ACYUTA
By
K. V.
SARMA
&
I.S.
sPTTJMparreF:
SfFff
eft.
General Editor k. V.
SARMA
Printed by
DEVA DATTA
Shastri
at the
and
V. V. R. I. Press
published by
K. V. SARMA, Acting Director, V. V. B.
I, S. & I. 5., Panjab University, Hoshiarpur
ACYUTA
By
K. V.
SARMA
&
I.S.
1977
stto tf*^<JpT,
Ro\*
(fa.)
Price Rs. 9/
Publishers
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION
material Acyuta,
Ra'sigolasphutamti Manuscript
the
Acyuta
astronomerDate of Acyuta Known works of
to the Ecliptic
Ra'sigola (Sphere of Zodiac) Reduction
correction Mathematical
of
formula Verification
for the
formula Identification
Chronology of Acyuta's
the Simplified
elsewhere
correction
the
of
formula
Acyuta's
proof
works Acknowledgements
RAiSIGOLASPHTJTANITI EDITION
AND TRANSLATION
19
Conjunction
Two
Determination of Conjunction
20
q^5^)
views
:
First view
(q*folfrtfa:
21
STW TO:)
Refutation of the Second view (f??fta<TS*wm)
(TTfa^S^^T:)
APPENDICES
I.
II.
III.
Disquisition
on Reduction
26
31
INTRODUCTION
The Rasigolasphutamti
astronomy, which
sets
out
of Acyuta
views
the
work on
interesting
highly
is
PisaratL
Indian
versatile
ecliptic
its
own path
{Vik$epa
vrttd).
Manuscript material
Two
A.
designated
manuscripts of
this
codex
under
catalogued
general
the
title
codex contains
some
plete,
and some
Malayalam.
in
is
manuscript from
Kerala.
several works,
in Sanskrit
Madras,
Parahitadrksiddhaganitam, and
of
This
One,
identified.
no
title
W:, and
pure
The
sft:.
scribe can
B.
made
discovery,
Malayalam
deposited
codex
The
13.
script
is
and
writing
in
was
(No. 755),
on the
in
and generally
free
The
fT:
sft:
Tt'TcT^ ?R:
extend further.
rate discussion
However,
on verse
51,
it
which
contains,
is
as
leaves,
from
It
and
the
in
Res.
catalogued
of the
basis
thirteen
chance
palmleaf codex
clear
result of a
the
the
Trivandrum,
inscribed
is
is
scribal benediction
not
Lacunae
corrected.
composite
Ganitayuktayah,
again,
examining
while
script,
under a general
in
be
filled in.
Institute
easily
*l"T"7ct^
first
work
seventh (G)
numbered
to
3TfaE*rq?g
edited below as
Appendix
an elaboI.
RA^IGOLASPHUTANITI
Acyuta
generally
is
in
(Kundapura in Sanskrit),
Pisarati, Trkkantiyur
Malabar, being
known
and
Pis5rati, the
in
Tirur
near
name of
South
in a
Jyesthadeva
(Skt. Prakasavisaya),
in
in
eastern part of the Ponnani Taluk of South Malabar. Poet Vasudeva,
his
Bhrhgasandesa,
astronomer,
while
NSrgyana
grammar but
who
Bhaftatiri
greatness
from
starts
these
Bhatfatiri,
one
of
is
his
the
enhanced by long
of
greatest
tradition
of his
1.
viz.,
from
astronomy
and
Kerala
teachings
To
this
lines
disciples.
One
in
MelputtOr Narayana
poets

of
Another
line
of jyoti$a to
subject
the
of disciples
2.
an
grammar
learnt
grammar,
in
pupil
as
Acyuta's
carried
reputation
Acyuta 's
to
Acyuta,
of
The
s^st
s*n?rre
reference to this
^ss^rer
King occurs
in
Cf.
cTCTTer
sr^srf^^: f^^rfa^m
V*.
4
on
his teacher
INTRODUCTION
Potti
Pulimukhattu
Azhati,
Navayikkulattu
5
It can aptly be said of
Asan, each prominent during his own time.
pupils accrues to the
Acyuta, ferwsrfe*fa& g^IW 'The fame of the
Date of Acyuta
The date of
be
should
of Acyuta
birth
1550 since
circa
his
fa?rTcHT
A.D.
his
in
1621)
Narayana
obituary
beginners,
an
is
the only
an erudite work
in
works out to
be
composed
by
intended
for
etc.
^sn5T3*jffh<sra*a
grammar
on
treatise
this subject.
Acyuta's
on
chapters
six
computation of the
correct
the
Moon
computation
Karanottama,
auto commentary
is
verse
illustrative
by the
which
(17,24,514,
of Acyuta
Pravesaka,
crofta
given
is
Bhattatiri.
Known works
planets,
pp. 2223).
Trivandrum, 1972,
Uparagakriyakrama,
Junar
of
manual
and
an adaptation in seven
solar
in
eclipses
in
four chapters,
on
Hordsaroccaya,
of Sripati's Jatakapaddhati
chapters
with
chapters
five
the
which
and a
5.
On
these
tradition in Kerala',
see
K. V.
Sarma,
'Direct
lines
of astronomical
pp. 6014.
6.
Ed.
with
the
commentary of
Cr. ed.
with
2,
P. S.
Anantanaryana
Sastri,
Trippunithura, 1938.
Intro,
and
10 Appendices, by
K. V Sarma,
Hoshiarpur, 1974,
8.
Cr. ed. by
K.V. Sarma,
as
Appendix 10
to the
edition
of
Sphutanirnaya.
9.
1964.
R. 2
Ed. by K. Raghavan
Pillai,
Trivandrum Skt.
Ser.,
No. 213,
kAsigolasphutAniti
10
Acyuta wrote
writers.
narayana
(in
commentary
this last
Malayalam
Golavid by later
as
at the
Netra
instance of
styled
10
Rasigolasphutaniti
As observed
detailed discussion
bodies
Rasigola
may
on the measurement
of Zodiac',
'Sphere
the
in
of
the longitudes of
What
the Ra'sigola.
with a
itself
is
celestial
meant by
Ihe Rasigola
Indian astronomers envisage the celestial
In the
of view.
first
case
it
is
called the
him
the
is
vertical)
horizontal
great
and Daksinottaravrtta
Obviously,
great circles.
the
is
the
globe
'Sphere of Space'
differs
from place
with the
is
motion of the
stars.
Ghatikavrtta
or
The
basic
great
Vi$uvanmandala
the great
Equinoxes, called
reference
to the
the
AitAzimuth co
the
circles
is
of this
that
of
circles
(Celestial
ill
in
case
this
Equator)
the East
which
the
are
is
the
the
Unmandala
circle
;
and
to place
that
other two
the
are
result
around
Samamandala (Prime
(Celestial meridian)
Khagola
(Khagola).
horizon
the
centre,
and the
circle,
Solstitial
The
Colure.
position of a star
ascefisiondeclination
with
coordinates
These
two
systems
are
10.
not
therefore
used
celestial bodies.
commentary
in
Indian
11
INTRODUCTION
third conception
with the
is
east of Revati
are
great circles perpendicular to the ecliptic
marked on the ecliptic
either side along the celestial
drawn from these points and extended on
North and South, each called a
sphere to meet at two points on the
;
Ra'sikUa or Kadamba.
the
This conception of
These twelve
celestial
globe
known
is
Rasikntavrttas.
are called
circles
as Rasigola or Bhagola.
most constant
the
of
the three.
Now,
the
Sun moves
Sun
Node,
at
two
it.
places, the
North or South of
Viksepavrtta,
it,
will thus
planet
of a
the position
Apakramamandala and
between the
or
(ecliptic)
move along
Apakramamandala
is
distance
planet in
its
Reduction
The
to the Ecliptic
is
is
planets should be
made along
Moon
is
at the time
second view
tude are
to
(vv.
be
why
be measured along
work with
it
concludes that
all
would not
it
own
its
it.
orbit.
particular
reference to the
detailed
refutation of the
24641),
the measurements of
and whether
(latitude) perpendicular to
all
measurements of longi
takes
up the
the
Moon
question of a
Moon
to
actually
reduce
correction
it
to
moves along
the
its
necessary
ecliptic,
in
orbit but
its
RXSIGOLASPHUT^NITI
12
longitude
in
is
in
is
may be
modern astronomy known
restricted sense,
term Ra'sigolasphuta,
expressed by the
as
Sphutanirnaya,
in
formula
35*
yrniWTRt ^
1
the
tabular
MoonminusNode, and
maximum
(will
correction for
give the
Moon's
from the
subtracted
measured on the
(bhujajya)
sine
of the
this
by the
Moon. Divide
particular moment and
longitude,
as
This
the quotient
(vyasadala).
longitude which)
is
The
MoonminusNode
Moon
will
result
added to or
be
to
of
(sara)
of the
and
(kotijya)
tabular radius
to be
II
ftfrf STO*
cosine
(antyaksepa)
latitude
n
:
sgrcr^ftstf
"Multiply
his
in
Rasigolasphutaniti
the
context,
present
the
correction
this
for
is
be the True
in
an
Moon
ecliptic."
planets.
all
required
the
._.
Bhujajya
J
Bhujajys
i.e.,
11.
Node and
the
k,
is
F is the
maximum
if
_.
Rsm
k=
,
A Rsin
,
F X Kotijya F x Sara w
~~r.
;
\Kotijya"
AxTnjya
.,
FXR
Sphutanirnaya, IV.
F X Rversine w
Rcos ^ X R
2,
cos
R=Trijya
where D
,
INTRODUCTION
*= R
sin
S ,n
13
Fx cos F (1 cos
F (1 cos
__ sin F. cos
w)
w)
cos A
Since k
is
F (1 cos
w)
cos A
Formula
Verification of Acyuta's
of
Napier's
rules
correction
(A.D.
can
15501617)
be
for
by the
verified
rightangled
spherical triangle.
N=Node
P=Planet
F=NP=Longitudinal
along
its
Node and
the Planet
orbit
A=PM Latitude
ecliptic
of the
Planet at
the
moment,
i.e, }
tatkala
viksepa
w= Angle
between
the
ecliptic
and the
viksepa)
From
ANMP,
v=cos F. tan
L=
L
cos L
cos F. sin
sin F.
orbit
{parama
raSigolasphutaniti
14
1cos w =1
,".
sin F. cos
L
L
sin F. cos
L cos
cos F. sin
(F L)
sin
sin F. cos
sin
/.
sin F. cos
F. sin
(F L) = sin
F. cos L.
^^inF^cosj;^
(1
(1 cos
w)
_ C0SM;)
cos A
(since cos
If
is
F L =
/.
This
is
cos L)
A.
to obtain L, then
Jfc
rinJfe=5^iZ(lco8 W )
cos A
enunciated by Acyuta.
exactly the formula for the correction
12
F cos
Moon,
viz.,
sin
sin F, cog
further
correction in a simplified
12.
be
288')
A
F y(vnn3 s
Moon
form
in his
ft
Cf
mv%F[
Acyuta
Kriyakrama.
Cf
&$nt
wfot
shr:
will
latitude
cos A
Moon
(1 cos
F.
COS
The
F^c os
maximum
for the
Tnnf^rr: STOW^ST:
The maximum
minutes.
vikppa
for the
Moon
is
JTPMlf^r,
i.e.,
I.
15)
288, kalds or
Introduction
The
reference
is
15
UparagakriyOkrama, ch.
to his
(tatkalavik$epa)
recommended
is
to the
be applied
to
This would
moment
verse 42
I,
Moon
Viksepa
:
ve.
24
VIra
Sin
cos
= sin F.
F '
C0S
As shown above,
0.0035
0.0035
F and
(since cos
an eclipse
and
sin
= sin
F=
w.
sin
1,
is
can each be
time of
the
for at
0 or 180
very near
smaller.)
is still
is
cos
equal to
the
of the longitude,
sine
of the
i.e.,
sin A
sin
Moon
A.
taken to be
sin A
for the
sin A
sin A
sin 288'
'0837
k=
i
sin A
^mT
' 035
sin A
(Since
23 "9l
24
23.91 as
is
very
small
24 makes but a
and taking
negligible
difference.)
the
first
i6
RA&golasphutAnIti
A new
from
light
his reference
present work.
on the chronology of
Acyuta's
to his
The
first
swmtwiHTif,
gives the
which works
out
Kali
day of
A.D. 1593.
to
its
completion,
viz.,
14
17,14,262
'the
full
formula
Acknowledgements
The RasigolasphutanUi
The
years
first
edition
ago,
in
1955,
Centre, Madras.
issued
by the
now
is
its
revised
been published
wellknown
second edition.
more than
twenty
ties
its
second
edition
The
first
manuscript
Madras.
13.
had
edition
been
issued
on the
basis
of a
single
of the work,
1933, p. 101.
14.
An
old Malayalam
Kalikkotta
commentary on
ilokattinte
ml akayum
untu"
this
note
INTRODUCTION
in
manuscript
of another
it
recently
discovered
a disquisition on
the
present
edition
Dr. K. Raghavan
to
me
Reduction to the
Appendix
as
Pillai,
I.
which
ecliptic,
I
am
is
extremely
contained
it
included in
thankful
to
rendered
first
the
Kerala
from the
and
17
to
at the
Presidency College,
Thampuran of
My
late
advice
time of
Kuppanna
and the
Madras,
the
Sastri,
formerly of the
Shri
Hoshiarpur, for
the
full
efficient
measure also
printing
and
to
attractive
getup of
this
publication.
KiV.
Hoshiarpur,
/. 1.
R. 3
1977
SARMA
Moon
2
In an eclipse,
occurs
when
(dvisprksntra)
2.
the
is
At
is
the
1.
(i.e.,
Both
maximum
straight
the
line
joining
and the
two
moment
3
Moon] (madhyakala
not so,
the
of conjunction or opposition
and
Sun and
[of the
Consequently,
words ffc
*PT:
to a straight
straight
line.
3.
madhyakzla is meant the sphutawould seem from the term, the moment of the
astronomy, by
In Indian
it
Cf., Saryasiddhanta,
IV. 16
BXglGOLASPHUTXNlTl
20
*n?,
TO
^T,
moment of maximum
the
ft
different
eclipse is
Wis
from
the
"
moment
01
conjunction or opposition.
Some
3.
Moon's
Others,
occurs only
however
when
5b6
Moon's
drawn
is
to
that
True
the
(viz.,
longitudes
Moon
the ecliptic)
reaches
cut
[to
orbit],
45a.
vantaf
opinion
of
are
the perpendicular
the
scholars
orbit
the
say that
Moon
in
its
moment
of
conjunction (par
orbit (yikfepamanjala)
as the
Sun
is
is
as
in its orbit.
(vartmasamya) on the
This point of equality in distance
or West of the perpendicular
will fall either to the East
its
East
B. vrsreTwr
side
lies.
^
conjunction
Parvanta really applies to both the moments of
expression, it is transand opposition, but for the sake of facility of
the case in solar eclipses), here
lated by 'conjunction' alone (which is
5.
as also below.
smrfrorar:
Jfcpr
ft
MoonminusNode
If
and
the two,
And
them.
(vyahindu)
if it
Thus according
mum
eclipse differs
to
both
II
? H
an odd
quadrant,
moment of maximum
moment of conjunction.
the
$b9a.
II
be in
therefore
in
is
TOfi^qp^raft
H*HJT%
78a.
tea ^rd
ll
views,
the
moment of maxi
dispute can
Although
9b10a.
maximum
this
distinction
(between the
moments
of
it is
obvious by inference.
(Determination of Conjunction
1061
of the
1.
First view)
Moon from
6.
the
Sun
is
equal to
its
This follows from the fact that, when nearest to the Sun, the
the
Node must be
less
formed
farther
away on
and
the
it
is
more
Moon's
so
orbit.
of the
distance
rightangled
is
RASlGOLASPHUTXNIrl
22
a^ffwqg
(Sphutaviksepa).
a^RRRftrfNt:
order
In
necessary
it is
to the East
to
scan
the
II
maximum
or West of [the moment of
path of the Moon at the
know where
to
?3
II
point of
the
moment.
12a.
moment,
If
listen.
you
desire
to
know
the path
[It
Moon
of the
at
that
V
X
Ecliptic
Node
1261 3.
the
(bhuja)
[of the
(Let)
be
7.
Though
latitude
what
is
it is
(MR)
(ksepaJfhandd)
called the
sake of convenience,
of the
onesixtieth
is
'altitude'
(dyugatyantara)
and
per
7
difference
let
onesixtieth
day as corrected
{sara,
more comprehensive,
the
for
other
the
23
TTfaTntaF*>a'R*f?T:
^imt^:^
^iragqTfa
(MQ)
Moon's path
<mr inq
Then
of
the root
for
sum of
the
that period
(viz.
one
najika).
The base
14.
of the
Moon.
triangle (pramanak$etra)
(MRQ)
Thus
it
and
hypotenuse
the
the
established
is
all
parallel
is
antecedent
the
sides
are
known].
The
1516a.
k$epa) (SM)
is
latitude at
the hypotenuse,
Sun and
the
and the
the above
lines
two
(icchaksetra)
[which
(SPM)
16.
Here,
is
the latitude
17.
This
is
the
line
joining
ai
the
moment of maximum
Moon]
line
thus
is
[the
centres
of]
the
eclipse
the
consequent
triangle
established.
consequent
[in this
how
at
the
be
it is
by
since
the hypotenuse,
conjunction],
proportion
is
known,
the
A. defective.
triangle],
moment of
derived
(PM), altitude
the
and
altitude
altitude of the
of the
In place of the
antecedent triangle,
consequent triangle
entire
verse,
it
reads
(By
only
RASlGOLASPHUTANITl
24
^^TOSTO*
18.
orbit,
Of
^WTO
Ira* *f<tsm
will
II
and
?c
II
of the
altitude
since
it
value
its
along
lies
in terms
of the relative
upon
Moon's
the
Moon's
the
orbit].
And
1920a.
if
is
Since,
hypotenuse
[MQ
[of
This
maximum
the
[in
the
what time
one nadika,
represent ?
20Z>21a.
motions
relative
onesixtieth of a day,
consequent triangle
will
proportion
eclipse
will
triangle]
is
to
be
the
give
and conjunction,
above calculation],
of the antecedent
i.e.
division with
done
time
twice,
the
the
by the
altitude,
9.
10.
i.e., I
/\
fNftTOOTnfa:
2ib22a.
from, the
[These
moment of
^fo
nadikas] are
fl%
to
be
added
or
to,
12
(viz.,
subtracted
This
is
the
moment of maximum
22.
II
moment of maximum
eclipse,
i.e..
eclipse.
(MR)
the base
at the
33
II
SP^  M jff^
'
MQ
This, subtracted
23624a.
All that
11.
A. TTTf
12.
This
Moon
Moon
under
or both South,
the rule
When
in
conjunction
only
fact,
when
is
with the
the
Moon
follows from
is
because
in
the
advance of the
the
there
is
the
this correction
has
Node,
maximumeclipseposition
When
following consideration
is
behind
sameness of direction,
(diksdmya).
the
North
Hence
eclipsepoint
be added.
is in
Under
directions, one
advance of the
Moon
moment of
accords,
at conjunction
to be deducted
said here
is
and
iara
Hence the
are
rule
has to
of different
'Digbhede
RAglGOLASPHUTANlTI
26
q^aRt^i ni# 3s
aft
along the
attains the
ecliptic].
246.
of conjunction
as
below]
fifltfi*s f
[Firstly],
(i)
Moon
is
how
[measured] along
may
It
(ii)
nadika (gatyantaraamia)
(But
hypotenuse.
of the Lunar
taken
every
it
(viz
be
its
own
argued
not taken
relative
the
of the
fact
out
that
as
eclipse,
A.
it
is
argued
this
Let
motion
motion per
but only as
base,
so in the
according to
that the
relative
the
the
to parallax in latitude
If,
(iii)
motion per
orbit ?
the
the hypotenuse, since the path of
27628.
13.
is
but,
moment owing
the Solar
this,
eclipse
as
can
MR), be taken
25b27a.
be
reasons set
25a.
of the
several
the
for
impossible
are
above
described
is
case
cannot
changing
(nat'i).
school
the
Moon
it
the
relative
%^
fas*
3%1f^ft^M
*ffit
^imi* w^m*r ^
*TpR: jftfo:
ara^r
i^r^TO^nr WFn*prat
!
Moon's
path] (anugatyantaraam'sa) be
^r^rr
taken
ll
as
it
the
base,
and
sum of
their
squares
will
give
the
altitude,
the path of
the
Moon.
[The answer
2930.
altitude [of a
No, because
rightangled
in
this
case
triangle]
they do not
for,
the
the
Moon's path
31.
(iv)
Further,
[if it is
above
is
3233a.
in
is
(measured)
hence the
along
but the
relative variation
Moon's path
subtraction of one from the other
possible.
14.
A.
cPTT for
15.
B.
mAv;
is
longitude
different)
[this is
the
longitude
lati
is
and hence
is
is
the
(these
is,
two are
in fact,
not
raSigolasphutaniti
28
aft
srwpraro^T
^T^sfirai
'rat
ft
this
and
33634.
(v)
If
11
objection,
their
the
variations
Bhaskara,
ikhan4as) be calculated according to the method prescribed by
then, the rectification (samskara, addition or subtraction)
34M6.
longitude
of the variation in longitude by the variation in parallax in
permissible
in latitude
to
all,
the
Moon's
orbit,
will
in latitude is
parallax
the
is
and the
latitude
is
Thus, [according to
this
school],
to a dilemma.
37638<i.
(vi)
according
Again,
to
this
is
not
possible
because
paths.
the two are [measured], along different
16.
The reference
ciated by BhSskara I in
is
to the
17.
18.
B.
gfta^
it
reads
fa^T
*^?T:
M<T
enun
^qm^dtak
^3<rcg^q<TT
tot^^^to^ ^ f%
^^Tg^n^^te^^^
11
3$b39a.
(vii)
Then
again,
Moon
and the
according
FinalMoonminuslagna'',
also
is
a$ n
II
this
impossible,
school,
of the ecliptic
"of the
with,
II
to
rising point
beginning
[verse]
II
the sub(lagna),
because
the two
move
in different circles.
39641.
(viii)
Now
there
is
the rule
The
calculate also
obtained,
the parallax
(viz.
(?) at
corrected
in
the beginning
for
longitude
and end of
conjunction."
as
there
is
eclipse according
no
to
similarity between
42.
of the
19.
Uparagakriyakrama,
20.
UparSgakriyakrama,
21.
A. has a gap
III.
28
ff.
III. 41.
in the place
of T*cq\
RASIGOLASPHUTANITI
30
Ijlfaft
and the
it
43.
h^t
stit:
measured only
latter
II
II
$13: qsftat
parallax, have to be
along
Wn^m^^B^ W
II
[the
in relation to the ecliptic,
perpendicular to
former
it.]
between
would be proper to take the differences
between their rectified
of the Sun and the Moon and that
Again,
the velocities
it
latitudes
In the Kriyakrama,
44
the
rectified
velocity too
is
etc.
measured
is
45.
the
moment
the
Moon
of conjunction
on the
when
celestial sphere
that
moment
alone
to be taken
is
as
great circle)
are identical.
46.
Otherwise,
of parallax
of conjunction, for the seconds
circle of the ecliptic.
are in terms of the seconds of the
the
moment
22.
23.
B. nfa:
TTf^nft^iTT
at
(lambanaliptah)
1%
ft
q^kr:
HT^T^t *
II
tfs.
II
Now, according
4748#.
to the view of
Moon and
the
by
their orbital
moment
who
those
consider that
given
[by the
longitudes
are
not
of equality
in
degrees
itself
will
give
the
moment
of
conjunction (parvUnta).
On
49650.
Moon
and other
[planets] always
move on
iffRR
[their
24.
A. nwrat:
25.
tude are to be
made
?qj5t2rfw fe
only
with
reference
own]
since the
orbits (k$epavrtta)
to
of longitude and
the
ecliptic,
the
lati
former
it
basic
textbooks
(Nostras)
give
the
truelongitude
necessary,
which
in a restricted sense.
necessary.
26.
52
RASIGOLASPHUTANITI
:
^r^^TT tori*
^m<^ss<f
miww^
and hence
the
f*r^
of conjunction
*r^>
are [measured]
not equality
is

fwft $fj
wsf
ftftf
moment
(No
in
on
their
ii
orbits,
ecliptic].
5052.
on
orbit] to
its
"
Malti P y
l
the
tabular
cosine
(kotijyj)
and
sine
(bhujajya) of
of the
the Moon.
Divide this by the
tabular cosine of the latitude at
the particular moment and the
quotient
is to be divided again
by the tabular radius {vyasadala). The
result
[will give the correction for
longitude which] is to be added to
or
subtracted from, the moon's longitude,
as MoonminusNode
is
is
in
an
the
thus got."
this
may
be understood by wise
(nuances of astronomical) science (kalasu).
27.
The
28.
men
learned in the
The
better reading
Sphutanirnaya,
29.
verse which
B. omits
is
the
further
edited below as
verses,
Appendix
I.
but has
is
from the
original
a discussion on
this
^mWTCTfftfcT:
f
mmft *rf$^
33
fwn^
OTrfflW^^TOTitaT nt^Rrrqi
53.
form by the
same [author]
in
has
[his

been enunciated in
Vparaga]Kriyakrama
54.
II
the
a simplified
in
the words
etc.
"Truelongitude Computation
ACCORDING TO ACYUTA
30.
The
Introduction!'^
31.
R, 5
on
reference
is
Acyuta's Uparagakriyakrama,
ch.
ZTe" ^^i
* f this
>
I.
see
41
^ove,
APPENDIX
DISQUISITION
fi
ON REDUCTION TO THE
ECLIPTIC
w\&Rti$$
3*n3wnd<pt
irfe
^4
fttr^
ft
3^
*t<M
trow ^i^THta^
vn^
^
^
fe#Ts*r r^st3*rf1
sr
^ ^f%srfa*rw
fNt*
etc.
34
35
(1.42),
'^q^T^TTq;
*3g*t
fsr^st:
f*rfa
(II
6)
"
5*rf^
(STOlf^TT^*T:,
^frr^r 5 ^"fagfaifa:
<r
(c/. Tifinf^.,
^TfcTT
46)
OT** (TTfwfT^,
<tts: ^t?t:
41)
^c?TTT^^
(C/.,
%fa
I.
fWtffa: srr^T^TXt
25a)"
^TST^
^TOTTf^T^fT:,
'^rftsRT
^TiT^T
I.
39)
sp^fTO^tafafTTt^
(Cf.,
^T^PTftaim:,
HI. 13)
*TTfr
RX6IGOLA5PHUTANITI
36
5fir
^^t^tit w^r
qn*f
*TFft:
fUTCIrT
f^^^fiRRT^,
3T^rf^TT?r
qsrsfq
faw>sq7?Ttcrq jH
,
sq^TT
^tf^r 5
StF^V:
^q^sfa^^qT^qr
?*TT^
*TSq
ac^rarq%
<rats*q?R
eq^Tcr
^tb^ tort
ST^fafWq^
qm
^irrafireit
?r
cfta:
5^fa<sssri*rR*RW
'^retff^^
f fir
*qr<r,
2tt
qrs:
arrar
^r:
w^^t^jt'
atam^crq^fq
?TTsrc<?fr%
^grTCTST
TOW
^nnrq% WNr:\
reft
smwiT^
^X^f^TT
No.
'T
srifcrc,
(C/. *PJ*T.
W^t'
?rnPr
%fir
<Fnfi^
5rcOTn**nfr
sn^Tr, IV.12,
ed.,
mA*
,4a<Wma
Skt. Ser.,
APPENDIX
II
vv.
54
Ap.
I,
I
p. 34.
Ldghubhaskriyavyakhya,
A pp.
I,
P. 37
Sphutanirnaya.
,
Aryabhata,
Bhaskara
v.
I, v.
Kriyakrama
34
36, 37
I,
p.
Somayaji (unidentified),
p.
52
of Acyuta,
I,
vv.
37
App.
I,
36
Sphutanirnaya of Acyuta,
Laghubhaskarlya
vyakhyn, Ap.
ParameSvara's
Ap.
I,
vv.
51,
p. 54
38,
pp. 35,
UparagaKriyakrama of Acyuta
See under Kriyakrama,
APPENDIX III
INDEX OF HALFVERSES
AND PASSAGES CITED
The numbers refer to the verses, their
halves being distinguished by 'a' and 'b\ respectively.
[
3T5TTfTl
aaat
'p'.
atfwit *lfe**hft,
?>:5T^, 16 b
47b
<Tcft Sp?:,
qrTftaf?TCTaTsf,
30b
3T?fts*iftfa<qt,
and
second
References
to
first
Note:
31b
33b
q$ ^gfWZimm, 37a
W^ciRTCfarc*, 27b
Stfalt
fw$R:, 22b
46a
3T?hstt ?i*a?fe*rrc:,
ic^tftift^fq, 37b
mmH,
swSfa f
53a, p. 14
3w*n*TreT7*^?r, 5b
w^qnTfe^^m,
3a
sp^fafcT
14a
3TO*TT*Tfgarc"l s*T?r,
fowVFftTOfy
26a
%cT,
p.
37
$ cHctNt:,
3TTWf%T^TW: TsrfrcTRT,
39b
8b
40a
acftTcFPFsr
S^sffWt
wiat, 18a
S^roafa*
?rer,
16a
^Tfora^stT^qT:, 46b
^sjTsmrn^f^, 4ib
^fcT
5fa
^t,
q?ff
licit
^fowrfaWR,
29a
STRT,
snf^TTfcres^ift, 36b
q^r:, 49b
stojti
52b
^q^tm f
Sc^f^FcTser, 40b
S^tffcTmH
54b
irfcT,
"TOngSR*
la
^qT:
53b
*mei, 25a
st^ts,
p. 14
^"Hsqnferor:, p. 35
rafomfq
mvm
IW^TCfalTOTO, 32b
nfer:,
fesr,
p.
47a
TcqJcTCTST^^TftqvT, 30a
36
Ic^^TrlT^
99
&ft, 18b
40
rajSigolasphutaniti
fi
14b
*j<>t:,
VSTTOl:
^qg^, 48b
ac^m^rcfa:, lib
cT?T:
mn^r,
*Kf:
*$dsfq
fe?g*$^
2b
tffe^fr:,
20a
<T*TOraf;TtT?*T,
*T*mS^T?TtSrft, 2b
t^i^^t^sit,
11a
ftai,
20b
^T"i qjR,
^raim^gss, 12b
^T^T: ^fTTT^t, p. 37
iricj
^^i
22a
8a,
49a
TTfTTT!Srfcr^ fTT^t,
fl^qlfatftiftsfq, 33a
4a
ercSi^msHsgffa, 52a
qram??T!il$r
em ^I^^o^stT, 32a
cfTT
$*t*lh gwrq,
WW,
cT*TI
eroW^,
23b
sn?Fwa*ptf?JT
17a
SriTTT^5f9F^, 19b
STT^T
28b
fawtwef, 23a
fTfff
7b
*wf5?H>:, 43a
?T5T
6b
sftrR:
I^Fft
sresat
6a
STsrfcf,
sjtrw
pp.
fTNa5T^q)iTfii, 17b
9T*Tc# ffh^T^T,
28a
cT^TSTasm
fas^enc
15b
19c
eras q?*mrf?T:,
atf:
HTWVffa
lb
sftrWfasi, 24a
fT*Tf>
isprft *r
5c?srmif,
^tr%, 34a
mtfrT:,
fa?JmT*TmcHreiT,
Sr3S*
fff^
ST^T^t^,
rT?TT?T
25b
34b
SJciRsr^cnw^:, p. 8
38a
mTcT^, 9a
sntTstfffacrcTPsr,
cTf^ TcK?5TTT?T?Er,
34b
*rs*T?nlr
p. 8
g ^ 2a
}
ts^t^ ^fwicT,
*wtfq:
wfotffc:,
10b
15a
a^fgsft^mfrf;, 42a
qs^qT^SST^frT^, 21a
({CTTOsqreTOracT:,
7b
TOtarvrcrfarviw, p. 36
ftfsj
<*ftTOT t 53 b
Stat
fcrararwr, 13a
facftiTt ^T,
Tel: ftqfiftTOffff,
Rfir:
q^,
35b
41a
36a
8,
left fTfcr3*nfeft:,
^ifli, 3b
u?t
TO
*I?T
gsfo
3^,
S*$fir:,
gfgrosnci
faftiftsfa
* g?As*, 39 a
5a
35a
tercet
9b
43b
wirer, p. 35
Twnccft, p. 35
26b
Ti ftm>M%fl4 Hjf:,
^TftlJTlHW>dW
qM^l^^
mi
27a
54a
% 45a
ttftesft:,
38b
*r
<rafoft,
45b
p 35
.
*n*i**ftecr, 51 b
^fcTcr*rer% , p. 19
^siwi %
qscfor:,
24b
TOstaTnra:
50b
fTO<TO^ TO:, 4b
^qfauareT^ 21b
fatftwsHTsnfar:, 23b
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