, Afternoon ............... 153
American Defense, 18 December .............................. 182
Knock Out of First Two Tanks ............................... 184
Silencing Tanks 3 and 4.................................... 186
The End of Panther Five's Saga ............................. 188

9
10
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
TABLE

1
Action
Action
Action
Action

1
2
3
4

Summary of Actions ........................................


Assault Gun at Loshetmergraben ............................
The Sideshow ..............................................
KG Peiper Reaches Honsfeld, Part 2........................
KG Peiper Reaches Honsfeld, Part 1.................

eofHnnn

17
21
29
38
41

n ntI....................49

ActionS5

The Defens

Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action

The Defense of Hinningen, Part 2.......................... 52


The Guns Retreat .......................................... 69
The Forest Battle ......................................... 71
74
The Heroism of Sergeant McGarity.
Last Stand of the 1323d ................................... 77
First Blood at Lausdell .................................. 95
The Daisy Chain .......................................... 99
Four Down ................................................ 103
Lt. Melesnick Gets a Panzer ............................... 107
Jerry Can versus Panzer .................................. 111
The Private War of William Soderman, Part 1............... 116
The A&P Platoon Gets Two .................................. 119
Down the Hatch ............................................ 124
The Private War of William Soderman, Part 2............... 129
From the Hip .............................................. 155
I.................................
................................. 158
Unstoppable
Part 2
161
Unstoppable Force,
Force, Part

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Ii

TABLE
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action
Action

Si

23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Salazar's First Kill...................................... 164


Salazar's Second Kill ..................................... 167
............................
171
Night Disturbance ..............
Teamwork and Height Advantage............................. 174
177
...........................
The Assist .....................
Panthers Three and Four Knocked Out ....................... 190
The End of Panther Five's Saga ........................... 194

INTRODUCTION
The information gathered and compiled in this Volume was part of an effort
performed for the US Army Concepts Analysis Agency under Contract DAALO1-90-C0071, Delivery Order Number 3. The objective of the effort was to collect
detailed historical data on at least fourteen combat actions where US forces were
defending against enemy armor attacks. The data set will be used in a joint
US/UK analysis of the degradation in anti-armor defense effectiveness under
combat conditions. The resulting degradation factors will allow projections of
the combat performance of future anti-armor defenses to be based upon a balanced
combination of historical and instrumented field test data.
A complete description of the work performed by SAIC is found in Volume I,
Technical Report, dated 30 March 1990.
Volumes II and III, respectively,
describe the anti-tank combat actions that took place at Mortain, France in
August, 1944 and Dom BOtgenbach, Belgium in December 1944. This Volume describes
the result of the detailed data collection on the engagement at KrinkeltRocherath, Belgium, in December, 1944. Also included in this Volume is an
appendix detailing the performance of U.S. anti-tank weapons against German tanks
and an appendix of actions completed by SAIC sorted by date, location, and type
of weapon used.
.

Copies of the actual WWII maps (1:25,000) and overlays of


Krinkelt-

Rocherath were delivered to the US Army Concepts Analysis Agency as part of this
project. Maps within this Volume were created from the original maps.

CHAPTER 1
THE ARDENNES: THE BATTLE FOR THE NORTHERN SHOULDER
BACKGROUND
Following the Allied breakout at St. Lo inJuly 1944, the near encirclement
of the German forces near Falaise wrecked the German Army in the West.' Even
though the Allies never completely closed the pocket and many units escaped, the
2
Germans left most of their equipment and thousands of casualties behind.
Allied armies chased the shattered remnants towards the German border, but their
logistics could not sustain this sudden, swift advance. By fall, supply
difficulties and stiffening German resistance, from units which the Germans had
managed to rebuild with prodigious effort, combined to slow the Allied advance.
As the Allies ran into the defenses along the German border, they became locked
into a grinding battle of attrition in terrain where even second-rate German
units could defend effectively. By mid-December 1944, American units were moving
forward slowly. The main objective of General Omar Bradley's 12th Army Group was
the capture of the Roer River dams which, if opened, could flood the river and
prevent its crossing. Since the Roer blocked the approach to the Rhine, it had
to be crossed before Germany could be invaded and defeated.
THE GERMAN PLAN
Even as Allied units raced toward Germany in September, Hitler was already
planning a counteroffensive. On 16 September, gesturing at a map, he announced
to his astonished generals that he would attack, I...here, out of the Ardennes,
with the objective -- Antwerp.03 Hitler was determined to make an attack in the
West. The vastness of the Eastern front and the fact that the Soviets had over
500 division-sized units mant that there was little likelihood for a decisive

ItThe overviem for the Ardow

offensive, described in the following fifteen pages,

Hugh N. Cole, The Ardannes Battle of the Butle (Wash.


2

According to Martin

ltumonson,

only 20,000-40,000 Gerlnrm escaped,

sCote, Ardem,

of

D.C.: 0CNN,

Pursuit, (yahington,
(rWkas.hi
PC; OC4N, 1961),
D vi.ens in the pocket on AugUst 6.

ps.?.

is drawn minly from

1965).
pg. 555 and Map I,

victory there. But in the West, a hard blow against the forces of what Hitler
always considered decadent democracies seemed to offer some chance of success.
During the months of planning that followed, Hitler's generals tried to persuade
him to adopt a less ambitious plan. An offensive to Antwerp, in their view,
exceeded the combat power and logistics reach of the forces they were able to
rebuild during the fall of 1944. But in the end, the plan was very much the one
that Hitler dictated.
With elaborate secrecy, the Germans assembled forces for their offensive.
For the assault, the Germans were able to gather thirteen infantry and seven
armored divisions. Another five divisions were in reserve. The assault units
had over a thousand tanks or armored assault guns and some 1,900 supporting
artillery pieces. The German plan, shown inFigure 1, was to attack west to the
Meuse River and cross that obstacle in the vicinity of Liege. Then, the Germans
would swing north and capture Antwerp, separating the British from the Americans
and, Hitler hoped, create another Dunkirk. The main attack would be carried out
by Sixth Panzer Army with Fifth Panzer Army attacking to cover the southern
flank. On both sides of the penetration, infantry divisions would attack to
secure the shoulders and defend against allied counterattacks.
Figure 1 also shows the actual German penetration compared to the German
plan. Clearly, the main attack made almost no progress. After the failure of
the main attack to break through, the Germans tried to shift their main effort
to the south. But they lacked sufficient fuel for this more lengthy advance and,
more importantly, had lost the time they needed to overcome a surprised but
swiftly reacting American army. Clearly, the American defenders who held the
northern shoulder were instrumental in defeating the German Army's last major
offensive during World War II.

SIXTH PANZER ARMY PLAN


Responsibility for conducting the main attack of the German offensive
belonged to Sixth Panzer Army. Commanded by SS-General Josef "Sepp" Dietrich,
a former butcher by trade and a fanatical Nazi, the Sixth Panzer Army was the

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strongest of the three armies participating in the offensive. It included nine


divisions in three corps: LXVII Armeekorps (AK), 326th and 246th Volksgrenadier
Divisions (VGD); I SS-Panzerkorps (PzK), 1st and 12th SS-Panzer Divisions, 12th
and 277th VGD, and 3rd Parachute Division; and 1I SS-PzK with 2d and 9th SSPanzer Divisions. For its main effort, Sixth Army planned that I SS-PzK would
break through along Rollbahns (Routes) C and D. North of the main attack, at
Monschau, LXVII AK's mission was to break through American lines and block any
thrust from the north (its bloody failure is not described in this narrative).
To exploit I SS-PzK's breakthrough, Dietrich held II SS-PzK in reserve.
To conduct its main attack, Sixth Panzer Army planned to use I SS-PzK's
infantry to break through the defending Americans and open the way for its
armored divisions to exploit towards the West.
In the north, 277th
Volksgrenadier Division (VGD) was to seize the twin village Rocherath-Krinkelt
to give 12th SS-PzD access to Route C. To the south, the 3rd Parachute and 12th
Volksgrenadier Divisions were to open Route 0 for 1st SS-PzD. Seizing these
roads was critical to German success. The hilly, forested terrain in the
Ardennes made cross country movement, particularly in the winter, difficult or
impossible. The German attack depended on quickly opening the roads to have any
chance of success. Sixth Amy's timetable allowed one day to break through,
another to clear the Hohes Venn high ground, reaching the Meuse on the third day,
and crossing on the fourth.

AMERICAN POSITIONS
Standing in the way of the German attack was the American 99th Infantry
Division, a new unit being seasoned in what was considered to be a quiet sector
of the front. Inserted in the 99th's sector, the veteran 2nd Infantry Division
was attacking toward the Roer dams. The 99th was stretched over a broad front
with no reserves. From north to south, its 395th, 393rd, and 394th regiments
defended the front. Because it was astride all three routes needed by 12th SSPanzer Division, the 394th would be hardest hit.

The 99th "Checkerboard" Division was a green unit, having been in Europe
only since 3 November. Being a new unit, the 99th had not had time to accumulate
the extra weapons, vehicles, and equipment commonly found in other units that had
been in action for a while. In addition, its attached tank destroyer battalion
had towed guns, and their lack of mobility was an especially severe problem in
the Ardennes. The Division was occupying a quiet sector of the northern Ardennes
to gain some experience before being committed to offensive operations. The 99th
Division's front stretched 19 miles, from Buchholz Station in the south to
Monschau in the north.
Incontrast to the 99th, the 2d Infantry Division was a very seasoned unit.
After the St. Lo breakout in late July, the 2d Division advanced into Brittany
with the VIII Corps. The division came to the Ardennes in the autumn of 1944 to
rest and absorb replacements. Following this respite, V Corps gave it the
mission of capturing the Roer River dams. The 2d Division launched this attack
on 13 December, meeting stiff resistance. By the beginning of the German
offensive three days later, the 2d Division had already suffered 1,200
casualties.
. Despite its losses, the 2d was still a formidable force, having collected
many extra automatic weapons and vehicles in earlier actions, as well as having
three self-propelled TD battalions attached to it rather than one, the normal
practice in the theater. One of its chief assets was the experienced 741st Tank
Battalion, which on 16 December had 47 Sherman tanks. The division was also
fortunate in having as its commander General Walter M. Robertson, a bold and
skillful commander who was largely responsible for the success of the American
defense around the Elsenborn Ridge. The presence of this seasoned unit in the
Rocherath area came as a complete surprise to the Germans.
In reserve in Belgium, the 1st Infantry Division joined V Corps at 2400 on
16 December to help plug the holes the Germans had torn in the US lines. The 1st
was arguably the most veteran unit in the US Army, having seen battle in North
Africa, Sicily, and Normandy. After fighting across France in July and August
1944, the division suffered heavy casualties in the battle to take Aachen during
September and October, and in the bloody fighting in the HOrtgen Forest in

November. Like the 2d Division, the Ist was sent to the Ardennes to recuperate
in early December, being short more than 3,300 men, most of them from the frontline combat elements.

THE FIGHT FOR KRINKELT-ROCHERATH


December 16, 1944:

Assault on the 99th

At 0530, the German attack opened with a heavy artillery barrage which
lasted until about 0700 (Figure 2) with German searchlights creating artificial
moonlight to aid their advance. Occupying a refused position at the left rear
of the regiment, 3/394 was probably the first unit to encounter the German
attack. At Buchholz Station, L Company had its breakfast interrupted by Germans
inmarch column and drove them back after a stiff fight at close quarters. To the
east, advancing units of the 12th VGD made their first encounter with 1/394 near
Losheimergraben, losing a self-propelled gun [Action 1]. But the 12 VGD was not
able to strike hard at the 1/394 until about noon, after a tortuous approach
march. The battalion held most of the company positions but was badly hurt;
regiment pulled units from the 3rd battalion to reinforce the depleted unit. On
the 1st battalion's right flank the German attack hit the 2/394 which repulsed
infantry and armor assaults with small arms and artillery [Action 2]. By mid
afternoon the battalion had stabilized its front.
At about 0730, on the division's right flank, the 277th VGD struck hard at
the 393rd regiment which defended its front with only two battalions (one
battalion was attached to the 395th). Third battalion in the north lost K
Company in the first rush and by 0930 was holding at the battalion CP with the
remaining two companies. South of 3rd battalion, a heavy German assault pushed
the 1/393 back 300 yards and destroyed most of two companies. Further, German
infantry began to infiltrate through a gap created between the two battalions.
To backstop the heavily pressed regiment, the 99th Division asked for and
received the 2nd Infantry's reserve, the 23rd Infantry Regiment. One battalion,
the 3/23, moved into a position east of Rocherath behind the 393rd.

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Ninety-ninth Division ordered another of 2nd Infantry's reserve


battalions, the 1/23, to move into positions previously prepared by the 99th
south of Hinningen. By nightfall the battalion was in place. The remaining
battalion of the 23rd regiment, the 2nd, remained north of Rocherath. South of
the 99th's sector, the Germans had broken through and could be seen moving west.
But at the end of the day, the 99th still held its line.
After waiting impatiently all day for the 12th VGD to break through the
394, the impetuous commander of Kamfqruooe Peioer of 1st SS Panzer commandeered
some paratroopers to conduct his own penetration. During the night, the
KamofaruDDe overran the defenders of Buchholz, which had been stripped of troops
to reinforce 1st Battalion. By 0500 on the 17th, Pelper began to advance on
Honsfeld.

December 17, 1944:

2nd Infantry Division Reinforces

In the south, the day began ominously when Peiper's battlegroup struck
Honsfeld just before dawn (Figure 3). Occupied by 99th Division rear echelon
troops and a variety of units moving to reinforce the front, the attack achieved
surprise and quickly overran the Americans [Actions 3-4]. Peiper then detoured
from route 0 to BQllingen in order to avoid the poor secondary road leading to
Moderscheid. The Americans at BOllingen, expecting the enemy to move north to
capture major supply dumps, were surprised when the Germans turned south from
B0llingen back toward route D. A small reconnaissance unit sent by Peiper to
B~tgenbach was stopped by an American roadblock.
Because of the now obvious seriousness of the German attack, the 2nd ID's
attack was canceled, and the division commander, MG Robertson, began moving units
south. Peiper's detour was a key to the 2nd ID's scheme for reinforcing the
99th. The threatened German advance from BUllingen might reach the twin villages
of Krinkelt-Rocherath and cut the line of supply and retreat of both 2nd and 99th
Is. Therefore, the first objective was to reinforce near Wirtzfeld to protect
the twin villages. As the remaining uncommitted regiments of the 2nd abandoned
their attack against Wahlerschied and began to move south, the lead unit, 9th
9

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Infantry was to move to positions south of Wirtzfeld while the trailing 38th
Infantry would defend the twin villages.
Small German units of infantry and armor reinforced this concern during the
morning by making forays toward the north from BOllingen.
With welcome
reinforcement from 1st Platoon, A Co., 801st TD Battalion, which had been in
position east of HOnningen, the 1/23 stopped these German advances [Actions 5-6].
In its sector, the 394th near Losheimergraben suffered a strong German
attack just after dawn. By noon, the town had fallen, and during the afternoon
the survivors of the regiment began withdrawing toward MOrringen. Later that
afternoon, the Germans finally turned their attention to the 1/23 south of
HOnningen, striking that unit at 1600. The Americans repulsed the attack but
lost most of Company B before withdrawing to Wirtzfeld during the night.
Early on the 17th, the tired 3/393 counterattacked west to clear its rear
and then east to regain the positions lost the previous day. By 1000, they
collided with an attacking German battalion, reinforced by tanks parceled out
from 12th SS to strengthen the attack. The Americans were forced to retreat
through the 3/23, and 1/393 fell back to a position abreast of the 3/23 by 1400.
The 3/393 had barely passed through American lines when the Germans struck hard
at the 3/23 [Actions 7-10], and by dark the shattered battalion had to withdraw.
This action isolated the 1/393, which withdrew cross country to Wirtzfeld the
following day. Wearily, the 3/393 moved forward again to defend Rocherath, and
at the end of the day still held the town.
General Robertson had spent his day shepherding the movement of his
division to the south. When the Germans attacked the 3/23, he recognized the
threat to his flank and diverted K company, 3/9 and then the entire 1/9 to back
up 3/23. By dusk, the 1/9 was in position in front of Rocherath, and the 1/38
established a defense east of Krinkelt (Action 20]. Both of these battalions
were reinforced by tanks and tank destroyers. During the night, German armor and
infantry launched a heavy but poorly coordinated attack against the villages.
Penetrating the infantry's defenses, the Germans were able to get men and tanks

11

into the towns. But after wild fighting during the night, the American defenders
managed to hunt down and eliminate the Germans.

December 18, 1944:

12th SS Panzer tries to break through

The hours before dawn at Rocherath-Krinkelt were ominously quiet as the


Americans sought to reorganize after the confused fighting during the night.
Since the 277 VGD had failed to break through and free the 12th SS to advance,
the Commander of the Hitler Ju gend Division decided to take the task for himself.
Just before light, the Germans began coordinated tank-infantry assaults against
the U.S. positions [Actfons 21-23] (Figure 4).
The 1/9 fought itself to
destruction while withstanding the German attack against Rocherath for nearly six
hours, enough time for the 2/38 to move into position and permit the battered 9th
infantrymen to withdraw [Actions 11-19]. During the day, the Germans again
managed to penetrate into the villages with tanks and infantry, but the Americans
eliminated them in close combat. After fighting all afternoon, the 2/38 still
held Rocherath [Actions 24-25].
At Krinkelt, German assaults also began Just before dawn. Though repulsing
the main attacks, the Americans could not prevent German tanks from penetrating
as far as the 1/38's command post in Krinkelt (Actions 28-30]. But at day's end,
the German armor was smoking and destroyed. During the night, German infiltrators continued to pressure both villages, but the Americans mopped them up by
dawn.
Failure to capture the twin villages after two days of heavy fighting
convinced the Germans that 12th SS Panzer would have to find another way to route
C. The division began shifting to the south and finally assembled a BOllingen,
days behind schedule, to begin its advance toward BOtgenbach. There it would
find the 1st Infantry Division in position.

12

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13

December 19-20, 1944:

Withdrawal to Elsenborn Ridge

For their part, the American mission of protecting the withdrawal of the
99th Infantry was fulfilled during the night of 18-19 December as the last units
of that division withdrew through the 2nd. With sharply weakened armor support,
German infantry continued their assault on the 19th (Actions 26-27] (Figure 5).
A rain of American artillery stopped most of the attacks dead in their tracks.
Although convinced it could hold the twin villages, 2nd ID had accomplished its
mission and ordered a withdrawal to Elsenborn ridge during the night. Beginning
at 1745, the 2nd Division units withdrew. By dawn on the 20th (Figure 6), both
the 99th and 2nd divisions occupied good defensive positions on the ridge from
which they easily repulsed residual German attacks in the days that followed.

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........

CHAPTER 2
ACTIONS FRON THE KRINKELT-ROCHERATH ENGAGEMENT
The combat actions described in this volume come from the defensive
actions of the American 99th Infantry and 2nd Infantry Divisions in December
1944 as they defended the routes needed by the German 12th SS-Panzer Division
in their attempted move toward Antwerp. The fighting in this volume occurred
around and in the twin villages of Krinkelt-Rocherath, Belgium. Historical
records contain sufficient information to isolate, in detail, a number of
distinct actions. For this volume, SAIC has focused on those actions which
involved towed antitank weapons, bazookas, or a mix of weapons where towed
weapons were part of the defensive. Table 1 summarizes these actions:
NUMBER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

TITLE
Assault Gun at Losheimergraben
The Sideshow
KG Peiper Reaches Honsfeld, Part 2
KG Peiper Reaches Honsfeld, Part 1
The Defense of H~nningen, Part 1
The Defense of Hfnningen, Part 2
The Guns Retreat
The Forest Battle
The Heroism of Sergeant McGarity
Last Stand of the 1/23d
First Blood at Lausdell
The Daisy Chain
Four Down
Lt. Melesnick Gets a Panzer
Jerry Can versus Panzer
The Private War of William Soderman, Part 1
The A&P Platoon Gets Two
Down the Hatch
The Private War of William Soderman, Part 2
From the Hip
Unstoppable Force, Part 1
Unstoppable Force, Part 2
Salazar's First Kill
Salazar's Second Kill
Night Disturbance
Teawork and Height Advantage
The Assist
Panthers Three and Four Knocked Out
The End of Panther Five's Saga

17

ACTION 1
Name: Assault Gun at Losheimergraben
Location: 1000 yards SE of Losheimergraben
Time: 0715 hours, 16 December 1944
The men of the 1/394th Infantry guarding the German-Belgian frontier
town of Losheimergraben were amazed at the intensity of the artillery barrage
which began falling on the town at 0530 on 16 December. Even the few veterans
of the Normandy Campaign who had transferred to the division admitted that it
was the heaviest they had ever seen.1 When it finally lifted around 0715, the
battalion commander, LtCol Robert H. Douglas, went to inspect his company
positions to find out how well they had weathered the barrage. A Co covered
the battalion right between the railroad and the Losheim-Losheimergraben
highway, overlooking Losheim from the slopes of the Eichelsberg. B Co, in the
center of the battalion position, lay astride the Losheim highway. To its
left, C Co covered the gap between the 1/394th and G Co of the 2/394th to the
NNE (Ffgure 7). In the B Co sector, three 57mm AT guns of the battalion AT
Platoon covered the highway against a German thrust from Losheim. Heavy
machine guns from D Co had been parceled out to cover the A and B Co fronts,
while the battalion's 81mm mortar platoon from D Co occupied dug-in positions
about 200 yards SE of the Losheimergraben crossroads, using a couple of the
outlying buildings of the settlement for shelter from the weather. The frontline troops of the 1/394th had strengthened their positions by felling trees,
planting mines, and stringing barbed wire across the front.2
As soon as the barrage lifted, the men of 8 Co were startled to see an
American Jeep, driven by Germans, approaching them up the hill from Losheim.
The Jeep halted before it reached the American line, literally under the nose
of one of the 57mm AT guns which was hidden about 50 meters north of the road
on the south slope of Hill 666. In the diffused glare of the spotlights which
the Germans behind the Westwall were bouncing off the low clouds, the gun crew
USA ITO C1t

cavanoo.

Intaview "99th I,

Krtnkett-Eocheratht The

Aidwen.

16-20 DOeser 19"", File #182

tL. fa. the Twin V1ttame,

18

p.22-23

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FIGURE 7. ASSAULT GUN AT LOSHEIMERGRABEN


19

b dd-

could clearly see the jeep and its occupants, but in their surprise and
uncertainty they hesitated to fire. Turning around, the jeep sped off back
down the slope and into Losheim. A few minutes later it reappeared, leading
what some accounts say was a tank. However, since the 12th Volksgrenadier
Division had no tanks attached to it,the vehicle was instead almost certainly
a sturmgeschQtz (StuG III 75mm self-propelled assault gun) belonging to the
division's organic lO12th StuG Co. 3 Postwar accounts by the commander of the
48th Gren Regt, Col Wilhelm Osterhold, confirm this supposition, and mention
that German infantry were riding on the sturmgeschtz; no such reference is
made in any of the American accounts of the incident.' The American AT gun
crew again let the jeep pass, but fired on the assault gun as it drew up in
front of their gun. The first round struck the vehicle in the right flank,
knocking off a track and immobilizing it. The second and third shots
penetrated the vehicle's starboard hull, with the third shot setting the
assault gun aflame. Some accounts say the only survivor of the crew was the
commander, a lieutenant, who was badly wounded and who staggered from the
wreck. Others say the entire crew bailed out, apparently unhurt, and began
firing small arms at the AT gun crew. Considering the scarcity of flank armor
on the StuG III (only 30mm)5 and the proximity of the AT gun when it fired,
the former outcome seems far more likely. The infantrymen of B Co, farther
up the road toward Losheimergraben, killed the occupants of the captured jeep
with small arms fire at the same time as the assault gun was destroyed.

SNaonatd,

A Tim for TriMets,

pp. 170-172; Parker, Note

from Nitter's Last Goble, pp. 16-17

Letter, osterhotd to ichard Byers, 6 Sep 1986, Enclosure 18 of 26, Fie #213
von Singer uad Ettertln, Germn Tanks of World Kar I,

20

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24

ACTION 2
Name: The Sideshow
Location: 1.5 km west of Neuhof, Germany
Time: 0830 hours, 16 December 1944
The initial German artillery barrage began hitting the positions of the
2/394th Infantry, in the woods along the International Highway west of
Udenbreth, at 0530 on 16 December. The men of the 2/394th had been sleeping
soundly in the log cabins which they had constructed for themselves, but as
the first shells fell they quickly sought shelter in the holes they had dug
outside their cabins. The barrage lasted for 90 minutes and concentrated on
the battalion's left flank, from about midway in the F Co sector, north across
E Co's area, and continuing north into the 393d Infantry's sector (Figure 8).
E Co suffered 12-15 casualties from the bombardment, but F and G Cos were not
significantly damaged. The GIs in their covered foxholes were not terribly
concerned about the Intensity of the German barrage, believing it to be merely
a reaction to the attack of the 2d 10 to the north.6
The area occupied by the 2/394th was part of the attack sector assigned
to the 277th Volksgrenadier Division, a green unit recently reconstructed from
two shattered divisions and composed largely of volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans
from outside Germany) and Alsatians. The division was reputed to have a "poor
fighting spirit." Of the division's two forward regiments, the 989th Grenadier
Regiment, reinforced by a Pionier company and a battalion of jagdpanzers
(self-propelled tank destroyers), was to attack out of Hollerath and seize
Rocherath, securing Rollbahn A for elements of the 12th SS-Panzer Division.
The 990th Gren Regt, supported by a company of fusiliers and a company of
Pioniers, assembled around Udenbreth with the intention of securing the
Weisserstein Trail and thus opening a second route to Krinkelt-Rocherath. The
main body of this force was scheduled to strike to the north of the 2/394th

USA ITO COWbot IntfMvie,

"9th 10, Ardinme,

16-20 Doc 194K , Ff e #182

25

..
. ..
..

a3arm

........

.......

L..

....

FIUR 8.TESDSO
I2

..

Inf, in the zone of the 1/393d. The only force remaining to the 277th VGD
commander, Col Wilhelm Viebig, with which to attack the 2/394th was the
fusilier company attached to the 990th Gren Regt, which he ordered to advance
as soon as the artillery bombardment lifted.
However, the fusiliers'
inexperience showed itself in their failure to follow up the barrage closely
enough. The GIs of the 2/394th saw the Germans advancing through the thick
mist at about 0735, more than 30 minutes after the last German shells fell.
American planning paid off as the GIs called down an intense artillery fire
which forced the fusiliers to go to ground even before they could reach the
forest's edge. They vainly tried to continue their advance until about 0800,
but could not expose themselves without being cut to pieces by the accurate
US artillery and automatic weapons fire.8
Seeing his attack in this sector falter, around 0830 Col Viebig sent
forward three armored vehicles and about a platoon of infantry under a
smokescreen in an attempt to regain the initiative. Since the only other
armored vehicles in the 277th VGD belonged to the 277th PzJg Bn, which was
attacking with the 989th Gren Regt farther north, these vehicles must have
been Jagdpanzer 38t Hetzers of the 1277th Sturmgeschitz Company, which had
four vehicles when the attack began." The smokescreen allowed the Hetzers and
their fusilier escort to enter the woods and approach "to within hand-grenade
distance" of the American positions without being spotted. As they reached
the American foxhole line, T/Sgt Fred Wallace of G Co, 2/394th Inf, called the
99th 10's general support artillery battalion and requested fire on his own
position in order to stop the German advance. The response from the artillery
was immediate and devastating, as a heavy concentration of 155mm shells fell
among the advancing Germans. Wallace and his men were spared the effects of
the barrage by the overhead log cover on their foxholes and dugouts. The
Hetzers, however, quickly reversed direction and fled back into Neuhof, while

?Neyer,

kria*,dafihte l
A12.

-Pntardi

ieyon "Nitterhumnd", p. 415, FIto 0198

SUSA ITO Cbt Int,

99Ms I0, Ardmens, 16-20 Oe 19m, F1t 9182; Cole, The Arclavmms The Battle of
p.al
the.NOi, p.82; Cavmoh, Krlnkott-Ioderathl The BattLe for the Twin Vilttae,

Parker, Note for 'Mlllers Last IsAteo,


i,p. 127

p.17; van Snger snd ItterLIn, Germn Tanks of World Vat

27

the fusiliers made another futile attempt to dislodge the Americans from their
positions. By about 0900, the men of G Co had killed or captured all the
remaining Germans in the area, and the threat to the 2/394th was over.
Jubilant and proud of their performance in repulsing the German attack, the
men of the 2/394th did not know that their action was Just a sideshow, that
the main German attacks were being made to their left and right, and that soon
they would occupy a salient with only tenuous communication to the rear.
Worse still, the battalion commander had been completely unnerved by the
German barrage and attack, and would spend the rest of the day cringing in one
of the log cabins with his head between his knees.10

to

USA ITO Cbt Int,

9th ID in the Arduwns, 16-20 Doc 1944" Fito

28

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ACTIONS 3-4
Nam: KG Pelper Reaches Honsfeld
Location: Honsfeld, Belgium
Time: 0500 hours, 17 December 1944
SS-LtCol Joachim Peiper, commander of the kampfgruppe (battlegroup) of
the 1st SS-Panzer Division which bore his name, was growing impatient. The
mission of the 12th Volksgrenadier Division had been to punch a hole through
the American lines at Losheimergraben, allowing Peiper's armored column to
advance into the Americans' rear areas along the road from Losheimergraben
through BOllingen to Malmddy.'1 This was to have been accomplished in the
first few hours of the 16 December attack, yet almost 24 hours later Peiper's
tanks were still awaiting the signal to move out. Finally, around 0300 on the
17th, the frustrated Peiper ordered his panzers and panzergrenadiers to take
to the road, accompanied by a battalion of paratroopers from the 3d
FallschirmjlIger Division whom Peiper had attached to his force. Since the
volksgrenadiers were apparently unequal to the task, Peiper was determined to
force his own breakthrough to the Meuse. The columns moved out from the
vicinity of Buchholz Farm and Lanzerath, where they had spent the night, down
the narrow forest road toward Honsfeld. They met almost no resistance,
contrary to their expectations, except from two platoons of K Co, 3/394th
Infantry, around Buchholz Farm, 12 but this was quickly overcome. Before
long, the leading vehicles of the force (two Mk V Panther tanks and three
armored half-tracks carrying SS-panzergrenadiers) emerged from the woods just
where the road they were on merged with another which was crowded with
American vehicles retreating toward Honsfeld. Some of these vehicles belonged
to the 18th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, which until the day before had
maintained the tenuous connection between the 99th ID and the 106th ID to the
south by patrolling the Losheim Gap at two-hour intervals. Rather than
opening fire on the hapless American vehicles, the Germans quietly joined this
column, their identity hidden by the darkness, fog, and confusion of the Americans.
11Meyer, Krieeseschichte der 12.
12

I-IrPmerdivslan

Naconatd, A Tim for Trmmts, p.199

32

ItteriumenAd,

p.415, Fite 0198

The 2d Platoon of A Company, 801st Tank Destroyer Battalion, consisted


of three towed 3-inch guns and the attendant vehicles and crews. Two of these
guns were posted about half a kilometer southeast of Honsfeld to cover the
road from Lanzerath. The third gun, about 700 meters to the southwest,
guarded the road that ran from Holzheim north through the forest belt known
as the Schirr Busch to Honsfeld (Figure 9). At around 0400, the crews of the
two eastern guns reported to the A Co command post that a US M3 light tank
driven by Germans had gotten past them, but that the platoon leader and two
other men had taken a bazooka and set off to intercept and destroy the tank.
As these men reached the Honsfeld-Lanzerath road they saw a whole convoy of
German tanks, half-tracks, and other vehicles, all following the captured US
tank toward Honsfeld.
They also observed that the crew of the M3 were
speaking English.13 The three GIs hid by the side of the road as the convoy
halted for a few moments, allowing the Americans to distinguish German
infantry riding on the decks of the panzers. Soon the column started forward
again, and the three Americans made their way back to their two guns. When
he had returned to his platoon position, the 2d Plt leader reported by radio
to the Company CP what they had seen, then with his two men set out for the
platoon command post.
Meanwhile, as the vanguard of KG Peiper approached the stream which
their road crossed before entering Honsfeld, they passed a lone US armored car
on the side of the road. This armored car was commanded by Sgt George Creel
of A Troop, 32d Cav Recon Sqdn, whose unit had moved to Honsfeld the night
before in order to get out of the way of strong German units advancing through
the Losheim Gap. Creel and his crew had been sent to outpost the road from
Lanzerath by their troop commander, ILt Robert B. Reppa, who wanted them to
give warning if the Germans approached. All night on 16-17 December, Creel
and his men had seen only American vehicles, some singly and some travelling
13 801t

TO In AIM, Deeaber 1944, File


t166.

This my indicate that the tank was not captured at at ,

but was just another retreating Ameriean vehicle. This would be consistent with German accounts which say
they just insinuated their panters and half-tracks into the American vehicle column. However, it does raise
the question of why the TO gun crew thought the US tank was being operated by Germans, since it is not
mentioned in the 801st TO In AAR that the crew was speaking German, and the fog and darkness would almost

certainty have prevented the TO crews from mking out uniform details. On the other hand, it is known that

attached to Peiperts kiru


wes a 700-mn detachment from Skorteny's coindo unit with twelve Hk V
Panthers crudely disguised to look tke Ihermens (MacoWontd, p.196; he probably meant they were disguised
to took like 1-lOs), a ruse dich could work only on a dark and foggy night or at tong range.

33

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KG...PE.RECHESH.NFEL
FIGURE....
4. ..
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in groups, heading toward Honsfeld to get away from the German advance. But
now, around 0500, they were astonished to see the giant Panther tanks and
half-tracks full of German infantry passing casually by them, guided through
the fog by a soldier walking ahead of the lead vehicle carrying a flashlight.
Recovering from his shock, Creel moved to fire the armored car's small cannon
at the Germans, but found that his shots would be blocked by a trailer that
the car was towing. With Peiper's column stretched out before and behind
them, Creel and his crew realized the futility of resistance and abandoned
their vehicle in an (ultimately unsuccessful) attempt to get into Honsfeld on
foot to warn Lt. Reppa.
By now the lead panzers had reached the small stream which flowed south
of Honsfeld, turning northeast to empty into the Warche River. Behind the
stream was a thin line of American infantry, hastily established the previous
evening by the American captain in charge of the 99th ID rest center in
Honsfeld and increased to about company strength by the constant arrival of
stragglers throughout the night. The infantry opened fire on the approaching
Panthers with their small arms, and their harmless shots were quickly answered
by a hail of fire from the panzers and the grenadiers following in the halftracks. KG Pelper's flak tanks (37m guns on Mk IV chassis) and flak wagons
(half-tracks mounting quadruple 20m antiaircraft guns, which had been used
very effectively against the American defenders at Buchholz Station) may also
have had a hand in suppressing the American resistance. After only about a
minute, the US line began to crumble, the GIs running for the shelter of the
buildings in Honsfeld. As they ran, they passed the two towed 3-inch guns
belonging to the 3d Plt of A Co, 801st TO Bn, which had been set up around
1900 the night before among the houses at the edge of town after the platoon
had pulled back from its position in the woods covering the road between
Buchholz Station and Lanzerath. There were also two platoons of towed 3-inch
TOs from the 612th TD Bn in Honsfeld, their crews asleep in some houses in the
village, but their presence in Honsfeld was unplanned (they were en route to
somewhere else and had just stopped for the night) and, consequently, they
were not in position to fire on the Germans.

35

The 3d Plt guns, on the edge of the village on the east side of the
road, heard the sound of tanks moving up the road to their right. A security
patrol reported that the tanks were M3 light tanks, which was not unexpected,
because a few hours earlier, at 0030, an officer from the 18th Cav Rcn Sqdn
had informed one of the 801st's Recon Platoon section leaders that he would
be bringing his tanks through Honsfeld that morning and said that the TO men
should be careful not to fire on them. Soon, however, a second report from
the security patrol said that they could hear English and German being spoken
and that German Mk IV panzers were behind the M3 tanks. Immediately the 3d
Plt commander ordered his crews to swing their guns to the right to fire on
the German column, but the panzergrenadiers and paratroopers with Peiper's
vehicles heard this activity and began firing at the TO crews, pinning them
down before they could finish realigning their guns. As the US gunners
returned fire with their few inherent small arms, the German tanks swung their
turrets to bear and fired their main guns, damaging the 3-inch guns and
wounding several of the crewmen. The 3d Plt commander ordered his men,
outnumbered, outgunned, and unsupported, to fall back to the railroad track
that ran through the northeast edge of Honsfeld. This they did, with each of
the two crews alternately pulling back and then stopping to cover the
withdrawal of the other. After they had reached the comparative safety of the
railway cut, the 3d Plt leader ordered the two gun sergeants to lead their
crews back to the A Co CP, across the Warche River on a hillside west of
HOnningen. [Action 4]
While this was happening, other elements of KG Peiper were attacking the
2d Plt guns southeast of the village. The 2d Platoon commander and his two
aides, on their way back to the platoon CP after identifying the German
column, encountered a German patrol which had infiltrated the area, but the
night was so dark and the visibility so limited by fog that the three were
able to safely evade the Germans. As he finally reached his CP, the platoon
leader could hear the sounds of mortar rounds and small arms fire from the
direction of his guns. Doubling back, he returned to the platoon position
Just in time to see German infantry advancing from the woods to the south,
firing their weapons and throwing hand grenades. The Americans could also
hear German tanks approaching, but could not see them in the darkness. The
36

2d Plt leader was surprised and dismayed, because the direction from which
this attack came was where infantry of the 99th ID was supposed to have been,
and his guns were otherwise unsupported. The platoon leader ordered the two
guns to be destroyed and the crews to head for the company CP outside
H~nningen.14 [Action 3]
With American resistance inand around Honsfeld quickly evaporating, the
soldiers of KG Pelper now moved quickly into Honsfeld. The groggy crews of
the 612th TD Bn, awakened by the sound of gunfire just down the street from
their bivouacs, tried gamely to fire their guns at the German vehicles out of
the alleys in which they were parked, even though the guns were still limbered
for towing and attached to their half-tracks. The 1st Plt, B Co, of the 612th
accounted for two "self-propelled AT guns" (possibly PzJg IVs, of which there
were 28 in 1st SS-PzD) 15, and 2d Pit, B Co, knocked out one tank, type
unknown but probably either a Mk IV or Nk V Panther. These two platoons were
quickly overrun by the German infantry. The 1st Rcn Plt of the 612th's HQ
Company destroyed three German "scout cars or half-tracks" before being
surrounded and overwhelmed by the SS-panzergrenadiers.1 a While the panzers
were at a disadvantage in the narrow streets of the village, unable to
traverse their turrets very far, the American crews had no small arms with
which to fight off the determined paratroopers and SS men. As is related in
other accounts, the atrocities which the Germans committed in Honsfeld against
their American prisoners and against Belgian civilians set the tone for rest
of the brutal advance of KG Pelper along the northern shoulder of the Bulge,
including the notorious Malmddy massacre a few hours later.

Most of the detals of these two actions were taken from the 801st TO In After Action Report

Oeceser 1944 (Fle 016), with supplementat asteri

from NMcDonald, A Tim for irumets, pp. 198-202.

is G[iedens for 1st $S-PiD *Lelbetanderte Adolf Nittern, RN 10/312, Bundesarkiv


Freiburg
is 612th To In A,

Doec 1944, Fire 922

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ACTIONS 5-6
Nan: The Defense of HOnningen
Location: HOnningen, Belgium
Tim: 17 December 1944
The American line in the 99th Division zone continued to disintegrate
as the morning of 17 December wore on. Survivors of the 393d Inf withdrew
through the Krinkelter Wald, passing through the new positions of the 3/23d
Inf who had Just arrived at the Ruppenvenn to back them up. The 394th Inf,
or what was left of it, was retreating from its positions around
Losheimergraben and in the woods to the north (Figure 10), trying to reach the
village of MOrringen where the regimental commander, Col Don Riley, hoped to
be able to reorganize his battered and exhausted troops. Right on Riley's
heels were the equally battered and exhausted grenadiers of the 48th Gren
Regt, who had suffered tremendous losses pushing Riley's men back this far.
In pursuit of the 394th Inf, the grenadiers stopped to regroup when they broke
out of the forest and onto the high ground east and southeast of Morringen.
Before they could continue their advance, they had to eliminate a new point
of resistance--the village of HOnningen, which had marked the southern end of
the V Corps line in the area since the breakthrough of KG Peiper at Honsfeld
and BOllingen earlier in the morning. In fact, by about 1000, Honningen was
surrounded on three sides--east, south, and west--by German-held territory,
making it a very precarious and potentially disastrous position for any unit
that tried to hold it.
That task fell to the 1st Bn of the 23d Inf Regt, formerly the division
reserve of the 2d ID but attached to the 394th Inf since about 2330 the
previous night. The men of the 1/23d had loaded onto trucks at their bivouac
at Camp Elsenborn for the midnight drive to HOnningen, their mission being to
occupy "secondary defensive positions'"17 in support of the 394th Inf. Now,
10 hours later, their defense of the little hilltop village of Honningen would
determine whether or not the Germans could roll up the US flank on the
17USA

ETO 2d I

Coat Inteview

mettte of the lutge, 17-20 Doe 19M,

44

Fit* 0173

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FIGURE 10.

THE DEFENSE OF HUNNINGEN


45

northern shoulder of the Ardennes penetration.


This defense was a large task for a single battalion, especially on so
short notice. The battalion commander, LtCol John H. Hightower--"a great hulk
of a man'"1 --had his men begin digging in as soon as they detrucked, and by
0600 this was largely completed. C Company held the battalion's left in a
great arc extending from the slopes of the Kaltenburgsknipp hill to the east
edge of Hlnningen itself, while 8 Co dug in just outside the southern edge of
the village, on the top of the hill overlooking the Warche River. The total
frontage covered by B Co was 1500-1700 yards; C Co's was about 1800 yards.
[See Figure 10] These were large frontages for such small units; B Co averaged
25-30 yards between foxholes.19 "A Company, in a semi-reserve position, had
one platoon defending Hinningen from the west, another platoon east of the
town covering a gap in B Co's line, and a third platoon farther north on the
southern edge of Marringen." 2 From their position atop Hill 619, the 1/23d
could hear, and occasionally catch a glimpse of, the tail end of KG Peiper
moving northwest along the Honsfeld-BOllingen road throughout the morning, but
the thick fog over the river prevented them from calling down artillery on the
enemy column. Nevertheless, one section of towed 3-Inch guns from 1st
Platoon, A Co, of the 801st TO Bn had been ordered to Hinningen at daylight
on the 17th with orders to interdict the Honsfeld-BOllingen road, and the crew
had set up on the west slope of Hill 619 facing the south. 21 They were
determined to exact some sort of toll on the Germans, so they opened up on the
column across the river at a range of about 1000 meters as soon as there was
enough light for them to see by, about 0700. According to one source, the gun
knocked out four Mk IV tanks and one half-track with -hese long-range flank
shots. 22 [Action 5] As a result, however, the German tanks, possibly aided
by their artillery, began firing back at the gun, and the resulting explosions
Is McDonald.

A Tim for Tnamets, p.386

USA ITO 2d ID c1bet Intervi.,


2

USA ITO 2d ID Corle

werlmn

reekthroughm , File

Interviews, nettte of the lulge, 17-2o Doe

801st YOon An, Dec 19", FILe 209


n 801st To

176

n AMI. Doe 19", Fire


t209

46

i-,*

File #173

wounded the TO platoon leader and kept the crew suppressed. Intermittent
artillery fell on the 1/23d's positions around HOnningen for the rest of the
morning.
At around 1030, B Co of the 1/23d reported German vehicles gathering at
the edge of the rectangular spur of woods which jutted out from the Buchholz
Forst, an area known as the Bield. They may have been assembling for an
attack against Hlnningen, but more likely they were seeking cover from the
American P-47 fighter-bombers which were pounding the Honsfeld-BOllingen road
from time to time. 23 A pair of towed 3-inch guns from the 801st TD Bn, who
had also escaped from KG Peiper in Honsfeld that morning, happened to be set
up in the area of 3d Plt, B Co, overlooking the Bield, about 800 yards away.
Despite the fog and the cover of the woods, one of the two guns opened fire
on the vehicles, and in six shots it scored five direct hits and destroyed
four of the twelve vehicles. The remaining eight quickly withdrew further
into the trees to escape the murderous TD fire. [Action 6]
The exact type and origin of these twelve vehicles is something of a
mystery. Later secondary accounts label them as Mk IV panzers, although there
is no direct evidence in the primary sources to support this claim.24 Since
no tanks (in the sense of turreted, tracked armored vehicles with largecaliber guns) were attached to either the 12th VGD or the 277th VGD, then if
these really were Mk IVs, they would have had to come from one of the two SS
panzer divisions of I SS-Panzer Korps. The 12th SS-PzD was yet to be
committed to the battle, and even then not in this sector but several miles
north in the forest along the Schwarzenbruch and Weisserstein Trails.
Elements of KG Peiper of the 1st SS-PzD were still in the area, but if these
dozen 'tanks' came from that unit, they were considerably off course. 25 The
Bield was in the zone of the 12th VGD, which had only one unit of armored
n Cole, The Arden, p.94; USA ETO 2d I

Combat interviews,

lattLe of the Bulge,

17-2- Dec 1944, File

173
24Comare US ITO 2d II Combt Interview,
*twelve tanks and an unknown number of infantry" with Cote,
p.94 *twelve IskIV tanks had appeared southeast of
mfkuiingen" and Cavaneh, pp. 5 6 -57 "twelve Nk IV Panther
ie
tanks'.
26The

min body of KO Pefier w

at that time centered around the vlttlaes


of

7-9 km to the met.

47

Nmderscheid and Schoppen.

vehicles attached to it on the 17th: the 12th Panzerjiger Abteilung, whose


lO12th StuG Co had had only six battleworthy StuG III assault guns available
when the attack started on the 16th. Two or three of those had since been
knocked out in the attacks on Losheimergraben, so it seems unlikely that the
dozen vehicles assembling in the Bield were from that unit. The alternative
is that these were not "tanks" at all, but some other sort of large vehicle.
They may have been flakpanzers (37m AA guns on M4k IV tank chassis) or flak
wagons (quadruple 20mm AA guns mounted on half-tracks) which could have come
from the 12th VGD's organic flak unit, or perhaps from the 6th Pz Army's flak
units, which are known to have been in the general vicinity. Given the poor
visibility conditions, what with the fog, the woods, and the American gunners
facing southeast in the general direction of the rising sun, and knowing that
large German armored forces were in the area at the time, it is not impossible
that they mistook the vehicles in the woods for something more threatening
than they really were.

48

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ACTIONS 7-10
Name: The Forest Battle
Location: Krinkelter Wald, Belgium
Tim: 16-17 December 1944
The failure of the 989th Grenadier Regiment to break completely through
the American lines west of Hollerath on 16 December posed a serious threat to
the 6th PzArmy's timetable. The grenadiers had followed the preliminary
artillery barrage very closely, and achieved a greater measure of tactical
surprise than perhaps any other German unit on the entire Ardennes front.
Their initial attack had completely wiped out two platoons of K Co, 3/393d
Infantry, which were blocking access to the Schwarzenbruch Trail. This trail
was one of only two routes usable by tanks that penetrated the Krinkelter
Wald, the forest between the Westwall and the twin villages of KrinkeltRocherath, and itwas vital for the 12th SS-PzD's mission of seizing Rollbahns
A and B and advancing to the Meuse. As morning turned into afternoon,
however, the Americans halted their retreat through the forest as LtCol Jack.
G. Allen, commander of the 3/393d, established an all-around defense,
centered on his battalion command post in the heart of the forest, which
stopped the German infantry cold. Even the commitment of a battalion of 12th
SS-PzD's panzergrenadiers, the I Bn of the 25th SS-PzGren Regt under SS-Capt
Alfons Ott" reinforced by a company of Pioniers and a company of towed
howitzers, could not dislodge the Americans. By afternoon, the Germans had
penetrated no farther than the point where the Schwarzenbruch Trail crossed
over the Jans-Bach creek. There, the oncoming darkness and the exhaustion of
the German troops, particularly those of the 277th VGD, forced a halt to their
advance, less than four kilometers from their starting positions (Figure 11).
The German infantry had suffered very heavy losses, especially among the
officers and NCO's who had to lead their green and unmotivated troops by
example from the front. "7 That night, while the men of the surrounded 3/393d
struggled to keep warm in their hastily-dug foxholes in the center of the
Ner, Kriesmsnichfchtm lr 12. 31-Pmzerdfvpilon "Nttuamuln* p.417-418. Fire 0198
Neyer, opet, p.416, File
tol98

58

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FIGURE 11.

..

THE FOREST BATTLE


59

. ......

forest, KG Oller of the 12th SS-PzD moved forward. This kampfgruppe included
the 12th SS-PzJg Bn, with 22 PzJg IV/48s; the headquarters of the 25th SSPzGren Regt and two battalions (1I and III) of that regiment; a towed flak
company; the II Bn of the 12th SS-Arty Regt with 105mm howitzers; and a
company of Pioniers.2'
Like its sister division, the 1st SS-PzD,
"Hitlerjugend" would be forced to create its own breakthrough in order to
reach the Meuse.
While the Germans were marshalling their strength for the next day's
attack, the Americans on the other side of the forest scrambled to establish
another defense line in front of the Germans at the west edge of the woods.
Since there were only two roads that passed through the dense woods, and since
they intersected at the west side of the forest at a place known locally as
the Ruppenvenn, this seemed to Gen Robertson of the 2d ID to be the most
logical place to block the German advance. The only unit available for this
task was the 3/23d Inf, part of the 2d ID's reserve for the Wahlerscheid
attack. As soon as the situation in the Krinkelter Wald became clear at the
2d ID headquarters, Gen Roberts ordered the 3/23d out of its barracks at Camp
Elsenborn and onto trucks bound for the Ruppenvenn. They arrived at that
place at about 1630 hours on the 16th, just as the winter sun was setting
behind them. I Co moved a few hundred yards down the Schwarzenbruch Trail and
established a roadblock. They knew that the remnants of the 3/393d were
somewhere in the dark woods in front of them; they knew the Germans were there
too. L Co dug in on the battalion right, covering the Weisserstein Trail.
K Co filled in the gap between them, and blocked the exit from the forest.29
All three companies were stretched thin, and the thick woods made it almost
impossible for them to coordinate their positions or activities. To make
matters worse, "...[the] battalion was none too well prepared for defense,
having arrived with no mines and very little ammunition.
Trucks bringing

Pattud, The

the latt.e
le:

Then en

Now,

p.91; Neyer, ccL,

USA ITO 2d 10 Coat interview, NGvmn reakthrough", FILe 176

60

p.420, FiLe 0198

amunition forward found the road between B~llingen and Krlnkelt barred
by the
Germans and never reached the battalion." 3
On the extreme left of the 3/23d's position, pointing like a finger down
the trail at the German penetration, was I Co's 1st Platoon, commanded
by ILt
Long H. Goffigon. 1st Plt occupied a line of previously-dug foxholes
which
straddled the trail. Some of those holes even had overhead log cover,
but
"there were not enough holes for the entire platoon and the crews of the
two
heavy machine guns that arrived later..." 31 Those men of 1st
Plt unlucky

enough to have to dig their own foxholes found it a daunting task, equipped
as they were with only personal entrenching tools to use against the
hardfrozen soil. A load of picks and shovels, along with some rifle and machine
gun ammunition, finally arrived at the company by a roundabout route at
about
2100, but this did little to alleviate either problem, ammunition or
cover.
In addition, Lt Goffigon realized that his 35-man platoon and two machine
gun
crews were occupying a position whose left flank hung in the air and
was
directly athwart the only route through the forest that the German force
in
the northern part of the forest could use to get to the twin villages.
Whether that force would contain tanks or not Goffigon did not know, but
if it did the prospects of 1st Platoon's holding its position were not bright.
As mentioned previously, the 3/23d had left its mines behind at Camp Elsenborn
in its haste to move to the Ruppenvenn (this was a calculated decision,
not
an oversight). In addition, in the entire battalion there were only
seven
bazookas with three rounds apiece.32 When Goffigon's platoon had occupied
its position early in the evening, "there were two 57mm AT guns from the
393d
Infantry [there already], but sometime during the night the crews of those
two
guns hitched up and slipped away. " ' [Action 7]

Cote, The Ardomut The lttte


1

NecOomtd, A Tim For TIMta,


USA ETO 2d I
3NecOonetd,

of the luL.-,

p.99

p.375

Camet Intemian, "Germn BreakthrOlhl,


File S17T

glJ,

p. 375

61

Upon their arrival, the men of the 3/23d had been told that their
mission, come daylight on the 17th, would be to attack to the east to relieve
the surrounded 3/393d in the Krinkelter Wald and to help that battalion
reestablish its former positions along the International Highway.34 However,
radio communication with the surrounded battalion was regained during the
night, and Col Allen said his situation had stabilized, so the 3/23d's mission
was altered to that of merely occupying back-up positions. (The fact that the
Americans in the Krinkelter Wald, a force of less than battalion strength,
thought they had the situation under control when in fact they were surrounded
by the equivalent of three German battalions reinforced by armor, is a classic
example of the fog of war.)
As the cold night wore on, German artillery began a steady pounding of
the Ruppenvenn crossroads, probably firing at map coordinates since there was
no way for them to know that the 3/23d had moved into the area. They may have
been trying to interdict any elements of the 3/393d attempting to infiltrate
through the woods back to Krinkelt-Rocherath. Most of the rounds fell in the
K Co area, but no casualties were recorded.35
Before dawn, a few stragglers from the 3/393d Inf began arriving at the
3/23d position, trying to get out of the forest before the Germans could renew
their attack. By this time, Col Allen's force numbered no more than 475
effective.'
Around 0730, just before sunrise, a platoon of two Sherman
tanks from C Co, 741st Tk Bn, commanded by lit Victor Miller, arrived at the
Ruppenvenn and placed themselves at the 3/23d's disposal. They were directed
to positions Just behind Lt Goffigon's 1st Platoon line.37
At 0800, Col Allen's 3/393d launched a counterattack to the west to
clear the Schwarzenbruch Trail and reopen their line of communication with the

34

Ned,

36USA

34

*a et,

p.375

ETO 2d 10 Comt Interview,

Patud, ao.

37aNeconeld,

it,

cct,

oGerman Breekthrough", FiLe #176

p. 9 2

p.376; 741st Tk in AAR. DeC 196, Fite #211

62

3/23d. The Germans were surprised by the direction of the attack and the
Americans drove them off the Trail. As the GIs turned back east to restore
their previous day's positions, however, they collided with KG I'ller's
renewed attack, consisting of a battalion of the 277th VGD, the 11/25th SSPzGren Regt, and a platoon of five PzJg IV/48s from III Platoon, 2d SS-PzJg
Kp. 3" This was at about 1000. The lead jagdpanzer rolled down the trail
toward the 3/393d's CP, but American artillery fire forced its infantry escort
to seek cover. Undeterred, the jagdpanzer continued to the vicinity of the
M Co CP, about 200 yards northwest of the battalion CP, but without its
infantry protection itwas vulnerable to American close combat weapons. Soon,
one of the four US bazooka teams in the area, firing from a ditch at the side
of the trail, immobilized the vehicle by hitting one of its tracks. [Action
8] At least some of the jagdpanzer's weapons were still functional, however,
for it continued to fire its machine guns at the American infantry in the
area, pinning them down and allowing the grenadiers to move closer. Before
long, the remaining four jagdpanzers of the platoon approached down the trail
from Hollerath. One of the GIs from L Co, Sgt Vernon McGarity, who had been
wounded in the previous day's fighting,3' snatched up a bazooka and quickly
knocked out the leading jagdpanzer while his squad drove off the accompanying
SS-panzergrenadiers. The remaining three vehicles withdrew, abandoning the
now-blocked trail in order to work their way forward via the narrow tracks and
firebreaks that criss-crossed the area. [Action 9]
Although the armored threat had temporarily subsided, the German
infantry were still swarming forward wherever possible. To support their
advance, the grenadiers brought up one of the towed howitzers of 13th
Kompanie, 25th SS-PzGren Regt. Sgt McGarity, after pulling a wounded comrade
to safety, directed the small arms fire of his squad onto the position of this
howitzer, eliminating it before it could be used. By now his men were running
low on ammunition, so McGarity ran to retrieve more rounds from an ammunition
hole nearby. In so doing he discovered that some of the SS-panzergrenadiers
had worked around behind his squad's position and set up a machine gun,
Pattud, o iL,
SCaveanegh,

m..

p.92; Covnegh, an .t, p.59-61; Meyer, cc cit, p.22


pp.32-33

63

cutting off their only escape route. "In a mad rage, "4 McGarity singlehandedly killed the machine gun crew with his rifle, and for a while he and
his men fought off all German attempts to reman the gun. Eventually, however,
the Americans ran out of ammunition and were captured.
By 1030 the remaining three jagdpanzers and large numbers of German
infantry were working their way around behind the 3/393d. His resistance
weakening as more of his men were hit or ran out of ammunition, Col Allen
began pulling his group back to the west. More German reinforcements, in the
form of.the 111/25th SS-PzGren Regt and three more companies of jagdpanzers
from the 12th SS-PzJg Bn, were funneling down the Schwarzenbruch Trail to add
their weight to the assault. It began to look as if the 3/393d might be
crushed before it could reach the 3/23d's line. Around 1100, all the wounded
that would fit were loaded onto the few remaining vehicles and the 3/393d
began to retreat toward Rocherath.
About two kilometers to the west, the men of the 3/23d could hear the
battle raging in the forest. Before long they could hear the 3/393d convoy
approaching, jeep-mounted machine guns spraying the woods on either side of
the trail to minimize German interference with the withdrawal. Soon the first
vehicles reached Lt Goffigon's 1st Plt, I Co. As they passed through the
line, the men of the 3/393d gave the 2d ID men the little ammunition they had
left (mostly small arms, few bazooka rounds or grenades). 1 Only two men
stayed to fight with the 3/23d; the rest continued withdrawing to the rally
point near the Lausdell crossroads. As Charles MacDonald, the captain in
command of I Co, put it, "To everybody in the 3/23d, it was obvious that the
Germans would be close behind the withdrawing column. How long the battalion
could hold; how long its ammunition would last; and how well two Shermans
might deal with accompanying German tanks--on all those factors might depend
the fate of those men of the 2d Division who were beginning to withdraw
through the forest from Wahlerscheid to the twin villages and Wirtzfeld.
Indeed, the fate of everybody in the 2d and 99th Divisions might well depend
Cavangh, oncit, p9.59-61
41 USA ITO Comaet

Interview,

"Grmn Breekthrough,

64

Fie 0176

on how long the 3/23d could hold--and when it got right down to it,upon how
long Lt Goffigon and the men of 1st Plt, I Co, could hang on... si42
To help prepare for the German attack, Capt MacDonald of I Co ordered
Lt Miller's Shermans to cover a road junction about 500 yards to the north.
Shortly thereafter, however, Lt Miller pulled his tanks back toward the
Ruppenvenn, into the space between K and I Companies (He told Lt Goffigon that
this was in order to obtain better firing positions). This left Goffigon's
platoon entirely without anti-tank support except for its one bazooka and
three rockets.4
By noon, no more troops from the 3/393d were arriving at the 3/23d's
lines. Lt Goffigon could see a body of troops gathering downhill from his
position along the banks of the Jans-Bach, but he couldn't tell whether they
were Germans massing for an attack or more retreating Americans. At 1230,
however, the first German attack hit. A force of 40-50 German infantry
attacked the left flank platoon of L Co, near the vertex of the two forest
trails. L Co repulsed this first attack, but more Germans kept arriving until
an estimated company was attacking that point. Meanwhile, on the battalion's
left flank, Lt Goffigon could see tanks on the ridge across the Jans-Bach
creek about 2500 meters northeast of his position, and he could hear several
more that were still hidden by the trees. He radioed in a request for
artillery fire, but as it began to fall on the ridge and scatter the tanks,
the Germans in the Jans-Bach draw advanced up the trail and a heavy infantry
attack erupted on I Co's front and left flank. The American small arms fire
pinned down the Germans to the front, while Goffigon's 1st Platoon checked the
left flank assault with small arms and mortar fire. Capt MacDonald called in
repeated requests for artillery support, but each call was answered only by
a pitiful three rounds. Six successive German attacks, by the II Bn of the
25th SS-PzGr Regt", were repulsed by I Co's small arms, but with each attack
NcOonald, op eft, p.377
a USA ETO Combt Intervwes, "Germmn BreakthroughO, Ff1. 9176; Cavanargh, op cft, pp.61-62; NacDonaLd,
op dJt, p.378

Covanooh, ce cit, p.64

65

MacDonald's company grew weaker. While the German infantry kept the Americans
busy, some of the jagdpanzers of the 12th SS-PzJg Bn were picking their way
down the ridge and through the woods along tracks and firebreaks to positions
from which to enfilade the Americans.'" Other jagdpanzers approached right
down the Schwarzenbruch trail to within 100 yards of Lt Goffigon's platoon and
opened fire on the US foxholes.4" The time was now about 1450."
Capt
MacDonald's placement of artillery fire on the jagdpanzers had no effect;
however, the sheer volume of the company's small arms fire kept the vehicles
buttoned up while it decimated the accompanying panzergrenadiers. It was at
this point that Capt MacDonald learned, to his dismay, that Lt Miller's tanks
were unavailable, having withdrawn to the K Co area.
The jagdpanzers continued to approach until they were close enough to
fire their main guns at point-blank range into the US foxholes. Goffigon's
bazooka man fired two rockets at one of the vehicles, but both missed and he
was killed. [Action 10] The two N Co machine guns attached to I Co continued
to take a heavy toll of the German infantry but soon their ammunition was
exhausted. Five German jagdpanzers were now inside the 1st Plt positions, and
the panzergrenadiers launched a series of renewed attacks against I Co's front
and rear. The Germans had no artillery support, but the volume of their small
arms fire wiped out Goffigon's platoon. With 1st Plt destroyed, 2d and 3d
Platoons fell back onto K Co's left flank and tried to form a new line, but
after about 10 minutes the jagdpanzers caught up with them and overran them.
At about 1500, as the last of his men scattered, Capt MacDonald and his staff
burned all the maps and papers at the company CP.
Up to now, except for the initial assault against its left platoon at
about 1230, L Co had had little contact with the enemy. Around 1500, some 60
men from I Co passed through the L Co area, headed for the rear. This was L

Paitud, op cit, p.92


"Contrary to acmontdls contention In A TInL fr
the previous night, the USA ETO 2d I Calbat Intir
s
AT crew from the 393d abanone their oaw.a
47 741st Tk In AAR, Doe

", Fits 0210

66

that the AT guns from the 393d Inf had f Led


"at this tift, according to Capt Mac&onatd... the

Co's first indication that the units to its left were pulling back.

1Lt

Walter E. Eisler, Jr., the L Co commander known as *Chief" to his men, stopped
the I Co stragglers and ordered them to form a secondary defense line behind
L Co. Shortly thereafter, "a number of men dressed in American combat pants,
combat Jackets, and American helmets approached from the direction of K Co.
As they reached the first line of foxholes, they opened fire on the L Co
troops. According to the men of that unit, there is no doubt but that they
were German troops dressed in American uniforms and were trying to infiltrate
behind L Co's position.* " Simultaneously, a strong German infantry attack
hit L Co's front and both flanks. While 1st Plt provided covering fire with
its few remaining rifle and machine gun rounds, L Co fell back about 200
yards. While reorganizing there, Lt Eisler received a message from Col Tuttle
ordering L Co to continue withdrawing all the way into Krinkelt.
Meanwhile,

with I Co 2one, the Germans now struck K Co, grenadlers


attacking from the front while tanks and infantry hit the left flank. ist
Plt, on the left flank, inflicted heavy casualties on the infantry but was
powerless to stop the armored vehicles. The platoon's commander had been
wounded earlier, so rather than retreat without orders the Ist Plt fought in
place and was overrun. In what was seemingly a standard American tactic, the
GIs crouched in their foxholes to let the Jagdpanzers pass above them, then
reemerged and engaged the grenadiers in close combat. It was a bloody melee,
both sides using bayonets and swinging their rifles like clubs. The platoon's
bazooka man tried to club a German with his rocket launcher but was mown down
by submachine gun fire first."
Lt Clise, commander of 2d Plt, went to get
Lt Miller's Shermans and bring them forward for support, but found that they
had withdrawn again, this time out of the forest altogether. The K Co
commander, 1Lt Lee Smith, ordered the remnants of his command, 2d and 3d
Platoons, to fall back, just as three Jagdpanzers continued down the
Schwarzenbruch Trail and hit the 2d Plt's left flank. The two platoons staged
4USA ITO Ceakt Interview "German Sreakthroughe File 176.
There is little evidence to spport this
theory, since none of Skorzenys commendoe were attached to either the 12th SU-PzO or the 277th VGD, and
4eyer makes no mntion of such an incident or unit in his divisional history of Hmitterjugend." Given the
highly confusing situation in the forest at that tim, it saes Likely that this was just a tragic instance
of two jittery friendly forces firing on ns another.
40USA

ITO 2d 10 Ca.est Interview, "Genrm

Breakthrough'm File #176

67

a fighting withdrawal to a wooded draw near the edge of the woods a few
hundred meters to the northwest of the trail Junction, -here they reformed
their line. About 20 minutes later they were again hit and overrun by the
jagdpanzers. This time, their withdrawal took them out of the forest and in
to the open area east of the Lausdell crossroads area, where the Germans hit
them with an artillery and nebelwerfer barrage which dispersed them. As they
scattered, the men of K Co could see Lt Miller's two Shermans burning a few
yards from the forest edge where they had engaged the leading jagdpanzers as
they emerged from the trees. Miller's tanks had knocked out two of the
jagdpanzers but had been destroyed by return fire from the other German
vehicles. By now it was dusk, and K Co's fighting withdrawal had allowed the
survivors of I and L Companies to escape from the forest and had bought time
for the troops from the 9th and 38th Inf Regiments to arrive and begin
constructing a new line around the Lausdell crossroads. Both I and K Cos had
taken heavy losses and would not be reorganized until 20 December. Meanwhile,
the Germans continued their westward advance, fated to collide next with the
1/9th Bn at the Lausdell crossroads. The outcome of this encounter would
prove crucial, for the 1/gth was the last American unit between the Germans
and the Wahlerscheid road, down which three of the 2d ID's battalions had yet
to pass in their withdrawal to the twin villages.

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ACTIONS 11-19
Name: Death of a Battalion
Location: Lausdell Crossroads, Belgium
Tim: 1730-2400 hours, 17 December 1944
By nightfall on 16 December, the 2d ID's General Walter Robertson had
accumulated enough information to fully appreciate the gravity of the German
attacks in the 99th ID sector. Two of the 2d ID's three regiments were
clustered that night around the little crossroads village of Wahlerscheid, and
their only connection with the rest of V Corps was a narrow forest road that
led to Rocherath, some seven kilometers to the south. If the German forces
attacking west down the Schwarzenbruch and Weisserstein Trails were able to
cut this road before Robertson could withdraw those two regiments, the 9th and
38th, then those regiments faced the likelihood of being cut off and the
possibility of being destroyed. To prevent this, Robertson and his staff
quickly worked out a plan for the disengagement from Wahlerscheid and
Robertson called the V Corps
withdrawal back to Krinkelt-Rocherath.
commander, Gen Leonard Gerow, and requested permission to withdraw. Gerow
bucked the question up the chain of command to the 1st Army commander, Gen
Courtney Hodges, who gave permission for Robertson to halt the Wahlerscheid
attack but not to withdraw. By 0730 the next morning, after repeated requests
from Gerow, Hodges still would not authorize the withdrawal of the 2d ID, but
told Gerow he could "act as he saw fit. "5
By this time, the 2d ID had been in near-continuous action at
Wahlerscheid for 96 hours and had already lost 1,200 men. The 1/9th, from a
starting strength of 35 officers and 678 men on 13 December, was down to 22
officers and 387 men. Worse, A Co had lost two company commanders, B and C
Cos had each lost one, and numerous platoon leaders and platoon sergeants had
also become casualties.5 1 These losses made the order to withdraw from the
hard-won crossroads, which the 1/9th received at 0955 on the morning of the
Cole, The Ardelmie

The Battle of the utme, p. 101

USA KTO 2d ID Caedt Intervfew, Nwrw

ereekthrough,

8o

Fite #176

17th, all the more bitter for the men of that battalion, and Wahlerscheid
became known to them as "Heartbreak Crossroads." According to Robertson's
plan, the 1/9th was to be the last battalion from that regiment to withdraw
from the Wahlerscheid area, moving out on the heels of the 3/9th. The 3/9th
began its withdrawal about 1200 hours. K Co, the last company in the column,
was late getting started and as a result was several hundred yards behind the
rest of the battalion. When K Co reached the Rocherather Baracken crossroads,
about a kilometer north of Rocherath, at 1230, it was met by General
Robertson, who ordered the company commander to move his unit as quickly as
possible to the Lausdell crossroads, "a complex of roads and farm trails near
an isolated farmhouse, just over half way between the woodsline to the east
and Rocherath. "o 2 Once there, K Co was to dig in and await the arrival of the
next battalion, to whom K Co would then be attached. As K Co turned east to
comply with this order, Robertson intercepted the 3/gth's Ammunition and
Pioneer Platoon and 1st Plt of N Co, a heavy machine gun platoon, and gave
them the same mission."
Farther north, the 1/9th started its march to the twin villages, first
regrouping in the low ground 1200 yards south of Wahlerscheid at about 1500,
then proceeding south on the forest road at about 1530. One platoon of A Co
was sent into the woods to the east as flank protection, while a small
rearguard force of one platoon each from B and C Cos covered the rear.5 4 The
column reached the Rocherather Baracken at 1600, where they, too, encountered
Gen Robertson. He loaded as many of the men as would fit onto two trucks he
had commandeered and sent them off to Join the 3/9th at the Lausdell
Crossroads. Gen Robertson and the 1/9th battalion commander, LtCol William
D. McKinley,55 followed the trucks in Robertson's jeep after ordering the
battalion executive officer, Maj William F. Hancock, to follow on foot with
the rest of the 1/9th. Hancock had authorization from Robertson to commandeer

MNcOwitd, A Tim for Trniets, p.380


US

ITO 2d I

CIet

Intolfow, Mattte of the luLge. 17-20 Doe 19"., File #173

Ibid.
MQrad-nophw

of Presldent

ittim

ackintey

81

any vehicles that passed him heading west and move the troops to Lausdell on
them.
Robertson was well aware by this time that the 3/23d in the woods at the
Ruppenvenn was fighting for its life against the German attack, and he was
determined to construct a new defense line at Lausdell before the Germans
could break out of the forest. To this end he authorized McKinley to take
command of any troops he could lay his hands on to strengthen his force,
warning him that large numbers of 2d and 99th Division men would probably be
straggling out of the woods into his position in front of the German
advance." For artillery support, Robertson said, McKinley could call on his
usual supporting battalion, the 15th FA Bn, as well as the 924th FA Bn, which
had been supporting the Wahlerscheid attack from positions just northeast of
the Rocherather Baracken.5 7
By 1700, as the sun was setting, the 1/9th had reached the Lausdell area
and was "deployed on a slight rise overlooking a shallow depression from which
a gradual ascent led into the forest. "5 A heavy fog clung to the ground,
which was covered by a layer of snow. Visibility was limited to about 100
yards. As McKinley's men took up their positions, they could see that Gen
Robertson's assessment of the situation had been correct. "Stragglers (from
the 3/23d and 3/393d] with and without arms [hurried] along the roads and
across the fields," retreating before the German advance. Sounds of heavy
fighting emanated from the dark forest. K Co of the 3/9th, which arrived a
few minutes before the 1/9th, dug in north of the Ruppenvenn-Rocherather
Baracken road and was supported in that position by three self-propelled tank
destroyers of the 644th TO Bn. C Co, whose effective numbered less than 50
men,6 arrived and established positions to the left of K Co north of the

W Cav~ih, Krink.tt-Rawamthz
6'

The BIttt. for the Twin VItm, pp.?4-77

Ibid.

cote. go-au, p.

109

e Ibid.
USA

TO 2d 10 Cbt

Intrview, "Germn reAkthroush.

82

ite 0176

road, while B Co dug in astride the road itself. A Co assumed positions south
of the road to B Co's right (Figure 12). Like the 3/23d had done when it was
rushed into defensive positions the previous day, the 1/9th had left its AT
mines behind in the interests of saving time, but fortunately for them the TDs
of the 644th TD On had some mines with them, which McKinley's men hurriedly
fashioned into five daisy chains of six mines each.61 The battalion's
ammunition vehicles -rrived before long, carrying 15 extra bazookas, which
were passed out to specially trained teams of bazooka men.62 M Co's machine
gun platoon placed its heavy machine guns on the high ground covering the road
to the southeast in order to interdict any German infantry advance from that
direction. A platoon of four towed 3-inch tank destroyers, the 3d Plt of the
801st TD Bn's B Co, e3 also guarded the area. All told there were about 600
men in McKinley's battalion and its attachments."
About this time, the retreat of the 3/23d from the Ruppenvenn area
caused Gen Lauer of the 99th ID to order the battered 3/393d Inf back into
action to help halt the German advance. The battalion commander, Col Allen,
sent a four-man patrol south to reconnoiter, and they contacted the C Co,
1/9th units at Lausdell. Before long the 3/393d had tied in securely on the
1/gth's left flank."5
Meanwhile, inside the Krinkelter Wald, the jagdpanzers and
panzergrenadiers of KG NO11er had rooted out the last organized resistance of
the 3/23d Inf and were preparing to continue driving toward Rocherath and
Krinkelt. They had suffered heavy casualties in the forest battle. According
to the commander of the 11/25th SS-PzGren Regt, SS-LtCol Schulze-Kossens, "in
the first hours all the company commanders had been killed or wounded, as well
USA [TO 2d I Comat Interview, featti. of the BuLge. 17-20 Dec 19"N, Fite 0173
According to the USA UO 2d ID Coat Interview. 3attLe of the Bulge, 17-20 Dec l ". , File 8173,
mcaintey had orgnmiud S teem of riflmam eoclelty trained in bazooka apration In each company when he
realized that the terrain around ahlerecheid was unsuitable for the mploymet of the S?1m AT gun In the
attack. As a result, there were a total of 22 bazooka team in the 1/9th at Lausdelt.
801st To In AM, Doc 194, File
USA ITO 2d I Cae

M209

Interview, Mattle of the klute, 17-20 Dec 19440 . File 9173

USA ITO 99th ID Combat Interview. "9th I0. ArdVies

83

16-20 Doec 19440, File 9182

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FIGURE 12.

DEATH OF A BATTALION
84

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.........

as the battalion adjutant, SS-2Lt Buchmann, and all the technical officers.
a As darkness fell and the rest of
Sergeants were commanding companies... ""
KG Haller regrouped, the commander of the 12th SS-PzJg Bn, SS-Capt
Brockenschmidt, ordered his 1st Kompanle under SS-ILt Helmut ZeinerO7 and an
attached escort of a panzergrenadier company out of reserve and gave them the
objective of spearheading the assault on Rocherath. At about 1930, as total
darkness set in, this force moved off down the Schwarzenbruch Trail, the
jagdpanzers moving slowly so the panzergrenadiers on foot could keep up. In
the darkness, fog, and blowing snow, the force was split; the leading four
vehicles and a platoon of the infantry (hereafter referred to as KG Zeiner)
became separated from the rest of the company as those rear elements made a
wrong turn at one of the trail intersections. KG Zeiner continued on the
correct road to Rocherath, passing right through the lines of B Co, 1/9th Inf,
without being challenged. "As friendly tanks and infantry were known to be
coming, nobody felt it necessary to check whether they might be German.""s
Upon reaching the outskirts of Rocherath, Zeiner stopped his vehicles and sent
infantry scouts ahead to see whether the village was occupied. He was unaware
that he had passed right through more than a battalion of US infantry.
By 1830 the 1/9th's artillery liaison officer, Lt John C. Granville, had
Just managed to repair a recalcitrant SCR-610 radio set and reestablished
contact with the outside world. Just then, B Co called the 1/9th battalion
command post to report the sound of more tanks approaching from the east. It
was the remainder of Zeiner's 1st PzJg Kompanie and their panzergrenadier
escort, who had advanced down the northern trail parallel to the
Schwarzenbruch Trail after getting lost. This time the B Co men made an
effort to identify the vehicles, but by the time they had done so the first
three jagdpanzers and a number of grenadiers had passed through their
position, moved about 400 yards closer to Rocherath, and then pulled off the
Nwer

krlamadliht. dbr 12. U-Pewardviimn "Nftleiend,

p.421,

File #196

A mltrantlatfon has led Zefner to be referred to in sme sources as a LtCol, but his actual rank
WO

AUl~~IIL~k
Palmitud, a.it

(h-ILt). not Oberturdmfror (3-LtCol).


pp.5-94. Other accounts, notably Nacmknad (p.300) and Thmson, say that they wre

reconized as aremen, but that it would have been suicide to angage them and that McKinLey ordered S Co to
tlt thm pase. This would be inc nsistent witN the 1/9th's prformnoe against even greeter odds Later In
the evening. After all, the 1/9th was at Luwadelt to prevent Just such a penetration.

85

road where the vehicles stopped their engines. Perhaps their commander, like
Zeiner, was sending forward infantry to assess the situation. The Americans,
however, hesitated no longer. Lt Granville at the battalion CP called down
artillery fire from the 15th FA Bn on the three jagdpanzers; the A Co
commander, Lt Stephen A. Truppner, adjusted this fire, and one of the vehicles
was hit and set aflame. [Action 11] Lt Roy E. Allen and Sgt Ted Bickerstaff,
both of B Co, pulled the daisy chains across the road while the following
jagdpanzers were still about 400 yards away, and two of the vehicles ran over
them; their tracks were knocked off and they were immobilized. (Action 12]
Some of McKinley's bazooka teams tried to sneak close enough to finish off the
vehicles, but the light from the burning jagdpanzer on the other side of the
Other jagdpanzers, following behind that
US line made this impossible.
unlucky pair, veered off the road in an attempt to continue cross-country;
bazooka teams knocked out two of them but the others proceeded to fan out
across the fields, perhaps to provide flank support for the rest of the
attack. The American artillery which was falling was also causing casualties
among the German infantry, as they were caught out in the open when the
barrage began. Either the American artillery or German tanks set fire to the
Palm farm, which occupied the center of the battle area and were some of the
only buildings in the vicinity.
At about 1840, A Co spotted a column of seven tanks or jagdpanzers
accompanied by infantry approaching its position. Lt Granville adjusted
artillery fire on this column, which knocked out four of the seven vehicles
and killed an undetermined number of German infantry. [Action 13] The
remaining three tanks churned through the A Co line, bereft of infantry
support, and entered Rocherath before any other weapons could be brought to
bear on them."*
Simultaneously, the B Co commander, Lt John Melesnick, reported a
disturbing development to Naj Hancock at the battalion CP. He had spotted
another coluqn of German armor and infantry approaching his position. This
column, however, appeared to be almost 1000 yards long, stretching all the way
Comm

, WsJ,

p.S

86

back into the forest. Lt Granville brought artillery fire down onto this
column as well. The first salvos impacted right in front of B Co, and
Granville walked the rounds steadily back, working over the column for at
least 10 minutes while B Co raked the column with machine gun fire. "For
minutes after this engagement, the night was filled with the screams of
70
wounded SS men."

Despite their heavy losses, German tanks and jagdpanzers were still
infiltrating through and around McKinley's position. The Americans tried
desperately to cope with the vehicles that had penetrated the line, but their
numbers had been greatly reduced by the size and ferocity of the German
attack. At about 2215, Lt Melesnick of B Co personally destroyed one German
tank with a bazooka.71
[Action 14]
Lt Granville told the supporting
artillery battalions to maintain their barrages on the road from the
Ruppenvenn until he told them to stop. US riflemen picked off any of the tank
crew members who emerged from their hatches; nevertheless, a number of panzers
72
were within 50 yards of some of the company CPs.
One of these panzers was hit in the track and disabled by an American
bazooka round. Lt Melesnick and several other bazooka teams fired at it in
order to finish it off, but its armor shrugged off four of their rockets. The
tank was proving to be a nuisance to the defenders, since it was still firing
its machine guns and cannon at the US foxholes (one of its machine gun bursts
wounded Lt Melesnick in the leg), so Cpl Charles Roberts of D Co and Sgt Otis
Bone of B Co teamed up to neutralize it. They filled a five-gallon Jerry can
with gasoline drained from a nearby abandoned American half-track, doused the
panzer with the gasoline after approaching it from a blind side, and lit it
afire with a thermite grenade.73 [Action 15]

70

Cavameo, ftjj5, p.85; NInioneld, op cit, p.382-383


USA ETO 2d ID Comlt Interview, "Settle of the luLge, 17-20 Dec 1944,

File 173

Ibid.

USA ITO 2d 10 COt Interview oSettle of the suaie, 17-20 Dec 1944" Fil* #173; Cole, op tit, p.110;

Cavamelo, on

it, p.6; Th~aqcn, To* Flght at Rocheroth-Krlnkett M#elnium).

Naconeld, w ii___,
pp.32-

87

17-19 Dec 44", File 9131;

Around 2230 the Germans doubled their efforts to break through


McKinley's thin line.
Assembling around the Ruppenvenn, they launched
simultaneous tank-infantry assaults down all three trails leading from the
forest. Lt Granville, who was having trouble getting artillery requests
through on his radio because the Germans were using the same frequency,
finally contacted his battalions and requested the heaviest possible fire on
all three routes. Struggling to be heard over the din of battle as the
Germans approached, he shouted into his radio, "If you don't get it
[artillery] out right now, it will be too goddamn late!" Just then his
communications were broken, perhaps by a German transmission, and he never
received acknowledgement of his request. Assuming the worst, that his request
had not been heard, Granville "reached out for God to take him by the hand,"
but three minutes later an astonishingly heavy artillery concentration
blanketed all three Germans advance routes and their attack all but
disintegrated under it. Unknown to Granville at the time, Gen Robertson
considered McKinley's defense of Lausdell so crucial that he had committed all
the artillery under his control, except for any that was engaged in an
emergency mission, to support the 1/9th before all others. As a result, at
least seven battalions of artillery answered Granville's call, including all
four of the 2d ID's organic battalions and three 155mm howitzer battalions of
V Corps.74
The American artillery deluge afforded the ragged defenders of Lausdell
some breathing space. They took advantage of this opportunity to evacuate
their casualties, replenish their ammunition, and lay a telephone wire from
McKinley's command post dugout to Col Francis Boos' 1/38th Inf CP in
Rocherath. McKinley's 1/9th was now attached to the 1/38th, and Col Boos'
first communication was to emphasize to McKinley the importance of his
Lausdell position.
Boos also promised McKinley that his men would be
permitted to withdraw the next day.7'

"USA

[TO 2d 10 Cmbet Intervew Nlettle of the Butge, 17-20 Dec 19440 File
0173; NaOonaLd, op cit,

p.383; Cavanh, cc eft, p.6

Cavang, on eft, p.99

88

By 2315 the German attack had run out of steam under the relentless
American artillery fire, and McKinley's force, though badly mauled, "had not
yielded an inch of ground." Only the four jagdpanzers of KG Zeiner had been
able to get all the way into Rocherath,7 and the Germans seemed resigned to
waiting until daylight to resume the attack. Both sides sat back to lick
their wounds and prepare for the renewed fighting that ivery man knew would
come with first light." Meanwhile, a silence that Maj Hancock described as
"almost frightening" descended over the battlefield.

In the early morning hours before dawn on 18 December, Col Boos informed
Col McKinley that he would be able to withdraw as soon as Col Jack Norris'
2/38th Inf was firmly dug in behind him.?'
This event was greatly
anticipated by the 1/9th, which hoped to be able to leave the crossroads
without a repeat of the previous night's carnage, but that was not to be. At
0645, at the first lightening of the winter sky, the Germans renewed their
attack with a sudden fury. During the night, about a company of tanks from
I Pz Bn of the 12th SS-Pz Regt7m had apparently crept to within direct fire
distance of the US foxhole line, and these vehicles now fired their cannon and
machine guns to cover the advance of more panzers and a battalion of infantry
from the woods. This tanks of this force were from the 1st and 3d Kompanies
of the I Pz Bn (Mk V Panthers), followed by 5th and 6th Kompanies (Mk IVs);
the infantry were the 11/25th SS-PzGren Regt, which had assembled in the draw
just east of Lausdell; to their left, the 1/25 attacked directly east of
Krinkelt.9 The visibility was very poor, for the weather was hazy and
drizzly, "German weather" which forced the GIs to wait until the enemy was

According to Meyer, "parts of the battalion (l1/25th SS-PzGrn Rost] end a few penzerjigers
(of the
12th US-Pzjg IN had taporarlty broken into the village. but had not been able to hold there." (p.425)
"7USA ITO 2d ID Combet Interview, "Sttto of the Bulge, 17-20 Dec 18s,"

File 0173; Cavaragh, opuc,1.

p.86
"USA

TO 2d ID CoMbet Interview, "Settlo of the Bulge,

7Mfeyer,

AnWa,p.430

Ibid.

89

17-20 Dec 1941 N , Fite #173

very close before firing, but they ehgaged the Germans with every weapon at
their disposal, including artillery, which the GIs called down virtually on
top of their own positions at times.8 1 Private William K. Soderman of K Co
"began his own private war"02 by leaping into a roadside ditch with a bazooka
and knocking out the lead panzer in full view of the enemy. This blocked the
trail and forced the vehicles following to withdraw. Returning to K Co,
Soderman ran across a platoon of panzergrenadiers in the fog and opened up on
them with his rifle, killing at least three and forcing the rest to flee.
(Action 16]
The tanks and jagdpanzers which had been knocked out on the trails that
morning and the night before compelled most of the vehicles in this attack to
drive across the fields.
Five panzers thus approached the A&P Platoon
position, passing the hulks of two tanks destroyed in the night attack. They
fired point-blank into the American foxholes as they passed through, and
although two were knocked out by bazookas, the other three proceeded into
Rocherath.8
[Action 17]
By 0800 the panzers and grenadiers had completely overrun the 1/9th's
front line companies south of the main road, but still the Americans clung
tenaciously to the crossroads. The tanks fired their cannon directly into the
foxholes, and if the GIs tried to run they were mown down by the tanks'
machine guns. One soldier was seen trying to immobilize a panzer by jamming
his rifle between the cleats of its track. When about half a dozen men on B
Co's right flank ran out of bazooka ammunition and headed for the rear, Col
McKinley stepped out of his dugout CP, stopped them, and sent them back to
their platoon. All along the line, the GIs and grenadiers were engaged in
fierce hand-to-hand fighting."

USA ETO 2d I

Cmbat Interview,

wermmn Breakthrough", 0176; Cote, op et, pp.115-116

Cavamsh, g...
1 p.109
USA ETO 2d ID Combt Interview, "Sttte of the Butle, 17-20 Dec 1940-,
Ibid.; Cavanhgh, cc it,

p.109

90

Fit@ 0173

The dense fog over the crossroads lifted at about 0830, allowing Lt
Stephen Truppner, the A Co commander, to register artillery fire on the
Germans that had overrun his company.
An entire US artillery battalion
dropped its shells on the A Co area for 30 minutes; the German attack was
stopped, but only a dozen men from A Co survived. Truppner was not one of
them. K Co of the 3/9th was likewise swamped:
*Frm his CP in the basament of the Patlm famty farmhouse, Capt Garvey, the K Co coimander, could see Germans
prodding those few of his man that were stiLl aLive from their foxholes, while a German tank approached the
house and hatted with its cannon only a few feet from the front door. Aware that it woutd be a matter of
seconds before the tank blasted the houe to placer, Garvey told a men who spoke German to call out that his
company coammnder woutd surrender to a German officer. When a German Lieutenant arrived, Garvey and his
6
commnd post group filed out with their hands above their heads.

Of K Company's entire complement, only one officer and 10 enlisted men


escaped." Yet still McKinley's line held, for Col Boos had radioed him and
said it would be another hour or more before the 2/38th was in position at
Rocherath's edge. The 1/9th held because it had to hold.
With A and K Companies effectively gone, the momentum of their attack
carried some of the German tanks and infantry into Rocherath itself, but the
remnants of B and C Companies, as well as the 3/9th's A&P Platoon, still
manned their positions. To the north, the German attack had also hit the
3/393d, which had lost half its men and all its machine guns, mortars, and AT
guns in the forest battle on 16 and 17 December. Although a bazooka team hit
one of the German tanks in this sector, the round failed to penetrate and Col
Allen's men fell back another 1000 yards.
By 0900, the firing at Lausdell was beginning to die away, since much
of the German force had now passed south of the remaining 1/9th platoons and
into Rocherath, and since there weren't that many Americans left to fire their
weapons. There were still considerable forces engaging McKinley's line,
however. Around 1000 a second wave of seven German tanks and infantry smashed

MacDonald, om.L,

p. 396

Cole, cm eLt, p.116

91

into the American line, hitting mostly around the 3/9th's A&P Platoon
position. Several US tanks had just come into the area; one of these fired
six shots at the oncoming panzers, all of which missed. The Shermans quickly
retired.
American artillery then fell on the panzers, one of which
7
exploded.' [Action 181 The other six tanks swept on into Rocherath while
the grenadiers stayed behind to mop up the A&P Platoon and nearby survivors
of K Co. "The result was a terrific small arms battle,"" during which Pvt
Soderman of K Co continued his "private war" against the Germans. As some
other panzers approached the remnants of his company, Soderman staged a repeat
performance of his action earlier that morning by disabling the lead panzer
with one shot from his bazooka. As he ran for cover after firing the weapon,
however, one of the tanks fired a burst of machine gun fire which tore into
his right shoulder. Soderman fell, severely wounded, but managed to drag
himself back into the ditch, where he was protected from further fire."
[Action 19]
About the same time, Col Boos called Col McKinley and told him that he
could withdraw his battalion from the crossroads beginning at 1300, since the
2/38th should be fully in position behind the 1/9th by then. This was welcome
news to McKinley, but it came almost too late as he did not have much of a
command left by then. As more German tanks and infantry poured into the
Lausdell area from the woods, Lt Granville called for emergency artillery on
the area "and it seemed that all the artillery in the 1st Army responded to
the call. " The shells continued to fall for about 30 minutes, allowing the
1/9th and its attachments to fend off the remainder of the German advances.
McKinley told Col Boos that he could not hold out any longer, however, but
that he also could not withdraw without being annihilated because his troops
were too closely engaged and because German tanks were blocking his withdrawal
route. McKinley said he needed a counterattack by tanks or self-propelled Tds
07 USA ETO 2d ID Comat Interview, "Battle of the Suits, 17-20
Dec 19440. File #173. Lt Knutsen, the
MD Pit leader, thought an artillery round my have entered this penzer's open top hatch and detonated.

Ibid.
SCavanagh,

an cit, p.110

USA ITO 2d I

Combet Interview, 0lattle of the Bulge,

92

17-20 Dec 1944" , File #173

to cover his withdrawal. No sooner had he said this than Lt Eugene Hinski,
the 1/9th's AT Platoon leader, spotted four Shermans of A Co, 741st Tk Bn
moving north out of Rocherath on the road to the Rocherather Baracken. Moving
quickly to intercept them, Lt Hinski asked the tank platoon commander, Lt
Gaetano Barcellona, if he and his men wanted to fight. "Hell, yes!" said
There, McKinley
Barcellona, so Hinski led the tanks to the 1/9th CP.
explained the situation and told Barcellona that the greatest difficulty
facing the 1/9th was four German tanks located between the Palm farmhouse and
Rocherath, interdicting the battalion's withdrawal route. To counter this,
Barcellona split his command into two pairs; one pair, including Barcellona's
own tank, stayed behind cover from where they could shoot at the panzers,
while the other two moved out into the open to lure the panzers into leaving
their cover in hopes of an easy kill. The plan worked brilliantly. At 1115,
US artillery began firing to cover the withdrawal, and the two decoy Shermans
moved out. The panzers followed. Barcellona knocked out the first panzer
with one shot, and three more rounds finished off the second/ Discerning the
trap too late, the remaining two panzers turned to flee into Rocherath but one
of the other Shermans hit one in the rear, disabling it. The fourth panzer
made it into the comparative safety of the village."1
With the armored threat disposed of, Barcellona's tanks turned back east
to cover McKinley's withdrawal, two Shermans on each flank of the position.
Their machine gun fire kept the Germans' heads down while the GIs pulled back.
"Col McKinley stood at the roadside, grasping the hands of his men as they
passed and thanking them for what they had done to the Germans...Col McKinley
himself was the last to leave the area. As he and his operations officer,
Capt James Harvey, left their command post, they could hear the shouts of
'Hande hochl' coming from the Germans behind the hedgerows. "92
In the words of Charles MacDonald, who was present at this battle,

USA ETO 2d 10 Caoat intervitw, *oermn reakthrough. firet176; 741st Tk Bn AAR. DeC 1944. FIre
pp.110-111
9210; Thompsn, ag. t, Ffie 9131; NeOoneltd, aeft, pp. 396-397; Cevmnegh, 2.jt,
Name
atd,

apct, pp.397-390; Cavaeh, a.fz

1 pp.110-111

93

"WcKinLy and the man of the 1/9th and K Cos 3/9th, had performed an incredible feat. By their stand, they
had enabled two of the bettalions of the 38th Infantry to reach the twin villages for a defense that
otherwise probably could not hae bon mounted. (,You have saved my regiment,, Boos told McKinley.) They
had Left the ground around the cluster of roads and trails and the farmhouse littered with German dead and
the carcasses of 17 tanks and tank destroyers. For Ill the pertinacity and valor displayed by a number of
other battatloe of the 2d Infantry Division during the fight for the twin viLLages, none performed with more
fortitude and sucriffce than the men of Ncaintey'a battalion and K Co. And for the aLL the defenses of many
another American unit during the German counteroffensive, probably none exceeded and few equalled Mcinley's
battalion and K Co in valor and ucrifice."

The 1/9th passed through the 2/38th and headed west to the high ground
just northwest of the Rocherather Baracken. There McKinley was able to see
4
for the first time the true extent of his losses. A Co had 12 men left;9
B Co had 27; C Co had Just over 40; 0 Co, the heavy weapons company, stil had
60 men left; while K Co of the 3/9th had 11 or 12 men, depending on the
source. The 3/9th's A&P Platoon also had only 12 men left. Later in the day,
when the battalion assembled in Rocherath, only 20 officers and 197 men were
present of the 600 that had arrived at the crossroads less than 24 hours
before." There were only enough combat effective left in the battalion to
form six rifle squads." The cost of holding the Lausdell crossroads had
indeed been high, but the cost of failure would have been much higher.

Macoltd, 9nLIx, p.398


Same accounts

say only five men were left, but seven men cam back that night after hiding in the

Lausdelt ares and seeing a tong column of American prisoners being marched to the German rear.
9th Inf Ret AM, Dec 1944, NAA 302-CINF)09-0.3
"USA

ETO 2d ID Combat Interview, "Battle of the lutge. 17-20 Dec 1944", File #173

94

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ACTIONS 20-27
Nam: Pocket of Resistance
Location: #65 Rocherath and Environs, Rocherath, Belgium
Time: 1800 17 December 1944-1830 19 December 1944
As the 99th ID defense line between Wahlerscheid and the Losheim Gap
crumbled on 17 December, the American commanders hastily issued orders for the
establishment of new defensive positions to halt or at least slow the German
advance. Among the most vital places to defend were the twin villages of
Krinkelt-Rocherath, through which passed the only supply and communications
route for the bulk of the 2d ID at Wahlerscheid. The villages were also the
key to two of the routes the 12th SS-PzD needed to reach the Meuse, so they
were destined to become the center of the fighting that was to rage in front
of the Elsenborn Ridge.
At around 0745 on 17 December, Col Francis Boos, commander of the 38th
Inf Regt, informed his AT Company commander, Capt James W. Love, that a German
tank-infantry force [KG Peiper] had just captured BOllingen. Fearing that the
Germans might turn north to roll up the flank of the 99th ID and cut the 2d
ID in two, Col Boos ordered Love to move immediately to Krinkelt and Rocherath
and organize a defense of the villages. Acting swiftly, Love sent his 1st
Platoon [three 57mm AT guns] to defend the southern and western approaches to
Krinkelt; the 2d Platoon [three guns] went to cover the eastern edge of the
villages; and the 3d Plt [three guns] moved to the north and northeastern
edge. While they were preparing to move out, the 4th Plt [Mine Platoon] under
Lt George W. Stewart organized as infantry and prepared to move between the
1st and 2d Platoons. The 38th Regimental Service Company did the same and
moved to provide infantry protection at a roadblock on the main road from the
Ruppenvenn through the twin villages to BOllingen, a road known as the "Route
vers Udenbreth."1

USAIETO 2d ID Coet Interview "Settle of the Bulge, 17-20 Do

132

1940, FILe 9173

At 1230, Gen Robertson ordered the 2/38th Infantry to disengage from the
Wahlerscheid attack and move south to the twin villages. He sent similar
orders to the 1/38th about two and a half hours later. The 1/38th, commanded
by Col Frank T. Mildren, moved out around 1530, its withdrawal covered by an
artillery barrage by the 37th FA Bn and the 2/38th's 81mm mortars. As the
battalion marched down the forest road between Wahlerscheid and Rocherath, a
few kilometers away Col Tuttle's 3/23d was embroiled in the bitter and doomed
defense of the Ruppenvenn, and Col McKinley's 1/9th was hurriedly digging in
at the Lausdell Crossroads. When the 1/38th reached the Rocherather Baracken
about 1630, the Germans began shelling them heavily with artillery and
nebelwerfers. A Co, in the lead, hurried through the crossroads largely
unscathed, but B Co and especially C Co were hit hard by the barrage. C Co
lost 22 men, 17 of them in the 2d Platoon, but perhaps more important, the
companies lost precious time in which to reach the twin villages before the
Germans did.2 By the time the 2d Plt, C Co, commander, 1Lt George Adams, made
sure that his wounded were properly looked after, the rest of C Co had gone
ahead and disappeared from sight. Setting out with the remainder of 2d Plt,
a machine gun section from 0 Co, and part of the Headquarters Co, Adams
eventually reached Rocherath and rejoined the rest of C Co, which at this
point had about 70 men left. Adams' group was joined by several men from 3d
Plt, who had been sent to reinforce the Service Co roadblock at the northeastern edge of the village but had retreated when German tanks overran the
roadblock.3
Around 1730, just as it was getting dark, the C Co commander, Capt
Edward C. Rollings, met Lt Adams and showed him where to deploy his platoon.
Adams' 2d Plt went into #65 Rocherath, near a corner overlooking one of
Rocherath's main streets. This house was owned by Johann Drosch, a relative
of the mayor of Rocherath, Paul Drosch. Adams sent one of his squads across

2USA ETO 2d I Comat Interview, "ettle of the Bulge, 17-20 De 1944", FIt 0173;
Naconatd, A Ti
EDLTumizL p.384; Cavanagh, Krinkt-Rherath: The BettLe for the Twin VilLages, p.87; CoLe, Tb
Ardenes:The Battle of the Bulee, pp.110-111

3USA ETO 2d 0 Combet interview "ettle of the lutg., 17-20 Doc 19440 , Fte 0173. These *tanks" were
itdototdLy sme of the Joigpanzers of the 12th S$-PzJg In who got p t the 1/9th at Lausdett but who were
unable to maintain their foothold in the village without infantry suport. See preceding actions, "Ceath of
a lattalion'.

133

to the east side of the street to the home of Johann Rauw at #61.' Rollings'
company CP was in a house a few yards to the northwest of Adams' position.
A couple of houses to the north of #65, Capt Love had established his AT
Company CP. Adams and his platoon were now placed under Love's command.
Their positions along this street in northeastern Rocherath would play a
central role in the next two days' fighting, especially Adams' #65, which
covered one of the two main German entry routes into the twin villages from
the northeast.
During this time, few of the American troops moving into the Belgian
houses had any idea of the military situation beyond the next street.
Everyone had heard conflicting rumors that the 99th IDwas routed, that itwas
holding fast at all costs, or that it was counterattacking. The men could
hear the fighting blazing to the northeast at Lausdell, where McKinley's 1/9th
was then fighting for its life, and they could see flares of all colors
streaking up into the sky to the north and northeast. These flares were
steadily falling closer and closer to the village.'
Around 1800, the Germans attacked the area around Love's AT Co CP.
First they softened up the area "with the most intense concentration of mortar
and artillery fire that Capt Love had so far experienced."a Shortly after the
barrage stopped, German tanks or jagdpanzers ertered the village from the
northeast, using two parallel roads. The first force, using the northern
route, didn't penetrate even as far as the street Love and Adams were on
before pulling back, but the southern branch of the attack pressed on down the
Route vers Udenbreth to the area around the church, where the infantry riding
on the decks of the vehicles dismounted and sought cover in the buildings.
This southern group may have been KG Zelner of the 1st SS-PzJg Bn, which was
the only German force to stay in the village all night, but one source says
the attack was carried out by at least 20 tanks and 500 infantry, which was

4CvmNW,

Go Cit, pp.89-90

USA E70 2d 10 Coet Interview, "Battle of the Bulge, 17-20 Oec 19,

Ibid.

134

FILe #173

a far larger force than Zeiner's. During the fighting, the squad of 2d Plt
in #61 was attacked by about half a squad of German infantry. Since it was
now dark outside and since the Rauw house had no windows or doors on the
eastern side from which to take the Germans under fire, Lt Adams ordered the
squad to pull back across the street into #65, where 2d Plt consolidated its
position.7 An excerpt from the 2d ID Combat Interview "Battle of the Bulge,
17-20 December 1944" says:
"All during this attack,

in which

it

seems

the Germans had difficulty in getting their

artiLLery fire to Lift, the eneW artillery was falling over the dhat
their own infantry w

area,

including where

Their method of attack seemed to be to ittuminate the


targets and blind the US pewers with momntary flashes frm fLoodLights that were mounted on
operating.

the tanks. The effect of the floodlights was terrifying, according to Captain Love.
The
blinding Light, fottowed by the inky blackness of the night in which no one couLd see anything,
made the battle sem as uncoordinated as if it had been fought in the Pit. The ene seemed
to depend heavily on the effect on morale of a high percentage of tracer in his ammunition,
and Captain LoVe estimated that most of the fighting that was done that first night to be about

1/3 belt mmunition and the rest tracer."

All that afternoon and evening, stragglers from all units of the 2d and
99th Divisions had been wandering through the twin villages, looking for their
outfits or headed vaguely toward "the rear." During the battle, two American
half-track crews entered #65, seeking shelter from the German attack. Their
half-tracks were nearby, one parked in the street just outside the house and
the other across the street, next to #61, which was now held by the Germans.
Adams was glad of the reinforcements, but the crews weren't inclined to
contribute much to the defense of the position. Instead they spent the whole
night in the cellar with five Belgian civilians who had so far passed most of
the evening praying for deliverance.'
At 1845, about 15 minutes after the half-track crews arrived at #65, a
German tank stopped at the intersection Just south of Adams' house and began
firing into the 1st Platoon positions, which were to the rear of Adams' 2d
Plt. (See Figure 13] Leaving presumably via a door or window on the other

'

ibid.
ibid.

135

41

]338

side of the house from the panzer, Adams ran to a US self-propelled TD of the
He tried to persuade the vehicle
644th TO Bn that he knew was nearby.
commander to move to a position from where he could take out the German tank,
but the commander refused, citing a number of reasons, including that it was
too dark for him to use his telescopic sights. Adams pleaded and argued with
Sgt Andrew
him, even offering to act as gunner himself, but to no avail.
Paul, who had accompanied Adams, grew impatient with the TO commander's
hesitation. He removed a .30cal machine gun mounted on a nearby jeep, draped
a belt of ammunition around his neck, and stepped out into the street. He
walked steadily toward the panzer, firing his machine gun from the hip at the
After a few rounds, Paul's machine gun jammed, but Lt
tank as he went.
William Trumbley, of D Co's Machine Gun Platoon, emerged from the house, took
the gun from Paul and cleared the stoppage, and then took Paul's place,
NA German infantryman from
spraying the panzer with the machine gun.
somewhere in the vicinity fired what was thought to be a rifle grenade at Lt
Trumbley, which hit the wall of the house about six feet from the lieutenant,
wounding him in the right leg with a fragment. The enemy tank, unaffected by
all this, fired about six more rounds at the house and moved away. At this
time the American TO pulled out and was not seen again.09 [ACTION 20]
With the German tank gone and the battle seemingly dying down around
them, Adams redeployed his men at the windows and doors of #65. About ten
minutes later, one of the guards reported a column of twos marching north past
the AT Co CP. Thinking that it might be a group of German infantry, Adams
went outside to a Sherman tank which Capt Rollings had placed north of #65
earlier in the evening.' 0 Adams argued for the commander to fire on the
column, but the tanker was convinced that the column was American and refused,
even when Adams again offered to man the gun himself. The identity of the
troops is not known for certain, but they were probably E Co of the 2/38th

Ibid.
ly Adems did not try to get this uShen to fire on the Goem tank earlier is unknown. Perhaps the
battle situation at the tim would not allow him to reach the Sherman's position.

137

Inf, and it is likely that the Sherman commander "Saved a friendly unit from
unnecessary casualties. "
The Germans regrouped and renewed their attack on the central part of
Rocherath at about 2000. Grenadiers across the street from Capt Love's AT Co
CP were firing rifle grenades at the house, so Love pulled most of the men out
of the building and into a field a little northwest of the house, where they
would be screened from the German fire until the Germans could be driven off.
He left a machine gun and its crew inside the house, and they took the Germans
under fire from their post at an upstairs window. About the same time, the
Sherman tank, whose commander Lt Adams had spoken with earlier, drove out of
its position and toward another part of the town. It is unknown whether the
tank was moving forward to engage the attacking Germans or seeking safer
havens farther to the rear, but shortly after its departure, two German tanks
pulled up within view of Adams' platoon and began firing at #65. While their
situation certainly was not a pleasant one, Adams and his men soon realized
that the danger was not as great as it seemed, for the German HE shells could
do no more to the house's thick stone walls than chip the outside and knock
off plaster from the inside. Seeing their ineffectiveness, the panzers soon
12
moved on to the southwest.
While the battle still flared around him, at about 2030 Capt Love got
a call from Col Boos informing him that the 2/38th was moving into the area
to reinforce him and that the first unit to arrive, E Co, would be under his
control. Capt Love dispatched a guide out to the north road to locate this
company and lead them to positions Love had chosen, but the guide discovered
that E Co had already arrived and was occupying positions east and a little
north of Love's street, in an arc just behind the Service Co roadblock. (As
mentioned above, the column that Lt Adams had wanted to fire on earlier was
probably E Co, moving up to its present position.) Unable to go to E Co's
position to take charge of them personally because of the fighting going on

if UA iTO 2d I Combet Interview,

Iattle of the utple,

12 Ibid.

138

17-20 Dec 1

0 , FiLe 9173

around both them and him, Love accepted their positions as a fait accompli and
turned his attention back to supervising the defense of his own area.'3
As the fighting continued, at around 2100 hours Col Boos dispatched K
Co of the 3/38th to reinforce Love's position. En route from Krinkelt, they
were attacked by a German thrust trying to penetrate into the villages from
the east. Although they were able to knock out two German tanks and kill
about 50 SS-panzergrenadiers, K Co was further delayed by the necessity of
clearing the remnants of the attacking force from the houses in the area.,4
Meanwhile, German pressure on Love's and Adams' positions increased. Sometime
during this attack, the Germans overran the 9th Gun Squad of Love's 2d AT Plt,
which was stationed a little farther northeast near the water tower. As
German tanks rumbled down the southern road past Adams' position, his men
fired AT grenades, tossed hand grenades, and even threw rocks in an attempt
to stop the tanks or at least dislodge the infantry riding on them. By the
time the fighting died down again around 2130, the Germans strongly held the
east side of the street while AT Co and 2d Plt, C Co, still held the west
side. In the battle, the Germans overran and captured a number of men from
1st Plt, B Co, which had been stationed on the eastern edge of the village,
and herded them, along with prisoners from Love's 9th Gun Squad, into the
basement of the Rauw house, #61.'5
The Germans were now on all sides of Love and Adams, having penetrated
down the streets to the north and south, occupied the houses across the
street, and infiltrated behind the position and attacked American strongpoints
in and around the church. When the fighting tapered off again in his area,
Capt Love brought his AT Co men back into the house at #63 and posted guards
around the building. He put the men on a rotating schedule so they could
start to catch up on their sleep. Now that it was relatively safe to travel

ts Ibid.
Gcermn srsoithrouh, Fite #176; Cavanagh, ccc.t, p.98 ;
letium, 16-19 Deceder 1964

SIbid. Atso, USA ITO 2d ID Coadt Interview

Thopson, *Tank Fight at Rocherath-Krinkett,

toUSA ITO 2d ID Cobat Interview, "Battte of the Butle, 17-20 De 194" Fite #173; Cavanagh.
cc Cit,
p.96

139

the neighborhood as long as one avoided the Germans in the houses across the
street, Love sent the AT Co Assistant Recon Officer, Lt Edward Sweeney, to
effect the overdue contact and coordination with E Co of the 2/38th to the
east. G Co arrived in the area about this time, with orders to tie in on AT
Co's right. "The guard outside the door of the AT Co CP stopped the G Co
column just in time to save them from walking down the road between the
company positions and the enemy houses across the street."'8
Around 2300, after all the German tanks in the area had withdrawn, the
Germans in #61 across from Adams' house began shouting in German. Having
received no response after about five minutes, the Germans switched to
"heavily accented English," calling on the C Co men to surrender. Adams' men
did not answer, but watched silently from the windows and doors of #65, from
where they could not themselves be seen. Then some Germans emerged from the
Rauw house, holding captured Americans in front of them at gunpoint as human
shields. Adams refused the surrender demand that the men in the street
shouted at him; he was unsure whether they were really captured Americans or
not. After a few minutes, Germans and captives both withdrew back into the
basement of #61.17
The fighting continued to decrease in intensity, so that at about 0100
Capt Love, after checking on his 3d and 4th Gun Squads, felt safe to finally
turn in and get some sleep himself. For the rest of the night, the street
that he and Lt Adams guarded was relatively quiet. Flames from burning houses
and vehicles lit up the night sky, and the mist and light rain which kept
falling at intervals during the night mixed with the heavy smoke to severely
curtail visibility in the town. The Germans took advantage of the lull to
gather their forces for the next morning's assault. The 989th Gren Regt of
the 277th VGD finally made it through the Krinkelter Wald and assembled
northeast of Rocherath, while by dawn most of the weight of the 12th SS-PzD - the 12th SS-PzJg Bn, the 25th SS-PzGren Regt, and the panzers of the I Bn,
12th SS-Pz Regt -- had gathered northeast and east if the twin villages. (The
USA ITO 2d I

Clmbst Interview, nettte of the Outge, 17-20 Doc 19

Ibid.

140

", FILe 0173

11 Bn of the panzer regiment, composed of the 560th Hvy PzJg Bn, would not be

able to finish negotiating the muddy, churned-up trails through the forest
until later on the 18th.)1' On the other side, the Americans consolidated
their positions in Krinkelt-Rocherath and Wirtzfeld, but still did not have
a cohesive front with which to oppose the Germans. According to Cole,
"Most of the 38th Infantry was in and around the two villages, plus about a battalion and a
half of the 9th Infantry and a few platoons of the 23d Infantry. Although these 2d Division
troops had gaping ranks, so had their opponents. Fortunately, in view of the nimIer of tanks
otready in the Gern camp, the American infantry had the m
of antitank defense at hand:
the 741st Tk On, 6th TD gn, a company of the 612th TD Bn, and a few guns from the 801st TD
Bn...The flanks of the 2d ID positions at the vitlages were more or tess covered by elements
of the 9th and 23d Inf in Wirtzfotd, to the southwest, and the battalions of the 393d Inf
deptoyed in blocking positions to hold the road not north of Rocherath. As yet, however, there
was no homogeneous line seating the 2d ID front...

Capt Love was awakened at about 0700 on the 18th, Just as the sun was
coming up and the fog was lifting. Some of Adams' men had heard voices coming
from the house across the street, leading them to suspect that the Germans
were still there and were still holding their American prisoners. Some of
Adam's men, stationed in the doorway of #65, "started the battle off right"
by sniping at two or three Germans "who appeared incautiously in the windows"
of the Rauw house. About this time, the C Co commander, Capt Rollings, and
his runner made the dash from the C Co CP to #65, safely avoiding being shot
at by the Germans across the street. When he learned that Adams' squad had
abandoned #61 the night before, he was angry that the house had been given up
without a fight and ordered Adams to recapture and reoccupy the building.
With the rest of 2d Platoon firing covering fire from the widows and
doors of the Drosch home, 2d Squad ran into the street. A wounded SS officer
threw a potato-masher grenade into the street from a basement window of #61,
wounding two of Adams' men, while some Germans behind the house fired two red
flares into the morning sky. This may have been a signal for tank support,
toCole,

ca

l, pp.113-11s

141

for soon German tanks could be heard approaching from the Lausdell crossroads
area, but they didn't arrive in time to help the defenders of the Rauw house.
Two 2d Squad men threw three hand grenades into the house and the rest of the
squad stormed in,killing 11 Germans, capturing 16, and freeing six American
prisoners. Among these last were Lt Ralph L. Schmidt of B Co, and S/Sgt Ron
Mayer and PFC Henry Hills, machine gunners from Capt Love's 9th Gun Squad.
They had been captured the previous night while manning their machine gun in
a house near the Service Co roadblock. The released Americans picked up
whatever abandoned weapons were lying about, scrounged some ammunition from
the two half-tracks parked in the area, and then dispersed to find their
units. The wounded German prisoners were taken into the Drosch home while
Capt Rollings, who was wounded slightly in the leg by a ricocheting bullet
while observing the fight from the door of #65, and his runner escorted the
others to the rear.1"
Shortly after this action, Capt Love sent a detail to the regimental
ammunition depot in Krinkelt to pick up a resupply of bazooka rounds and Krations. They returned by 0900, just as a platoon of I Co, 3/38th, arrived
and took up positions in the house to the north of the AT Co CP. On their
heels was a platoon of K Co, which occupied supporting positions in another
house about 50 yards northwest of Love's CP.
Around 0730, a force of eleven German tanks barrelled down the southern
road past the Drosch house, going so fast that none of the men in Love's CP
had time to bring their weapons to bear. [See Figure 14] Just down the
street, Lt Adams quickly organized two bazooka teams, using one launcher that
his group had since the beginning and another that was scrounged from a jeep
parked outside. These two teams fired numerous rounds at the passing panzers,
scoring "many direct hits" on them but achieving no penetrations. [ACTION 21]
Capt Love was surprised that these panzers could have gotten past his Sth Gun
Squad, which was stationed farther northeast along the road, without at least
being fired at. After calling the 38th Inf Regt CP to warn them of the
armored threat coming their way, he called all three of his platoon leaders
ItUSA ETO 2d ID Ccmmt Interview 4ttte

of the Butse, 17-20 Do 19"

142

Fire 9173

Yoft

- 4;Wt

a=

38

seeooi

C.0800

FIGURE 14.

POCKET OF RESISTANCE, DECEMBER 18


143

to see what their situations were. His 2d Plt leader, Lt Marc M. Schowalter,
reported that he could not locate the Sth Gun Squad (unknown to him at the
time, the Germans had overrun the gun the night before and captured the crew).
As the tanks passed the Drosch and Rauw houses, their column began to
"accordion" as the head of the column stopped and the rear vehicles closed up
behind. One of the tanks, a Mk V Panther (presumably at or near the very rear
of the column), was about 200 yards from Love's CP when it stopped, but he had
nothing which could see to hit it because of the intervening buildings. He
left his CP and located two self-propelled TDs of the 644th TO Bn, but they
refused to move to positions from which they could get a shot at the panzer,
saying they had strict orders to stay right where they were "covering critical
positions." Love then found an M-4 Sherman tank nearby, and the commander
followed Love to a firing position about 75 yards to the Panther's right.
"The M-4 finished it off with two rounds, beautiful flanking shots into the
side of the hull. Score: One Mk V tank, no US casualties. The doughboys in
the windows (of Love's CP] enjoyed picking off the [German] tank crew as they
"
abandoned their vehicle. 2
In #61, meanwhile, Adams' 2d Squad commander, Sgt Richard Shinefelt,
fired three rifle grenades at the panzers, although to no effect. [ACTION 22]
The men of 2d Plt in both the Drosch and Rauw houses sprayed the tanks with
small arms fire, killing or wounding almost all of the infantry riding on
them. The last three tanks in the column stopped at the intersection just
southeast of #65, one facing southwest toward Krinkelt, one facing due west,
and the other facing due north towards the Drosch house. This last fired its
cannon at #65 but only succeeded in knocking loose some plaster from the walls
and ceiling, as had all such shots from other panzers the day before. It also
fired a round into the C Co CP, which caught fire as a result. While most of
Adams' men had their attention focused on the panzers outside the front of the
house, someone looked out of the rear windows and saw a number of American
tanks moving into position to the north. Seeing that a large-scale tank
battle was about to begin and not wanting to be caught in the middle of it,
mb1d.

144

Adams and his men dashed out of #65 and took cover In #63 across the cul-desac, into which the C Co CP was just then relocating.

As they did so, another Panther, a little behind the others, continued
southwest toward the one that had just been knocked out by the Sherman.
Private Isabel Salazar, one of Love's AT Co staff members, grabbed a bazooka
and one of the newly-arrived rockets and ran upstairs from the basement to one
of the first-story windows. He fired and knocked out the Panther at 200 yards
with that first shot. The Panther's momentum carried it forward until it came
to rest alongside the Sherman's kill, the two wrecks very effectively blocking
the road.2 1 (ACTION 23]
Within moments after Adams withdrew his platoon from #65, a huge tank
battle between the German Panthers and US Shermans and tank destroyers erupted
in Rocherath. Details of this fight will not be recounted here since they are
not pertinent to the infantry anti-tank defense. Adams and the rest of 2d
Plt, plus the Weapons Platoon, stayed in C Co's new CP for about an hour while
the tank fight raged around them. At about 1300, when the worst part of the
fighting appeared to be over, Capt Rollings returned to the CP from the
battalion aid station (where he had gone to have his leg wound attended to
after dropping off his prisoners) and sent Adams and his group back to #65.
Someone mentioned at the time that 15 German tanks had been destroyed in the
tank battle. During the fighting, L Co of the 3/38th Inf took up positions
to the left (north) of AT Co, using the cellars and basements of ruined houses
as strongpoints.
As they re-entered #65, Adams' 2d Plt realized that they had left their
two wounded German prisoners there during the tank battle. One, the wounded
SS officer who had thrown the hand grenade earlier that morning, was still
there since his leg was too badly injured to walk on; but the other, who also
had a leg wound but less severe, was gone. Adams ran out to the front door
to look for the escaped man, who he figured couldn't have gotten far yet. -He
21

Ibid.

145

was right, for he spotted the man "wobbling down the road toward another house
on the corner.* Since he was too far away and too exposed for Adams to
22
recapture, Adams shot him.

Despite the ferocity of the earlier tank battle, the north-facing panzer
that had menaced the intersection that morning was still in position. Adams'
men could no longer see it since itwas now hidden from their view by the shed
adjacent to the Drosch house, but they could hear itwarming up its motor from
time to time. They could also see, through a gap in a hedge, tankers and
infantrymen running to and fro near the tank. Adams watched this activity for
a little while, then got his carbine, which he had modified to be fully
automatic when desired. Bracing against a ground-floor window sill, Adams
began firing bursts at the Germans who appeared in the gap. Apparently they
never figured out where the firing was coming from because he carried on with
this sniping for some time, and by evening a rather large pile of German dead
had accumulated in the gap and they had stopped using it as an avenue of
approach.23
Around 1600, a German tank approaching from Lausdell stopped on the road
behind #61, using one of the tanks knocked out earlier as cover, and began
firing into #65 to cover for more panzers heading for Krinkelt. Firing from
Capt Love's AT Co CP, Pvt Salazar repeated his morning performance by knocking
out one of these, a PzJg IV from the 560th Hvy PzJg Bn, as it pulled up behind
the two destroyed tanks blocking the southern road.24 [ACTION 24] A few
minutes later, the last tank in the column joined the first in bombarding
Adams' platoon in #65. The sturdy house withstood the pounding until one of
the tank rounds came in through a window or door and exploded inside,
destroying the staircase leading from the basement to the first floor.
NAmidst the choking smoke and dust, Lt Adams ordered his men out of the house"
and into a ditch to the rear of the house. As they did so, the two

Ibid.
" Ibid.
24

Ibid. ALSo, Cavanagh,

Go cit,

p.114

146

overwatching panzers followed their fellows southwest down the road into
Krinkelt. When they had gone, Adams went into the C Co CP to ask permission
to abandon the demolished house, which was proving too easy a target for the
panzers, but Capt Rollings refused, saying the position was vital.
Accordingly, Adams moved the 2d Plt back into the house as soon as the smoke
and dust had cleared enough for them to breathe. He reestablished his guards
at the windows and doors. One of the tank rounds had set the half-track in
front of the Orosch home on fire, and it continued burning into the night.
Since his group was so small and since the Rauw house had no eastward-facing
openings and was therefore indefensible at night, Adams withdrew Shinefelt's
2d Squad into #65 when it got dark. Around 1800, US artillery on Elsenborn
Ridge began firing "in a target area that seemed to enclose Lt Adams and his
group within a semicircular was of fire which was interposed between him and
the enemy. This fire kept up all during the night," and despite the noise,
2
"the men derived a great deal of comfort from it."5

Things were quiet (from a combat standpoint) until about 2200, when a
platoon of four German tanks led by a captured Sherman came up the southern
road from Krinkelt, turned left at the intersection, and passed by the C Co
CP. The tanks had their headlights on, and the Americans along the street
were fooled at first by the Sherman into thinking it was an American column.
They hailed the tankers in English, but when they got no reply and saw that
the subsequent tanks were German, they opened fire with their small arms and
machine guns. The tanks, unaffected, continued to the northern road, where
they turned right and continued north out of the area.2'
At some point during the night, a single German tank drove up and down
the street, spraying its machine guns at the houses on either side. [See
Figure 15] The men in the AT Co CP fired bazookas at it and hit it several
times, but none of the rounds penetrated, and the tank, apparently undamaged,
eventually drove away. [ACTION 25]

2USA

ETO Zd ID Combat Interview

Saettte of the IuLgo,

Ibid.

147

17-20 Dcer

1940 FIte 0173

FIGURE 15.

POCKET OF RESISTANCE, 19 DECEMBER, EARLY MORNING


148

In the pre-dawn hours, another lone panzer came down the Route vers
Udenbreth and stopped between the two knocked-out tanks blocking the road.
There it sat until dawn. At about the same time, a self-propelled tank
destroyer of the 644th TD Bn pulled up behind Adams' position at #65. The
panzer heard the TD moving into position and fired a few blind shots in that
direction, but neither vehicle moved out of its cover to get a better shot for
fear of becoming exposed to the other's fire.
Around 0900, four Belgian civilians picked their way through the rubble
in the foggy half-light of dawn and entered #65, where they joined the other
five civilians who had remained in the basement since the battle began.
A little later, a single Mk V Panther stopped behind the houses just
east of Capt Love's AT Co CP and began shelling the CP with its 75mm gun. As
Love recalled, this was one of the many instances when the German tanks fired
HE shells uselessly against the stone buildings when AP shells would have been
deadly. Adams' men in #65, who were not forced to take cover against the
tank's fire like Love's men were, opened fire on the panzer with their small
arms, but succeeded only in diverting its attention to themselves. The
Panther traversed its turret toward them and fired four or five rounds at #65.
His shells' ineffectiveness evidently annoyed the German tank commander, for
he did an extraordinary thing. Opening the turret's top hatch, he pulled a
panzerfaust (disposable anti-tank rocket launcher) from inside the tank,
rested it on his shoulder, and fired it at the AT Co CP house. The 88mm
rocket struck the attic and caved in the entire roof of the house, injuring
one of Love's men. The tank commander then calmly withdrew back into the
turret, closed the hatch, and the Panther turned and drove away. During the
entire episode not a single shot was fired at the panzer leader, so stunned
were the Americans at the sight.2'
Shortly after, Adams' and Love's men spotted a panzer hiding in a wooden
shed about 60 yards north of Love's CP. The panzer had backed into the shed,
apparently intending to ambush any American vehicles that might pass by with
Ibid.

149

a flank shot at point-blank range, but its cannon barrel was too long for its
hiding place and protruded from the shed. One of the 644th TD Bn's tank
destroyers, so far reluctant to move from its covered position during this
battle, was able to fire on the shed without moving.
Several rounds
demolished the shed and as the panzer moved out to seek more substantial
cover, the TO knocked it out."
At about 0900, a force of German infantry estimated at between a platoon
and a reduced company moved into #61, from which Lt Adams had pulled 2d Squad
at nightfall the previous evening. Capt Rollings got the TD behind #65 to
fire three rounds into the house, and they were apparently very effective,
because for the next 45 minutes the Germans could be seen carrying casualties
out of the house. Meanwhile, more infantry joined the panzer on the road
behind #61 and together they moved to assault Capt Rollings' C Co CP from the
right (north) side of #61. [See Figure 16] The panzer began firing its main
gun at the TD and the C Co CP at a range of 200 yards." While the Americans
returned fire and pinned down the German infantry with their small arms and
automatic fire, Lt Adams and Sgt Rudolph Kraft, second in command of the 2d
Plt squad manning #65, each grabbed a bazooka and climbed into the attic of
#65 to get a shot at the panzer. Counting down from three to one, both men
fired simultaneously, but Adams' weapon failed to discharge. Kraft's rocket,
however, struck the panzer in the starboard bogies.
Discarding his
malfunctioning bazooka, Adams quickly loaded a second round into Kraft's
weapon. This shot penetrated the thin armor on the top of the panzer's turret
and exploded inside. (ACTION 26] As Adams bent to pick up a third round (an
act which may have saved his life), a high explosive round from another nearby
tank burst into the attic and exploded, collapsing the roof and part of the
attic walls onto the two men. Itwas quickly followed by a second round which
exploded against the wall, but Adams and Kraft were protected against its
effects by the cover of the rubble they were under. The two men dug
themselves out and raced down into the basement, where the rest of 2d Plt had
2

Ibid.

n Lt Adm coutd hear, over the shooting,

inctuding (prembly In Bermn)

NIe, 2001

the Aerm tank canodser In the turret shouting orders,


Ibid.

150

16

already taken cover. Adams had been injured when the wall fell on him, but
he continued to command his platoon. For the next three hours the two forces
battled across the street as, in between tank rounds, the men of 2d Plt and
AT Co sprang to their windows to return fire as best they could.3 At about
noon, two more panzers entered the intersection and added the weight of their
fire, targeting Adams' #65 and the other houses in the area. Seeing the
little effect their 75mm shells were having against the stone houses, the
panzers switched to spraying the area with their machine guns. A number of
bursts struck the shed adjacent to the Drosch house. This shed had a thatched
roof that was easily ignited by the tracer rounds. Lt Roy E. Mode, one of
the C Co officers in the house with Lt Adams, tried to extinguish the blaze
with two five-gallon Jerry cans of water, but was unsuccessful and the flames
soon spread to the house proper. The Orosch home, #65 Rocherath, which the
2d Plt, C Co, had defended so successfully for two days, finally had to be
abandoned. While one GI ran to the top of what remained of the basement
stairs to warn the civilians, yelling "Home brennt; you must goi, the rest
of the platoon exited the rear of the house and down a track leading past #64
and westward toward Wirtzfeld. 1
At 1300, the commander of the 644th's self-propelled TOs in the area
reported to Love and informed him that he (Love) was now in command of the
vehicles and could deploy them as he chose. Finally able to countermand the
orders that had kept the TDs fixed in place and unable to fire at many targets
during the battle, Love quickly issued movement orders to several of the
vehicles, placing one on the north side of his CP building and another in
reserve behind the house. Around 1500, a Mk IV panzer that had worked its way
around to the rear of Love's position began shelling the area from the west.
[See Figure 17] One of its rounds hit and penetrated the TO behind the CP,
wounding all the crew members. One of the AT men in the CP reacted and hit
the Mk IV with a bazooka round, immobilizing it,while Love maneuvered one of
the other TOs around to finish it off. Evidently the bazooka round had hit
3

Ibid. Atso, Cavlm~h,

3USA

=. .i, p.A2

ETO CoM.t Intervmiew 'ttl*

of the Butoe,

p.127

152

17-20 Dcubew 19440 Fit* #173; Cvmmgh,

cit,

//

F2

FIGURE 17.

38I1

POCKET OF RESISTANCE, 19 DECEMBER, AFTERNOON


153

the panzer's engine compartment, because even though it saw the maneuvering
TO it couldn't rotate its turret fast enough to get a shot at it. "Because
of the locations of the buildings, the TO had to come up with its gun pointing
to the rear, and while the Mk IV was traversing slowly, as ifby hand, through
900, the TO traversed through about 200, got off three rounds, and took the
turret right off the Hk IV. Another Mk IV that was moving in near the first
one apparently saw what was happening, for he pulled out."3 2 [ACTION 27)
Just before 1700, Capt Love was summoned to attend a meeting at the 38th
Regimental CP a few blocks away. At this meeting, Col Boos issued orders to
his battalion and company commanders to begin the withdrawal to Berg and
Elsenborn at 1730. Love's AT Co was to follow behind L Co, which was attached
to the 2/38th, on the road west through Wirtzfeld. Boos instructed the
commanders to destroy any equipment, German or American, that could not be
carried out. Capt Love returned to his company and got the preparations for
withdrawal underway. Finally, around 1830, a radio message informed him that
L Co had cleared the area, so Love put the remnants of his three gun platoons
and mine platoon on the road. By 2100 the company had reached Elsenborn,
where it was ordered to occupy a section of the new defense line. This was
accomplished by the morning of the 20th.

32

USA ITO CoIbet Interview

ftttLe of the BIlge, 17-20 Deeubr 194"" Fire 0173

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ACTIONS 28-29
Name: One Panzer's Saga
Location: Krinkelt-Rocherath, Belgium
Time: 0800-1000 hours, 18 December 1944
The bulk of the 1/38th Infantry, under LtCol Frank T. Mildren, withdrew
from Wahlerscheid beginning at 1450 on 17 December with orders to assume
defensive positions in the twin villages. Making their way down the forest
road through the Rocherather Baracken and into Rocherath as the Germans
hammered Col McKinley's 1/9th to the east, Mildren's battalion reached its
positions around dusk. C Company, as has already been reported,33 occupied
some houses just southwest of the water tower in Rocherath. A and B Companies
moved east of the villages, but a German tank-infantry attack overran B Co
before it had a chance to dig in and the remnants of the company withdrew into
the village. Sporadic German attacks throughout the evening and early morning
of the 18th resulted in the rather chaotic American defense depicted in Figure
18.
Around 0730 on the morning of 18 December, a force of German tanks,
probably Panthers3' of the I Pz Bn, came down the southernmost of the two
main roads running through the twin villages, past the water tower and C Co's
position. It seems likely that these were the same 11 tanks engaged by Lt
Adams and Capt Love just before the Rocherath tank battle began. By about
0800, five of these tanks had penetrated through that area and were nearing
the intersection in Krinkelt that was flanked by the church and by the
building housing Col Mlldren's 1/38th CP. The 2d ID Combat Interview "Battle
of the Bulge, 17-20 Dec 1944" says that Mildren's men were ready for the
tanks, which is consistent with Capt Love's assertion that he notified the
battalion CP when the tanks passed his position. As the panzers reached the
intersection, Mildren's men in the nearby buildings (including a small force
in the church) opened up on them with every automatic weapon available. This
So* p'eeding actions, VPocket of REelstmmo
USA ITO Zd 10 Coltt Interview "ettte of the lutle, 1V-20 Dec 194"

181

Fiet $173

Acon occurre We
Rocherother

Roeof

Seamcken

German

ttar"
........ *

3~*

Iaokst

oI

FIGURE 18.

AMERICAN DEFENSE, 18 DECEMBER


182

had no effect on the buttoned-up panzers, which began returning fire with
their cannon. They directed much of this fire at Mildren's CP, where there
were several light machine guns posted in the upper story windows. The
American gunners ran from room to room, staying one step ahead of the shells
that the German tanks were hurling through the windows, all the while keeping
up the stream of fire at the panzers.
While the German tanks were thus engaged, stationary in the middle of
the street, they drew the fire of some Sherman tanks that were stationed in
the outskirts of the village east of the CP. Their fire knocked out the first
two panzers in the column (See Figure 19) and spurred the others into action.
The next two panzers bypassed their stricken comrades and continued southwest
down the road past Nildren's CP.
When the first one reached the next
intersection, a bazooka team from the 1/38th's AT Platoon (one of five bazooka
teams from various units in the area) fired and hit it in the track
(presumably in the port side, given the panzer's direction of travel). The
panzer was thus immobilized, but could still pivot in place, and its crew and
weaponry were undamaged. The German crew swung the tank 180" about, spraying
the area with the vehicle's machine guns. They then began firing the tank's
cannon and both machine guns35 to the northeast, past Mildren's CP.
Lt
Howard 0. Emerich, the 1/38th's Battalion Motor Officer, was just traveling
to the CP from the northwest when he found the wounded Panther blocking his
path, so he retraced his steps a bit and found a Sherman tank of the 741st Tk
Bn which he guided into a position about 200 yards due north of the CP. From
there it had a clear view of the German tank, and the Sherman's first shot
penetrated the Panther's turret on the port side and silenced the tank 3e

The fact that the vehicle is specificatty imntioned firing two machine guns as well as its cannon

is signif icant, in that it helps us narrow the possibilities of wht type of vehicles they really were. we
know from the German 0tiarunmm (TOt.) that there were only four types of pnzars/panzerjigers involved
with the 12th SW-PzD at the twin villages: Nk iV Panzers, Nk V Panthers, Nk IV Jagdpanzers, and Nk V
Jagdenthers. The tatter two vehict types only had one machine gun apiece, so the vehictes in this platoon
mat have been either Nk :do or Nk V tanks. Further, this tells us that they were from the I Pz Bn of the
12th S3-Pztqet, the only German unit in the battle to employ turreted AFVs. Unfortunately, both Nk IVs and
Panthers had either two or three machine gas, so we camot narrow the field of possibilities any further
than this. Nowever, since the American eyewitnass" refer to them repeatedly as Panthers, we shall bow to
their Judgmnt and refer to them likewise for the remainder of this section.
USA ETO 2d ID Combet Interview Mettle of the BuLge: 17-20 Dec 1940 FiLe 9173

183

II

FIGURE 19.

KNOCK OUT OF FIRST TWO TANKS


184

Bazooka teams from A Co and the 0 Co 81mm mortar platoon, working in


tandem, fired several shots which destroyed the fourth Panther not far behind
the third (See Figure 20). [ACTION 28]
The fifth Panther proved to be more of a problem. Apparently following
some distance behind the preceding four tanks, it skirted past the remains of
the first two panzers and past the church, where the tank commander apparently
saw the third panzer either already destroyed or in the process of being so.
In order to avoid a similar fate, the fift.i Panther turned left at the church,
intending to bypass the dangerous area by using a parallel street one block
south. It turned right on the street behind Mildren's CP, then right again
when it reached the next street. The AT Platoon bazooka team fired several
rounds at the Panther as it approached the carcasses of the third and fourth
panzers, but none of the rounds penetrated the tank's armor. Upon reaching
the intersection, the crew of the fifth Panther found the road blocked by the
wreck of the third tank; its body and cannon, pointing northeast, thoroughly
prohibited further movement in that direction. While the fifth Panther was
backing and filling in order to turn around, Lt Sidney P. Dane, the 1/38th's
S-2, and Sgt Charles Wood ran out of the CP building to a place nearby
(presumably a barn or pen of some sort) where there were some cows belonging
to one of the local farmers. To keep the Panther from going back the way it
had come, where it would be loose in A and I Cos' rear areas, but lacking any
anti-tank weapons, Dane and Wood stampeded the cattle up the middle of the
street toward the German tank. The Panther crew fired one of their machine
guns, killing some of the cows, but nevertheless decided against running
through the herd.37 They swung the tank to the left and crashed through the
back yards and gardens of the houses on that block. All the while, Sgt Grover
Farrell,3 in the upper story of the CP building, was directing a stream of
.50cal fire onto the tank to keep its crew buttoned up or perhaps hoping to
get a lucky hit through a vision slit.

37one of the American sources specutates that perhaps the German


tank crew was afraid of throwing a
track wtl runming over the cam, but that sem untikety. Nor is it consistent with SI behavior that they
veered off course for humintarian reasons.

in sew sources Farrett is Identified as being onty a private.

185

II

US tank

Bazooka teams

FIGURE 20.

SILENCING TANKS 3 AND 4


186

The Panther turned again and entered the alley between the CP building
and the next building to the east. At the other end of the alley, the
commander spotted three American Jeeps parked in front of the CP and drove the
Panther out of the alley and over the jeeps two or three times, smashing them
Still shrugging off the heavy
into unrecognizable piles of wreckage.
automatic weapons fire that was hitting it from all sides, the Panther then
moved so that it was able to stick its cannon muzzle through one of the CP's
ground floor windows. To the intense relief and puzzlement of the Americans
inside, however, the tank did not fire, although when backing out of the
position a few minutes later the tank's fender knocked loose a corner of the
building. Apparently satisfied that there were no other targets nearby worthy
of its attention, or perhaps fearful of the American bazooka teams roaming the
area, the Panther roared off down the street, past the wreck of the third
Panther and then northwest. The tank then turned southwest on the Route vers
Udenbreth as if heading for either BOllingen or Wirtzfeld. (See Figure 21)
Farther to the southwest, at the CP of Col Barsantl's 3/38th Infantry,
Maj Vivian Paul, the 38th Infantry Regiment's S-4, was just leaving to return
to the Regimental CP in Rocherath after a meeting with Col Barsanti. He and
his driver hai just gotten into their jeep, parked in front of the CP, when
the surviving Panther *rounded the corner going lickety-split," headed right
for them. Maj Paul and the driver leapt from the jeep and rolled into a
roadside ditch just as the Panther slammed into the jeep and crushed it. At
that moment, one of the 57mm AT guns of the 3/38th's AT Platoon, which was
covering the Route vers Udenbreth against just such a German incursion, fired
at the Panther. The shell struck the panzer and apparently damaged the turret
traverse mechanism, for the Panther continued down the street but "with the
turret swinging wildly, completely out of control." [ACTION 29] The 3/38th's
Assistant S-3, Lt Fred Sutton, was nearby and had witnessed the whole episode.
He ran to a nearby Sherman tank and notified them of the Panther in the
neighborhood. The Sherman quickly fired a round at the Panther but missed.
The Panther was lost to the Sherman's view before the American tank could fire
a second shot.

181

f.........

FIGURE 21.

THE END OF PANTHER FIVE'S SAGA


188

The Panther pressed on toward BOllingen, approaching the L Co CP. Just


as it passed in front of that building, a self-propelled TD from the 644th TO
Bn, which Col Barsanti had placed near the 3/38th CP to guard against a German
attack from Bollingen, fired three rounds in rapid succession into the
Panther's thinner rear armor at a range of 250-300 yards. That finally
stopped the rampaging Panther, and as the crew bailed out of the tank, the L
Co riflemen picked them off. When the panzer's hulk was examined later, it
was found to have 11 bazooka holes in it (none of which apparently penetrated
all the way through the armor), as well as the three TD penetrations in the
rear and whatever mark the AT gun's round had left.

189

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APPENDIX A
BIBLIOGRAPHY

SOURCE MATERIAL EXAMINED FOR KRINKELT-ROCHERATH ENGAGEMENTS


1. Archival Records from National Records Center, Suitland, ND
302-1
302-3
302-3.2
302-INF(9)-0.3
302-INF(9)-0.7
302-INF(23)-0.7
302-CAV-0.2
399-0.3
399-3.2
ARBN-741-0.3
ARBN-741-0.7
TDBN-644-0.1
TDBN-644-0.3
TDBN-801-0.3

2nd Infantry Division G-1 Journal, December 1944 [Box


5978]
2nd Infantry Division G-3 After Action Report, December
1944 [SAIC File #161]
2nd Infantry Division G-3 Journal, December 1944 [SAIC
File #170]
9th Infantry Regiment (2nd Infantry Division) After
Action Report, December 1944 [Box 6064]
9th Infantry Regiment (2nd Infantry Division) Unit
Journal, December 1944 [SAIC File #177]
23d Infantry Regiment (2nd Infantry Division) Unit
Journal, December 1944 [SAIC File #179]
2d Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop History, December 1944
[Box 6038]
99th Infantry Division After Action Report, December 1944
[SAIC File #166]
99th Infantry Division G-3 Journal and File, 19 December
1944 [SAIC File #165]
741st Tank Battalion After Action Report, December 1944
[SAIC File #210]
741st Tank Battalion Unit Journal, December 1944 [SAIC
File #211]
644th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, December 1944
[SAIC File #180]
644th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operations Report [SAIC
File #181]
801st Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,
December 1944 [SAIC File #209]

2. Archival Records from the Armor School Library, Ft. Knox, KY


612th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, December 1944 [SAIC
File #22]
3. ETO Cobat Interviews, Nationai Records Center, Suitland, NO
Box 24017 File 20

2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "Battle


of the Bulge," 17-20 December 1944 [SAIC File #173]

Box 24017 File 20

2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews "German


Breakthrough," 14 December 1944 - 16 January 1945
[SAIC File #176]

Box 24017 File 20

"Extract of Personal Journal of HQ Commandant.


Konop, 2nd Infantry Division" in 2nd Infantry
Division Combat Interviews "German Breakthrough,"
14 December 1944 - 16 January 1945 [SAIC File #176]
A-I

Box 24017 File 20

38th Infantry Regiment Appendix to After Action


Report in 2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews
"German Breakthrough," 14 December 1944 - 16
January 1945 [SAIC File #176]

Box 24017 File 20

38th Infantry Regiment Journal in 2nd Infantry


Division Combat Interviews "German Breakthrough,"
14 December 1944 - 16 January 1945 [SAIC File #176]

Box 24017 File 20

Battalion Citation for 2/23d Infantry in 2nd


Infantry Division Combat Interviews "German
Breakthrough," 14 December 1944 - 16 January 1945
[SAIC File #176]

Box 24017 File 20

Extract from Report "Operations, AT Co, 9th


Infantry," in 2nd Infantry Division Combat
Interviews "German Breakthrough," 14 December 1944
- 16 January 1945 [SAIC File #176]

Box 24017 File 20

Extracts from 23d Infantry Regiment Unit Journal


in2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews "German
Breakthrough," 14 December 1944 - 16 January 1945
[SAIC File #176]

Box 24017 File 20

G-3 Periodic Report in2nd Infantry Division Combat


Interviews "German Breakthrough," 14 December 1944
- 16 January 1945 [SATC File #176]

Box 24017 File 20

Statement of ILT Roy Allen, B Co, 1/9th Infantry


Regiment in2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews
"German Breakthrough,"

14 December 1944 -

16

January 1945 [SAIC File #176]


Box 24069 File 209

99th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "Ardennes


16-20 December 1944 [SAIC File #182]

4. Office of the Center of Military History, Washington, D.C.


"Tank Fight of Rocherath-Krinkelt (Belgium) 17-19 December 1944," [SAIC
File #131]
5. Foreign Nilitary Studies, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
MS ETHINT-21
MS ETHINT-15
MS #B-522
MS #A-924

"Sixth Panzer Army, 16 November 1944 - 4 January 1945"


(SAIC File #201]
"Sixth Panzer Army inthe Ardennes Offensive" [SAIC File
#200]
"The 12th SS-Panzer Division 'Hitler Jugend' in the
Ardennes Offensive" [SAIC File #199]
"Commitment of Sixth Panzer Army in the Ardennes 1944
-1945" (SAIC File #202]
A-2

6. Niscellaneous Information
Ardennes Database [Property of US Army Concepts Analysis Agency, Bethesda,

MD]
Miscellaneous letters to and from Mr. Richard H. Byers, 99th Infantry
Division Archives Committee [SAIC File #213]
"Operations of the 612th Tank Destroyer Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division,
in the Battle of the Bulge, Vicinity of Elsenborn Corner, 16-31
December 1944 (Ardennes-Alsace Campaign) (SAIC File #208]
Parker, Danny S., notes to "Hitler's Last Gamble" 3W, Cambria, CA 1989
US Army Field Manual 101-10, 21 December 1944 (Pentagon]
7. Published Secondary Sources
Cavanagh, William, C.C. Krinkelt-Rocherath. The Battle for the Twin
Villages. 1986. [Library of Congress Catalog Number 85-63825]
Cole, Hugh M. United States Army in World War II: The European Theater of
Operations: The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge. Washington, DC: Office of the
Chief of Military History Department of the Army, 1965. [SAIC File #1, 9, 140,
141, 142]
MacDonald, Charles B. A Time for Trumpets. New York:
Company, Inc., 1985. [Library of Congress]

William Morrow &

Meyer, Hubert. Krieasaeschichte der 12.SS-Panzerdivision "Hitler.iugend" II.


Munin Verlag GmbH, Osnabruck, 1982. [SAIC File #198]
Pallud, Jean-Paul. "The Battle of the Bulge: Then and Now." After The
Battle. London: Battle of Britain Prints International Ltd., 1984. [SAIC File

#203]
von Senger und Etterlin, F.M. German Tanks of World War II. The Complete
Illustrated History of German Armoured Fighting Vehicles 1926-1945. New York
City: Galahad Books, 1969. [Library of Congress]
d. Nap Relevant to this Effort
GSGS 4414

Sheets 5503, 5504, 5603, 5604 - Map of KrinkeltRocherath, Belgium, December 1944. [National Archives Map
Service, Pickett Street Alexandria, VA]

A-3

APPENDIX B
INDEX TO FILES AND REFERENCES ON ENGAGEMENTS
AT KRINKELT-ROCHERATH, BELGIUM

A2D2 FILING SYSTEM FOR ALL RECORDS


The location in brackets (] is where SAIC obtained the information.

LOCAIONABiBREVIATION
The Pentagon Library, Washington, DC
Office of the Center of Military History, Washington, DC
Washington National Records Center, Suitland, MD
National Archives and Record Service, Washington, DC
The Armor School Library, Fort Knox, KY
The Infantry School Library, Fort Benning, GA
The Library of Congress, Washington, DC
US Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, PA
Fort Belvoir Library, Fort Belvoir, VA
Bibliothek fOr Zeitgeschichte, Stuttgart, Germany
FOLDER NUMBER

Pentagon
OCMH
Suitland
National Archives
Ft. Knox, KY
Ft. Benning, GA
LC
USAMHI
Ft. Belvoir
Stuttgart

TITLE

Cole, Hugh, M. United States Army in World War II: The


European Theater of Ooerations: The Ardennes: Battle
of the Bule. Washington, OC: Office of the Chief of
Military History Department of the Army, 1965, pg. 128135.
[Pentagon UA 25.U515.V.8]

Rivette, Donald E. "The Hot Corner at Dom BOtgenbach."


Infantry Journal. Vol. LVII. No. 4. October 1945, pg.
19-23.
[Ft. Benning, GA]

"Dom BOtgenbach Action, 26th Infantry (1st Division) 1922 December 1944." (Title page only)
[OCMH Historical Manuscript File, Call
Number 2-3.7 AE.P-13]

"Attack and Penetration," 16-21 December 1944 Dom


BOtgenbach, Belgium. (Title page only)
[OCMH Historical Manuscript File, Call
Number 8-3.1 AT, Reel 213, 214]

Rivette, Donald E., Capt, "The Operations of the 2d


Battalion, 26th Infantry (1st Infantry Division) at Dom
Infantry
BOtgenbach, Belgium, 16-21 December 1944."
Battalion defending hilly terrain against coordinated
tank-infantry attacks. (Anti-tank Company Commander,
48-49 Monograph).
[Ft. Benning, GA, Microfilm Number D-508]

Gendron, Thomas J., MAJ, "The Operations of the 2d


Battalion, 26th Infantry (1st US Infantry Division) at
B-i

Dom BOtgenbach, Belgium, 18-21 December 1944." Infantry


Battalion, reinforced, in a reverse slope defense of
hilly open terrain against coordinated infantry-tank
attacks. (Battalion S-3, 49-50 Monograph).
[Ft. Benning, GA, Microfilm Number 0-498]
7

"History of Anti-Tank Company, 12th Infantry Regiment,


4th Infantry Division, July 22, 1944 to March 31, 1945."
[Ft. Knox, KY, Microfilm, Reel #2177, Item
2329]

Adair, L.R., CPT, Speer, W. H., CPT, et. al. Mortain;


Defensive. Deliberate Defense 30th Infantry Division 913 August 1944. Annotated Bibliography,
Fort
Leavenworth, Kansas, 1983.
[Ft. Knox, KY]

Cole, Hugh, M. US Army in World War II: The European


Theater of Ooerations: The Ardennes: Battle of the
Bulae. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military
History Department of the Army, 1965, pg. 377-382.
[Pentagon UA 25.U515.V.8]

10

Hechler, Ken. Holdina the Line:


The 51st Engineer
Combat Battalion and the Battle of the Bulge, December
1944 - January 1945. Prologue and Epilogue by Barry W.
Fowle. Studies in Military Engineering, Number 4, Fort
Belvoir, Virginia: Office of History, United States
Army Corps of Engineers, 1988, pg. 29-49.
[Pentagon D 756.5.A7 H42 1988]

11

Thompson, Jack, War Correspondent, "82nd Airborne


Division, Stories of Sicilian Invasion."
[Ft. Knox, KY, Microfilm, Reel #2042, Item
2068]

12

Mitchell, Ralph M., COL. The 101st Airborne Division's


Defense of Bastoane." Combat Studies Institute,
September 1986.
[OCMH D 756.5 A7 M58 1986]

13

Martin, Darryl, R. "Unexpected Trap for Panzers."


Military History. December 1989, pg. 47-53.
[From the personal files of Jay Karamales
(SAIC)]

14

Rapport, Leonard, and Northwood, Arthur Jr. Rmndezvou


With Destiny: A History of the 101st Airborne Division.
Washington, DC: Infantry Journal Press, pg. 622-630.
[Pentagon WX 220 No 101.R22]

B-2

15

MacDonald, Charles B. United States Amy in World War


II: The European Theater of Ooerations:
The Last
Offensive. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of
Military History United States Army, 1973, pg. 36, 37.
(Pentagon UA 25 U515 V.9]

16

823d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,


August 1-19 1944.
(Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 8823 TO 101 823d
TO Rn AAR (AAR #588 U)]

17

823d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,


December 17-26 1944.
[Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 8823 TO 101 823d
TO an AAR (AAR #588 U)]

18

823d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,


January 14-18 1945.
(Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 8823 TO 101 823d
TO an AAR (AAR #588 U)]

19

607th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, Jun4


1944 - April 1945 (only 8 September 1944 copied).
[Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 8607 TO 101 AAR
#575 U 847.6]

20

609th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,


October 1944 - January 1945 (only January 1945 copied).
[Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 8609 TD 101 AAR
847.7]

21

610th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,


August-September 1944, December 1944.
(Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 8610 TO 101]

22

612th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,


July-December 1944, February 1945, April-May 1945 (only
December 1944 copied).
(Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 8612 TD 101 AAR
#452 847.9]

23

630th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,


August-November 1944, January-May 1945 (only January
1945 copied).
[Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 8630 TD 101 AAR
#615 U 847-12]

24

644th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, July


1944 - 9 May 1945 (only December 1944 copied).
[Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 8644 TO 101]

B-3

25

7th Tank Destroyer Group After Action Report, 19-31


December 1944.
(Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 807 T 502]

26

821st Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,


January-December 1944, February-April 1945 (only
November 1944 copied).
[Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 8821 TO 101 AAR
#97 847-56]

27

*The Battle For Aachen." After The Battle. Number 42.


London: Battle of Britain Prints International Limited,
1983.
[Ft. Knox, KY]

28

"Battle of the Bulge." After The Battle. Number 4.


London: Battle of Britain Prints International Limited,
1974.
[Ft. Knox, KY]

29

Yonos, John. "Anzio:


Part I. AFV.
[Ft. Knox, KY]

The Soft Underbelly of Europe."

30

Yonos, John. "Anzio:


Part II.AF.
[Ft. Knox, KY]

The Soft Underbelly of Europe."

31

Yonos, John. "Anzio:


Part III. AFM.
[Ft. Knox, KY]

The Soft Underbelly of Europe."

32

Yonos, John. "Anzio:


Part Four. M.
[Ft. Knox, KY]

The Soft Underbelly of Europe."

33

Yonos, John. "Anzio:


Part Five. A[M.
[Ft. Knox, KY]

The Soft Underbelly of Europe."

34

Yonos, John. "Anzio: The German Offensive Fails!" Part


Six. AFV.
[Ft. Knox, KY]

35

Yonos, John. "Anzio:


Part Seven. M.
[Ft. Knox, KY]

The 'Lull' Before the Breakout."

36

Yonos, John. "Anzio:


[Ft. Knox, KY]

Part Eight:

37

Yonos, John. "Anzio:

Part Nine:
B-4

Breakout!" AFV.
Breakoutl" AFV.

(Ft. Knox, KY]


38

39

Green, J.H., COL. "Anzio." After The Battle. Number 52.


London: Battle of Britain Prints International Limited,
1986.
[Ft. Knox, KY]
"The Battle of St. Vith." CSI Battlebook 4-A. Ft.
Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute, December
1944 (Bibliography only).
[Ft. Knox, KY]

40

"The Battle of Schnee Eifel." CSI Battlebook 10-B. Ft.


Leavenworth, Kansas:
Combat Studies Institute,
September 1944 (Bibliography only).
(Ft. Knox, KY]

41

"The Battle of Aachen." CSI Battlebook 13-C. Ft.


Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute, October
1944 (Bibliography only).
[Ft. Knox, KY]

42

Destruction of German Armored Vehicles With ARpendices


1-5 Inclusive.
[Ft. Knox, KY 809A7 Ninth Armored Section,
Destruction of German Tanks 29 May 1945]

43

Trials Against Front Armor of German Mark III Tanks.


(Numbered box and folders of "George B.
Jarrett Papers" at Archives, USAMHI,
Carlisle Barracks, PA]

44

Fischer, Kurt. "Individual Anti-Tank Weapons in the


German Wehrmacht." Men Against Tanks.
[Ft. Knox, KY]

45

Young, Robert, W., Capt., Military Monograph, "Armored


Support of Infantry," May 1948.
[Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 41-417]

46

Tank Destroyer Newsletter, Spring 1989, Newsletter No.


25.
(Ft. Knox, KY]

47

US Tank Destroyer Units, WWII, A Working Bibliography.


[USANHI, Librarian File]

48

Tank Destroyer Combat in Tunisia, January 1944.


[USAMHI Archives - Found in Box labeled
"Tank Destroyers - History" Andrew Bruce
Papers]
B-S

49

Dornbusch, C.E. Histories of American Army Units World


Wars I and II and Korean Conflict With Some Earlier
Histories. Washington 25, DC: Department of the Army,
Office of the Adjutant General Special Services
Division, Library and Service Club Branch, April 1956
(Bibliography only).
[Pentagon UX 104 D71]

50

Gabel, Christopher R., Dr. Leavenworth Papers: Seek.


Strike. and Destroy: US Army Tank Destroyer Doctrine in
World War II.Combat Studies Institute, US Army Command
and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas,
September 1985. (Leavenworth Papers No. 12 Series)
(Bibliography only).
[Pentagon D 793.G33 1985]

51

30th Infantry Division G-1 Journal and File, August


1944.
[File 330-1.2 Box 8733, Suitland]

52

30th Infantry Division G-2 Periodic Report, August 1944.


[File 330-2.1 Box 8739, Suitland]

53

30th Infantry Division G-2 Message File and Journal,


August 1944.
[File 330-2.2 Box 8749 Suitland]

54

120th Infantry Regiment "Mortain," August 1944.


[File 330-INF(120) Box 8918 and 24237,
Suitland]
There are 2 documents in this folder. They
are the same but filed differently at
Suitland.

55

119th Infantry Regiment After/After Action Report,


August 1944.
(File 330-INF(119)-0.3 Box 8908, Suitland]

56

120th Infantry Regiment G-3 Supporting Document, August


1944.
[File 330-INF(120) Box 8944, Suitland]

57

94th Infantry Division G-3 After Action Report, January


1945.
[File 394-3 Box 13767, Suitland]

58

117th Infantry Regiment Unit Journal, August 1944.


[File 330-INF(117)-0.7 Box 8995, Suitland]
117th Infantry Regiment S-3 Journal and File, August
1944.

59

B-6

[File 330-INF(117)-3.3 Box 8906, Suitland]


60

117th Infantry Regiment Resume of Operations, August


1944.
[File 330-INF(117)-0.3 Box 8894, Suitland]

61

197th Field Artillery Battalion After Battle Report,


August 1944.
[File 330-FA(197)-0.3 Box 8880, Suitland]

62

230th Field Artillery Battalion "Battle of Mortain,"


August 1944.
[File 330-FA(230)-0.3 Box 8881, Suitland]

63

"Attitude to the Questionnaire Concerning the Commitment


of the 'Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler' in August 1944."
Draft Translation.
[National Archives Manuscript #B-358]

64

Map of Mortain actions.


[National Archives Manuscript #A921-AI]

65

"2d SS-Panzer Division 'Das Reich,' September 1944" (in


German).
[National Archives Manuscript #P-159]

66

"Counterattack against AVRANCHES, August 1944."


[National Archives Manuscript #A-921]

67

"Part I Northern France, 25 July - 26 July 1944."


(German translation)
(National Archives Manuscript #B-179]

68

"Normandy, Cobra and MORTAIN."


[National Archives Manuscript #A-894]

69

"Comments on the Seventh Army Journal August 1944."


[National Archives Manuscript #A-918]

70

629th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,


August 1944.
[File TDBN-629 Box 23582, Suitland]

71

823d Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, August 1944.


[File TDBN-823 Box 23847, Suitland]

72

823d Tank Destroyer Battalion Year 1944 (only August 6-9


1944 copied).
[File TDBN-823 Box 23847, Suitland]

73

823d Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Report, G-2 Periodic


Report, Messages, August 1-8 1944.
B-7

[File TDBN-823 Box 23850, Suitland]


74

30th Infantry Division G-3 After Action Report, August


1944.
[File 330-3 Box 8788, Sultland]

75

Hewitt, Robert L. Work Horse of the Western Front - The


Story of the 30th Infantry Division. Washington: The
Infantry Journal Press, 1946.
[Suitland and OCMH 05-30].

76

30th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop (Mechanized) After


Action Report, 15 June - 31 December 1944 (only August
1944 copied).
[File 330-CAV(0.3) Box 8858, Sultland]

77

118th Field Artillery Battalion After Action Report,


August 1944.
[File 330-FA(118)-0.3 Box 8869, Suitland]

78

113th Field Artillery Battalion After Action Report,


June-December 1944 (only August 1944 copied).
[File 330-FA(113)-0.3 Box 8868, Suitland]

79

30th Infantry Division G-3 Journal, 5-7 August 1944.


[File 330-3.2 Box 8796, Sultland]

80

30th Infantry Division G-4 Report, 8-9 August 1944.


[File 330-3.2 Suitland]

81

30th Infantry Division, "Mortain Counterattack, 6-12


August 1944."
[File 96 Box 24038, Suitland]
There are 36 documents in this folder.

82

Ludden, Monroe,. "Guarding the Flanks of the LeMans


Salient XX Corps," 1-14 August 1944.
[OCMH Historical Manuscript File, Call
Number 8-3.1 AP, Box 384]

83

'The Campaign in Northern France, Volume IV, Chapter 4,


The German Counterattack Against Avranches (German
Translation), August 1944.0
(National Archives Manuscript #B-725]

84

Sth Tank Destroyer Group History, 1 September 1942 to 9


May 1945.
[USAMHI]

85

McGrann, Roy T., Captain. The 610th Tank Destroyer


Battalion, 11-25 September 1944, Dieulouard Bridgehead.
B-8

[USAMHI]
86

A History of the 823rd Tank Destroyer Battalion, "Battle


of Mortain," Published for the Officers and Men of the
823rd TDBN, 1951.
[From Thomas Rainey 823d Tank Destroyer
Battalion]

87

"German 7th Army War Diary, Daily Reports, Volume V, 612 August 1944."
[Box 24237, Suitland, MD]

88

"German 7th Army War Diary, Daily Reports, Volume III,


7-12 August 1944."
[Box 24237, Suitland, MD]

89

"Engineer Hero Destroys Nazi Panzer Tanks." The Bayonet.


Fort Benning, Georgia, September 2, 1960, pg. 16.
[From the personal files of Brian R.
McEnany (SAIC)]

90

"German 7th Army, Group "B" War Diary - Phone Calls and
Conversations, 7-12 August 1944, Document IV."
[Box 24237, Suitland]

91

"German 7th Army War Diary, Daily Reports, Volume IV, 612 August 1944."
[Box 24237, Suitland]

92

Buisson, Gilles. Mortain 44: Objectif Avranches.


[LC Call Number D762.M56 B85 1984]

93

28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Winter


Offensive, 16-24 December 1944," Co K, 110th Infantry
Regiment.
[File 78, Box 24033, Suitland]

94

28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Winter


Offensive, December 1944," Unit Journal.
[File 78, Box 24033, Suitland]

95

28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Winter


Offensive, 16-24 December 1944," 3/112th Infantry
Regiment.
[File 78, Box 24033, Suitland]

96

28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Winter


Offensive, 16-24 December 1944," 112th Infantry
Regiment.
[File 78, Box 24033, Suitland]

8-9

97

28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Winter


Offensive, 16-24 December 1944," Interview with 1st Lt.
Leo A. Kodzerski and 1st Sgt. Joseph W. McKenna.
[File 78, Box 24033, Suitland]

98

110th Infantry Regiment History (28th Infantry


Division), 17 February 1941 - 25 October 1945, The
Ardennes Breakthrough. 16 December 1944 - 15 January

1945.
(File 328-INF(11O)-O.1 Box 8596, Suitland]
99

28th Infantry Division G-2 Journal, July 1944 - April


1945 (only December 1944 copied).
(File 328-2.2 (30549) Box 8487, Suitland]

100

The Normandy
Bennett, Ralph. Ultra in the West:
Campaign of 1944-1945. New York: Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1979, pg. 110-127.
[Ft. Belvoir MIL 940.5421 BEN]

101

Ritgen, Helmut. Die Geschichte Der Panzer-Lehr-Dlvi sign


Im Westen 1944-1945. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag, 1979.
(Includes transl ation)
[From the personal library of Albert D.
McJoynt (SAIC Consultant)]

102

Strauss, F.J., et al. Friedens-und Krlegserlebnisse


einer Generation. Ein Kaoitel Weltueschichte aus der
Sicht der Panzer.1&oer-Abteiluna 38 (SF) in der
ehemaligen 2.(Wiener) Panzerdivision. Schweinfurt:
1960. (Includes translation)
(Stuttgart]

103

Lehmann, Rudolf, and Tiemann, Ralf. Die Leibstandarte.


Band IV/1. Osnabruck: Munin Verlag, 1986. (Includes
transl ation)
(Stuttgart]

104

Weldlnger, Otto. Division Das Reich. Der Wea der 2.SSDie Geschicbte der
Panzer-Division "Das Reich".
194 -1945.
Stammdivision der Waffen-SS, Band V:
Osnabruck: Munln-Verlag, 1982. (Includes translation)
(Stuttgart]

105

Weidinger, Otto, ed. Kameraden bbs zum Ende. DerWe


der SS-Panzerarenadier-Reabments 4 ODFO 1939-1945. Die
deutsch-osterreichischen
elner
Geschichte
Plesse-Verlag, 1962.
Kamofaemebnschaft. Gottingen:
(Includes translation)
(Stuttgart]

B-10

106

Stober, H.-J.E. Die Eiserne Faust. Bildband und Chronik


"Gotz
von
17.
SS-Panzerarenadier-Divtsion
der
Berlichinaen." Neckargemund: Kurt Vowinckel Verlag,
1966). (Includes translation)
[Stuttgart]

107

Die
Stober, Hans. Die Sturmflut und das Ende.
Geschlchte der 17. SS-Panzerarenadierdivision "Gotz von
BerlichtnoenN, Band I: Di Invion. Osnabruck: Munin
Verlag, 1976. (Includes translation)
[Stuttgart]

108

Buisson, Gilles. Mortain dans la Bataille de Normandie.


(Includes
Paris:
Presses de la Cite, 1971.
translation)
[Stuttgart]

109

Kissel, Hans. Gefechte in Russland 1941-1944. Frankfurt


(Includes
E.S. Mittler & Sohn, 1956.
am Main:
translation)
[Stuttgart]

110

Tank and Tank Destroyer Conference, Army War College, 26


January 1945 Subj: US Tank and Anti-tank Weapons
Program [Army Field Forces Development and Testing
Section].
[RG 337 File 470-8/7 Suitland]

111

Tank Destroyer Battalions - Miscellaneous Information on


Unit, Activation Origin, Combat Introduction, etc.
[From Quintus Atkinson Vice President and
Washington Liaison for 610th Tank Destroyer
Battalion]

112

Stanton, Shelby. US Amy Order of Battle in World War


1I. Part IV: Tank Destroyers of the US Army in World
Warl1. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1984.
[Suitland]

113

Blumenson, Martin. "The Mortain Counterattack." United


States Army in World War II: The European Theater of
Breakout and Pursuit. Washington, DC:
Operations:
of Military History, United States
the
Chief
of
Office
Army, 1961.
[Pentagon UA 25.U515 V.5]

114

Howe, George F. The Battle History of the 1st Armored


Division. "Old Ironsides". Washington: Combat Forces
Press, 1954.
[Pentagon UX 222 no. I H85]

B-11

115

702d Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit History for Year


1944.
[File TDBN-702-0.1 Box 23714, Suitland]

116

702d Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit History for -Year


1945.
[File TDBN-702-0.1 Box 23714, Suitland]

117

Enemy Material Captured and Destroyed, June - December


1944.
[File TDBN-702-2.14 Box 23714, Suitland]

118

609th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,


September - December 1944 (only December 1944 copied).
[File TDBN-609-O.3 Box 23562, Suitland]

119

Blumenson, Martin. "The Mortain Counterattack: Future


portent?" AM. 8 (July 1958): 30-38.
[From Stephen J. Lofgren, DAC, Historian,
Staff Support Branch to Charles M. Baily

(SAIC)]
120

Staff Group 4B, CGSOC Class of 1986-87. "Operation Cobra


and the Mortain Counterattack." MilitaryReview. July
1988: pg. 58-65.
[From Stephen J. Lofgren, DAC, Historian,
Staff Support Branch to Charles M. Baily
(SAIC)]

121

Letter, Sid Eichen, L'Abbaye Blanche, August 1944.


[From Stephen J. Lofgren, DAC, Historian,
Staff Support Branch to Charles M. Baily
(SAIC)]

122

Miscellaneous documents from Thomas Springfield,


L'Abbaye Blanche, August 1944.
[From Thomas Springfield during interview
at SAIC]

123

Emolovment of Four Tank Destroyer Battalions in the ETO.


Committee 24 Report, A Research Report Prepared at the
Armor School Fort Knox, KY, 1949-1950.
[OCMH U423.5.R3 1950 no. 24]

124

Volz Originals - Battle of Mortain


Folders 101 to 109).

125

Letter from Thomas Springfield to Charles M. Baily


(SAIC), February 17, 1990.

(Originals of

There are 5 documents in this folder.


B-12

126

Byrnes, Laurence. History of the 94th Infantry Division


in World War II. Washington, DC:
Infantry Journal
Press, 1948, pg. 116-139.
[OCMH 05-94 1948]

127

Soearhead in the West. 1941-1945:


Third Armored
Division. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: F. Guhl and Co.,
Graphische Kustanstalt und Klischeefabrik, 1945.
reprint, Nashville:
Battery Press, 1980. (Folder
includes Foreword on 3rd Armored Division and pg. 142,
143.)

[OCMH]
128

"Historical Survey of Direct Fire Weapons in World War


II and the Korean War: A Compendium in Support of the
Ardfire Study Group."
[OCMH Historical Manuscript File, Call
Number 4-15.1 AA 10 v. 1]

129

"Ardennes Campaign Statistics, 16 December 1944


January 1945." (Title page only)
[OCMH Historical Manuscript File, Call
Number 2-3.7 AE.P-15]

130

"SAAR-MOSELLE Triangle and Trier, XX Corps, 14 January


12 March 1945." (Title page only)
[OCMH Historical Manuscript File, Call
Number 8-3.1 AU]

131

"Tank Fight of Rocherath-Krinkelt (Belgium) 17-19


December 1944."
[OCMH Historical Manuscript File, Call
Number 2-3.7 AE.P-12]

132

"The Siege of Bastogne." (Title page only)


[OCMH Historical Manuscript File, Call
Number 8-3.1 AD]

133

"The Capture of Metz." (Title page only)


[OCMH Historical Manuscript File, Call
Number 8-3.1 AS]

134

"Siegfried Line." (Title page only)


[OCMH Historical Manuscript File, Call
Number 8-3.1 AL v.2 Pt. 2 cy 1]

135

"Breaching the Siegfried Line." (Title page only)


[OCMH Historical Manuscript File, Call
Number 8-3.1 AW]
German Tank Strenaths and Loss Statistics.
[OCMH GEOG M Germany 470.8 Tanks]

136

B-13

19

137

Manuscript list from OCH of possible use to the study.

138

Cole, Hugh N. United States Army in World War I: The


Eurooean Theater of Operations: The Lorraine CamDaian.
Office of the Chief of Military
Washington, DC:
History, United States Army, 1950, pg. 410-415.
[Pentagon UA25.U515 V.1]

139

MacDonald, Charles. United States Army in World War I:


The Eurooean Theater of Ooerations: The Siegfried Line
Campaign. Washington, DC:
Office of the Chief of
Military History, United States Army, 1963, pg. 512-514.
[OCMH D 769A533 vol. 3 pt. 6]

140

Cole, Hugh, N. United States Army in World War 11: The


Eurooean Theater of Ooerations: The Ardennes: Battle
of the Bulge. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of
Military History, Department of the Army, 1965, pg. 105106.
[Pentagon UA 25.U515.V.8]

141

Cole, Hugh, M. United States Army in World War II: The


European Theater of ODerations: The Ardennes: Battle
ofLthe Bulge. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of
Military History, Department of the Army, 1965, pg. 98104.
[Pentagon UA 25.U515.V.8]

142

Cole, Hugh, M. United States Amy in World War II: The


European Theater of Operations: The Ardennes: Battle
ofthBLU . Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of
Military History, Department of the Army, 1965, pg. 107115.
[Pentagon UA 25.U515.V.8]

143

823d Tank Destroyer Battalion Headquarters 30th Infantry


Division, G-2 Periodic Report, July 1944.
[File 823-0.8 Box 23849, Suitland]

144

601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, March 1944.


[File TIBN-601-0.7 Box 23545, Suitland]

145

601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, March and


April 1945 (only March 1945 copied).
[File TDBN-601-0.7 Box 23548, Suitland]

146

805th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, 3 February 1941


- 2 November 1945 (only March 1944 copied).
[File TDBN-805-0.1 Box 23768, Suitland]

147

805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, March 1944.


[File TDBN-805-0.7 Box 23771, Suitland]
B-14

148

899th Tank Destroyer Battalion History Draft, 1945 (only


March 1945 copied).
[File TDBN-899-0.1 Box 23879, Suitland]

149

899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, 15


March - 11 April 1943 (August 10, 1945 copied).
[File TDBN-899-0.3 Box 23880, Suitland]

150

899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, July 1944.


[File TDBN-899-0.7 Box 23881, Suitland]

151

776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, July,


November 1944 (only December 1944 copied).
[File TDBN-776-0.3 Box 23741, Suitland]

152

Tapes and transcript of interview with L. Lawson Neel in


Thomasville, Georgia, December 1989.

153

Tapes and transcript of interview with Thomas


Springfield at SAIC, McLean, Virginia, January 1990.

154

Tapes and transcript of interview with George Greene at


SAIC, McLean, Virginia, January 1990.

155

Tapes and transcript of POW interview with George Greene


at SAIC, McLean, Virginia, January 1990.

156

Tape and transcript of telephone interview with G. Dean


Noble, February 1990.

157

Tape and transcript of telephone interview (follow-up)


with Thomas Springfield, February 1990.

158

Transcript of telephone interview (follow-up) with


George Greene, February 1990. (The tape is in Folder
157.)

159

1st Infantry Division, November-December 1944, G-3


Operations Report December 1944, "Restoration and
Defense of the Botgenbach-Weywertz-Weimes Sector."
[File 301-3 Box 5763, Suitland]

160

2nd Infantry Division News Items, Headquarters 2nd ID 17, 19 December 1944.
[File 302-0.15 Box 5977, Suitland]

161

2nd Infantry Division G-3 After Action Report, December


1944.
[File 302-3 Box 5986, Suitland]

162

2nd Infantry Division G-3 Journal, December 1944.


[File 302-3.3 Box 6005, Suitland]
B-15

163

1st Infantry Division Combat Interviews, 16-31 December


1944, "German Breakthrough."
(File 7 Box 24012, Suitland]

164

2nd Infantry Division G-4 After Action Report, December


1944.
[File 302-4 to 302-4.1 Box 6027, Sultland]

165

99th Infantry Division G-3 Journal and File, 18-22


December 1944.
[File 399-3.2 Box 14143, Suitland]

166

99th Infantry Division After Action Report, December


1944.
(File 399-0.3 Box 14119, Suitland]

167

26th Infantry Regiment (1st Infantry Division) After


Action Report, December 1944.
(File 301-INF(26)-0.3 Box 5956, Suitland]

168

99th Infantry Division G-3 Journal and File, December


1944.
[File 399-3.2 Box 14143, Suitland]

169

26th Infantry Regiment (1st Infantry Division) Unit


Journal, December 1944 - February 1945 (only December
1944 copied).
(File 301-INF(26)-0.3 Box 5956, Suitland]

170

2nd Infantry Division G-3 Journal, September - December


1944 (only December 1944 copied).
[File 302-3.2 Box 5989, Suitland]

171

99th Infantry Division Map Overlays.


[File 399-3.7 Box 14160, Sultland]

172

"ETOUSA Battle Experiences, July 1944 - March 1945."


[File 247-8 Box 24148, Suitland]

173

2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "Battle of the


Bulge," 17-20 December 1944.
(File 20 Box 24017, Suitland]

174

2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews "German


Breakthrough," 14 December 1944 - 16 January 1945.
(File 21 Box 24017, Suitland]

175

2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews "German


Breakthrough," 14 December 1944 - 16 January 1945.
(File 20 Box 24017, Suitland]

B-16

176

2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews "German


Breakthrough," 14 December 1944 - 16 January 1945.
[File 20 Box 24017, Suitland]

177

9th Infantry Regiment (2nd Infantry Division) -Unit


Journal, December 1944.
[File 302-INF(9)-0.7 Box 6064, Suitland]

178

23d Infantry Regiment (2nd Infantry Division) After


Action Report, July-December 1944 (only Decamber 1944
copied).
[File 302-INF(23)-0.3 Box 6070, Suitland]

179.

23d Infantry Regiment (2nd Infantry Division) Unit


Journal, December 1944.
[File 302-INF(23)-0.7 Box 6070, Suitland]

180

644th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, Year 1944 (only


December 1944 copied).
[File TDBN-644-0.1 (14177) Box 23635,
Suitland]

181

644th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operations Report, 1


December 1944 - 31 March 1945 (only December 1944
copied).
[File TDBN-644-0.3 (6687) Box 23636,
Suitland]

182

99th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "Ardennes 1620 December 1944."


[File 209 Box 24069, Suitland]

183

Photos of Mark V Tank knocked out and soldiers manning


an anti-tank gun.
[RG 332, ETO Historical Division, Stack
Area 8, Row 79, Compartment 20, ETO/USFET
Theater Historian, Ardennes Campaign, 19441945, Box 3, Suitland]

184

254th Engineer Combat Battalion Journal, June-December


1944 (only December 1944 copied).
[File ENBN-254-0.7 (42906) Box 18781,
Suitland]

185

254th Engineer Combat Battalion Operations Report, 8


December 1944 - 22 May 1945 (only December 1944 copied).
[File ENBN-254-0.3 (42896) Box 18781,
Suitland]

186

254th Engineer Combat Battalion History Year 1944 (only


December 1944 copied).
B-17

[File ENBN-254-O.1
Suitland]

(2928)

Box

18781,

187

254th Engineer Combat Battalion After Action Report,


July-October, December 1944 (only December 1944 copied).
[File ENBN-254-0.3 (5520) Box 18781,
Suitland]

188

745th Tank Battalion After Action Report, June-December


1944 (only December 1944 copied).
[File ARBN-745-0.3 (5128) Box 16710,
Suitland]

189

745th Tank Battalion Journal, 20 July 1944 - 1 June 1945


(only December 1944 copied).
[File ARBN-745-0.7 Box 16711, Suitland]

190

612th Tank Destroyer Battalion History. 25 June 1942 May 1945, pg. 12-15.
[File TDBN-612-0.1 Box 23571, Suitland]

191

612th Tank Destroyer Battalion History Year 1944 (only


December 1944 copied).
(File TDBN-612-0.1 (28652) Box 23571,
Suitland]

192

612th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operations Report,


October 1944 - 6 May 1945 (only December 1944 copied).
[File TDBN-612-0.3 Box 23571, Suitland]

193

612th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, December


1944.
[File TDBN-612-0.7 (47360) Box 23573,
Suitland]

194

Information as part of Unit Citation documentation


gathered by Donald Rivette.
[From Lt. Col. Tom Page 1st BN 26th
Infantry Ft. Dix, NJ 08640-7010]

195

Letter from Derrill Daniel to Donald Rivette, 19 October


1948.
[From Lt. Col. Tom Page 1st BN 26th
Infantry Ft. Dix, NJ 08640-7010]

196

Miscellaneous Certificates of 1st Infantry Division,


26th Infantry Regiment.
[From Lt. Col. Tom Page 1st BN 26th
Infantry Ft. Dix, NJ 08640-7010]

B-18

197

Meyer, Hubert. Krieasaeschichte der 12.SS-Panzerdivision


"Hitler iuend" TT. Munin Verlag GmbH, Osnabruck, 1982.
(Dom Botgenbach)
[LC]

198

Meyer, Hubert. Krieasaeschichte der 12.SS-Panzerdivision


"Hitlertuaend" 1I. Munin Verlag GmbH, Osnabruck, 1982.
(Krinkelt-Rocherath)
[LC]

199

"The 12th SS-Panzer Division 'Hitler Jugend' in the


Ardennes Offensive."
[National Archives Manuscript #8-522]

200

"An Interview with Obstgrf 'Sepp' Dietrich Sixth Panzer


Army in the Ardennes Offensive."
(National Archives Ethint 15]

201

"An Interview with Genmaj (W-SS) Fritz Kraemer Sixth


Panzer Army (16 November 1944 - 4 January 1945)."
[National Archives Ethint 21]

202

"Commitment of Sixth Panzer Army in the Ardennes 19441945."


[National Archives Manuscript #A-924]

203

Pallud, Jean-Paul. "The Battle of the Bulge: Then and


Now." After The Battle. London:
Battle of Britain
Prints International Limited, 1984.
[From the personal files of Jay Karamales

(SAIC)]
204

Ooerational Research in North West Europe. The Work of


No 2 Operational Research Section With 21 Army Group,
June 1944 - July 1945.
(From the personal files of Jay Karamales
(SAIC)]

205

Attack and Penetration. Chapter II, "The Northern


Shoulder."
(RG 332, ETO Historical Division, The
History of the Ardennes Campaign, Suitland]

206

First US Army. Report of Operations, 1 August 1944 - 22


February 1945.
(Pentagon]

207

Action of Capt. John J. Kennedy, 612th Tank Destroyer


Battalion, on 17 December 1944 at BOllingen, Belgium.
[From the personal records of Jack Flanagan
612th Tank Destroyer Battalion, xeroxed
from Suitland, MD]
B-19

208

"Operations of the 612th Tank Destroyer Battalion, 2nd


Infantry Division, in the Battle of the Bulge, Vicinity
of Elsenborn Corner, 16-31 December 1944 (ArdennesAlsace Campaign)."
(Monograph obtained from Jack Flanagan
612th Tank Destroyer Battalion]

209

801st Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report,


December 1944.
[File TDBN-801-0.3 Box 23745, Suitland]

210

741st Tank Battalion After Action Report, December 1944.


[File ARBN-741-0.3 Box 16703, Suitland]

211

741st Tank Battalion Unit Journal, December 1944.


[File ARBN-741-0.7 Box 16703, Suitland]

212

2nd Infantry Division Krinkelt-Rocherath Map Overlays.


[File 302.3.3 Box 6005, Suitland]

213

Miscellaneous letters to and from Mr. Richard H. Byers,


99th Infantry Division Archives Committee.
Also
includes maps.
[From Mr. Richard Byers 99th Infantry
Division
Archives
Committee,
5884
Thunderbird Drive Mentor on the Lake, OH
44060]
There are 26 documents in this folder.

214

"Commitment of 3 Panzer Grenadier Division in the


Ardennes Offensive." April 1947, Manuscript #B-465.
[From Mr. Richard Byers 99th Infantry
Division
Archives
Committee,
5884
Thunderbird Drive Mentor on the Lake, OH
44060]

215

MacDonald, Charles B. United States Army in World War


II: The European Theater of Operations:
The Last
Offensive. Washington, DC:
Office of the Chief of
Military History United States Army, 1973, pg. 116-124.
[Pentagon UA 25 USIS V.9]

216

MacDonald, Charles B. United States Army in World War


11: The Eurooean Theater of 0oerations:
The Last
Offensive. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of
Military History United States Army, 1973, pg. 152-158.
(Pentagon UA 25 U515 V.9]

217

MacDonald, Charles B. United States Army in World War


II: The Eurogean Theater of Operations:
The Last
B-20

Offensive. Washington, DC:

Office of the Chief of

Military History United States Army, 1973, pg. 350-357.


[Pentagon UA 25 U515 V.9]
218

Dom BOtgenbach Map Overlays.


(Maps are labeled with the file numbers
from Suitland]

219

Headquarters First United States Army - 90mm Firing


Tests, December 1944.
[Suitland, RG 332, ETO, Armored Fighting
Vehicle and Weapons Section, 311.15-381,
Box labeled N1u, File No. 353.4 Firing
Tests]

220

Headquarters Twelfth Army Group - Final Report of Board


of Officers appointed to determine comparative
effectiveness of ammunition of 76mm gun and 17-pdr gun,
August 1944.
[Suitland, RG 332, ETO, Armored Fighting
Vehicle and Weapons Section, 311.15-381,
Box labeled "I", File No. 353.4 Firing
Tests]

221

Headquarters Twelfth Army Group - Comments on Test by


First US Army to Determine the Effectiveness of Tank and
Anti-tank Weapons Against "Panther" Tank, August 1944.
[Suitland, RG 332, ETO, Armored Fighting
Vehicle and Weapons Section, 311.15-381,
Box labeled "1, File No. 353.4 Firing
Tests]

222

Headquarters Comunications Zone European Theater of


Operations - Extracts, January 1945.
[Suitland, RG 332, ETO, Armored Fighting
Vehicle and Weapons Section, 311.15-381,
Box labeled "1", File No. 353.4 Firing
Tests]

GSGS 4347 - Map of Mortain, France, August 1944.


[National Archives Map Service, Pickett
Street Alexandria, VA]
GSGS 4414 - Map of Dom B~tgenbach, Belgium, December 1944.
(National Archives Map Service, Pickett
Street Alexandria, VA]
GSGS 4414

Sheets 5503, 5504, 5603, 5604 - Map of Krinkelt-Rocherath,


Belgium, December 1944.
(National Archives Map Service, Pickett
Street Alexandria, VA]
B-21

The following documents come at the end.


US Army Military History Institute Special Bibliography 23, American Combat
Divisions, A Comprehensive Bibliography of 1st Infantry Division Materials, Part
II: 1940-1956, Carlisle Barracks, PA. (USANHI Carlisle, PA].
US Army Military History Institute Special Bibliography 16, Volume I, The
Era of World War I, Carlisle Barracks, PA. [USAMHI Carlisle, PA].
US Army Military History Institute Special Bibliography 16, Volume II,The
War in the Pacific, Carlisle Barracks, PA. [USAMHI Carlisle, PA].
US Army Military History Institute Special Bibliography 16, Volume III,
World War II,The Eastern and Balkan Fronts, The Axis Forces in Europe, Carlisle
Barracks, PA. [USANHI Carlisle, PA].
US Army Military History Institute Special Bibliography 16, Volume IV,The
Era of World War II,Mediterranean and Western European Theaters of Operations,
Carlisle Barracks, PA. [USANHI Carlisle, PA].

B-22

APPENDIX C
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ALL MATERIALS RESEARCHED FOR THE
ANTI-ARMOR DEFENSE DATA (A2D2) STUDY

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.

PRIMARY SOURCES
A.
ARMORED, INFANTRY, AIRBORNE DIVISION AND ENGINEER COMBAT
BATTALION RECORDS EXAMINED AT SUITLAND, MARYLAND
Ist Armored Division ..................................
2nd Armored Division ..................................
3rd Armored Division ..................................
1st Infantry Division .................................
2nd Infantry Division .................................
3d Infantry Division ..................................
5th Infantry Division .................................
28th Infantry Division ................................
30th Infantry Division ................................
45th Infantry Division ................................
51st Engineer Combat Battalion ........................
82nd Airborne Division ................................
84th Infantry Division ................................
90th Infantry Division ................................
94th Infantry Division ................................
99th Infantry Division ................................
101st Airborne Division ...............................
102d Infantry Division ................................
104th Infantry Division ...............................
254th Engineer Combat Battalion .......................
B.
TANK DESTROYER BATTALION RECORDS
1.
TDBN Records at the Armor School Library,
Fort Knox, Kentucky ...................................
2.
TDBN Records at the National Records Center,
Suitland, Maryland
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion ...................
605th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
606th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
610th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
611th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
612th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
626th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
628th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
631st Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
633rd Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
634th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................
635th Tank Destroyer Battalion ..................

PAGE

C-I
C-2
C-2
C-3
C-3
C-4
C-4
C-5
C-6
C-8
C-9
C-9
C-10
C-11
C-I
C-11
C-12
C-14
C-14
C-15
C-15
C-18
C-20
C-21
C-22
C-22
C-22
C-23
C-24
C-25
C-25
C-25
C-27
C-27
C-27
C-29
C-29
C-30
C-30
C-30

C.
D.
E.

636th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-30


638th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-30
641st Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-31
644th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-31
645th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-31
648th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-32
654th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-32
656th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-32
691st Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-32
692nd Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-32
701st Tank Destroyer Battalion ................ C-32
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion .................
C-33
703d Tank Destroyer Battalion .................
C-34
704th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-34
705th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-35
741st Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-35
745th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-35
771st Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-35
772nd Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-35
773d Tank Destroyer Battalion ................... C-35
774th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-36
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-36
801st Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-37
BO2d Tank Destroyer Battalion ................... C-37
803d Tank Destroyer Battalion ................... C-37
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-38
807th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-39
808th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-39
809th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-39
811th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-40
813th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-40
814th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-40
817th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-40
818th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-41
820th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-41
823d Tank Destroyer Battalion ................... C-41
824th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-41
825th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-42
827th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-42
893d Tank Destroyer Battalion ................... C-42
894th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-42
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion .................. C-42
3.
TDBN Records at Carlisle Barracks,
Pennsylvania (USAMHI) ........................... C-44
ETO COMBAT INTERVIEWS RESEARCHED AT SUITLAND, MARYLAND ...... C-44
ORAL INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED BY SAIC ........................... C-48
MONOGRAPHS/MANUSCRIPTS
1. The Infantry School Library, Fort Benning, Georgia ....C-48
2.
The Armor School Library, Fort Knox, Kentucky ......... C-54
3.
Office of the Center of Military History,
Washington, DC ........................................ C-55
4.
The US Army Pentagon Library, Washington, DC .......... C-56
ti

F.
G.

GERMAN RECORDS
Foreign Military Studies, National Archives,
Washington, DC ......................................... C-56
MISCELLANEOUS .......................................... C-58

I. SECONDARY SOURCES
BOOKS ................................................. C-64
A.
B.
BOOKS FROM BIBLIOTHEK FUR ZEITGESCHICHTE,
STUTTGART, GERMANY...................................... C-68
PERIODICALS............................................ C-69
C.
MISCELLANEOUS .......................................... C-70
D.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
LOCATION

ABBREVIATION

The Pentagon Library, Washington, DC


Office of the Center of Military History, Washington, DC
Washington National Records Center, Suitland, MD
National Archives and Record Service, Washington, DC
The Armor School Library, Fort Knox, KY
The Infantry School Library, Fort Benning, GA
The Library of Congress, Washington, DC
US Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, PA
Fort Belvoir Library, Fort Belvoir, VA
Bibliothek fOr Zeitgeschichte, Stuttgart, Germany

Pentagon
OCMH
Suitland
National Archives
Ft. Knox, KY
Ft. Benning, GA
LC
USAMHI
Ft. Belvoir
Stuttgart

Unless otherwise stated, all records researched at the National Records Center
in Suitland, Maryland are Record Group 407, Entry 427.
I. PRIMARY SOURCES
A. ARMORED, INFANTRY, AIRBORNE DIVISION, AND ENGINEER COMBET BATTALION RECORDS
EXAMINED AT SUITLAND, MARYLAND
1st Armored Division

**** RG 94 (The Adjutant General's Office)

1st Armored Division G-3 Lessons Learned, June 1943, [File 601-3.01 Box
14802].
1st Armored Division G-3 Operational Summary, 18 June - 13 August 1944,
[File 601-3 Box 14802].
1st Armored Division G-3 Periodic Reports, 20 May - 10 July 1944, [File
601-3.1 Box 14802].
1st Armored Division G-3 Periodic Reports, 29 October 1943 - June 1944,
rFile 601-3.1 Box 14802].
1st Armored Division G-3 Journal, 8 November 1942 - 2 May 1945, [File 601
-3.2 Box 14805].
1st Armored Division G-3 Journal and File, 10 January 1943 - 12 October
1945--missing February 1943 entries, [File 601-3.3 Box 14806].
1st Armored Division, [File 601-3.4, 3.6, 3.7 Box 14807].

1st Armored Division Field Orders, 26 March 1942 and 1942 - 1945. -missing February 1943, [File 601-3.9 Box 14807].
1st Armored Division Administrative Orders, [File 601-3.1 Box 14808].
1st Armored Division Narrative of Events, 23 January - 16 February 1943,
[Folder 601-CAV-0.4 to 601-CCA-3.1 File 601-CCA-0.3 (48255) Box
C-1

14825].
1st Armored Division Journal and File Command Company A, 19-21 February
1943, [File 601-CCA-3.2 Box 14826].
1st Armored Division Operations Report - Sbeitla Area, [File 601-CCB-0.3
Box 14838].
1st Armored Division Operations Report - Bahiret Foussanc Valley, 20-25
February 1943, [File 601-CCB-0.3 Box 14838].
1st Armored Division Journal Command Company B, 8 November 1942 - June
1943, [File 601-CCB-3.2 Box 14840].
1st Armored Division Journal, 16 February - 15 November 1944, [File 601
-CCB-3.2 Box 14840].
1st Armored Division, [File 601-CCB-3.9 to 601-CCD-0.3.0 Box 14841].
2nd Armored Division

****

2nd Armored Division

RG 94 (The Adjutant General's Office)


6-1-44 to 12-31-44

****

[File 602-0.3 Box 14939].

2nd Armored Division After Action Report, June 1944.


2nd Armored Division Report of Operations:

"COBRA," July 1944.

2nd Armored Division After Action Report, August 1944.


2nd Armored Division After Action Report, October 1944.
2nd Armored Division After Action Report, November 1944.
2nd Armored Division After Action Report, December 1944.
3rd Armored Division

****

RG 94 (The Adjutant General's Office)

3rd Armored Division No Information, [Box 15051].


3rd Armored Division December 1944 - March 1945, [File 603-0.3 Box 15054].
3rd Armored Division G-2 Message File, [File 603-2.4 Box 15070].
3rd Armored Division G-2 Interrogation and PW Report, March 1945, [File
603-2.13 Box 15071].
3rd Armored Division G-3 Journal, [File 603-3.2 Box 15075].
3rd Armored Division Maps 1941-1945, [File 603-3.5 to -3.9 Box 15076].
3rd Armored Division Command Company A After Action Report, 25-31 March
1945, [File 603-CCA-03 Box 15095].
C-2

3rd Armored Division Command Company A Map 25-31 March 1945, [File 603-CCA
-3.7 Box 15110].
3rd Armored Division Command Company B After Action Report, March 1945,
[File 603-CCB-0.3 Box 15110].
32nd Armored Infantry Regiment Map, [File 603-INF(32)-O Box 15140].
32nd Armored Infantry Regiment After Action Report, March 1945, [File 603
-INF(32)-0.3 Box 15143].
32nd Armored Infantry Regiment Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), [File
603-INF(32)-0.7 Box 15144].
32nd Armored Infantry Regiment Map, [File 603-INF(32)-3.16 Box 15145].
32nd Armored Infantry Regiment Journal and File, [File 603-INF(32)
-2.2 Box 15145].
36th Armored Infantry Regiment Operations Map, [File 603-INF(36)-0 Box
15147].
36th Armored Infantry Regiment After Action Report, March 1945, [File 603
-INF(36)-0.3 Box 15147].
36th Armored Infantry Regiment Diary, [File 603-INF(36)-0.3.0 Box 15147].
36th Armored Infantry Regiment No Information, [File 603-INF(36)-3.2 Box
15149].
36th Armored Infantry Regiment S-3 Journal, March 1945, [File 603-INF(36)
-3.2 Box 15156].
36th Armored Infantry Regiment S-3 Journal and File, 28-31 March 1945,
[File 603-INF(36)-3.2 Box 15156].
1st Infantry Division
1st Infantry Division, November-December 1944, G-3 Operations Report
December 1944, "Restoration and Defense of the Butgenbach-Weywertz
-Weimes Sector," [File 301-3 Box 5763].
26th Infantry Regiment (1st Infantry Division) After Action Report,
December 1944, [File 301-INF(26)-0.3 Box 5956].
26th Infantry Regiment (1st Infantry Division) Unit Journal, December 1944
- February 1945, [File 301-INF(26)-0.3 Box 5956].
26th Infantry Regiment (1st Infantry Division) General Orders for 1940
-1945, [File 301-INF(26)-0.12 to 301-INF(26)-2.3 Box 5963].
2nd Infantry Division
C-3

2nd Infantry Division, [File 302-0.5 to 302-0.17 Box 5977].


2nd Infantry Division News Items, Headquarters 2nd ID - 17, 19 December
1944, [File 302-0.15 Box 5977].
2nd Infantry Division G-1 Journal, December 1944, [File 302-1 Box 5978].
2nd Infantry Division G-3 After Action Report, December 1944, [File 302-3
Box 5986].
2nd Infantry Division, June 1944 - January 1945, [File 302-3.1 Box 5987].
2nd Infantry Division G-3 Journal, September-December 1944, [File 302-3.2
Box 5989].
2nd Infantry Division G-3 Journal, December 1944, [File 302-3.3 Box 6005].
2nd Infantry Division Krinkelt-Rocherath Map Overlays, [File 302-3.3 Box

6005].
2nd Infantry Division G-4 After Action Report, December 1944, [File 302-4
to 302-4.1 Box 6027].
9th Infantry Regiment (2nd Infantry Division) After Action Report, December
1944, [File 302-INF(9)-0.3 Box 6064].
9th Infantry Regiment (2nd Infantry Division) Unit Journal, December 1944,
[File 302-INF(9)-0.7 Box 6067].
23d Infantry Regiment (2nd Infantry Division) After Action Report, July
-December 1944, [File 302-INF(23)-0.3 Box 6070].
23d Infantry Regiment (2nd Infantry Division) Unit Journal, December 1944,
[File 302-INF(23)-0.7 Box 6070].
3d Infantry Division
3d Infantry Division, Report of Operations, [File 303-0.3 Box 6111].
Operation Report Headquarters 3d Infantry Division, [File 303-0.3 Box

6111].
Headquarters 15th Infantry Regiment (3d Infantry Division) "Report of
Operations," Sections I, I, Il, and G-3 Report, (File 303-0.3 Box

6111].
5th Infantry Division
5th Infantry Division, G-2 After Action Report, 14 July 1944 - 9 March
1945, [File 305-2].
5th Infantry Division, G-2 Periodic Reports, September 1944 - May 1945,
C-4

[File 305-2.1].
5th Infantry Division, G-2 Journal and File, September 1944 - May 1945,
[File 305-2.2].
5th Infantry Division, G-3 Maps, August 1944 - May 1945, [File 305-3.7 Box

6815].
10th Infantry Regiment History, July 1944 - September 1945, [File 305
-INF(10)-0.1].
10th Infantry Regiment After Action Report, August 1944 - May 1945, [File
305-INF(10)-0.3].
1/10th Infantry Regiment Journal, 5 July 1944 - 31 May 1945, [File 305
-INF(10)7-0.7 Box 6901].
3/10th Infantry Regiment Unit Journal, 5 July 1944 - 21 October 1944, [File
305-INF(10)7-0.7 Box 6901].
28th Infantry Division
28th Infantry Division G-2 Periodic Report, July-November 1944, [File 328
-2.1, Box 8483].
28th Infantry Division G-2 Journal, July 1944 - April 1945, (File 328-2.2
(30549), Box 8487).
28th Infantry Division G-2 Journal and File, July 1944 - March 1945, [File
328-2.3, Box 8495].
110th Infantry Regiment History (28th Infantry Division), 17 February 1941
- 25 October 1945, The Ardennes Breakthrough. 16 December 1944 - 15
January 1945, [File 328-INF(110)-O.1 Box 8596].
110th Infantry Regiment Diary (28th Infantry Division), March 1944 - June
1945, [File 328-INF(110)-0.3.0 Box 8597].
112th Infantry Regiment (28th Infantry Division) Monthly and Daily
Summaries, September - November 1944, [File 328-INF(112)-0.9].
112th Infantry Regiment (28th Infantry Division) S-2 Journals, November
1944, [File 328-INF(112)-2.2, Box 8608].
112th Infantry Regiment (28th Infantry Division) S-2 and S-3 Journals,
November 1944, [File 328-INF(112)5-3.2, Box 8611].
112th Infantry Regiment (28th Infantry Division) Company "K" Monthly
Historical Reports, November 1944, [File 328-INF(112)9-0.2, Box

8607].
28th Infantry Division, History -- 1st and 2d Battalions, 112th Infantry
C-S

Regiment, [File 328, Box 8607].


28th Infantry Division, Monthly and Daily Summaries -- 112th Infantry
Regiment, [File 328, Box 8607].
112th Infantry Regiment (28th Infantry Division) Company "K" Diary,
November 1944, pp. 27-28, (File 328-INF(112)9-0.3.0, Box 8619].
28th Infantry Division, Division Artillery, Unit Journal, July 1944 - May
1945, (File 328-ART-0.7].
30th Infantry Division
30th Infantry Division G-1 After Action Report, August 1944, [File 330-1].
30th Infantry Division G-1 Journal and File, August 1944, [File 330-1.2 Box
8733].
30th Infantry Division G-2 Periodic Report, August 1944, [File 330-2.1 Box
8739].
30th Infantry Division G-2 Journal, June 1944 - April 1945, [File 330-2.2
Box 8744].
30th Infantry Division G-2 Message File and Journal, August 1944, [File 330
-2.2 Box 8749].
30th Infantry Division Sitreps, June-December 1944, [File 330-2.6 Box
8787].
30th Infantry Division G-3 After Action Report, August 1944, [File 330-3
Box 8788].
30th Infantry Division G-3 Journal, June 1944 - April 1945, [File 330-3.2
Box 8791, 8792].
30th Infantry Division G-3 Journal, 5-7 August 1944, [File 330-3.2 Box

8796].
30th Infantry Division Overlays and Maps, [File 330-3.6].
30th Infantry Division Maps, [File 330-3.7].
30th Infantry Division Field Orders with Supporting Papers, "Vire River,"
7-14 July 1944, [File 330-3.9 Box 8837].
30th Infantry Division G-4 Report, 8-9 August 1944, [File 330-3.2].
30th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop (Mechanized) After Action Report, 15 June
- 31 December 1944, [File 330-CAV(0.3) Box 8858].
117th Infantry Regiment History 1944-45, [File 330-INF(117)-0 Box 8894].
C-6

117th Infantry Regiment Resume of Operations, August 1944, [File 330


-INF(117)-0.3 Box 8894].
117th Infantry Regiment Unit Journal,[File 330-INF(117)-0.7 Box 8897].
117th Infantry Regiment River Crossing Operations, 7 July 1944, [File 330
-INF(117)-0.3.0].
117th Infantry Regiment S-2 Journal, August 1944, [File 330-INF(117)-2.2].
117th Infantry Regiment S-3 Journal and File, August 1944, (File 330
-INF(117)-3.3 Box 8906].
117th Infantry Regiment Unit Journal, August 1944, (File 330-INF(117)-0.7
Box 8995].
119th Infantry Regiment History 1944-1945, [File 330-INF(119)-O Box 8908].
119th Infantry Regiment After/After Action Report, August 1944, [File 330
-INF(119)-0.3 Box 8908].
119th Infantry Regiment Unit Journal, [File 330-INF(119)-0.7 Box 8909].
120th Infantry Regiment History, [File 330-INF(120)-O Box 8917].
120th Infantry Regiment After Action Report, [File 330-INF(120)-0.3 Box

8917].
120th Infantry Regiment "Mortain," August 1944, [File 330-INF(120) Box
8918 and Box 24237].
120th Infantry Regiment Report of Operations, "The Enemy Counterattack,"
11 July 1944, [File 330-INF(120)7-0.3 Box 8918].
120th Infantry Regiment Unit Journal, [File 330-INF(120)-0.7 Box 8923].
120th Infantry Regiment Request for Citation: Le Rocher, France, 11 July
1944, [File 330-INF(120)7-1.6 Box 8943].
120th Infantry Regiment Request for Citation: Normandy, 15 June - 1 August
1944, [File 330-INF(120)7-1.6 Box 8943].
120th Infantry Regiment G-3 Supporting Document, August 1944, [File 330
-INF(120) Box 8944].
120th Infantry Regiment Essay on Mortain Operations, August 1944, [File 330
-INF(120)].
120th Infantry Regiment S-3 Journal and File, August 1944, (File 330
-INF(.120)-3.3].
113th Field Artillery Battalion After Action Report, June-December 1944,
C-7

(File 330-FA(113)-0.3 Box 8868].


118th Field Artillery Battalion After Action Report, August 1944, [File
330-FA(118)-0.3 Box 8869].
197th Field Artillery
330-FA(197)-0.3
230th Field Artillery
330-FA(230)-0.3

Battalion After Battle Report, August 1944, [File


Box 8880].
Battalion "Battle of Mortaln," August 1944, [File
Box 8881].

45th Infantry Division


45th Infantry Division

[File 345-0 to 345-0.2

Box 10857].

History - 45th Infantry Division, 1924-1943, [File 345-0.1].


45th Infantry Division Unit History, [File 345-0].
45th Infantry Division

7/9/43 to 7/20/43

[File 345-3.2

Box 10946].

G-3 Journal and File - Sicilian Campaign -- 45th Infantry Division,


9-15 July 1943, [File 345-3.2].
45th Infantry Division

7/21/43 to 7/31/43

[File 345-3.2

Box 10947].

G-3 Journal and File - Sicilian Campaign -- 45th Infantry Division,


21-26 July 1943, [File 345-3.2].
45th Infantry Division
11057].

[File 345-INF(157)-0 to 345-INF(157)-0.3

Box

45th Infantry Division, History of the 157th Infantry Reglment


(Rifle), 4 June 1943 - 8 May 1945, [Book-345-INF(157)-O-Hist
-157th Inf Rgt].
History Report 157th Infantry Regiment -- 45th Infantry Division
(Italian Campaign), February 1944, (File 345-INF(157)-0.3
(7143)].
45th Infantry Division, 5-1-43 to 4-30-44, [File 345-INF(179)-0.3 Box
11077].
179th Infantry Regiment, May-September 1943, [File 345-INF(179)-0.7 Box
11081].
179th Infantry Regiment War Journal and File, January-March, (File 345
-INF(179)-0.7 Box 11083].
180th Infantry Regiment Operations Report for February, [File 345-INF(180)
-0.3 Box 11097].
C-8

180th Infantry Regiment S-3 Journal and File, Italian Campaign, [File 345
-INF(180)-3.2 Box 11112].
51st Engineer Combat Battalion
51st Engineer Combat Battalion

[File ENBN-51-0.3 to ENBN-51-0.7

Box

18619].
51st Engineer Combat Battalion After Action Report, June-December
1944, [File ENBN-51-0.3 #13101].
51st Engineer Combat Battalion Journal, 30 June - 26 December 1944,
[File ENBN-51-0.7 #23054 ].
82nd Airborne Division
Battle of Belgium Bulge in Siegfried Line and Roer River, [File 382-0.3.0].
After Action Report Central Europe, 17-31 December 1944, [File 382-0.3].
82nd Airborne Division General Journal Sicilian Campaign, [File 382-0.7Box
12348].
82nd Airborne Division G-1 Periodic Reports-Sicily, [File 382-1.1 Box
12348].
82nd Airborne Division G-1 Journal, Sicilian Campaign, [File 382-1.2 Box
12348].
82nd Airborne Division G-3 Report, 10-12 July, [File 382-3.1 Box 12381].
82nd Airborne Division G-3 Journal, Main 18-31 December 1944, [File 382-3.2
(17334) Box 12394].
82nd Airborne Division Journal, Message File:
1944, [File 382-3.2].

Habiemont, 19-21 December

82nd Airborne Division Journal, Message File:


1944, [File 382-3.2].

Lierneux, 21-22 December

82nd Airborne Division, Stories of Sicilian Invasion by Jack Thompson,


[File 382-29.0 (27678) Box 12423]. (Also found at Ft. Knox, KY)
82nd Airborne Division Chief of Staff Journal Neptune Operations, [File
382-6 (49450) Box 12423].
82nd Airborne Division Overlays and Messages, Belgium, 18-31 December 1944,
[File 382-AA-0.8].
82nd Airborne Division Engineers Unit History, 17-31 December 1944, [File
382-ENG-0.3].
C-9

325th Infantry Regiment Operations Report: Holland/Belgium, 17 December


1944 - 10 January 1945, [File 382-INF(325)-0.3].
504th Infantry Regiment History, 17 December 1944 - 11 January 1945, [File
382-INF(504)-0.3].
505th Parachute Infantry Regiment After Action Report, 17-31 December 1944,
[File 382-INF(505)-0.3].
505th Parachute Infantry Regiment Activities Report Sicily, [File 382
-INF(505)-0.1 to 382-INF(505)-0.3 Folder 13079 Box 12455].
84th Infantry Division
Battle of the Ardennes, December 1944 - January 1945, [File 384-0].
Journal File, November-December 1944, January-May 1945, [File 384-2.3].
After Action Report, 84th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop, December 1944 February 1945, [File 384-CAV-0.3].
333d Infantry Regiment After Action Report, December 1944, [File 384
-INF(333)-0.3].
2/333d Infantry Regiment S-2 Journal, Headquarters Company, 22 November
1944 - 1 July 1945, [File 384-INF(333)-7.2.2].
334th Infantry Regiment After Action Report, [File 384-INF(334)-0.3].
335th Infantry Regiment After Action Report, November-December 1944,
January-April 1945, [File 384-INF(335)-0.3].
335th Infantry Regiment Historical Data, December 1944, [File 384-INF(335)

-0.2].
335th Infantry Regiment Anti-tank Company Historical Data, December 1944,
[File 384-INF(335)-0.2].
335th Infantry Regiment, 1st, 2nd, 3rd Battalions Historical Data, December
1944, [File 384-INF(335)7-0.2].
335th Infantry Regiment, Companies A-M Historical Data, December 1944,
[File 384-INF(335)9-0.2].
Translation of Captured Documents, December 1944, (File 384-INF(335)-2.9].
History, C Company ("Crackerjack Charley"), 11 September 1944-1945, [File
384-INF(335)-0].
History, F Company (Fox Company), 15 October 1942 - 15 August 1945, [File
384-INF(335)-0.]].
C-10

335th Infantry Regiment After Action Reports, November-December 1944,


1-31 January 1945.
90th Infantry Division
90th Infantry Division Operations Reports, [File 390-0.3 Box 13280].
90th Infantry Division G-3 Journal, [File 390-3.2 Box 45683].
90th Infantry Division Situation Representations, [File 390-3.8 Box
13351].
358th Infantry Regiment, Regiment Reports, [File 390-INF-(358)-0.3 Box
13395].
2/358th Infantry Battalion, Battalion Journal, [File 390-INF-(358)7-0.7
Box 13406].
94th Infantry Division
94th Infantry Division After Action Report, January 1945, [File 394-0.3
Box 13726].
94th Infantry Division, No Information, [File 394-1 to 394-1.7 Box 13730].
94th Infantry Division, Copies of After Action Report, G-1, G-2, G-3, and
G-4 Reports, [File 394-2 to 394-2.1 Box 13735].
94th Infantry Division Maps with Overlays, [File 394-3.1 Box 13767].
94th Infantry Division G-3 After Action Report, January 1945, [File 394
-3 Box 13767].
94th Infantry Division G-3 Periodic Report, [File 394-3.1 Box 13767].
94th Infantry Division, No Information, [File 394-4 to 394-5 Box 13778].
94th Infantry Division, No Information, (File 394-5 to 394-30 Box 13779].
99th Infantry Division
Map History, 16 December 1944 - 9 May 1945, [File 399-0].
99th Infantry Division After Action Report, December 1944, [File 399-0.3
Box 14119].
99th Infantry Division G-3 Journal and File, 18-22 December 1944, [File
399-3.2 Box 14143].
99th Infantry Division G-3 Journal and File, December 1944, [File 399-3.2
Box 14143].
C-11

99th Infantry Division Map Overlays, [File 399-3.7 Box 14160].


99th Infantry Division Operations Memo, [File 399-3.16 Box 14160].
99th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop After Action Report, December 1944 - May
1945, (File 399-CAV-0.3].
393d Infantry Regiment After Action Report, November 1944 - 10 May 1945,
[File 399-INF(393)-0.3].
Lessons Learned in Combat, 3 January - 3 May 1945, [File 399-INF(393)-3.0].
The Story of the 394th Infantry Regiment, 14 November 1944 - 9 May 1945,
[File 399-INF(394)-0].
394th Infantry Regiment, Regiment History, [File 399-INF(394)-0.1 Box
14195].
394th Infantry Regiment After Action Report, (File 399-INF(394)-0.3 Box

14196].
Recommendation for Distinguished Unit Citation, 1/394 Infantry Regiment,
December 1944, [File 399-INF(394)7-1.6].
395th Infantry.Regiment After Action Report, November 1944 - May 1945,
[File 399-INF(395)-0.3].
395th Infantry Regiment Personal Narratives, [File 399-INF(395)-0.6].
395th Infantry Regiment Unit Journals and Files, [File 399-INF(395)-0.7].
395th Infantry Regiment Anti-tank Company After Action Report, March-June
1945, [File 399-INF(395)5-0.3].
Accomplishments, Commendations, 3/395th Infantry Regiment, December 1944,
[File 399-INF(395)7-1.6].
After Action Report Special Service Activities, December 1944, [File 399
-SP-0.3].
After Action Report, Battle of the Bulge, 16 December 1944 - 27*January
1945, [File 399-0.3].
Photographs, 1944-1945, [File 399-0.10].
Operation Map Summary - Battle of the Bulge, 16-28 December 1944, [File
399-3.7].
101st Airborne Division
101st Airborne Division [Box 14337].
C-12

101st Airborne Division, [File 3101-1 to 3101-1.5].


101st Airborne Division Proposed Unit Citation for Action in
Bastogne, Belgium, 18-27 December 1944, [File 3101-1.6].
101st Airborne Division [File 11599 3101-0.3 Box 14335].
Operation "Market"
- September to October 1944.
Operation "Invasion of France"
- June 1944.
Operation "Noah"
November 1944.
Operation *Neptune"
June 1944.
European Theater of Operations (ETO) 1944-45.
101st Airborne Division

(File 3101-0.8 to 3101-0.24

Box 14338].

Journal and File - 101st Airborne Division, 18 December 1944 - April


1945, [File 3101-0.8].
Standards of Procedure (S.O.P.) 101st Airborne Division, 1943-45.
[File 3101-0.24].
History, 2/327 Glider Infantry Regiment, 1944, [File 3101-INF(327)7

-0.2].
History, 3/327 Glider Infantry Regiment, 1944, [File 3101-INF(327)7

-0.2].
327th Glider Infantry Regiment After Action Report, (File 3101
-INF(327)-0.3].
101st Airborne Division, [File 3101-4 to 3101-4.5 Box 14377].
After Action Report 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, January 1945, [File
3101-INF(502)0.3 #12361 Box 14429].
101st Airborne Division, [File 3101-INF(502)7-3.4 to 3101-INF(502)9-3.9
Box 14436].
After Action Report, Bastogne - Operation Repulse, 17 December 1944 - 20
January 1945, [File 3101-INF(506)-0.3].
101st Airborne Division G-3 Situation Reports #1-31 for Bastogne, 101st
Airborne Division, 19 December 1944 - 19 January 1945, (File 3101-3.8
Box 14369].
101st Airborne Division Counterattack plans for the 101st Airborne
Division, January-February 1945, [File 3101-3.5 Box 14364].
101st Airborne Division, [File 3101-1.11 to 3101-1.13 Box 14341].
101st Airborne Division, [File 3101-AA-0 to 3101-AA-3.1 Box 14379].
History 81st Airborne Anti-Aircraft Battalion
C-13

101st Airborne

Division, 4 September 1942 - 10 September 1945, [File 3101-AA

-0].
After Action Report 81st Airborne Anti-Aircraft Battalion, 101st
Airborne Division, December 1944 - February, April-May 1945,
[File 3101-AA-0.3 #14775).
326th Airborne Engineer Regiment After Action Report, 17 December
1944 - 28 February 1945, and Operations Report, 18 December
1944 - 31 Jan' .y 1945, [File 3101-ENG-0.3].
102d Infantry Division
102d Infantry Division G-3 Report Section III, [File 3102-3
-28-45 Box 14467].

1-1-45 to 2

405th Infantry Regiment, No Information, [File 3102-INF(405)-O.1 (5644) Box


14487].
406th Infantry Regiment History, No Information, [File 3102-INF(406)-0.1
(5643) Box 14496].
406th Infantry Regiment History, No Information, [File 3102-INF(406)-0.1
(5643) Box 14497].
406th Infantry Regiment G-2 Periodic Report, 16-28 February 1945, [File
3102-INF(406)-0.7 Box 14505].
407th Infantry Regiment History, [File 3102-INF(407)-0.1 to 0.3 Box 14512].
407th Infantry Regiment After Action Report, February 1945, (File 3102
-INF(407)-0.3 (9925) Box 14512].
407th Infantry Regiment After Action Report, February-April 1945, [File
3102-INF(407)-0.3 (9925) Box 14512].
407th Infantry Regiment Journal and File, [File 3102-INF(407)-0.7 Box
14518].
407th Infantry Regiment S-2 Report, [File 3102-INF(407)-0.7 Box 14518].
407th Infantry Regiment S-3 Report, [File 3102-INF(407)-0.7 Box 14518].
104th Infantry Division
104th Infantry Division After Action Report, [File 3104-0.3 Box 14617].
415th Infantry Regiment After Action Report, [File 3104-INF(415)-0.3 Box
14708].
415th Infantry Regiment G-3 Journal, [File 3104-INF(415)-0.7 Box 14708].
C-14

2/415th Infantry Battalion, Battalion Journal, [File 3104-INF(415)7-0.7


Box 14708].
254th Engineer Combat Battalion
[Box 18781]
254th Engineer Combat Battalion Journal, June-December 1944, [File
ENBN-254-0.7 (42906)].
254th Engineer Combat Battalion Operations Report, 8 December 1944
- 22 May 1945, [File ENBN-254-0.3 (42896)].
254th Engineer Combat Battalion History Year 1944, [File ENBN-254-0.1
(2928)].
254th Engineer Combat Battalion After Action Report, July-October,
December 1944, [File ENBN-254-0.3 (5520)].
B. TANK DESTROYER BATTALION RECORDS
1. TDBN Records at the Armor School Library, Fort Knox, Kentucky
First US Army, Artillery Section - Tank Destroyer at Anzio, [Call Number

801 A 6].
1st Armored Division - Battle of Bizerte, 9 June 1943, [Call Number 801 AD
408].
1st Armored Regiment 3d Battalion Combat Lessons 26 July 1944, [Call Number
801 AR 605].
1st Tank Group, [Call Number 801 T 501].
1st Tank Destroyer Group, After Action Report, [Call Number 801 TD 502].
Roer River Offensive (2d Armored Division), [Call Number 802 AD 407A].
Corps, US Army (2d Corps), [Call Number 802 C 301].
Tunisia, 1 January - 15 March 1943, [Call Number 802 C 302].
Notes of the Bastogne Operation by General Patton, 16 January 1945, [Call
Number 803 A 9].
4th Tank Destroyer Group, [Call Number 804 T 501].
5th Tank Destroyer Group to 9 May 1945, After Action Report, [Call Number
805 T 503].
5th Tank Destroyer Group, After Action Report, [Call Number 805 T 504].
C-15

1st Armored Division, 6th Armored Infantry Regiment Mistakes Made and
Lessons Learned November 1942 - January 1944, June 1944, [Call Number
806 Al 631].
6th Tank Destroyer Group, US Army (13th Corps) - After Action Report, [Call
Number 806 T 503].
7th Army Combat Observer's Report, 1945 AGF Report by Col Clyde E. Steele,
[Call Number 807 A 5].
Corps US Army (7th Corps) - German opposite 7th Corps, September 1944 by
Lucian Heichler - based on German records, to support Charles
MacDonald on Siegfried Line Study, [Call Number 807 C 307].
Corps US Army (7th Corps) - Tank Destroyers in Action 1944, [Call Number
807 C 308].
7th Tank Destroyer Group After Action Report, 19-31 December 1944, [Call
Number 807 T 502].
7th Tank Destroyer Group, Corps, US Army (8th Corps) - After Action Report,
[Call Number 807 T 502].
8th Tank Destroyer Group After Action Report, November 1944, January-May
1945 (ETO), [Call Number 808 T 501].
9th Tank Destroyer Group After Action Report, September-November 1944,
January-May 1945 (ETO), [Call Number 809 T 501].
Corps (12th Corps) - After Action Report 9th Tank Destroyer Group, [Call
Number 809 T 501].
Corps US Army (12th Corps) - German counterattack in Twelfth Corps Section
19 September - 1 October 1944, [Call Number 812 C 307].
Armored Groups, 20th, 24th Corps 20th Armor Group - TFACS Report 314.7
2 August 1945, [Call Number 820 AG 501].
23d Tank Destroyer Group After Action Report, December 1944 - May 1945,
[Call Number 823 T 501].
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, June 1944 - April 1945,
[Call Number 8607 TD 101 AAR #575 U 847.6].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, October 1944 - January
1945., [Call Number 8609 TD 101 AAR 847.7].
610th Tank Destroyer Battalion
C-16

610th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, August-September 1944,


December 1944, [Call Number 8610 TO 101].
612th Tank Destroyer Battalion
612th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, July-December 1944,
February 1945, April-May 1945, [Call Number 8612 TD 101 AAR #452
847.9].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, August-November 1944,
January-May 1945, [Call Number 8630 TD 101 AAR #615 U 847-12].
644th Tank Destroyer Battalion
644th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, July 1944 - 9 May 1945,
[Call Number 8644 TD 101].
691st Tank Destroyer Battalion
691st Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, January 1945, March-May
1945, [Call Number 8691 TD 101].
772d Tank Destroyer Battalion
772d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, December 1944 - April
1945, [Call Number 8772 TD 102].
802d Tank Destroyer Battalion
802d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, August 1944 - April
1945, [Call Number 8802 TD 101].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, January 1943 - April
1945, [Call Number 8805 TD 101].
807th Tank Destroyer Battalion
807th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, October 1944 - March
1945, [Call Number 8807 TO 101].
808th Tank Destroyer Battalion
808th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, September 1944 - May
1945, [Call Number 8808 TO 101].
817th Tank Destroyer Battalion
817th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, January-April 1945,
C-17

[Call Number 8817 TD 101].


821st Tank Destroyer Battalion
821st Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, January-December 1944,
February-April 1945, [Call Number 8821 TD 101 AAR #97 847-56].
823d Tank Destroyer Battalion
823d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, January-August 1944,
December 1944-April 1945, [Call Number 8823 TD 101].
823d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, August 1-19 1944, [Call
Number 8823 TD 101 823d TD Bn AAR (AAR #588 U)].
823d Tank Destroyer Battalion After
[Call Number 8823 TD 101 823d
823d Tank Destroyer Battalion After
[Call Number 8823 TD 101 823d

Action Report,
TD Bn AAR (AAR
Action Report,
TD Bn AAR (AAR

December 17-26 1944,


#588 U)].
January 14-18 1945,
#588 U)].

824th Tank Destroyer Battalion


824th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, August 1942 - September
1945, [Call Number 8824 TD 101].
2. TDBN Records at the National Records Center, Suitland, Naryland
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion September 30, 1943 [File TDBN-601-0 to 0.07
Box 23543].
Map -- "Cook's Tour" of the locations where the 601st operated, [File
TDBN-601-0 (45748)].
History of 601st Tank Destroyer Battalion, [File TDBN-601-0 (27661)].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, 28 January - 19 March
1943, [File TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, 22 January - 31 December
1944, [File TDBN-601-0.3].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, 16-24 March 1943, [File
TDBN-601-0.3].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, 5-20 September 1943,
[File TDBN-601-0.3].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, October-November 1943,
C-18

[File TOBN-601-0.3].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, January, February, March
1945, [File TDBN-601-0.3].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion October 1, 1943 to February 29, 1944 [File
TDBN-601-0.7 Box 23544].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, October 1943, [File
TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, November 1943, [File
TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, December 1943, [File
TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, 22-31 January 1944,
[File TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, February 1944, [File
TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion March 1, 1944 to May 31, 1944
-601-0.7 Box 23545].

[File TDBN

601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, March 1944, [File TDBN

-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, April 1944, [File TDBN
-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, May 1944, [File TDBN
-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion June 1, 1944 to October 31, 1944
TDBN-601-0.7 Box 23546].

[File

601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, June 1944, [File TDBN
-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, July 1944, [File TDBN
-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, August 1944, [File TDBN
-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, September 1944, [File
TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, October 1944, [File
TDBN-601-0.7].
C-19

601st Tank Destroyer Battalion November 1, 1944 to February 28, 1945 [File
TDBN-601-0.7 Box 23547].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, November 1944, [File
TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, December 1944, [File
TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, January 1945, [File
TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, February 1945, [File
TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion March 1, 1945 to May 11, 1945
-601-0.7 Box 23548].

[File TDBN

601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, March and April 1945,
[File TDBN-601-0.7].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion October 1, 1944 to October 18, 1944 (File
TDBN-601-0.12 Box 23549].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Messages, 1-6 October 1944, [File
TDBN-601-0.12].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Messages, 7-12 October 1944,
[File TDBN-601-O.12].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Messages, 13-18 October 1944,
[File TDBN-601-0.12].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion October 19, 1944
TDBN-601-1.13 Box 23550].

[File TDBN-601-0.12 to

601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Messages, 25-31 October 1944,


[File TDBN-601-0.12].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion Roster 1943-45: empty, [File TDBN-601

-1.8].
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, 1941, 1943-1945, [File
TDBN-601-1.13].
602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion
602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion November 30, 1944
TDBN-602-0.3 Box 23551].

[File TDBN-602-0.1 to

602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion History 15 December 1941


1943, [File TDBN-602-0.1 (28612)].
C-20

31 December

602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, September 1944,


[File TDBN-602-0.3 (12659)].
602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, October 1944, [File
TDBN-602-0.3 (12659)].
602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, November 1944,
[File TDBN-602-0.3].
602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion December 1, 1944 to May 8, 1945 [File TDBN
-602-0.3 Box 23552].
602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion Historical Records, December 1944,

[File TDBN-602-0.3 (12659)].


602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion Historical Summaries January-March
- 8 May 1945, [File TDBN-602-0.3 (12659)].
602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion [File TDBN-602-0.7 to TDBN-602-1.13 Box
23553].
602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal and File, 13 April 1942 - 8
March 1944, [File TDBN-602-0.7].
602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders 1942-45, [File TDBN
-602-1.13].
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion
23554].

[File TDBN-603-0.1 to TDBN-603-0.3 Box

603d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, 21 July - 31


December 1944, [File TDBN-603-0.3 (14250)].
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, May-December 1944,
[File TDBN-603-0.3 (28623)].
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, January - 6 May 1945,
[File TDBN-603-0.3 (28623)].
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion (SP) After Action Report, January - 9
May 1945, [File TDBN-603-0.3 (14250)].
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion History Year 1942, [File TDBN-603-0.1

(28621)].
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion History Year 1943, [File TDBN-603-0.1

(28621)].
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion History Year 1944, [File TDBN-603-O.1
(28621)].
C-21

603d Tank Destroyer Battalion History Year 1945, [File TDBN-603-0.1

(28621)].
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion
23555].

[File TDBN-603-0.7 to TDBN-603-1.13 Box

603d Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, 25-30 September 1944,


[File TDBN-603-0.7 (28615)].
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, October 1944, [File TDBN

-603-0.7 (28615)].
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, November 1944, [File
TDBN-603-0.7 (28615)].
603d Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders 1943-1945, [File TDBN
-603-1.13].
605th Tank Destroyer Battalion
605th Tank Destroyer Battalion (File TDBN-605-O (TOWED) to TDBN-605-1.13
Box 23556].
605th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, February, March,
April, May 1945, [File TDBN-605-0.3 (21409)].
605th Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders 1943-1944, [File TDBN
-605-1.13].
606th Tank Destroyer Battalion
606th Tank Destroyer Battalion
23557].

[File TDBN-606-0.1 to TDBN-606-1.13 Box

606th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, 14 July 1941 - 27 February


1945, (File TDBN-606-0.1 (28634)].
606th Tank Destroyer Battalion 606th News, September-October 1944,
[File TDBN-606-0.20 (28633)].
606th Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders 1941-1945, (File TDBN
-606-1.13.
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion

[Box 23558].

607th Tank Destroyer Battalion Actions for December 1941 - May 1945,
[File TDBN-607-0].
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit History, (File TDBN-607-0.1].
C-22

Information on 607th Tank Destroyer Battalion, (File TDBN-607-0.1].


607th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report July-August 1944,
[File TDBN-607-O.3].
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report September-December
1944, [File TDBN-607-0.3].
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion June to December 1944 [File TDBN-607-0.7
Box 23559].
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion No information, [File June].
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion Messages, map overlays with gun
positions, fire missions, [File July].
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion Messages, map of positions,
consolidated reports of Tank Destroyer operations for 1 week,
[File September].
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion Map overlays with defensive gun
positions, [File November].
607th Tank Destroyer Battalion

[Box 23560].

607th Tank Destroyer Battalion Message files and map overlays, [File
1DBN-607-0.7 to MD-0.2].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion
(Box 23562]
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, 15 December 1941 - 31
December 1943, [File TDBN-609-0.1].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, SeptemberDecember 1944, [File TDBN-609-0.3].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, 1 January - 13 November 1945,
[File TDBN-609-0.1].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, January-May 1945,
[File TDBN-609-0.3].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal and File, December 1944 - 10
May 1945, [File TDBN-609-0.7].
[Box 23563]
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal and File, 11 May - June 1945,
[File TDBN-609-0.7].
C-23

609th Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, 1942-1945, [File TDBN


-609-1.13].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion Special Orders, 1-21 November 1944,
[File TDBN-609-1.14].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 and S-3 Journal, November 1944,
[File TDBN-609-2.2].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 and S-3 Journal, December 1944,
[File TDBN-609-2.2].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 and S-3 Journal, January 1945,
[File TDBN-609-2.2].
[Box 23564]
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 and S-3 Journal, February 1945,
[File TDBN-609-2.2].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 and S-3 Journal, March 1945, (File
TDBN-609-2.2].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 and S-3 Journal, April 1945, [File
TDBN-609-2.2].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 and S-3 Journal, 1-10 May 1945,
[File TDBN-609-2.2].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, 20-30 September 1944,
[File TDBN-609-3.2].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report - Co "C", 18
December 1944 - 2 January 1945, [File TDBN-609-CO(C)-0.3].
609th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report - Co "C", 14-18
January 1945, [File TDBN-609-CO(C)-0.3].
610th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23565]
610th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Reports, September 1944,
[File TDBN-610].
[Box 23566]
610th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, December 1944, [File
TDBN-610].
[Boxes 23567 through 23569]
C-24

610th Tank Destroyer Battalion Map Overlays, G-2 Periodic Reports,


and G-3 Situational Reports, [File TDBN-610].
611th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23570]
611th Tank Destroyer Battalion Book of Unit History, [File TDBN-611].
[Box 23571]
611th Tank Destroyer Battalion History Narrative, Battle of the
Bulge, 17-21 December 1944, [File TDBN-611].
[Boxes 23572 through 23573]
611th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal and Map Overlays, [File TDBN

-611].
612th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23571]
612th Tank Destroyer Battalion History. 25 June 1942
[File TDBN-612-0.1].

May 1945,

612th Tank Destroyer Battalion History Year 1944, [File TDBN-612-0.1


(28652)].
612th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operations Report, October 1944 - 6
May 1945, [File TDBN-612-0.3].
[Box 23573]
612th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, December 1944, [File
TDBN-612-0.7 (47360)].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23574]
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, June 1943
[File TDBN-614-0.1].

November 1946,

614th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, January 1943 - May 1945,


[File TDBN-614-O.1].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit History, May 1945, [File TDBN
-614-0.2].
[Box 23575]
C-25

614th Tank Destroyer Battalion Narrative Report, December 1944, [Fil e


TDBN-614-0.3].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion Report of Operations, 8 May September 1945, [File TDBN-614-0.3].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion Narrative Report, January-February
- 10 May 1945, [File TDBN-614-O.3].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, January 1944 - August
1946, [File TDBN-614-1.13].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, December 1944, [File
TDBN-614-3.2].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal (part 1), January 1945,
[File TDBN-614-3.2].
[Box 23576]
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal (part 2), January 1945,
[File TDBN-614-3.2].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal (part 3), January 1945,
[File TDBN-614-3.2].
[Box 23577]
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, 1-14 February 1945, [File
TDBN-614-3.2].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, 15-28 February 1945,
[File TDBN-614-3.2].
[Box 23578]
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, 1-15 March 1945, [File
TDBN-614-3.2].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, 16-31 March 1945, [File
TDBN-614-3.2].
(Box 23579]
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, April 1945, [File TDBN
-614-3.2].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, 1-10 May 1945, [File
TDBN-614-3.2].
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, 11-31 May 1945, [File
TDBN-614-3.2].
C-26

626th Tank Destroyer Battalion


No useful information.
628th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23581]
628th Tank Destroyer Battalion History-Victory TD-628th, 1941 - 9 May
1945, [File TDBN-628-O].
628th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, 15 December 1941 - 9 May
1945, (File TDBN-628-0.1].
628th Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, 1942-45, [File TDBN
-628-1.13].
628th Tank Destroyer Battalion History Co "A," 27 March - 27 April
1945, [File TDBN-628-Co(A)-O.2].
628th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, January-April
1945, [File TDBN-628-O.3].
628th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, July-August, October
1944, [File TDBN-628-0.7].
628th Tank Destroyer Battalion "Analysis of Personal Losses and
Reinforcements for Separate TDBN Under Combat Conditions" Capt. Sparks, S-1 August 1944 - January 1945, (File TDBN-628

-1.01].
628th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, August-December
1944, [File TDBN-628-0.3].
628th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, February 1945, [File
TDBN-628-0.7].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion
(Box 23582]
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit History Year 1944, (File TDBN
-629-0.1].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, July 1944, [File TDBN-629
-0.7].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, August 1944,
[File TDBN-629].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, August 1944, [File TDBN-629

-0.7].
C-27

629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, September 1944, [File TDBN


-629-0.7].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, October 1944, [File TDBN-629
-0.7].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, November 1944, [File TDBN

-629-0.7].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, December 1944, [File TDBN
-629-0.7].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, January-June
1945, (File TDBN-629-0.3].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, July-December
1944, [File TDBN-629-0.3].
[File TDBN-629-0.7 Box 23583]
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, January 1945.
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, February 1945.
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, March 1945.
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, April 1945.
[Box 23584]
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, May 1945, [File TDBN-629
-0.7].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, June 1945, [File TDBN-629
-0.7].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, September 1945, [File TDBN
-629-0.7].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, I May - 27 November 1945,
(File TDBN-629-0.7].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Report, February 1945, [File
TDBN-629-0.9].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion Messages, September 1944, [File TDBN
-629-0.12].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, 1943, 1945, [File
TDBN-629-1.13].
629th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Periodic Report, 31 January C-28

February 1945, [File TDBN-629-3.1].


630th Tank Destroyer Battalion
(Box 23585]
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, 15 December 1941 - June 1943,
(File TDBN-630-0.1].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, 15 December 1941 - 31
December 1943, [File TDBN-630-0.1].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, June 1945, [File
TDBN-630-0.3].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, August-September,
November 1944, [File TDBN-630-0.7].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, January 1945, [File
TDBN-630-0.7].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, February-May 1945, [File
TDBN-630-0.7].
[Box 23586]
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, 1945-1946, [File TDBN
-630-1.13].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 Periodic Report, June 1945, [File
TDBN-630-2.1].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 Journal, June 1945, [File TDBN
-630-2.2].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, June 1945, [File TDBN
-630-3.2].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Periodic Report, June 1945, [File
TDBN-630-3.1].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Report, January-May 1945, [File
TDBN-630-0.9].
630th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Report, July-December 1944, [File
TDBN-630-0.9].
631st Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23587)
631st Tank Destroyer Battalion History, 15 December 1941 - 31
C-29

December 1943, [File TDBN-631-0.1].


631st Tank Destroyer Battalion History, Year 1944, [File TDBN-631

-0.1].
631st Tank Destroyer Battalion History, Year 1945, [File TDBN-631
-0.1].
631st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, 17 February - 15
December 1945, [File TDBN-631-0.7].
631st Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, 1942-1945, [File TDBN
-631-1.13].
631st Tank Destroyer Battalion Troop Movement Orders, 14 December
1941 - 30 November 1945, [File TDBN-631-3.18].
631st Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, 26 August 1942 - 24
February 1945, [File TDBN-631-O.7].
633rd Tank Destroyer Battalion
[File TDBN-633-O to TDBN-633-1.13 Box 23592]
Good TDBN organization charts but skimpy otherwise.
634th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[File TDBN-634-0.8 11-27-44 to 11-30-44 and 1-1-45 to 1-9-45 Box 23605].
No useful information.
635th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[File TDBN-635-0.3 to TDBN-635-MD-0.1 Box 23611]
Anti-tank action in Belgium, December 1944.
636th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[File TDBN-636-0.3

1 September 1943 - 30 September 1944

Box 23612]

Operations Reports, Operation AVALANCHE, September-December 1943.


Reports for May, June, September 1944.
[File TDBN-636-0.3

10 October - 31 December 1944

No useful information.
November 1944.

Box 23613]

Road blocking missions in October and

638th Tank Destroyer Battalion


C-30

[File TDBN-638-0.1 to 0.3

Box 23621]

Brief messages, lack of detail, no useful anti-tank information.


[Boxes 23622 through 23630]
Journals with message logs, map overlays, no useful anti-tank
information.
641st Tank Destroyer Battalion
[File TDBN-641-0.1 to 1.13

Box 23634]

Unit History, August 1944 - March 1945.


644th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[File TDBN-644-0 to 0.3

30 November 1944

Box 23635]

Booklet of Unit History, Operations Reports for July, August 1944.


644th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, Year 1944, [File TDBN-644-0.1
(14177)].
[Box 23636]
644th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, [File TDBN-644
-0.3].
644th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operations Report, 1 December 1944 31 March 1945, [File TDBN-644-0.3 (6687)].
[Box 23637 and 23639]
644th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Reports, [File TDBN-644].
645th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Boxes 23639 through 23642]
Journals with map overlays from January-July 1944.
[Boxes 23643 through 23649]
Journals with map overlays.
[File TDBN-645-0.7 to TDBN-645-0.12

I April 1945

Box 23650]

All in 1945, no anti-tank action.


[File TDBN-645-2.2 to TDBN-645-0.3
C-31

1 October 1943

Box 23652]

Journals covering Operation DRAGON, no anti-tank action discussed.


648th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[File TDBN-648-O.1 to TDBN-649-1.13

Box 23654]

No useful anti-tank information.

649th never left the US.

654th Tank Destroyer Battalion


[Box 23658]
Detailed History of the unit, August 1944, Mortaln actions.
[Boxes 23659 through 23672]
S-3 Journal files and map overlays.
[Box 23662]
S-2 Journal, December 1944.
[Box 23665]
Unit Report, Detailed encounter and overlay, September 1944.
656th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23674]
History of the Unit.
[Boxes 23675 through 23678]
Journals and After Action Reports indicate no action against tanks.
691st Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Boxes 23686 and 23687]
History shows October 1944 arrival in France, Journals.
692nd Tank Destroyer Battalion
692nd Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, [File TDBN-692-0.3].
692nd Tank Destroyer Battalion Message Log, [File TDBN-692-0.12 Box 23693].
701st Tank Destroyer Battalion
From Oran to Tunisia History 701st Tank Destroyer Battalion, 15 December
1941 - May 1945 and a Diary of 701st Tank Destroyer Battalion, [File
C-32

TDBN-701-0.1 Box 23699].


[File TDBN-701-0.3

Box 23700]

701st Tank Destroyer Battalion Operations Report, September 1942 May 1945.
701st Tank Destroyer Battalion Operations Report, 3 May - 31 October
1943.
701st Tank Destroyer Battalion Operations Report, 1944.
701st Tank Destroyer Battalion Operations Report, January 1944 April 1945.
701st Tank Destroyer Battalion Operations Report, June-December 1944.
[File TDBN-701-201.7 to 702-1.13

Box 23701]

701st Tank Destroyer Battalion Daily Journals, June 1945, [File TDBN
-701-0.7].
701st Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, 1941-1945, [File TDBN
-701-1.13].
[File TDBN-701-2.2

4-1-44 to 7-31-44

Box 23702]

701st Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 Journal, April 1944.


701st Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 Journal, May 1944.
701st Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 Journal, June 1944.
701st Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 Journal, July 1944.
[File TDBN-701-2.2

8-1-44 to 12-31-44 Box 23703]

701st Tank Destroyer Battalion S-2 Journal: four each for April,
September, October, December 1944.
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23714]
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit History for Year 1944, [File TDBN
-702-0.1].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit History for Year 1945, [File TDBN
-702-0.1].
Brief History of 702d Tank Destroyer Battalion, [File TDBN-702-0.1].
C-33

702d Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Report September-November 1944,


April-June 1945, [File TDBN-702-O.1].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report July 1944 - June
1945, [File TDBN-702-0.1].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion Operational Report, 1-30 July 1945,
[File TDBN-702-O.1].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, June-October 1944,
[File TDBN-702-2.01].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, January-May 1945,
[File TDBN-702-2.01].
Enemy Material Captured and Destroyed, June-December 1944, [File
TDBN-702-2.14].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion Periodic Reports, 19 July - 28
September 1944, [File TDBN-702-3.1].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Periodic Reports, March 1945, [File
TDBN-702-3.1].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion Letter Instruction, July-August 1945,
[File TDBN-702-3.11].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion Messages, March 1945, [File TDBN-702
-3.4].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion Training Schedules - Co NA", 11-13
December 1944, [File TDBN-702-3.13].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion Assignments, 27 October 1944, (File
TDBN-702-3.20].
702d Tank Destroyer Battalion Firing Reports, 9-17 July 1944, [File
TDBN-702-3.23].
703d Tank Destroyer Battalion
[File TDBN-703-0.2 to TDBN-703-3.11

Box 23715]

703d Tank Destroyer Battalion Historical Report January-May 1945,

(6872).
703d Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, messages only, (47696).
703d Tank Destroyer Battalion No information, (History).
704th Tank Destroyer Battalion
C-34

704th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, September 1944 - February 1945,


[File TDBN-704 Box 23716].
704th Tank Destroyer Battalion No useful anti-tank information, [File TDBN
-704 Box 23717].
705th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23718]
705th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, S-3 Report, Map overlay, July
-December 1944.
[Box 23719]
705th Tank Destroyer Battalion Mix of Orders, S-2 files -- not too
informative.
741st Tank Battalion
[Box 16703]
741st Tank Battalion After Action Report, December 1944, [File ARBN-741
-0.3].
741st Tank Battalion Unit Journal, December 1944, [File ARBN-741-0.7].
745th Tank Battalion
745th Tank Battalion After Action Report, June-December 1944, [File ARBN
-745-0.3 (5128) Box 16710].
745th Tank Battalion Journal, 20 July 1944 - 1 June 1945, [File ARBN-745
-0.7 Box 16711].
771st Tank Destroyer Battalion
771st Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, [File TDBN-771 Box
23723].
772nd Tank Destroyer Battalion
772nd Tank Destroyer Battalion Information December 1944 - April 1945,
[File TDBN-772].
773d Tank Destroyer Battalion
773d Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, [File TDBN-773-0.3 Box
23725].
773d Tank Destroyer Battalion Journal, [File TDBN-773-0.9 Box 23725].
C-35

774th Tank Destroyer Battalion


[File TDBN-774-0.1 to TDBN-774-0.3

Box 23739]

774th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, 15 December 1941


1945, [File TDBN-774-O.1].

8 May

774th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Battle Report, January-March


1945, [File TDBN-774-0.3 (8751)].
774th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, April 1945, [File
TDBN-774-0.3 (8751).
[File TDBN-774-1.13 to TDBN-775-1.13

Box 23740]

774th Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, 1943-1945 January


1945, [File TDBN-774-1.13].
774th Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journal, September-December 1944,
[File TDBN-774-3.2 (47494)].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion
File TDBN-776-0 to TDBN-776-0.6

[Box 23741]

776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Informal History, July 1941 - 8 May


1945, [File TDBN-776-O].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, July-May 1945, [File TDBN
-776-0.1].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion History,

-0.1].

May 1945, [File TDBN-776

776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, July, November 1944,


[File TDBN-776-0.3].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, January - 11-31 May
1945, [File TDBN-776-0.3].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Narrative of TDBN, May 1944, [File
TDBN-776-0.6].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, 26 September - 31
December 1943, [File TDBN-776-0.3].
[File TDBN-776-0.7

11-1-43 to 2-28-45

Box 23742]

776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, November-December 1943,


[File TDBN-776-0.7].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, December 1944, [File
C-36

TDBN-776-0.7].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, January, July, November
1944, [File TDBN-776-0.7].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, January 1943, [File
TDBN-776-0.7].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, November-December 1943,
[File TDBN-776-0.7].
[File TDBN-776-0.7

3-1-45 to TDBN-776-MD-O.1

Box 23743]

776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Folders for March 1945, April 1945,
1-10 May 1945, 19-30 April 1944 No information on anti-tank
actions, [File TDBN-776-0.7].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, 1945, [File TDBN-776

-1.3].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Instructions (Ols), October
-April 1945 and February-April 1945, [File TDBN-776-3.17].
776th Tank Destroyer Battalion History of Medical Detachment,
December 1941 - November 1945, [File TDBN-776-0.1].
801st Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Boxes 23745 through 23749]
801st Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, December 1944,
[File TDBN-801-0.3 Box 23745].
After Action Reports, Journals full of map overlays, Brief log of
events.
(Boxes 23750 through 23752]
801st Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journals and Overlays.
802d Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Boxes 23753 through 23756]
No useful anti-tank information.
803d Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Boxes 23763 through 23764]
803d Tank Destroyer Battalion S-3 Journals with map overlays.
C-37

805th Tank Destroyer Battalion


[File TDBN-805-0.1 to TDBN-805-0.7

10-31-43

Box 23768]

805th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, 3 February 1941 - 2 November


1945, [File TDBN-805-0.1].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, 1-30 September 1944, [File
TDBN-805-0.2).
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Monthly History, June 1945, [File
TDBN-805-0.2].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, January-August,
October-December 1944, [File TDBN-805-0.3].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, January-June 1945,
[File TDBN-805-0.3].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, March 1943, [File TDBN

-805-0.7].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, April 1943, [File TDBN

-805-0.7].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, 5-6, 18, 29 May 1943,
[File TDBN-805-0.7].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, October 1943, [File
TDBN-805-0.7].
[File TDBN-805-0.7 11-1-43 to 12-31-43

Box 23769]

805th Tank Destroyer Battalion History and Casualty Reports, 17


January - 31 December 1943, [File TDBN-805-O.3].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, November 1943, [File
TDBN-805-0.7].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, December 1943, [File
TDBN-805-O.7].
[File TDBN-805-0.7

1-1-44 to 2-29-44

Box 23770]

805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, January 1944, [File


TDBN-805-0.7].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, February 1944, [File
TDBN-805-0.7J.
[File TDBN-805-0.7

3-1-44 to 4-30-44
C-38

Box 23771]

805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, March 1944, [File TDBN
-805-0.7].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, April 1944, [File TDBN
-805-0.7].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, August 1944, [File TDBN-805
-0.7 Box 23773].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, October 1944, [File TDBN-805
-0.7 Box 23775].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, November 1944, (File TDBN-805
-0.7 Box 23776].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, December 1944, [File TDBN-805
-0.7 Box 23777].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, January 1945, (File TDBN-805
-0.7 Box 23778].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, February 1945, [File TDBN-805
-0.7 Box 23779].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, March 1945, (File TDBN-805-0.7
Box 23780].
[File TDBN-805-0.7

4-1-45 to TDBN-805-1.13

Box 23781]

805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, April 1945, [File TDBN
-805-0.7].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, May 1945, [File TDBN

-805-0.7].
805th Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, 1942-1945, [File TDBN
-805-1.13].
807th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Boxes 23783 through 23796]
807th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journals and map overlays.
808th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Boxes 23798 through 23801]
808th Tank Destroyer Battalion - Unit at Utah Beach, September 1944.
809th Tank Destroyer Battalion
C-39

[Box 23802]
809th Tank Destroyer Battalion History and Journals.
information.

No anti-tank

[Box 23803]
809th Tank Destroyer Battalion

--

No anti-tank information.

811th Tank Destroyer Battalion


[Box 23804]
811th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Records, Journals, December 1944.
[Box 23805 through 23808]
811th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journals and After Action Reports.
813th Tank Destroyer Battalion
(Box 23809]
813th Tank Destroyer Battalion After Action Report, June-November
1944.
(Boxes 23810 through 23812]
813th Tank Destroyer Battalion Messages.
(Boxes 23814 through 23817]
813th Tank Destroyer Battalion Good map overlays.
[Box 23818]
813th Tank Destroyer Battalion Fire Missions for Company C.
814th Tank Destroyer Battalion
(Boxes 23819 through 23846]
814th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit History, October-December 1944.
(Boxes 23820 through 23846]
814th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journals of messages and overlays.
817th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23823]

C-40

817th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit History, July 1944-January 1945.


[Boxes 23824 through 23827]
817th Tank Destroyer Battalion Journals, weak on combat actions.
818th Tank Destroyer battalion
[Box 238281
818th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit History, July 1944.
[Boxes 23829 through 23839]
818th Tank Destroyer Battalion Handwritten Journals and map overlays
- little anti-tank action.
820th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23841]
820th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit History and After Action Report,
December 1944.
[Boxes 23842 through 23844]
820th Tank Destroyer Battalion Year 1945 -- not too eventful.
823d Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23847]
823d Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, August 1944, [File TDBN

-823].
823d Tank Destroyer Battalion Year 1944, [File TDBN-823].
823d Tank Destroyer Battalion G-2 Journal and File, August 1944,
[File TDBN-823].
[Box 23849]
823d Tank Pestroyer Battalion Headquarters 30th Infantry Division,
G-2 Periodic Report, July 1944, [File 823-0.8].
(Box 23850]
823d Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Report, G-2 Periodic Report,
Messages, August 1-8 1944, [File TDBN-823].
824th Tank Destroyer Battalion
C-41

[Boxes 23861 through 23869]


824th Tank Destroyer Battalion
against German armor.

Good, useful information of action

825th Tank Destroyer Battalion


(Box 23870]
825th Tank Destroyer Battalion History -- very skimpy.
827th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23871]
827th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, January 1945 -- good tank
action.
893d Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Box 23873]
893d Tank Destroyer Battalion History, After Action Report July
-December 1944, Handwritten S-3 Journals.
894th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[Boxes 23874 through 23878]
894th Tank Destroyer Battalion History -- In Italy, at Anzio;
supported British area.
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion
[File TDBN-899-0 to TDBN-899-0.2

Box 23879]

899th Tank Destroyer Battalion July 1940 - 20 June 1945, (File TDBN
-899-0].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion History Draft, 1945, [File TDBN-899

-0.1].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion History, June 1944, (File TDBN-899
-0.1].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Monthly history, February 1945, [File
TDBN-899-0.2].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Monthly history, March 1945, [File
* TDBN-899-0.2].

C-42

899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Monthly history, April 1945, [File


TDBN-899-0.2].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Monthly history, June 1945, [File
TDBN-899-0.2].
[File TDBN-899-0.3 Box 23880]
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, 15 March - 11 April
1943, [File TDBN-899-0.3].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, January - 3 May
1945, [File TDBN-899-0.3].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, 8 May - October
1945, [File TDBN-899-0.3].
[File TDBN-899-0.7

6-1-44 to 12-31-44

Box 23881]

899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Operation Report, January-December


1944, [File TDBN-899-0.3].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, June 1944, [File TDBN
-899-0.7].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, July 1944, (File TDBN
-899-0.7).
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, August 1944, [File TDBN
-899-0.7].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, December 1944, [File
TDBN-899-0.7].
[File TDBN-899-0.7

1-1-45 to TDBN-899-1.13

Box 23882]

899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, January 1945, [File


TDBN-899-0.7].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, February 1945, [File
TDBN-899-0.7].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, March 1945, [File TDBN

-899-0.7].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, April 1945, [File TDBN
-899-0.7].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion Unit Journal, December 1945, [File
TDBN-899-0.7].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion General Orders, 1940-1945, [File TDBN
C-43

-899-1.13].
**Records of the Tank Destroyer Center (Record Group 338) Boxes 1
researched at Suitland, Maryland.

69 also

3. TDBN Records at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania (USANHI)


5th Tank Destroyer Group History, I September 1942 to 9 May 1945.
McGrann, Roy T., Captain. The 610th Tank Destroyer Battalion, 11-25
September 1944, Dieulouard Bridgehead.
C. ETO COMBAT INTERVIEWS RESEARCHED AT SUITLAND, MARYLAND
Ist Infantry Division Combat Interviews, 16-31 December 1944, "German
Breakthrough," [File 7 Box 24012].
1st Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "Summary of BOtgenbach Action," [File
7 Box 24012].
2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "Battle of the Bulge," 17-20 December
1944, [File 20 Box 24017].
2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Breakthrough," 14 December 1944
- 16 January 1945, [File 20 Box 24017].
2nd Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Breakthrough," 14 December 1944
- 16 January 1945, [File 21 Box 24017].
Combat Interviews, "Citation for the 3rd Infantry Division for Croix de Guerre,"
[File 27 Box 24020].
Combat Interviews, History "30th Infantry in Operation GRANDSLAM," 30th
Infantry/3rd Infantry Division by Lt. William Sutton, [File 27 Box 24020].
Combat Interviews, Maps, History "La Maison Rouge:
23-24 January 1945," [File 27 Box 24020).

The Story of an Engagement

4th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, 25 July - 8 August 1944, "St. Lo Mortain," [File 31 Box 24021].
5th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, 8-24 September 1944, "Moselle River
Crossing," "Monaville," [File 38 Box 24023].
"Fort Driant," 3-11 October 1944, [File 39 Box 24023].
"Assault on Metz," 9-24 November 1944, [File 40 Box 24023].
"5th Infantry Division at Ardennes," 22-31 December 1944, [File 41 Box 24023].
C-44

"Crossing the Meuse by the 9th Infantry Division," [File 55 Box 24027).
"Siegfried Line and Hurtgen Forest, 9th Infantry Division Efforts," [File 56 Box
24027].
"Hamich Ridge, 16-29 November 1944, 9th Infantry Division," [File 57 Box 24027].
"9th Infantry Division's Advance to the Roer River," 26 November - 14 December
1944, [File 58 Box 24027].
28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, 1-9 November 1944, "Hurtgen Forest
Campaign," [File 74 Box 24032].
28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, 2-16 November 1944, "Hurtgen Forest
Campaign," [File 75 Box 24032].
28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, 2-8 November 1944, "Hurtgen Forest
Campaign," [File 76 Box 24032].
28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, 2-16 November 1944, "Hurtgen Forest
Campaign," [File 77 Box 24032].
28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Winter Offensive, 16-24
December 1944," Co K, 110th Infantry Regiment, [File 78 Box 24033].
28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Winter Offensive, 16-24
December 1944," Interview with 1st Lt. Leo A. Kodzerski ard 1st Sgt. Joseph
W. McKenna, (File 78 Box 24033].
28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Winter Offensive, 16-24
December 1944," Unit Journal, [File 78 Box 24033].
28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Winter Offensive, 16-24
December 1944," 3/112th Infantry Regiment, (File 78 Box 24033].
28th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "German Winter Offensive, 16-24
December 1944," 112th Infantry Regiment, [File 78 Box 24033].
29th Infantry Division, "Defense of Brest, 25 August - 15 September 1944," [File
88 Box 24036].
29th Infantry Division, "29 Let's Go," 4 October 1944, [File 89 Box 24036].
29th Infantry Division, "Roer-Rhine, 1 October 1944 - 1 March 1945," [File 90 Box

24036].
30th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, 14 June - 31 July 1944, "Isigny to
Tessy-sur-Vire," [File 94 Box 24037].
"30th Infantry Division at Lo Breakthrough," 26-28 July 1944, [File 95 Box

24038].
C-45

30th Infantry Division, tMortain Counterattack, 6-12 August 1944," [File 96 Box
24038].
"30th Infantry Division at Siegfried Line, 1-19 October 1944," [File 97 Box
24038].
"30th Infantry Division at Siegfried Line, 1-19 October 1944" (photos and maps),
[File 98 Box 24039).
"30th Infantry Division at Siegfried Line, 2-17 October 1944," [File 99 Box
24039].
"30th Infantry Division in the Ardennes, 16-25 December 1944," [File 100 Box
24039].
"30th Infantry Division, Ardennes, 3-23 December 1944" (maps), [File 101 Box
24039].
82nd Airborne Division Combat Interviews, 18 December 1944 - 9 February 1945,
"The Battle of the Bulge," [File 172 Box 24058].
82nd Airborne Division Combat Interviews, 18 December 1944 - 9 February 1945,
"Houffalize to the Roer River," [File 173 Box 24058].
84th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, 19 December 1944 - 16 January 1945,
"Ardennes," [File 183 Box 24061].
Combat Interviews, [File 196].
Combat Interviews, Regiment Commander, 376th Infantry/94th Infantry Division,
[File 203 Box 24067].
99th Infantry Division Combat Interviews, "Ardennes 16-20 December 1944," [File
209 Box 24069].
101st Airborne Division, Combat Interviews, 18 December 1944 - 2 January 1945,
"The Siege of Bastogne," [File 227 Box 24074].
101st Airborne Division, Combat Interviews, 18 December 1944 - 2 January 1945,
"The Battle of the Bulge," [File 228 Box 24074].
101st Airborne Division, Combat Interviews, 18 December 1944 - 2 January 1945,
"Battle of the Bulge," [File 229 Box 24075].
101st Airborne Division, Combat Interviews, 19-27 December 1944, "Battle of the
Bulge," [File 230 Box 24075].
Combat Interviews, "Operation Grenade," [File 232 Box 24076].
Combat Interviews, "Roer-Rhine Operation" Interviews by Capt Chester Goolrick,
Jr (4th I&H Service) and Lt. John Williams, [File 232 Box 24076].
C-46

"103d Infantry Division St. Die to Rhine, 29 October - 28 November 1944," [File
237 Box 24078].
"103d Infantry Division Northern Alsace, December 1944," [File 238 Box 24078].
"103d Infantry Division Bobenthal to the Siegfried Line, December 1944," [File
239 Box 24078].
Combat Interviews, [File 241].
"3d Armored Division at Fromental, 7-28 August 1944," [File 261 Box 24089].
"3d Armored Division from Mons to Namurs, 4-6 September 1944," [File 262 Box
24089].
"3d Armored Division Battle of Mons, 1-19 September 1944," [File 263 Box 24089].
"3d Armored Division at Siegfried Line, 12-25 September 1944," [File 264 Box
24089].
"4th Cavalry Group at Siegfried Line, 1 September - 10 October 1944," [File 324
Box 24107].
"4th Cavalry Group at Aachen and Ardennes, 20 December 1944 - 12 January 1945,"
[File 325 Box 24107].
"4th Cavalry Group, Roer to the Rhine, 23 February - 8 March 1945," [File 326 Box
24107].
"4th Cavalry Group, 1-19 April 1945," [File 327 Box 24107].
"4th Cavalry Group, Ardennes, 20 December 1944 - 13 January 1945," [File 328 Box
24107].
"ETOUSA Battle Experiences, July 1944 - March 1945," [File 247-8 Box 24148].
82nd Airborne Division Combat Interviews, December 1944 - January 1945, "Belgium:
The Story of the Bulge," [File 469 Box 24151].
"1st US Army Tank Destroyer Bulletin, 28 September 1945," (File 888 Box 24187].
Combat Interview, "Arnhem, The Landing and the Bridge, December 9, 1944," [File
932 Box 24198].
"German Command Interview: General Erich Brandenberger, CG 7th Armee - August
1944 Counteroffensive," [File 978 Box 24200].
"German 7th Army War Diary, Daily Reports, Volume II[, 7-12 August 1944,"
[Box 24237].
"German 7th Army War Diary, Daily Reports, Volume IV, 7-12 August 1944," [Box
24237].
C-47

"German 7th Army War Diary, Daily Reports, Volume V, 6-12 August 1944," [Box
24237].
"German 7th Army, Group "B" War Diary - Phone Calls and Conversations, 7-12
August 1944, Document IV," [Box 24237].
"Interrogation Reports of German Infantrymen, August 15 - September 1944," [File
2068 Box 24255].
D. ORAL INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED BY SAIC
St. Barthelmy Engagement
Tapes and transcript of interview with L. Lawson Neel in Thomasville,
Georgia, December 1989.
Tapes and transcript of interview with George Greene at SAIC, McLean,
Virginia, January 1990.
Tapes and transcript of POW interview with George Greene at SAIC, McLean,
Virginia, January 1990.
Tape and transcript of telephone interview with G. Dean Noble, February
1990.
Transcript of telephone interview (follow-up) with George Greene, February
1990.
Abbaye Blanche Engagement
Tapes and transcript of interview with Thomas Springfield at SAIC, McLean,
Virginia, January 1990.
Tape and transcript of telephone interview (follow-up) with Thomas
Springfield, February 1990.
Dom Butgenbach Engagement
Interview with William Spray, 4 August 1990.
E. MONOGRAPHS/MANUSCRIPTS
1. The Infantry School Library, Fort Benning, Georgia
Adams, James F., Capt, "Operation of Company F, 327th Glider Infantry (101) in
Defense of Bastogne: 19-26 December 1944." Company in defense (Company
Commander, 46-47 mono). (Microfilm Number D-488].
Adams, Jonathan E. Jr., MAJ, "Operation of 1st Battalion, 508th Parachute
Infantry (82) near Bencheau (Bastogne), 22-25 December 1944." Company M

C-48

defense and withdrawal (Company Commander, 47-48 mono).

[Microfilm Number

D-488).
Bartholomew, Howard 1., MAJ, "Operation of 3/121st Infantry (8th Infantry
Division) in Attack and Defense of Pleurtuit, FR, 8-12 August 1944."
(Company Commander, 49-50 mono). [Microfilm Number D-491).
Carter, Daniel M., MAJ, *(S-3) Operations of 899th Tank Destroyer Battalion (4th
Infantry Division), 2-18 July 1944 (Normandy area after the landings)."
Tank Destroyer in support of infantry. [Microfilm Number D-493].
Carter, Sam, MAJ, "Operations of 1/18 Infantry Regiment at El Guettar, 17-25
March 1943.' Battalion in defense. 47-48 Monograph. [Microfilm Number
D-493].
Clayton, George A., Maj, *Operations of 3rd Battalion, 394th Infantry (99th
Infantry Division), 16 December 1944 - 1 January 1945."
(47-48
monograph). [Microfilm Number D-493].
Cook, James H., MAJ, 'Operations of Company I, 179th Infantry (45th Infantry
Division) vicinity factory - Anzio, 16-18 February 1944."
Company in
defense. [Microfilm Number D-489].
Cooper, Osborn, Maj, "Operations of 411th RCT (103d Division) While Attached
to Task Force Linden, vicinity Jessenheim, GE, 16-23 January 1945.' (RCT
S-3). [Microfilm Number D-494].
Daykin, Albert, Maj, "Operation of 1st Battalion, 119th Infantry (30) in Attack
on Stoumont 19-22 December 1944.' Infantry Battalion defending a road
block and counterattacking (Artillery LNO). [Microfilm Number D-495].
DeReus, Clarence C., Capt, "Operations of 3rd Battalion, 242d Infantry Regiment
(Task Force Linden) near Hagnenau, FR, 19-27 January 1945." Infantry
Battalion in withdrawal, organization of defense, and conduct of defense.
(Battalion S-3, 48-49 monograph). [Microfilm Number D-495).
Dickerson, Robert L., MAJ, 'Operation of 325th Glider Infantry Battle of Mt.
St. Angelo (Salerno), 18-20 September 1943." Company in defense.
[Microfilm Number 0-495].
Evans, Robert H., Capt, 'Operation of Company G, 327th Glider Infantry (101)
Holland, 18 September-15 October 1944 (Market-Garden)." Infantry Company
in defense and attack (Company Commander, 46-47 mono). [Microfilm Number
D-496].
Fabianich, Keith P., Maj, "Operations of 3rd Battalion, 395th Infantry (9th
Infantry Division), 10 November - 24 December 1944."
Battalion in
defense. (Company Commander and Battalion S-3 -- 47-48 monograph).
[Microfilm Number D-496].
Fossum, Embert A., Maj,

'Operations of Task Force L, 109th Infantry (28th


C-49

Infantry Division) near Grosbous, Luxembourg, 20-23 December 1944."


Reinforced Infantry Company as security for flank.
(Task Force
Commander). [Microfilm Number D-497].
Galbrealth, Robert B., MAJ, "Operation of 2d Battalion, 327th Glider Infantry
(101) in Defense of Bastogne." (Battalion Company, 47-48 mono).
[Microfilm Number D-497].
Gavin, Robert J., CPT, "Operation of 2nd Platoon, Company 1, 133d Infantry (34th
Infantry Division)." Rifle platoon attacked by enemy armor and infantry.
[Microfilm Number D-489].
Gendron, Thomas J., Maj, "The Operations of 2nd Battalion, 26th Infantry (Ist
US Infantry Division) at Dom BOtgenbach, Belgium, 18-21 December 1944."
Infantry Battalion on reverse slope defense of hilly terrain against
coordinated infantry-tank attacks.
(Battalion S-3, 49-50 Monograph).
[Microfilm Number D-498].
Guenther, Robert A., MAJ, "Operation of Company E, 180th Infantry (45th Infantry
Division) during major offensive, 16-20 February 1944, at Anzio." Rifle
Company defending against large scale attacks. [Microfilm Number D-498].
Hackett, Paul T., Ist LT, "Operations of Ist Infantry Division at El Guettar,
20-24 March 1943." Infantry Division defending against armored attack.
[Microfilm Number D-498].
Hancock, William F. Jr., "Operations of Ist Battalion, 9th Infantry (2d Infantry
Division) in Hasty Defense Against Armored Attack, 17-18 December 1944
(Battalion XO -- 49-50 monograph). [Microfilm Number D-499].
Hankel, Halland W., Capt, "Operations of Company M, 38th Infantry (2d Infantry
Division), vicinity of Krlnkelt, Belgium, 17-20 December 1944." Infantry
heavy weapons company in defense, (Company Commander). [Microfilm Number
D-499].
Hickman, David, Capt, "Operation of Battalion 359th Infantry (90th Infantry
Division) in closing Falalse Gap - Defense of Le Bourg St. Leonard, 14-19
August 1944." (S-3 - 49-50 mono). [Microfilm Number D-499].
Hickman, Don R., Capt, "Operation of 3/304th (76th Infantry Division) Crossing
Kyll and Seizing Ovehofen, 3-5 March 1945." Battalion attack followed by
counterattack (Company Commander, 48-49 mono). [Microfilm Number D-499].
Hollinger, John C., Maj, "Operation of 433d Infantry (106) at Schlassenback,
GE, 15-20 December 1944." Infantry Regiment in defense withdrawal and
attack. (Regiment assistant S-3). [Microfilm Number D-500].
Hollstein, Jean W., Capt, "Operation of 506th Parachute Infantry (101) in
Defense of Bastogne, 19-20 December 1944." Regiment in defense (49-50
monu). [Microfilm Number D-500].
Huebner, Otto W., 1st LT,

"Operation Company A/SO4th Parachute Regiment - in


C-SO

defense of Hill 424, Altavilla (Salerno), 17-19 September 1943."


in defense. [Microfilm Number D-500].

Company

Hutchinson, Robert C. Jr., Capt, "Operation of Company B, 630th Tank Destroyer


Battalion Support of 110th Infantry Near Clervaux, Luxembourg, 16-31
December 1944." Towed Tank Destroyer Company in defense. [Microfilm
Number D-500].
Kappel, Carl W., Cpt, "Operation of Company H, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment
(82), 17-21 September 1944 (Market-Garden)." Rifle Company dropped to
secure key terrain (Company Commander, 48-49 mono). [Microfilm Number D
-501].
Kemp, Harry M., MAJ, "Operation of 3d Battalion, 109th Infantry (28th Infantry
Division) vicinity Dleklrch, Luxembourg, 16-23 December 1944." Infantry
Battalion in defense and withdrawal (Battalion XO). [Microfilm Number 0-

501].
Kemp, James B., MAJ, "Operation of 612th Tank Destroyer Battalion (Towed) (2d
Infantry Division) vicinity Elsenborn corner, 16-31 December 1944." Tank
Destroyer Battalion support attack being forced on defense (Battalion XO).
[Microfilm Number D-501].
Kerley, Ralph A., MAJ, "Operation of 2nd Battalion, 120th Infantry (30th
Infantry Division) at Mortain, 6-12 August 1944." (Company Commander, 4950 mono). [Microfilm Number D-501].
Keyes, Lewis H., MAJ, "Operation of 106th Infantry Division, 15-22 December
1944." [Microfilm Number D-501].
Kinslow, Albert V., Capt, "Operation of 1st Bn/379th Infantry (95th Infantry
Division) at Saarlautern, GE, 2-6 December 1944." Battalion in River
crossing, capture and defense of Bridge (Company Commander, 46-47 mono).
[Microfilm Number D-502].
Koob, William L. Jr., CPT, "Operation of Anti-Tank Company, 317th Infantry (80th
Division) in closing Falaise Gap, 18-20 August 1944." AT defense of RCT
attack zone; AT and TO attachments (Company Commander). [Microfilm Number

0-502].
LeGare, Ben W., Maj, "Operations of 2nd Battalion, 394th Infantry (99th Infantry
Division), vicinity Losheimergraben, 16-19 December 1944."
Infantry
Battalion defending and retrograding (Battalion XO). [Microfilm Number D-

502].
Long, Joseph W., "Operations of C Company, 691st Tank Destroyer Battalion,
Nancy, 7 October 1944." Most of TO Company into defensive position
(Company Commander). [Microfilm Number D-503].
Lunsford, James N. Jr.,

"Operations of Ist Battalion, 345th Infantry (87th

C-Si

Infantry Division) in Attack on Moircy, BE, 30 December 1944-1 January


1945."
Infantry Battalion in attack and defense of town. [Microfilm
Number D-503].
Moon, William P. Jr., MAJ, "Operation of Ist Battalion, 422d Infantry (106th
Infantry Division) vicinity Schlossenbach, Germany, 10-19 December 1944."
(Bn XO). (Microfilm Number 0-505].
Musick, L.A., Capt, "Operation of 3d Battalion, 513th Parachute Infantry (17th
Airborne Division) 25 December 1944-9 January 1945." (Battalion S-2, 4647 mono). (Microfilm Number D-506].
Myers, Francis J. Jr., Capt, "Operations of 3rd Platoon, Company G, 505th
Parachute Infantry (82d Airborne Division), at Salm River, vicinity Petite
Halleux. BE, 25 December 1944." Platoon in defense (Platoon Leader 46-47
monograph). (Microfilm Number 0-506].
Neffenger, Ralph E., Capt, "Operations of 3d Platoon, G Company, 517th Infantry
(45th Infantry Division) at Anzio, 15-16 February 1944." Infantry Platoon
defending key beachhead feature. [Microfilm Number D-490].
Oettinger, Frederic N. Jr., Capt, "Operation of Company B/12th Infantry Regiment
(4th Infantry Division), 28 November-5 December 1944." Company attacking
and defending in heavy woods (Company Commander, 48-49 mono). [Microfilm
Number D-506].
Perry, Edwin A., MAJ, "Operation of Ist Battalion, 39th Infantry (9th Infantry
Division) in Defense of Bivouac Area, 17 June 1944, Jacques-de-Nehou,
France." (Company Commander, 49-50 mono). [Microfilm Number D-507].
Phillips, Ivan G., MAJ, "Operation of 502nd Parachute Infantry (101) in Defense
of Bastogne, 24-25 December 1944." (Regiment Comms off, 47-48 mono).
(Microfilm Number 0-507].
Prysi, Henry F., Capt, "Operation of Company I, 399th Infantry (100th Infantry
Division) vicinity Bitche, FR, 8-10 January 1945." (Company XO, defense
of key terrain). [Microfilm Number D-507].
Ramsey, David L., LTC, "Operations of 894th Tank Destroyer Battalion in Battle
of Kasserine Pass - personal experience of HHC Commander."
(Microfilm
Number D-S08].
Redding, Frank J., LTC, "Operation of Company C, 701st Tank Destroyer Battalion
with British First Army, vicinity Medgey - El - Pab - Beja Tunisia, 24
November - 11 December 42 - personal experience." [Microfilm Number D508].
Richardson, James, MAJ, "Operation of 1/39th Infantry (9th Infantry Division)
at Cherence le Roussel, FR. German Attack on Avranches, 4-10 August 1944
-- before Mortain."
(Battalion S-3, 47-48 mono). [Microfilm Number D508].
C-52

Rivette, Donald E. Capt, "The Operations of 2d Battalion, 26th Infantry (1st US


Infantry Division) at Dom BOtgenbach Belgium, 16-21 December 1944."
Infantry Battalion defending hilly terrain against coordinated tankinfantry attacks. (Anti-tank Company Commander, 48-49 monograph).
[Microfilm Number D-508].
Roberts, Elvy B., MAJ, "Operation of 501st Parachute Infantry (101), 19-20
December 1944." Regiment in meeting engagement and defense (Regiment S
-3, 47-48 mono). [Microfilm Number D-508].
Royce, Philip M., MAJ, "Operation of 2d Battalion, 141st Infantry (36th
Division) during German Attack in Alsace, 1-4 January 1945." Battalion
in defense (Battalion XO, 47-48 mono). [Microfilm Number D-509].
Sayre, Edwin M., MAJ, "Operation of Company A, 505th Parachute Infantry in
Airborne Landing in Sicily 9-24 July 1943." Airborne attack. (Microfilm
Number D-509].
Schumacher, Fred W., Capt, "Employment of 2d Platoon, Company M, 33d Infantry
(84th Division), 24-26 December 1944 (Ardennes)." MG Platoon in Defense
combat against armor (Platoon Leader, 47-48 mono). [Microfilm Number D
-509].
Shi, James D. Jr., Capt, "Operation of 3d Battalion, 157th Infantry (45th
Infantry Division) along Moletta River, Anzio, 7-8 February 1944."
Battalion in night defense. [Microfilm Number D-510].
Sickler, Robert L., Cpt, "Operation of Company D, 2d Battalion, 508th Parachute
Infantry (82), 17-18 September 1944 (Market-Garden)." Infantry Company
securing and holding a glider landing area (Platoon Leader, 48-49 mono).
[Microfilm Number D-510].
Simcox, Lawrence S., Maj, "Operation of 3rd Battalion, 376th Infantry (94th
Infantry Division) in Attack and Defense of Nennig, Wier, and GBHerg in
the Saar-Moselle Triangle, 15-19 January 1945."
(Heavy Weapons and
Company Commander). [Microfilm Number D-510].
Simmons, Wesley J., Capt, "Operation of Company K, 394th Infantry (99th Infantry
Division) vicinity Elsenborn Ridge, 16-21 December 1944."
Infantry
Battalion withdrawing and defending key terrain (Company Commander).
[Microfilm Number D-510].
Siska, John R., 1st Lt., "Operation of Company A, 1st Battalion, 424th Infantry
(106), 12-18 December 1944." Infantry Company defending (Platoon Leader
-- 48-49 monograph).
[Microfilm Number D-510].
Smith, Edwin K. Jr., MAJ, "Operations of the Anti-Tank Platoon, 2/26
(1st Infantry Division) at El Ancar (Landing at Casablanca), 8-11
1942." [Microfilm Number D-510].
Stark, Marshall W. Capt, "Operations of 1st Platoon, Battery C, 80th
(Anti-tank Platoon) (82 DW), 17 December 1944-11 January 1945."
C-5

Infantry
November
Airborne
AT in

support of Infantry Regiment (Platoon Leader -- 47-48 monograph).


(Microfilm Number D-511].
Sweet, William J. Jr., Capt, "Operation of 2/504 Parachute Infantry Regiment
(82nd Infantry Division) at Anzio 22 January-23 March 1944." Battalion in
attack and defense. [No Microfilm Number].
Talbott, Orwin C. MAJ, "Operation of 359th Infantry Regiment (90th Infantry
Division) Crossing Moselle, 9-14 November 1944."
Regiment in river
crossing and subsequent counterattacks (Regiment S-3, 48-49 mono).
[Microfilm Number D-512].
Tallerday, Jack, Capt, "Operation of 505th Parachute Infantry (82) in Battle
of Grosebeck and Nijmegen (Market-Garden) 17-23 September 1944." (Company
Commander). [Microfilm Number D-512].
Thornblom, Carlton, C., CPT, "Operation of Ist Battalion, 320th Infantry (35th
Infantry Division), 10-12 August 1944 (Mortain)."
Infantry Battalion
attacking and defending in performing rescue mission. (Company Commander,
49-50 mono). [Microfilm Number D-512].
Troup, Paul A. Jr., MAJ, "Operation of 112th Infantry (28) in Huertgen Forest,
2-14 November 1944." Regiment in attack, defense, and withdrawal (Regiment
HHC Commander, 47-48 mono). [Microfilm Number D-512].
Warden, Irving P., Maj, "Operations of Cannon Company, 110th Infantry (28th
Infantry Division) in Defense of Munchausen, Luxembourg, 16-19 December
1944."
Infantry Cannon Company in defense of a village (Company
Commander). [Microfilm Number D-513].
Weigel, Levene 3., Capt, "Operation of 1st Platoon, Company H, 422d Infantry
(106th Infantry Division), 12-19 December 1944." MG platoon in attack and
defense (Platoon Leader -- 48-49 monograph). [Microfilm Number D-512].
Wright, David B., Capt, "Operation of 1st Battalion, 110th Infantry (28th
Infantry Division), vicinity of Heinerscheid and Marnach, Luxembourg, 1618 December 1944."
Infantry Battalion in defense of wide front.
(Battalion S-3, 48-49 monograph). [Microfilm Number D-514].
2. The Armor School Library, Fort Knox, Kentucky
"An Analysis of the Tank Infantry Situation," [Call Number 41-20].
"Another Von Rundstedt Blunder.
Number 41-102].

3d Battalion 337th Glider Infantry," [Call

"Armored Infantry Battalion Defends at Anzio," [Call Number 41-16].


"Attack on Fortified Positions - Training for 3d Battalion, 411th Infantry 103
Infantry Division," [Call Number 41-21].
C-54

"Hedgerow Fighting Near Carentan," [Call Number 41-53].


"History of Anti-Tank Company, 12th Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Division,
July 22, 1944 to March 31, 1945, [Microfilm, Reel #2177, Item 2329].
"Infantry Units, 4th Infantry Division (Card 7) - Special Report St. Pols to
Paris, Pursuit through Belgium," [Microfilm Item 2210].
"Infantry Units, 4th Infantry Division (Card 23) - 12th Infantry Regiment (4th
Infantry Division) - History of Anti-Tank Company,' [Microfilm Item 2329].
"Infantry Weapons - Military Attache Report #113, Infantry Weapons, 22 August
1944," [Microfilm Item 577].
"Jungle Operations Armor Training and Use of 632d Tank Destroyer Battalion in New
Guinea," [Call Number 41-55).
"Military Attache (Anti-Tank) - Comment on anti-tank company's operation on D
-Day," [Microfilm Item 655].
Thompson, Jack, War Correspondent, "82nd Airborne Division, Stories of Sicilian
Invasion," [Microfilm, Reel #2042, Item 2068].
"82nd Airborne - Operations in Sicily and Italy July 1943 - January 1944,"
[Microfilm Item 1300].
Young, Robert W., Capt., Military'Monograph, "Armored Support of Infantry," May
1948, [Call Number 41-417].
3. Office of the Center of Military History, Washington, DC
"Ardennes Campaign Statistics, 16 December 1944 - 19 January 1945," [Historical
Manuscript File, Call Number 2-3.7 AE.P-15].
"Attack and Penetration," 16-21 December 1944 Dom BUtgenbach, Belgium,
[Historical Manuscript File, Call Number 8-3.1 AT, Reel 213,214].
"Breaching the Siegfried Line," [Historical Manuscript File, Call Number 8-3.1

AW].
"The Capture of Metz," [Historical Manuscript File, Call Number 8-3.1 AS].
"Dom BUtgenbach Action, 26th Infantry (Ist Division) 19-22 December 1944,"
[Historical Manuscript File, Call Number 2-3.7 AE.P-13].
European Theater of Operations, United States Army, Office of the Historical
Section. "XV Corps - The Argentan Salient, 9-17 August 1944," No Date,
[Historical Manuscript File, Call Number 8-3.1 AN, Box 383].
European Theater of Operations, United States Army, Office of the Historical
Section. "Advance to LeMans, XV Corps Operations, 1-9 August 1944," No
C-55

Date, [Historical Manuscript File, Call Number 8-3.1 AO, Box 384].
European Theater, U.S. Army Forces. Historical Division. "Operation Cobra."
By Maj. Kenneth W. Hechler, Capt. F.P. Halas, Lt. Col. Hugh M. Cole, S/Sgt
Jose M. Topete, Maj. F. Ferriss, and Lt. Hollis Alpert, [Historical
Manuscript File, Call Number 8-3.1 AK, Box 382].
"Historical Survey of Direct Fire Weapons in World War II and the Korean War:
A Compendium in Support of the Ardfire Study Group," [Historical Manuscript
File, Call Number 4-15.1 AA 10 v. 1].
Ludden, Monroe, "Guarding the Flanks of the LeMans Salient XX Corps," 1-14 August
1944, [Historical Manuscript File, Call Number 8-3.1 AP, Box 384].
"SAAR-MOSELLE Triangle and Trier, XX Corps, 14 January - 12 March 1945,"
[Historical Manuscript File, Call Number 8-3.1 AU].
"The Siege of Bastogne," [Historical Manuscript File, Call Number 8-3.1 AD].
"Siegfried Line," [Historical Manuscript File, Call Number 8-3.1 AL v. 2 Pt. 2
cy 1].
"Tank Fight of Rocherath-Krinkelt (Belgium) 17-19 December 1944," [Historical
Manuscript File, Call Number 2-3.7 AE.P-12].
4. The US Army Pentagon Library, Washington, DC
Clarke Draft Manuscript, "Riviera to the Rhine," Chapter 29.
F. GERMAN RECORDS
Foreign Military Studies, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
"Attitude to the Questionnaire Concerning the Commitment of the 'Leibstandarte
Adolf Hitler' in August 1944." Draft Translation, [Manuscript #B-358].
"The Campaign in Northern France, Volume IV, Chapter 4, The German Counterattack
Against Avranches (German Translation), August 1944," [Manuscript #B-725].
"Comments on the Seventh Army Journal August 1944," [Manuscript #A-918].
"Commitment of Armored Forces Against Normandy Landings," [Manuscript #B-814].
"Commitment of 1st SS-Panzer Division in August 1944," [Manuscript #B-358].
"Commitment of 3 Panzer Grenadier Division in the Ardennes Offensive," April
1947, Manuscript #B-465, [From Mr. Richard Byers 99th Infantry Division
Archives Committee, 5884 Thunderbird Drive Mentor on the Lake, OH 44060].
"Commitment of Sixth Panzer Army in the Ardennes 1944-1945," [Manuscript #A-924).
C-56

"Counterattack against AVRANCHES, August 1944," [Manuscript #A-921].


"German Tank Losses," [Manuscript #P-059].
"An Interview with Genmaj (W-SS) Fritz Kraemer Sixth Panzer Army (16 November
1944 - 4 January 1945)," [Ethint 21].
"An Interview with Obstgrf 'Sepp' Dietrich Sixth Panzer Army in the Ardennes
Offensive," [Ethint 15].
Map of Mortain actions, [Manuscript #A921-AI].
"Normandy, Cobra and MORTAIN," (Manuscript #A-894].
"OB West: Preparations for Invasion to Retreat to West Wall," [Manuscript #B

-308].
"OKW War Diary: 7th Armee Counterattack Against Avranches, 29 July - 14 August
1944," (Manuscript #A-921].
"OKW War Diary: 7th Armee Counterattack Against Avranches, 29 July - 14 August
1944," [Manuscript #B-034].
"Part I Northern France, 25 July - 26 July 1944." (German translation)
[Manuscript #B-179].
"2d SS-Panzer Division 'Das Reich,' September 1944" (in German) [Manuscript #P

-159).
"2d SS-Panzer Division 'Das Reich' Einsatz im Westen, Juni bis November 1944
Tagebuch," (Manuscript #P-159].
"7th Armee from 29 July 1944," [Manuscript #A-894].
"7th Armee from 29 July 1944," [Manuscript #A-918].
"7th Armee, 25 July - 20 August 1944," [Manuscript #B-179].
"9th Panzer Division, Normandy and Northern France, 27 July - 30 August 1944,"
[Manuscript #B-837].
"The 12th SS-Panzer Division 'Hitler Jugend' in the Ardennes Offensive,"
[Manuscript #B-522].
"116th Panzer Division, 6 June - 12 August 1944," [Manuscript #B-017].
"I SS-Panzer Korps in the West (Part I)," [Manuscript #C-024].
"I SS-Panzer Korps in the West (Part II)," [Manuscript #C-048).
"II SS-Panzer Korps, 24 July

18 August 1944," [Manuscript #B-748].


C-57

"LXVII Armeekorps, 7 June - 30 October 1944,0 [Manuscript #B-236].


"344th Infanterie Division, July-October 1944,0 [Manuscript #P-181].
G. MISCELLANEOUS
Action of Capt. John J. Kennedy, 612th Tank Destroyer Battalion, on 17 December
1944 at BO11ingen, Belgium, [From the personal records of Jack Flanagan
612th Tank Destroyer Battalion, xeroxed from Suitland, MD].
Another Snafu, [Ft. Knox, KY

Call Number 46-63].

Anti-Tank Defense - Weapons and Doctrine, [Ft. Knox, KY


Anzio:

Why Failure?

[Ft. Knox, KY

Call Number 45.3-25].

Call Number 81-23].

Ardennes Database [Property of US Army Concepts Analysis Agency, Bethesda, MD].


Armor at Anzio, [Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 45-1-2].
Armor in the Hurtgen Forest, [Ft. Knox, KY

Call Number 45-1-7].

Armor in the Mobile Defense, [Ft. Knox, KY

Call Number 45-5-2].

Arracourt:

Armor in Defense, [Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 80-2].

Attack and Penetration. Chapter II, 'The Northern Shoulder," RG 332, ETO
Historical Division, The History of the Ardennes Campaign, [Suitland, MD].
Critical Analysis of History of Armor in World War II, [Ft. Knox, KY Call Number
45.4-17].
The Defense of Elsenborn Ridge, [Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 79-13].
Destruction of German Armored Vehicles With ADoendices 1-5 Inclusive, [Ft.
Knox, KY 809A7 Ninth Armored Section, Destruction of German Tanks 29
May 1945].
Evolution of the Armored Division, [Ft. Knox, KY
Exercise Gypsy Moth, Salerno:
-025].

Call Number 45.60 - 48]].

D plus 26 years, [Ft. Knox, KY Call Number 71

Headquarters Communications Zone European Theater of Operations - Extracts,


January 1945, [Suitland, RG 332, ETO, Armored Fighting Vehicle and Weapons
Section, 311.15-381, Box labeled "1", File No. 353.4 Firing Tests].
Headquarters First United States Army - 90mm Firing Tests, December 1944,
[Suitland, RG 332, ETO, Armored Fighting Vehicle and Weapons Section,
311.15-381, Box labeled N1", File No. 353.4 Firing Tests].
C-58

Headquarters Twelfth Army Group - Comments on Test by First US Army to Determine


the Effectiveness of Tank and Anti-tank Weapons Against "Panther" Tank,
August 1944, [Suitland, RG 332, ETO, Armored Fighting Vehicle and Weapons
Section, 311.15-381, Box labeled "I",File No. 353.4 Firing Tests].
Headquarters Twelfth Army Group - Final Report of Board of Officers appointed to
determine comparative effectiveness of ammunition of 76mm gun and 17-pdr
gun, August 1944, [Suitland, RG 332, ETO, Armored Fighting Vehicle and
Weapons Section, 311.15-381, Box labeled "1", File No. 353.4 Firing Tests].
A History of the 823rd Tank Destroyer Battalion, "Battle of Mortain," Published
for the Officers and Men of the 823rd TDBN, 1951, [From Tom Rainey 823rd
Tank Destroyer Battalion].
Infantry units, 25th Infantry Division 35th Infantry B/2 Battalion, [Ft. Knox,
KY Call Number 65-081].
Informator as part of Unit Citation documentation gathered by Donald Rivette,
[From Lt. Col. Tom Page Ist BN 26th Infantry Ft. Dix, NJ 08640-7010].
Letter, Sid Eichen, L'Abbaye Blanche, August 1944, (From Stephen J. Lofgren, DAC,
Historian, Staff Support Branch to Charles M. Baily (SAIC)].
Letter from Derrill Daniel to Donald Rivette, 19 October 1948, [From Lt. Col. Tom
Page 1st BN 26th Infantry Ft. Dix, NJ 08640-7010].
Letter from Thomas Springfield to Charles M. Baily (SAIC), February 17, 1990.
Manuscript List from OCMH of possible use to this study.
Miscellaneous Certificates of Ist Infantry Division, 26th Infantry Regiment,
[From Lt. Col. Tom Page Ist BN 26th Infantry Ft. Dix, NJ 08640-7010].
Miscellaneous documents from Thomas Springfield, L'Abbaye Blanche, August 1944,
[From Thomas Springfield during interview at SAIC].
Miscellaneous letters to an from Mr. Richard H. Byers, 99th Infantry Division
Archives Committee. Also includes maps, [From Mr. Richard Byers 99th
Infantry Division Archives Committee, 5884 Thunderbird Drive Mentor on the
Lake, OH 44060].
Miscellaneous Records from Suitland, Maryland

(Called MLs at Suitland)

Photos and general information on German defenses, [Box 24131].


Several MLs on the 3d Armored Division, [Box 24150].
War Diary and phone call conversations between HQ Seventh Army Advance CP
and Army Group "B", and Seventh Army G-3 Reports for early August
1944, [ML 483 Box 24154].
Telecons of German Headquarters (1II), (ML 485 Box 24154].
C-59

Seventh Army War diary, 6 June - 31 July 1944 (II), [ML 486 Box 24154].
Seventh Army War diary, 6 June - 31 July 1944 (1), [ML 487 Box 24154].
Salerno, "American Operations from the Breakthrough to the Volturno,"
September - 6 October 1943, [ML 514 Box 24158].
Interview on German Panzer Lehr Commander, [ML 998 Box 24202].
32d Cavalry Squad, 14th Cavalry Group Rhine Crossing at Remagen, 10-23
March 1945, [ML 1002 Box 24202].
119th Infantry Regiment, 30th Infantry Division assault on Mergenhausen,
5 December 1944 and 27-28 August 1944 operations, [ML 1003 Box

24202].

Rhine Bridgehead in V Corps sector, [ML 1005 Box 24202].


German Breakthrough in V Corps sector, 16 December 1944, [ML 1006 24202].
15th Infantry Regiment advance on Mutzig, [ML 1035 Box 24204].
Attack across the Meuth, [ML 1031 Box 24204].
XIX Study on penetration of the Siegfried Line, [ML 1025 Box 24204].
2d French Armored Division records, [ML 1051 Box 24205].
899th Tank Destroyer Battalion action on 11 July 1944 near St. Jea.-de
-Daye, [ML 1055 Box 24205].
2d Armored Division partial report on Siegfried Line, [ML 1036 Box 24205].
Operational Research in North West Euroge. The Work of No 2 Operational Research
Section With 21 Army Group, June 1944 - July 1945, [From the personal files
of Jay Karamales (SAIC)].
Operations of the 612th Tank Destroyer Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division, in the
Battle of the Bulge Vicinity of Elsenborn Corner, 16-31 December 1944
(Ardennes-Alsace Campaign), [Monograph obtained from Jack Flanagan 612th
Tank Destroyer Battalion].
Photos of Mark V Tank knocked out and soldiers manning an anti-tank gun, [RG 332,
ETO Historical Division, Stack Area 8, Row 79, Compartment 20, ETO/USFET
Theater Historian, Ardennes Campaign, 1944-1945, Box 3, Suitland].
Tank Destroyer Center, G-2 Section. TD Combat Reports from Theaters of
Operatj ni. (TDC) February 1944, Leavenworth, [Pentagon D 793 T43].
Tank Destroyer Combat in Tunisia, January 1944, (USAMHI Archives - Found in Box
labeled "Tank Destroyers - History" Andrew Bruce Papers].
C-60

Trials Against Front Armor of German Mark III Tanks, [Numbered box and folders
of *George B. Jarrett Papers" at Archives, USANHI, Carlisle Barracks, PA].
US Tank Destroyer Units, WWII, A Working Bibliography, [USANHI, Librarian File].
2d Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop History, December 1944, [File 302-CAV-0.2 Box
6038, Suitland].
The Georae B. Jarrett Paners from unnumbered boxes at USANHI. Carlisle. PA
First Box
several unlabeled folders:
Second Box
first folder:

Magazine clippings on Vietnam.

Handwritten drafts of memoirs; Chapter XI discusses some


aspects of munitions against tanks. This is like a
diary, but appears to contain some details of
observations and tests.

second folder:

Thank you letters, etc.

third folder:

Draft of long manuscript in post WWII visit to Europe.

fourth folder:

Typed part of the draft memoirs.

fifth folder:

Draft of "Two Buttons: Ordnance, the story of Military


History" and 1945 diary on Mid-East visit. [SEE ENTRY on
EIGHTH BOX]

Third Box
first folder:

Draft of European visit - WII.

second folder:

Draft of Mid-East visit - WII.

third folder:

*
Report on "Trials against Front Armor of German
Mark III Tanks" dated 24 May, 1942, GHQ hEF
[Headquarters, Middle East Force].

Fourth Box
first folder:

News clippings.

second folder:

Ordnance museum pamphlets.

third folder:

Press clippings.

fourth folder:

Letters of commendation.

C-61

Fifth Box
first folder:

Personal letters.

second folder:

Clippings.

third folder:

Draft article on the &frika

Jarrett by Hans Klinger -- a participant.


fourth folder:

fifth folder:

Japanese weapons.

sixth folder:

British book on German weapons.

Sixth Box:

related to

Diagrams and notes on German munitions.

Clippings on US Civil War.

Seventh Box:
Eighth Box
first folder:

Draft study on self-propelled "assault" guns.

Typed draft of "Ordnance, the Theme Song of Military


History."

second folder:

Magazine & newspaper clippings on weapons.

third folder:

Personal papers.

fourth folder:

Description of German Pin, rfaut, Hotchkiss gun, and


37m.

Ninth Box (long, flat) Certificates.


Tenth Box (long, flat)
first folder:
Draft of "I Am an Unknown British Soldier [in North
Africa].
second folder:

Draft story on German Col Zoring.

third folder:

Draft story on 37m gun.

fourth folder:

Draft article on German tanks.

Eleventh Box (long, flat)

Letters and clippings (very disorganized).

Twelfth Box (long, flat)

Letters and clippings (very disorganized).


C-62

Thirteenth Box

Short drafts descriptions on guns and various weapons


probably to go with museum displays.

Fourteenth Box

Notes and clippings (very disorganized).

C-63

--

11.

SECONDARY SOURCES

A. BOOKS
Adair, L.R., CPT, Speer, W. H., CPT, et. al. Mortain: Defensive. Deliberate
Defense 30th Infantrv Division 9-13 August 1944. Annotated Bibliography,
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1983. [Ft. Knox, KY].

Anziou Bchead. [OCMH D 769A532 U12].


Baily, Charles N. Faint Praise: American Tanks and Tank Destroyers during

WrldWar..11. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1983. [From the personal files of
Charles N. Baily (SAIC)].

Ball, Ed~mund. Staff Officer with 5th Army:


769.26 Sth.B3].
Balkoski, J. Beyond the Beachhead:
1989/2].

Sicily. Salerno. Anzio. (OCMH D

29th Infantry Division. [OCNH 05-29

Bennett, Ralph. Ultra in the West: The Normandy Cam~ajan of 1944-1945. New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1979. [Ft. Belvoir NIL 940.5421 BEN].
Blumenson, Martin. Examples of Employment of Tanks in Night Fighting on the
EuroRean Land Mass During World War 11. Unpublished Study, Histories
Division, OCMH, 1966. [OCMH 2-3.7 AC.Y].
Blumenson, Martin. *The Mortain Counterattack.0 United States Army in World War
11: The Euro~ean Theater of Operations: Breakout and Pursuit. Washington,
DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army, 1961.
[Pentagon UA 25.U515 V.5].
Blumenson, Martin. Kasine Pass.1.
[OCMH D 766.99.T8 B5].
Bradford, George. Great Tank Battles of -World War II.ARCO NY, 1970. (OCMH
B&].
Buisson, Gilles. Mortain 44:

Objectif-Avranches. [LC

D 793

D762.M56 B85 1984].

Byrnes, Laurence. History of the 94th Infantry Division in World War 1I.
Washington, DC: Infantry Journal Press, 1948. [OCMH 05-94 1948].
Carter, Sam, MAJ. The Ooerations of the 1st Battalion. 18th Infantry (1st
Divisionl at El Guettar. Tunisia. 17-25 March 1943 (Tunisian Campnaign)
(Personal Experiences of a Heavy-Wea~ons Company Commander). (Advanced
Infantry Officers Class, No. 1 1947-1948; Combat Arms Research Library,
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas].
Cavanagh, William, C.C. Krinkell-Rocherath. The Battle for the Twin Villages.
1986. [LC Catalog Number 85-63825].
Cole, Hugh M. United States Army in World War II: The Euronean Theater of
C-64

ODerations: The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge. Washington, DC: Office


of the Chief of Military History Department of the Army, 1965. [Pentagon
UA 25.U515.V.8].
Cole, Hugh M. United States Army in World War II: The European Theater of
Ooeratons: The Lorraine Campaign. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief
of Military History, United States Army, 1950. [Pentagon UA25.U515 V.1].
Combat Operations of the 1st Infantry Division During World War II. Battle of El
Guettar. [OCMH 05-1 1960].
Coox and Naisawald. Survey of Allied Tank Casualties in World War 11. [OCMH
15 ORO T-117].

Dornbusch, C.E. Histories of American Amy Units World Wars I and 1I and Korean
Conflict With Some Earlier Histories. Washington 25, DC: Department of
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Tank Destroyer Newsletter., Spring 1989, Newsletter No. 25, [Ft. Knox, KY].
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C-71

APPENDIX D
PERFORMANCE OF U.S. ANTITANK WEAPONS
AGAINST GERMAN TANKS

PERFORMANCE OF U.S. ANTITANK WEAPONS


AGAINST GERMAN TANKS1
ORGANIZATION
The collapse of the French Amy after only six weeks in 1940 was a rude
shock to American planners, and, although misinformation abounded, tanks
appeared to be the main ingredient to the surprising German success. Stopping
massed German tanks became a vital tactical requirement. Believing that the
Germans had massed hundreds of tanks on very narrow sectors, American planners
concluded that it was impractical to equip infantry divisions with enough
antitank guns to stop such attacks. As an alternative, the American Army
developed the concept of independent antitank (later named tank destroyer)
battalions which could be massed when needed to stop tank breakthroughs. From
its base at Fort Hood, the Tank Destroyer Command directed the creation of
tank destroyer battalions in the approximate ratio of one per each infantry
and armored division.
In practice, particularly in Northwest Europe,
attachment of battalions to the same divisions became habitual, and they were
virtually organic units.
Creation of the tank destroyer units did not mean that the infantry
divisions were deprived of organic antitank weapons. Each regiment had an
ant.itank company with 27 guns and, in addition, had the capability to lay
mines. Further, after its hasty introduction in 1942, the rocket launcher,
popularly known as the "Bazooka,n was present in infantry companies and
frequently used in close combat against tanks. Infantrymen also had antitank
rifle grenades, but these were cumbersome to use and less popular than the
Bazooka.
EQUIPMENT
During 1940 - 41 as the Army faced the prospect of war in Europe,
planners realized that there were serious equipment deficiencies for fighting
German Panzer Divisions. Depression and isolationism during the interwar
years had left the Army starved for funds, both for R&D and for production.
D-1

In order to equip an Army of 220 divisions planned in 1941 adaptations and


expedients were the order of the day. To provide an infantry antitank gun,
the Army simply adapted the German Rheinmetal 37mm towed gun which the Germans
had licensed for production abroad. At the time the Army adopted the 37mm,
it was adequate for its task -- the principal German tank, the Mark III, only
had 30mm of frontal armor in its 1940 version. Indeed, an argument against
developing the towed 3-inch antitank gun, begun in 1940, was that it was
difficult to see a need for such a powerful weapon. When the Army entered
combat in 1942 in North Africa, the 37mm was the standard antitank weapon in
the infantry divisions along with the Bazooka which was so new that the troops
were introduced to it aboard the ships sailing to invade.
Equipping the tank destroyer units was more difficult. Early in the
development of their tactical doctrine, the tank destroyer officers decided
that they needed self-propelled weapons. However there would be a continuing
debate over towed versus self-propelled guns. Towed proponents argued that
self-propelled guns were too expensive, and, because they were larger, more
difficult to conceal. As an expedient self-propelled gun which it hoped to
replace before entering combat, the Tank Destroyer Center mounted the 75mm
artillery piece, available in large quantities because it was the standard
field artillery gun prior to the introduction of the 105, in the M3 halftrack. Like the 37mm, the 75mm was adequate when adopted -- it could dependably penetrate 2-3 inches of armor. When the Tank Destroyer Center studied
the newly developed and more powerful 76mm gun in 1942, interest in that
weapon was primarily due to its flatter trajectory, i.e., its ability to hit
vice penetrate (the 76mm was a lighter, more compact version of the 3-inch
gun, designed to have the same ballistic performance). In addition, the Tank
Destroyer Command grudgingly accepted the MIO tank destroyer as an interim
weapon although they regarded it as too heavy and slow. An adaption of the
Sherman tank, the MIO carried the 3-inch gun. Meanwhile, the Tank Destroyer
Center rushed the development of the "ideal" tank destroyer, the M18, which
would carry the 76mm gun and had the mobility deemed essential to tank
destroyer tactics. Development of an antitank version of the new 90mm
antiaircraft gun began in 1942, but impetus for this work was largely due to
German success with their 88mm rather than any perception that existing
0-2

American weapons lacked sufficient capability to penetrate armor.


COMBAT EXPERIENCE
It is useful to recall that American troops did not engage Germans in
combat until November 1942, over two years after the war began and nearly
eighteen months after the Germans invaded Russia. Encounters with Russia's
well armed and armored T34 and KVI tanks had given the Germans strong impetus
to increase both the armament and armor of their own tanks. Meanwhile, the
American Army could only capitalize vicariously on the combat experience of
the British in North Africa.
Its own experience in North Africa provided mixed lessons to the
American Army. It suffered some sharp tactical reverses, such as Kassarine
Pass, but these were generally attributed to lack of experience and poor
tactics rather than equipment shortfalls. Inadequate armor was a recognized
deficiency of the M3 tank destroyer, as the loss of 21 of 31 vehicles at El
Guettar demonstrated. But during that battle, the 75.. guns of the 601st tank
destroyer battalion destroyed some 30 German tanks, including two of the newly
introduced and heavily armored Tigers. Arrival of MiOs in February gave tank
destroyer battalions a more effective weapon which, despite misgivings at Fort
Hood, was popular with the troops. In North Africa, both the 75mm and 3-inch
guns were able to penetrate the frontal armor of German Mark III and IVtanks.
The few Tiger tanks in Tunisia had little impact on either American or British
thinking; the British reported killing these behemoths with their standard
antitank gun, the 6-pounder. However, British and German success with towed
antitank guns and American criticism of the tank destroyer concept led the
American Army to adopt the towed 3-inch gun for half of the tank destroyer
battalions to be deployed to Europe.
Performance of infantry antitank weapons was less salubrious. For its
part, the Bazooka proved to be a very effective, close-range antitank weapon,
and the Germans paid it the ultimate compliment of copying it. But the 37m
gun was a failure; reportedly its rounds bounced off the front of German tanks
like marbles. A senior Ordnance officer visiting the theater in 1942 dis0-3

covered that about half of the ammunition available was older semi-armor
piercing shot and the troops could not tell the difference between the old
ammunition and new, higher velocity capped ammunition. He directed tests in
theater which demonstrated the ability of the newer ammunition to penetrate
the frontal armor of both Hark Ills and IVs. But as one observer put it,
"Confidence in the 37mm gun as an antitank gun has been lost." 2 To replace

the 37mm, the Army adapted the British 6-pounder, standardized as the 57mm
antitank gun, even though it was three times as heavy.
Later experience in the Mediterranean theater did not cause the Army to
re-examine the performance of its antitank weapons. Available antitank
weapons, artillery, and naval gunfire repulsed the German armor attacks at
Gela, Sicily and Salerno, Italy. American intelligence was aware of the
introduction of new, heavy German tanks such as the Panther and Ferdinand, but
studies in the U.S. indicated the 3-inch gun could penetrate the frontal armor
of these vehicles at ranges of 1000 yards. After one of the first encounters
with a Panther in Italy in the spring of 1944, a senior officer derided the
tank by pointing out that the superior mobility of an American light tank
enabled it to kill the German vehicle with a 37mm gun from the rear. But the
campaign in Italy, largely an infantry affair because of the mountainous
terrain, did not result in antitank equipment being a major concern to senior
leadership.
During the bitter fighting in the bocage (hedgerows) after the Normandy
landings, it became clear that American antitank weapons were not living up
to expectations when facing Panthers and Tigers. To determine exactly how
serious the problem was, the First U.S. Army conducted firing tests in July
1944. In conducting the test, First Army used every weapon in its inventory
with an AP capability against two captured Panthers (no Tigers were available). The results of the test were appalling. None of the American antitank
weapons could penetrate the front of the Panther's hull. Only the 3-inch gun
stood a chance against the Panther's turret mantle, but at less than 200
yards. However, all the weapons fired could penetrate the sides and rear.
Just two weapons, the 105 howitzer (using HEAT) and the 90mm antiaircraft gun
could pierce the front of the hull. Had a Tiger been available, the results
D-4

of the frontal tests would have been similar, but its thicker side armor would
have defeated most of the smaller weapons. The heavier Tiger II,or "Royal
Tiger' had even thicker armor, and its front was impervious to all U.S.
antitank weapons until hyper-velocity (HVAP) ammunition became available for
the 90mm in 1945. Shocked by the results of the July test, General Eisenhower
commented angrily:
Why is it that I am always the last to hear about this stuff: Ordnance
told me this 76 would take care of anything the
German had. Now I find
3
out you can't knock out a damn thing with it.

He immediately sent his senior armor specialist to the U.S. to find a


solution. The T26 tank with a 90mm gun was being developed as rapidly as
possible but would not be available until 1945. Already in production, a 90mm.
version of the M1O, the M36, was the only available solution, but even with
expedited shipment these did not begin reaching the troops until September
1944.

The ineffectiveness of American antitank weapons against heavy German


tanks posed a severe tactical disadvantage during the campaign in Northwest
Europe. In tank versus tank actions, the ability of the German's highvelocity tank guns to penetrate U.S. tanks at ranges up to 2000 yards
acerbated the problem. Numbers and the better mobility of American tanks
helped by enabling them to maneuver for flank shots. In close terrain,
superior American power traverse partially compensated for gunpower. An
example of the tactical disadvantage is the experience of the 2nd Armored
Division near Puffendorf, Germany in November 1944. Muddy terrain robbed the
Shermans of their mobility advantage while the broad tracks of the German
tanks permitted them to move easily. Further, the open terrain provided
optimom conditions for German tank guns, and just twenty-five German tanks,
Panthers and Tiger Ils, stopped the division's attack.
As the campaign wore on, towed guns became less and less popular. They
were far less effective than self-propelled guns for supporting attacking
infantry and difficult to maneuver for flank shots. By winter 1944, MiOs,
D-5

made excess by arriving M36s, were replacing the guns in towed tank destroyer
battalions. Fighting in the Battle of the Bulge completed discrediting towed
guns, where the battalions still using them suffered heavier losses with less
effect than self-propelled units. During this battle, many infantrymen lost
faith in the towed 57m gun and afterwards argued for it to be abandoned.
However, the ubiquitous Bazooka, despite its inability to penetrate frontal
armor, proved effective time and time again in the hands of brave soldiers
willing to maneuver for shots at the sides and rear of heavy German tanks.
In summary, the inadequacy of their antitank weapons caused problems for
American troops in Europe and cost lives. But these inadequacies did not
prove operationally decisive because the troops overcame them with numbers,
tactical skill, and courage. With the action at Puffendorf as an exception,
superior German equipment rarely led to significant tactical reverses.
However, after the heavy fighting against tanks during the Battle of the
Bulge, American complaints about their problems in defeating heavy German
tanks became public. But demands for a Congressional investigation were lost
in the euphoria of V-E Day.
STATISTICS COMPILED ON ANTITANK EFFECTIVENESS
The following table provides data which is useful in comparing the
relative penetration performance of selected tank and antitank guns. However,
it does not provide an accurate prediction of the performance of these weapons
against German tanks. For example, the table shows that the 90mm gun (M82 APC
BC) could penetrate 113m at 500 yards. Thus, the gun should not have been
able to penetrate the front slope of a Panther which had 80mm of armor angled
at 55 degrees. The horizontal thickness (thickness - 80mm- cos 55 degrees)
of the Panther's front slope was 139mm. However, during the First Army and
later tests the 90m gun demonstrated its ability to penetrate the Panther's
front slope.

D-6

PERFORATION PERFORMANCE OF BRITISH and AMERICAN TANKS AND A/T WPNS AGAINST HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR
AT 30" ANGLE OF ATTACK"
BRITISH
6 PDR

2 POR
Weapon:
RANGE Weight:
(YARDS)
NV(f/s):

AP
2 lbs
6 oz
2800

APC BC
2 lbs
lIiA oz
2600

AP Wt
Bi bs
47Aoz
2800

AP
6 lbs
4A
2925

APC
6 lbs
% oz
5oz
2775

APC
6 lbs
5S oz
2900

APC BC
7 lbs
2 oz
2600

APC BC
7 lbs
2 oz
2725

CON PC SABOT
RIGID
3.18 lbs
4.2 lbs
4000
3550

0
500
1000
1500
2000

(72)
57
45
33
25

66

(100)
(84)
70
57
45

(104)
(88)
73
60
48

94
77
64
49
38

100
82
66
53
43

89
82
75
68
62

95
87
80
73
67

124
107
91
77
64

58
50
44
38

151
134
118
103
90

BRITISH

AP
20 lbs

AP
20 lbs

AP
20 lbs

SAP
28 lbs

AP
28 lbs

2900

SABOT
8.15
lbs
3680

1550

1850

2000

2600

2600

152
140
130
120
112

201
186
172
158
145

72
62
55
49
44

87
74
64
54
48

95
81
68
58
50

124
116
97
85
75

139
126
114
102
91

9084N

9084

105MM

105Mm

AP
17 lbs

APC
17 lbs

APC BC
17 lbs

2575

SABOT
8.15
lbs
3675

2900

2900

128
118
110
100
93

182
165
149
134
120

132
120
109
98
87

132
120
109
98
87

Weapon:
RANGE Weight:
(YARDS)
MV(f/s):

APC BC
17 lbs

0
500
1000
1500
2000

37"A/A

25 PDR

17 PDR

77M4

A14ERICAN

Weapon:
RANGE
(YARDS)

754

7684

APC BC

2900

APC c
HE
No
14.92
2050

APC BC
HE
M62
14
26500

65
57
50
43
36

76
68
60
52
47

108
98
90
81
74

M51
Weight (lbs):
NV(f/s):

0
500
1000
1500
2000

37MM

761M

9014M 90M"

904

HVAP

APC

9.5
3400

APC BC
HE
M82
23.56
2600

482
23.56
2800

HVAP
APC
T30 E16
N82
23.56
16.2
3200
3350

176
150
132
112
97

123
113
104
95
87

132.5
124
119
114
99

235
212
188
164
143

T4

159
151
143
136
130

HVAP
APC
T30 E16

HEAT
M67

16.2
271
250
223
197
177

40
2900

1250

181
174
158
158
151

130-141
130-141
130-141
130-141
130-141

This table Isextracted from Inclosure No. 1, Military Attache Report NO. 2473-44. The bracketing in table
of perforation figures means these that jhoud be capable of performnce indicated, but, owing to over-stressing, that
perforation my be associated with shatter. The figures are against hamogeneous plate and allow direct comparison
between allied weapons and those of the snamy. The firing tests were performed InEngland and are based on 50 percent
success.

D-7

The following document is a report on firing tests, conducted in July 1944,


to determine the effectiveness of tank and anti-tank weapons against
the German
Mk V "Panther* and Mk VI 'Tiger* Tanks.'

0-8

P"

V
UAtv "j~

u~1'4

f ofew-t,
P 6~
t, q 5q (s.ee Pe,+t..,
-

L6

/;Z
_

APPENDIX 2

Report of Proceedings
of Board of Officers
*Org

Headquarters, First U. S. Army.

* 1.e& Firing was conducted- on terrain per-

APO 2309 U. S. Army.


of a boardFirst
of obers
which purconI Proceedixgs
ed at Headquarters,
U. S. Army,

mitting 1,W0 yards marimum range with a


' ero angle of qlse All guns types of m
mnition, suitable for anitkpuos,

3085015n:

:PlAW*:

available to Frn U. S. Army were defeated on


tagt whose armor plate was slightly burned.

suant to Special Order No. 196, Head~narters


First U. S. Army, 19 July 1944.
The board met pursuant to the foregoing
~* order at Headquarters, First U. S. Army, APO

Upon determination of critical rnges all pen-

S230, at 1400On 12 July 9" and onsubsequent dates to conduct the firing test The
final meeting was held on 30 July 1944.
Present: All members. PURPOSE: To conduc tests to determine the effectiveness of
tank and antitank weapons in First U. S.
Army, against the German. Nh V -Panther"
and Mk VI "Tgr ak.antitank

etrations were proven against the armor plate


of aGerman N&V "Panther" Tank with at.
mor undamaged and In excellent condition.
Allifiring was conducted normal tothe targeL
No firing was conducted against the German
Mk VI "Time" Tank a there were none available.
6. The following normal types of tank and
weapons and amiunition were
tested:

Rocket, AT, 2.36-ima, M6A1


Grende, AT, M9AI
APQ M51
AP, M58
40-mm Gun, MI. (AA) .........................................
APCftM86
57.mm Gun, MI ..............................................
Sabot
on Medium Tank, 3(4..................... APC, M61
75.nvm Gun, 3. Mounted
7
Heat, M"6 (Special)
3.inch Gun, Ms5, Mounted on Motor Carriage, MIO...0................. APC, M62. w/DDF, M66AI
AP, M(79
90.mm Gun MI1t(AA) ......................................
AP, M77
HEAT, M67
1O.mm Howitar.M4 Mounted OnMdum Tank. M4 ...............

Rocket, AT. 2.36-inch ..................................


i................
( Launcher,
Launcher. Grenade. M8S.......................
37.mm Gums,m6, Mouned onLight Tan, MSAI .....................

C. The board assumed that the effect of


hollow charge ammunition is not dependent

yards On the basis of the assumption in paragraph 1e, it follows that -a the range increases,

on terminal velocity but the effect does vary


with the angle at which. the projectile strikes
Hits approaching a 900 angle Of impact give
better penetration.
2. FINDINGS: The board having carefully
considered the evidence before it finds that:

thereby reducing the angle of impact against


the side of the turret and side armor plate the
possibility of penetration will materially decrease
(2) Lacher, Grenade, MS. Grenade, AT,
MAI, will penetrate the side of the turret

(1) Launcher, Rocket, AT, 2.36incL . and the side and rear armor plate of the "PanRocket, AT, 2.36.inch, M6A1 will penetrate ther" Tank at G0 yards. On the basis of the
assumption in paragraph lc, it follows that
as the range increases, thereby reducing the

the side of the turret and the side and rear


armor plate of the "Panther" Tank at 100
65

'

angle of impact against the side of the turret


(a) 75-mm Gun, M3, Mounted on Medium
and side armor plate, the possibility of pene. Tank m14. wp, M64-Three rounds were
tration will materilly decrease
fired at 500 yards for the purpose of obtaining
(3) 37-mm Gum, M6. Mounted on ilgku
an incendiary or blinding effecL The results
TWnk M5A1. AMC M51 will penetrate th, were unatifsatory.
sides and rear of the "Panther" Tank at 600
(b) 75-mm Guns, M3, Mouted on Medium
yard'.
Task M4. HIE, M(48 w/fs T10OS-Three
(4) 40-mm Gun, MI, (AA). AP, M(58 will rounds were fired at the front glaci. slope
penetrate the sides and rear of the "Panther"
plate at 500 yards to determine its armor pene.
Tank at 600 yards.
trative characteristics, The rounds failed to
(5) 57-awn Gun, Mi. (a) APC, M86 will pa t
ricocheting from the plate and
penetrate the sides and Aear of the "Panther" pug
in the air.
Tank at 1,50 y"rs
(e) 90-mn. Guns, MIAl, (AA). nE 1(71,
w/fa 1(46--One round wu fied at 1,500
(b) Sabot fails to penetrate front glad.
slope plate and gun shield at 200 yards Due yards a a ranging shot. No perceptible effect
to difficulty experienced in obtaining bits no was obtained beyond cracking the welds beconclusion as to the effectiveness of this am- tweem the glad.s and nose plate and the glacis
munition was reached.
and side plate for a distance of approximately
(6) 75-mm Gun, M13, Mounted on Medium 12 inches. The comner of the glacis slope plate
Tank M4, (a) APC, M(61 will penetrate the' appeared to have a slight depression as a resides and rear of the "Panther" Tank at 1,50
salt of this round.
yards. AMC M(61 at 200 yards will not pene. RECOMMNDATION;S: In view of the above
trate the front armor of the "Panther" Tank.
findinp the board recommends: (1) That
(bt) BEAT, M66 (Spea") will not pmnftp-i-k
by &a Ordnance Department
trate the front glad. slope plate at 500 yards. toeeo amr-pecig ammunition of mna.
hige muzzle velocity and armor pen(Seeassmptin
mde i P~1~)terially
(7) 3-incA Gas MS5, Mounted on Motor etrative characteristics for the 3-Inch, 76-mm.
Carriage, M10. (a) AMC M62 w/BDF, and 90-mm Guns, accepting, if necessary, a
~ lf slwa 0 ons
M66A1 will not penetrate front glad.s slope
plate at 200 yards. Will penetrate gun mantlet
(2) That upon availability of 90-mm. APC.
at 200 yards and penetrate sides and rear of 1(2eunionnthshaertesbeothe"Pathe"
Tnkup o 1500yars.ddeed to detrmine the effectiveness of this
(b) AP. M79 will not penetrate the front ammunition against the "Panther" Tank.
slope plate or the anantlet at 200 yards. It
(3) That consideration be given by the Ordholds no advantage over AMC M(62 amnuni- nance Department to the development of a
tion w/BDF, M66A1.
liquid-filled incendiary shell capable of ignit(By 90-mm Gums MIAI, (AA). AP, M(77
ing ie target adjacent to the point of impact.
will penetrate front glad.s slope plate up to for the 75-mm Gun and the 105-mm and 155600 yards, the gun mantlet up to 1,000 yards,
-i Howitsem.
and turret up to 1L50 yads.1
The board adjourned at 1630 on 30 July
(9) lOS-mm Howuiaam, M14, Mounted On im.
Medium Tank M4. HEAT, M(67 will peneto1 Charles E. Hat8 .[#I Peter C. Mains., 3d
trate front glacis slope plate and gun mantlet
PrIE C. WARNS, 3d
at 500 yards. (See assumption made in par. CHAUL H.ART
Cay* (Armd)
Colonel,
FA
Colonel,
lc..)
President
Member

In addition to testing the normal types of

(ai Hawon D. Salisbury


MAsoNf D. SAUSDURY

tank and antitank weapons and ammunition,


additional types were tested with the following
resul ts:

Captain, FA (Armd)
Recorder
66

Endnotes
1. Appendix drawn from Baily, Charles M., Faint Praise: American Tanks and
Tank Destroyers durina World War 11, (Hamden, CN: Shoestring Press, 1983).
2. lbkjL page 60.
3. .bj...
page 107.
4. Table and note at bottom of table extracted from a study prepared by New
Developments Division, WDSS (16 Jan '45), and included in the Tank and Tank
Destroyer Conference at the Army War College, 26 Jan 45. The table show the
thickness in millimeters that a weapon should be able to penetrate at a given
range.
[SAIC File # 110]
5. Report of Proceedings of Board of Officers, First US Army. [SAIC File #206]

D-9

APPENDIX E
ACTIONS COMPLETED BY SAIC

ACTIONS COMPLETED, SORTED BY DATE AND LOCATION


DATE

LOCATION

TYPE

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21
22
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
August 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
Jecember 1944
December 1944
December 1944
1944
December 1944
December 1944

Mortain - St. Barthelmy


Mortain - St. Barthelmy
Mortain - St. Barthelmy
Mortain - St. Barthelmy
Nortain - St. Barthelmy
Nortain - St. Barthelmy
Mortain - St. Barthelmy
Nortain - St. Barthelmy
Mortain - St. Barthelmy
Mortain - St. Barthelmy
Mortain - Abbaye Blanche
Mortain - Abbaye Blanche
Mortain - Abbaye Blanche
Mortain - Abbaye Blanche
Belgium - Dom BQtgenbach
Belgium - Dom B~tgenbach
Belgium - Dom BQtgenbach
Belgium - Dom BOtgenbach
Belgium - Dom B~tgenbach
Belgium - Do. BOtgenbach
Belgium - Dom BOtgenbach
elgium - om BOtgenbach
Belgium - Dom BOtgenbach
Becember
elgium Belgium
- Do.
Do. BOtgenbach
Btgenbach
Belgium - Dom BOtgenbach
Belgium - Dom BOtgenbach

S7mm AT
3" towed
3" towed
3" towed
3" towed
3" towed
3' towed
bazooka
3' towed
3" towed
57mm AT
3' towed
3" towed
3" towed
57mm AT
57mm AT
3" SP, 57mm AT
3m SP, 57m AT, bazooka
57mm AT, bazooka
57mm AT, bazooka
57m. AT, bazooka
3" SP, 57m AT
57m AT
Simm AT
57m
AT
57mm AT
57mm AT

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.

December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December

Belgium - Losheimergraben
Belgium - W. of Neuhof
Belgium - SE of Honsfeld
Belgium - Honsfeld
Belgium - S. of Hanningen
Belgium - Hanningen
Belgium - SchwarzenbrQch Tr
Belgium - Schwarzenbroch Tr
Belgium - Lausdell
Belgium - Lausdell
Belgium - Lausdell
Belgium - Lausdell
Belgium - Lausdell
Belgium - Lausdell
Belgium - Lausdell
Belgium - Lausdell
Belgium - Lausdell
Belgium - Ruppenvenn
Belgium - Rocherath
Belgium - Rocherath
Belgium - Rocherath

57mm AT
155mm Artillery
30 towed
3* towed
3' towed
bazooka
bazooka
bazooka
bazooka
bazooka
bazooka
bazooka
Artillery
Artillery
Artillery
gasoline, grenades
AT mines
bazooka
bazooka
bazooka
bazooka

1.
2.
3.

4.

1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944

E-i

49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.

December
December
December
December
December
December
December
December

1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944

Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium

- Rocherath
- Rocherath
- Rocherath
- Rocherath
- Krtnkelter Wald
- Krlnkelt
- Krinkelt
- Krtnkelt

E-2

bazooka
bazooka, SP TO
small arms
rifle grenades
57m AT
bazooka
bazooka
57m AT

ACTIONS COMPLETED, SORTED BY TYPE


DATE

LOCATION

August 1944
August 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944

Mortain
Mortaln
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
elgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Mortaln
BelgIum
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

August 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December
December 1944
1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944
December 1944

1.
1.
2.

December 1944
December 1944
December 1944

Belgium - Dom Btgenbach


Belgium - Dom Bftgenbach
Belgium - Dom B~tgenbach

b7m AT, bazooka


57mm AT, bazooka
57.. AT, bazooka

1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
7.
7.
8.
10.
11.

August
August
August
August
August
August
August
August
August
August
August

ortalIn
Mortaln
Mortaln
Mortaln
Mortaln
Mortaln
Mortaln
Mortaln
Mortatn
Mortaln
Mortaln

3 towed
3' towed
3" towed
3 towed
3" towed
3* towed
3" towed
30 towed
3' towed
30 towed
3' towed

12.
13.
14.

December 1944
December 1944
December 1944

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.

9.
10.
11.
12.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944

Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium

TYPE
- St. Barthelmy
- Abbaye Blanche
- Dom BOtgenbach
- Do. B~tgenbach
- Dom BOtgenbach
- Do. BOtgenbach
-

Do. Btgenbach

- Dom B~tgenbach
- Dom Bitgenbach
- Loshelmergraben
- Krlnkelter Wald
- Krtnkelt

57m AT
57. AT
57m AT
57.m AT
57=. AT
57.. AT
57= AT
57mm AT
S7mm AT
57=. AT
57. AT
57. AT

- St. Barthelmy
bazooka
- Hanningen
bazooka
- Schwarzenbr~ch Tr bazooka
- SchwarzenbrOch Tr bazooka
- Lausdell
bazooka
- Lausdell
bazooka
- Lausdell
bazooka
- Lausde11
bazooka
- Ruppenvenn
bazooka
bazooka
- Rocherath
Rocherath
bazooka
- Rocherath
bazooka
- Rocherath
bazooka
- Krnkelt
bazooka
- Krlnkelt
bazooka

- St. Barthelny
- St. Barthelmy
- St. Barthelmy
- St. Barthelpy
- St. Barthelmy
- St. Barthelmy
- St. Barthelmy
- St. Barthelpy
- AbbayS
Blanche
- Abbays Blanche
- Abbaye Blanche

Belgium - SE of Honsfeld
Belgium - Honsfeld
Belgium - S. of HOnnlngen
E-3

30 towed
3' towed
3' towed

1.
2.
3.
4.

December
December
December
December

1944
1944
1944
1944

Belgium - Dom B~tgenbach


Belgium - Do. Botgenbach
Belgium - Do. B~tgenbach
Belgium -Rocherath

30 SP, 57mm AT
3'w SP, 57=m AT, bazooka
30 SP, 57m AT
bazooka, SP TO

1.
2.
3.
4.

December
December
December
December

1944
1944
1944
1944

Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium

W. of Neuhof
Lausdell
Lausdell
Lausdell

155mm Artillery
Artillery
Artillery
Artillery

1.
2.
3.
4.

December
December
December
December

1944
1944
1944
1944

Belgium
Belgium
Belgium
Belgium

Lausdell
Lausdell
Rocherath
Rocherath

gasoline, grenades
AT mines
small arms
rifle grenades

E-4

-I

In

IcI

EUE-5

1%.