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TRUE LONGITUDE COMPUTATION

ON THE SPHERE OF ZODIAC


ACCORDING TO

ACYUTA

Critically edited with

Introduction, Translation and Appendices

By

K. V.

SARMA

Acting Director, V.V.B.I.S.

&

I.S.

Panjab University, Hoshiarpur

VISHVESHVARANAND VISHVA BANDHU INSTITUTE


OF SANSKRIT AND 1NDOLOGICAL STUDIES
PANJAB UNIVERSITY
HOSHIARPUR

sPTTJMparreF:

SfFff

eft.

General Editor k. V.

SARMA

Printed by

DEVA DATTA

Shastri

at the

and
V. V. R. I. Press
published by
K. V. SARMA, Acting Director, V. V. B.
I, S. & I. 5., Panjab University, Hoshiarpur

Panjab University Indological Scries

TRUE LONGITUDE COMPUTATION


ON THE SPHERE OF ZODIAC
ACCORDING TO

ACYUTA

Critically edited with

Introduction, Translation and Appendices

By

K. V.

SARMA

Acting Director, V.V.B.I.S.

&

I.S.

Panjab University, Hoshiarpur

VISHVESHVARANAND VISHVA BANDHU INSTITUTE


OF SANSKRIT AND INDOLOGICAL STUDIES
PANJAB UNIVERSITY
HOSHIARPUR

1977

stto tf*^<JpT,

Ro\*

(fa.)

All Rights Reserved

Price Rs. 9/

Publishers

VISHVESHVARANAND VISHVA BANDHU INSTITUTE


OF SANSKRIT AND INDOLOGICAL STUDIES
PANJAB UNIVERSITY
India)
P.O. Sadhu A*bram, Hoshiarpur (Pb.,

CONTENTS
Page

INTRODUCTION
material Acyuta,

Ra'sigolasphutamti Manuscript

the

Acyuta
astronomerDate of Acyuta Known works of
to the Ecliptic
Ra'sigola (Sphere of Zodiac) Reduction
correction Mathematical

Acyuta's formula for the

of

formula Verification

for the

Simplified formula for the

formula Identification
Chronology of Acyuta's

the Simplified

elsewhere

correction

the

of

formula-

Acyuta's

Moon Proof for

proof

works Acknowledgements

RAiSIGOLASPHTJTANITI EDITION

AND TRANSLATION
19

Essence of an eclipse (fl^I^sm)

Conjunction

Two

Determination of Conjunction

20

q^5^)

views
:

First view

(q*folfrtfa:
21

STW TO:)
Refutation of the Second view (f??fta<TS*wm)

Correction for Reduction to the Ecliptic

(TTfa^S^^T:)

APPENDICES
I.

II.

III.

Disquisition

on Reduction

to the Ecliptic (TTfomta-

Index of Authorities cited


Index of half-verses and passages cited

26
31

INTRODUCTION
The Rasigolasphutamti
astronomy, which

sets

out

of Acyuta

views

the

work on

interesting

highly

is

PisaratL

Indian
versatile

Kerala scholar, on a very pertinent point in celestial measurements, viz.,


whether the longitudes of planets and stars are to be measured along the

(Apakrama or Krantvvritd) or each along

ecliptic

its

own path

{Vik$epa-

vrttd).

Manuscript material

Two

A.
designated

manuscripts of

work have been

this

came across by chance while examining a composite

(No. Mai- D. 339) in the Govt. Oriental Mss. Library,

codex

under

catalogued

general

the

title

codex contains

some

plete,

and some

occurs on pages 90 to 95. There

Malayalam.

in

is

manuscript from

Kerala.

some complete and some incom-

several works,

in Sanskrit

Madras,

Parahita-drksiddha-ganitam, and

of

copied from an original Malayalam palmleaf

This

One,

identified.

no

title

The present work

nor colophon. The beginning

bears the usual invocation found in Kerala manuscripts,

W:, and
pure

at the end, the closing sign

the few lapses of the

The

sft:.

scribe can

The second manuscript,

B.

made

discovery,

Malayalam

deposited

and Mss. Library,


title

codex

The

13.

script

is

and

writing

in

these have been tentatively

was

(No. 755),

on the

in

and generally

free

The

fT:

sft:

Tt'TcT^ ?R:

textual verses in this manuscript

extend further.

rate discussion

However,

on verse

51,

it

which

contains,
is

as

leaves,

from
It

and

the

in

Res.

catalogued

of the

basis

thirteen

not dated, nor any scribe mentioned.


:

chance

palmleaf codex

The present work occurs

clear

result of a

the

Kerala University Oriental

the

Trivandrum,

inscribed

is

is

scribal benediction

not

Lacunae

corrected.

composite

Ganitayuktayah,

contained in the codex.


the

again,

examining

while

script,

under a general

in

be

Corrections and emendations are shown in footnotes.

filled in.

Institute

text preserved is generally

easily

of a few letters occur in two or three places

*l"T"7ct^

first

work

seventh (G)

numbered

to

The manucommences with the


errors.

3TfaE*rq?g

ends with verse 51 and does


in continuation,

edited below as

Appendix

an elaboI.

RA^IGOLASPHUTANITI

Acyuta, the astronomer

Acyuta

generally

is

in

Kerala as TrkkantiyOr Acyuta

(Kundapura in Sanskrit),

Pisarati, Tr-k-kantiyur

Malabar, being

known

his native place,

and

Pis5rati, the

one of the external functionaries

the term for

in

Tirur

near

name of

South

his caste, being

Kerala temple. Acyuta

in a

grammar and astronomy. He was a pupil of


and was patronised by King Ravi Varma of Veuattunad

was a profound scholar


1

Jyesthadeva

(Skt. Prakasa-visaya),

in

a small principality situated in the present north-

in
eastern part of the Ponnani Taluk of South Malabar. Poet Vasudeva,
his

Bhrhgasandesa,

astronomer,

while

NSrgyana

grammar but

who

Bhaftatiri

greatness

from

starts

these

Bhatfatiri,

one

of

is

his

the

enhanced by long

of

greatest

tradition

of his

comparatively recent times.

1.

viz.,

from

astronomy

and

Kerala

teachings

To

this

lines

disciples.

One

in

MelputtOr Narayana

poets
-

of

and the author of

Another

line

of jyoti$a to

subject

the

of disciples

belonged Trppanikkara Poduval,

C/. the concluding verse of his Uparaga-kriyakrama


afacr:

2.

an

grammar

learnt

grammar,

in

pupil

Prakriyasarvasva and numerous other works.


the

as

also in medicine and poetics.*

Acyuta's

carried

reputation

Acyuta 's

to

speaks of his teacher's proficiency not only in

Acyuta,

of

pays high tribute

The

s^st

s*n?rre

reference to this

^ss^rer

King occurs

in

two of Acyuta's works,

Sphutanirnaya and Pravesaka.


3.

Cf.

cTCTTer

sr^srf^^: f^^rfa^m

Bhrhgasandesa, Trivandrum Skt. Ser,, No. 128, p. 17.


4.

C/. Bhattatiri's obituary verse

V*.

-4

on

his teacher

INTRODUCTION

and Nedumpayil Krsnan

Potti

Pulimukhattu

Azhati,

Navayikkulattu

5
It can aptly be said of
Asan, each prominent during his own time.
pupils accrues to the
Acyuta, ferwsrfe*fa& g^IW 'The fame of the

glory of the teacher'.

Date of Acyuta

The date of

be

should

of Acyuta

birth

1550 since

circa

his

famous pupil Melputtur Narayana Bhattatiri was born in 1560, (vide


PrakriyHsarvasva,
Narayana Bhatta's
Iyer,
Venkitasubramonia
S.

by the Kali date

fa?rTcHT

A.D.

his

in

1621)

Narayana

obituary

beginners,

an

is

the only

an erudite work

in

works out to

be

composed

by

intended

for

etc.

^sn5T3*jffh<sra*a

grammar

on

treatise

known work of Acyuta on

this subject.

Acyuta's

Sphutanirnaya-Tantra with auto-commentary,

on

chapters

six

computation of the

correct

the

Chayastaka, on the determination of the gnomonic shadow cast

Moon

computation

Karanottama,

auto -commentary

is

verse

illustrative

works on astronomy are

by the

which

(17,24,514,

of Acyuta

Pravesaka,

crofta

given

is

Bhattatiri.

Known works

planets,

The date of Acyuta's death

pp. 22-23).

Trivandrum, 1972,

Uparaga-kriyakrama,

Junar

of

manual

and

an adaptation in seven

solar

in

eclipses

in

four chapters,

on

Hordsaroccaya,

of Sripati's Jatakapaddhati

chapters

with

chapters

five

the

which

and a

Malayalam commentary on the Venvaroha of Madhava of SangamagrSma,

5.

On

these

tradition in Kerala',

see

K. V.

Sarma,

'Direct

lines

of astronomical

Charudeya Shastri Felicitation Volume, Delhi, 1973,

pp. 601-4.
6.

Ed.

with

the

commentary of

Cochin Sanskrit Series, No.


7.

Cr. ed.

with

2,

P. S.

Anantanaryana

Sastri,

Trippunithura, 1938.

Intro,

and

10 Appendices, by

K. V Sarma,

Hoshiarpur, 1974,
8.

Cr. ed. by

K.V. Sarma,

as

Appendix 10

to the

edition

of

Sphutanirnaya.
9.

1964.
R. 2

Ed. by K. Raghavan

Pillai,

Trivandrum Skt.

Ser.,

No. 213,

kAsigolasphutAniti

10

an early reputed Kerala astronomer generally

Acyuta wrote

writers.

narayana

(in

commentary

this last

Malayalam

Golavid by later

as

at the

Netra-

instance of

Azhvanceri TamprSkkal), the spiritual head of

the NampHtiri Brahmans.

styled

10

Rasigolasphutaniti

As observed
detailed discussion

bodies
Rasigola

may

on the measurement
of Zodiac',

'Sphere

the

in

before, the Rasigolasphutaniti concerns

of

the longitudes of

What

the Ra'sigola.

with a

itself

is

celestial

meant by

be briefly stated here.

Ihe Rasigola
Indian astronomers envisage the celestial
In the

of view.

first

case

it

is

called the

Here the position of the observer

him

the

is

vertical)

horizontal

great

and Daksinottara-vrtta
Obviously,

great circles.

the

is

the

globe

'Sphere of Space'

differs

from place

with the

ordinates of a star which

measured on the fundamental

is

'Atmospheric sphere' {Vayugola)

motion of the

stars.

Ghatika-vrtta

or

The

basic

great

Vi$uvan-mandala

the great

90 to the Celestial Equator

Equinoxes, called
reference

to the

the

Ait-Azimuth co-

the

circles
is

of this
that

of

circles

(Celestial
ill

in

case

this

Equator)

the East

which
the

are

is

the
the

Unmandala

passing through the Celestial Poles at

circle
;

and

based on the path of the apparent

apparent path of a star which rises exactly


or LahkS-ksitija,

to place

The second conception

sphere are also constantly changing.


the

that

other two

the

are

from moment to moment,

result

around

Sama-mandala (Prime

(Celestial meridian)

Khagola

(Khagola).

horizon

the

centre,

and the

circle,

from three points

and the Daksinottara-vrtta 90 from the

Solstitial

The

Colure.

Vayugola with right

position of a star

ascefision-declination

with

co-ordinates

changes in course of time due to the ayana-calana (the precession of the


equinoxes).

These

two

systems

are

astronomy to denote the positions of

10.

not

therefore

used

celestial bodies.

C/. the concluding yerse of the

commentary

Cr. ed. K.V. Sarma, Sanskrit College, Trippunithura, 1956.

in

Indian

11

INTRODUCTION

third conception

with the

the 'Sphere of Zodiac' {Rasigola),

is

the path along which


Apakrama or Kranti-mandala (Ecliptic) which is
naksatras {Astvisms), as the prime
Sun apparently moves through the
A particular point on the Apakrama-mandala just to the
great circle.
of Mesa) is taken
(Zeta Piscium) called Mesadi (First point
the

east of Revati

as the starting point

called Ra'sis, 30 each, are

and twelve equal divisions

are
great circles perpendicular to the ecliptic
marked on the ecliptic
either side along the celestial
drawn from these points and extended on
North and South, each called a
sphere to meet at two points on the
;

Ra'si-kUa or Kadamba.
the

This conception of

These twelve
celestial

Measurements with reference

globe

known

is

Rasiknta-vrttas.

are called

circles

as Rasigola or Bhagola.

most constant

the

to this sphere are

of

the three.

Now,

the

exactly along the

Sun moves

while the other planets

Sun

Node,

at

two

it.

places, the

The path of each

North or South of

Viksepa-vrtta,

it,

will thus

planet

The Patas of the Moon's


The perpendicular

termed Rahu and Ketu.

of a

the position

Apakrama-mandala and

between the

or

Ascending Node and the Descending

called in Indian parlance the Patas.

path are specially

(ecliptic)

great circles called Viksepa-vrttas

move along

Vimandalas, slightly deviating from


cut that of the

Apakrama-mandala

is

distance

planet in

its

termed the Viksepa (latitude) of

the planet at that position.

Reduction

The

to the Ecliptic

position of all planets

is

denoted in Indian astronomy in terms

of two co-ordinates, the longitude which

is

measured along the Apakrama-

mandala from the said Mesadi, and Viksepa

very pertinent question arises here as to

planets should be

made along

Moon

is

dealt with in the

at the time

second view
tude are

to

(vv.

be

the latitude are

why

be measured along

work with

it

concludes that

all

would not

it

own

its

it.

orbit.

particular

reference to the

detailed

refutation of the

of an eclipse and, after

246-41),

the measurements of

and whether

the Sun's orbit

be more reasonable that each planet


This question

(latitude) perpendicular to

all

measurements of longi-

made along the ecliptic and thatt he measurements of


to be made perpendicular to the ecliptic (v. 42).

The work then

takes

to the orbital longitude of

view of the fact that the

up the
the

Moon

question of a

Moon

to

actually

reduce

correction
it

to

moves along

the
its

necessary

ecliptic,

in

orbit but

its

RXSIGOLASPHUT^NITI

12

longitude
in

is

in

This correction which,

to be measured along the ecliptic.

is

may be
modern astronomy known
restricted sense,

term Ra'sigola-sphuta,

expressed by the
as

'Reduction to the ecliptic'

Acyuta's Formula for the correction

Acyuta has enunciated


and,

Sphutanirnaya,

in

formula

quotes (verse 51) the passage from that work

35*

yrniWTRt ^
1

the

tabular

Moon-minus-Node, and

maximum

(will

correction for

give the

Moon's

from the

subtracted

measured on the

(bhujajya)

sine

of the

this

by the

Moon. Divide
particular moment and

longitude,

as

This

the quotient

(vyasa-dala).

longitude which)

is

The

Moon-minus-Node

Moon

will

result

added to or

be

to

of

(sara)

of the

even or odd quadrant, respectively.


as

and

(kotijya)

tabular radius

divided again by the

to be

II

the product by the tabular versine

tabular cosine of the latitude at the


is

ftfrf STO*

cosine

(antya-ksepa)

latitude

n
:

wS, ft^ fHt

sgrcr^ftstf

"Multiply

his

in

Rasigolasphutaniti

the

context,

present

the

correction

this

for

is

be the True

in

an

Moon

ecliptic."

This correction can be extened to the case of

planets.

all

Mathematical proof for the Formula


Thus,
Planet,

required

the

longitudinal difference between the

._.

Bhujajya
J

Bhujajys

i.e.,

11.

Node and

the

Viksepa, A the actual Vik$epa, and the correction

k,

is

F is the
maximum

if

_.
Rsm

k=
,

A Rsin
,

F X Kotijya F x Sara w

~~r.
;
\Kotijya"
AxTnjya
.,

FXR

Sphutanirnaya, IV.

F X Rversine w
Rcos ^ X R

2,

cos

edn. ibid., p. 25.

R=Trijya
where D
,

INTRODUCTION

*= R

sin

S ,n

13

Fx cos F (1 cos
F (1 cos

__ sin F. cos

w)

w)

cos A

Since k

is

very small, sin k might be taken to be equal to k.


sin F. cos

F (1 cos

w)

cos A

Formula

Verification of Acyuta's

The exactitude of Acyuta's


application

of

Napier's

rules

correction

(A.D.

can

1550-1617)

be
for

by the

verified

right-angled

spherical triangle.

N=Node
P=Planet

F=NP=Longitudinal
along

its

difference between the

Node and

the Planet

orbit

L=NM= Longitudinal difference between the Node and the Planet


along the

A=PM Latitude

ecliptic

of the

Planet at

the

moment,

i.e, }

tatkala-

viksepa

w= Angle

between

the

ecliptic

and the

viksepa)

From

Napier's rule for


cos

ANMP,

v=cos F. tan

L=

L
cos L

cos F. sin
sin F.

orbit

{parama-

raSigolasphutaniti

14

1cos w =1

,".

sin F. cos

L
L

sin F. cos

L cos

cos F. sin

(F L)

sin

sin F. cos

sin

/.

sin F. cos

F. sin

(F L) = sin

F. cos L.

^^inF^cosj;^
(1

(1 cos

w)

_ C0SM;)

cos A
(since cos

If

the correction to be applied to

is

F L =
/.

This

is

cos L)

A.

to obtain L, then

Jfc

rinJfe=5^iZ(l-co8 W )
cos A

enunciated by Acyuta.
exactly the formula for the correction
12

Taking the value accepted by Acyuta


of the

F cos

Moon,

viz.,

288', the correction for

sin

sin F, cog

further

correction in a simplified

12.

be

288')

A-

F y(vnn3 s

Moon

adds (verse 53) that

form

in his

ft

Cf

mv%F[

has given this

Acyuta

Kriyakrama.

Cf

&$nt

wfot

shr:

will

latitude

cos A

Simplified formula for the


text

Moon

(1 cos

F.

COS

The

F^c os

maximum

for the

Tnnf^rr: STOW^ST:

^5TT^5n^ ^MTfs^ST: WTVI^TTW H


(Sphufanirnaya

The maximum
minutes.

vikppa

for the

Moon

is

JTPMlf^r,

i.e.,

I.

15)

288, kalds or

Introduction
The

reference

is

15

Uparaga-kriyOkrama, ch.

to his

(tatkala-vik$epa)

recommended

is

to the

be applied

to

This would

in the calculation of eclipses.

Viksepa at the particular

where a correction of one twenty-fourth of the

moment

verse 42

I,

Moon

give the result

Viksepa
:

ve.

24

VIra

Proof for the Simplified formula


This can be derived as follows.

Sin

cos

= sin F.

F '-

C0S

As shown above,

0.0035

0.0035

F and

(since cos

an eclipse

and

Now, sine latitude at any moment


maximum latitude multiplied by the sine

sin

= sin

F=

w.

sin

1,
is

can each be
time of

the

for at

0 or 180

very near

smaller.)

is still

is

cos

equal to

the

of the longitude,

sine

of the

i.e.,

sin A

sin

Moon

A.

taken to be

sin A

for the

sin A

sin A

sin 288'

'0837

Substituting this value in the above equation,

k=
i

sin A

^mT

' 035

sin A

(Since

23 "9l

24

23.91 as

is

very

small

24 makes but a

and taking
negligible

difference.)

Identification of the correction elsewhere

among Western astronomers to note this correction is


German astronomer Tycho Brahe who lived between 1546 and 1601
The

the

first

and thus was a contemporary of Acyuta (1550-1621).


/

i6

RA&golasphutAnIti

This correction of reduction to


the ecliptic is not mentioned in
early Indian astronomy
and, among the mediaeval
astronomers of
North India, the first to mention it is
Nityananda of Indraprastha in his
Siddhmtaraja written in 1639 A.D. 1 * It redounds
to the credit of Kerala
astronomers to have shrewdly discerned this
correction and to have
derived for it a formula which tallies
with modern mathematics.
;

Chronology of Acyuta's works

A new
from

light

his reference

present work.

on the chronology of

Acyuta's

works can be had

to his

The

first

Sphutanirnaya and Upamga-kriyakrama in


the
pada of the final verse of the latter work,
srtf?T:

swmtwiHTif,

gives the

which works

out

Kali

day of

A.D. 1593.

to

its

completion,

viz.,

14

17,14,262

The Sphutanirnaya gives

'the

full

formula

for the reduction to the ecliptic (IV.


2), which the work says
he has reduced to a simpler form in the
Uparaga-kriyakarma, and, so,
the Sphutanirnaya should have
been composed prior to A.D. 1593.
This would msan that Acyuta had identified
the reduction to the ecliptic
and specified his formula for the correction earlier
than A.D. 1593.

Acknowledgements
The RasigolasphutanUi

The
years

first

edition

ago,

in

of the work had

1955,

Centre, Madras.

issued

by the

now

is

its

revised

been published

well-known

second edition.

more than

twenty

Adyar Library and Research

The book has long been out of

print

of the Centre gladly permitted the publication


of
under the auspices of our Institute.
I am deeply

and the authori-

ties

its

second

edition

grateful to the Centre

for the kind permission given in the above


regard.

The

first

manuscript

Madras.

13.

had

edition

been

issued

on the

basis

of a

single

of the work,

thanks to the Govt. Oriental Mss. Library,


The present second edition has the benefit of the use
made

Cf. Sudhakara Dvivedi, Gartakatarangini, rev. edn.,


Benares '

1933, p. 101.
14.

An

old Malayalam

Uni. C. 173 E) states


tlrnna

Kalikkotta

commentary on

ilokattinte

ml akayum

untu"

this

work (Mss. Trav.

pSdam grantham camaccua


(The first pada of this verse

note

represents also the Kali date of the completion


of this work').

INTRODUCTION
in

manuscript

of another

it

recently

discovered

Also, this second manuscript was of special importance since

a disquisition on
the

present

edition

Dr. K. Raghavan
to

me

Reduction to the

Appendix

as

Pillai,

I.

which

ecliptic,
I

am

is

extremely

contained

it

included in
thankful

to

Director of the Institute, for making available

the said manuscript for use in this edition.


9

take this occasion

rendered
first

the

Kerala

from the

Mss. Library, Trivandrum.

and

University Oriental Research Institute

17

to

remember again with thanks,

and suggestions given,

at the

edition of the work, by Prof. T.S.

Presidency College,

Thampuran of

My

late

advice

the preparation of the

time of

Kuppanna

and the

Madras,

the

Sastri,

formerly of the

Rama Varma Maru

Shri

the scholarly royal house of Cochin.

thanks are due in

Hoshiarpur, for

the

full

efficient

measure also

printing

and

to

the V.V.R.I. Press,

attractive

get-up of

this

publication.

KiV.
Hoshiarpur,
/. 1.

R. 3

1977

SARMA

TRUE LONGITUDE COMPUTATION ON


THE SPHERE OF ZODIAC
(Essence of an eclipse)
1.

Moon

2
In an eclipse,

occurs

when

(dvi-sprk-sntra)
2.

the
is

At

is

the

1.

(i.e.,

Both

nearness of the Sun

maximum

straight

the

line

joining

and the

the centres of the

two

perpendicular to the Moon's orbit.

moment

3
Moon] (madhyakala

not so,

the

of conjunction or opposition

and

adds also srfa^Tfr?^

Sun and

or sphuta-parvanta), the line joining the centres

not perpendicular to the Moon's orbit).

[of the

begin with the

Consequently,

words ffc

*PT:

The expression 'in an eclipse' (grahane) presupposes that the


centres of the Sun and the Moon in their respective orbits are very near
the Node, so that the small arcs from the Node to the centres may be
Thus, the Node, the Sun and the Moon may
taken as straight lines.
be taken as the vertices of a triangle. Then the least distance of a point
2.

to a straight

line is the perpendicular

from that point to the

straight

line.
3.

madhyakzla is meant the sphutawould seem from the term, the moment of the

astronomy, by

In Indian

parvanta and not, as

it

middle of the eclipse.

Cf., Saryasiddhanta,

IV. 16

BXglGOLASPHUTXNlTl

20

*n?,

TO

^T,

moment of maximum

the

|ft

different

eclipse is

Wis

from

the

"

moment

01

conjunction or opposition.

(Two Yiews on Conjunction)

Some

3.

(sphuta) [of the

Moon's

drawn from the Sun's path

Others,

occurs only

however

when

distant in degrees (bhuga)

5b-6

Moon's
drawn
is

to

that

True

the

(viz.,

longitudes

Moon

the ecliptic)

reaches
cut

[to

orbit],

4-5a.

vantaf

opinion

of

are

Sun and the Moon] are equal when the

the perpendicular
the

scholars

orbit

the

say that

Moon

in

its

moment

of

conjunction (par-

orbit (yikfepa-manjala)

from the Node (paid)

as the

Sun

is

is

as

in its orbit.

(vartma-samya) on the
This point of equality in distance
or West of the perpendicular
will fall either to the East

the (proximate) Node


to the Sun's path according as to whether
The point of closest proximity lies further
or its West.

its

East

from the point of equality to the


4.

B. vrsreTwr

side

where the n ode

lies.
^

conjunction
Parvanta really applies to both the moments of
expression, it is transand opposition, but for the sake of facility of
the case in solar eclipses), here
lated by 'conjunction' alone (which is
5.

as also below.

<rcW? fiw <m^3<j:

smrfrorar:

Jfcpr

ft

Moon-minus-Node

If

Node will be behind


Node will be in front of
the

and

the two,

And

them.

(vyahindu)
if it

Thus according

mum

eclipse differs

to

both

II

? H

an odd

quadrant,

moment of maximum
moment of conjunction.

the

eclipse will, respectively, be before or after the

$b-9a.

II

an even quadrant the

be in

therefore

in

is

TOfi^qp^raft

H*HJT%
7-8a.

tea ^rd

ll

views,

the

moment of maxi-

from the moment of conjunction.

dispute can

therefore occur only in the estimation of this difference.

Although

9b-10a.

maximum

this

distinction

(between the

moments

of

and the so-called madhyakala or parvanta) has not been


expressly distinguished by Aryabhat,a and others, it is recognized by
eclipse

Acyuta and others, since

it is

obvious by inference.

(Determination of Conjunction
106-1

of the

1.

First view)

At the moment of conjunction, the angular distance

Moon from
6.

the

Sun

is

equal to

its

latitude corrected for parallax

This follows from the fact that, when nearest to the Sun, the

Moon's distance from

the

Node must be

less

than the Sun's

from the Node, the former being the hypotenuse


triangle

formed

farther

away on

and
the

it

is

more

Moon's

so

orbit.

of the

distance

right-angled

from the perpendicular, which

is

RASlGOLASPHUTXNIrl

22

a^ffwqg
(Sphuta-viksepa).

a^RRRftrfNt:

order

In

nearness to the Sun will occur,


conjunction],

necessary

it is

to the East

to

scan

the

II

maximum
or West of [the moment of
path of the Moon at the

know where

to

?3

II

point of

the

moment.
12a.

moment,

If

listen.

you

desire

to

know

the path

can be described as follows]

[It

Moon

of the

at

that

V
X

Ecliptic

Node

126-1 3.

the

(bhuja)

between the daily motions

[of the

(Let)

be

Sun and the Moon]

as corrected for parallax (bhuprstha-sphuta),

part of the variation in


for parallax (spasta) be

7.

Though

latitude

what

is

it is

(MR)

(ksepa-Jfhandd)
called the

the term 'altitude'

sake of convenience,

of the

one-sixtieth

is

'altitude'

(dyu-gatyantara)

and

per
7

difference

let

one-sixtieth

day as corrected
{sara,

more comprehensive,

the

for

other

the

used here to translate the 'altitude of a right-

angled triangle' (sara or koti).

23

TTfaTntaF*>a'R*f?T:

^imt^:^

^iragqTfa

(MQ)

Moon's path

will give the

<mr inq

Then

side of the right-angled triangle), (QR).


their squares

of

the root

for

sum of

the

that period

(viz.

one

najika).

The base

14.

[of the right-angled triangle so formed]

to the Sun's path, the altitude perpendicular to

along the orbit

of the

Moon.

triangle (pramana-k$etra)

(MRQ)

Thus

it

and

[where the values of

hypotenuse

the

the

established

is

all

parallel

is

antecedent

the

sides

are

known].

The

15-16a.

k$epa) (SM)

orbs [of the

is

latitude at

the hypotenuse,

Sun and

the

(SP), the base,

and the

the above

lines

two

(iccha-ksetra)

[which

(SPM)

16.

Here,

is

the latitude

17.

This

is

the

line

joining

ai

the

moment of maximum

Moon]

along the Moon's

line

thus

is

[the

centres

of]

the

eclipse

orbit joining the ends of

the

consequent

triangle

established.

consequent

[in this

how

at

the

be
it is

by

since

the hypotenuse,

conjunction],

proportion

is

known,

the

[with the antecedent

If such are the base

A. defective.

triangle],

moment of

derived

what would be the base and


8.

moment of conjunction (madhya-

(PM), altitude

base and altitude can


triangle].

the

and

altitude

altitude of the

of the

In place of the

antecedent triangle,

consequent triangle

entire

verse,

it

reads

(By

only

RASlGOLASPHUTANITl

24

^^TOSTO*

means of this argument


consequent triangle

18.
orbit,

Of

^WTO

Ira* *f<tsm

be derived the base

will

II

and

?c

II

of the

altitude

these two, the altitude,

should be understood to have

since

it

value

its

along

lies

in terms

of the relative

upon

motions (gaty-antara-atmaka) [per nadika projected

Moon's

the

Moon's

the

orbit].

And

19-20a.

which represents the

if

is

Since,

hypotenuse

[MQ

[of

This

maximum

the

[in

the

antecedent triangle (MQ),

Sun and the Moon] for

what time

one nadika,

represent ?

between the moments of

20Z>-21a.

motions

relative

one-sixtieth of a day,

consequent triangle

the hypotenuse of the

will

proportion

eclipse

will

triangle]

is

to

be

the

give

and conjunction,

above calculation],

of the antecedent

the altitude of the

i.e.

division with

done

time

twice,

the

the

resultant nadikds [are] obtained by multiplying the latitude at conjunction

by the

altitude,

and dividing the product by the square of the hypotenuse


/"SM. QR \
i

[of the antecedent triangle],

9.

10.

i.e., I

/\

A.B. have an extra ^ here, ^T^T.


B. ^wfegftBcr:

fNftTOOTnfa:

2ib-22a.

from, the

[These

moment of

^fo

nadikas] are

fl%

to

be

added

or the same, respectively.

or

to,

12

(viz.,

subtracted

This

the latitude and altitude), are different

is

the

moment of maximum

Multiply the latitude at conjunction (SM) by

22.

II

conjunction, according as to whether the directions

(North or South) of the two,

and divide by the [antecedent] hypotenuse (MQ)


distance between [the centres of ] the orbs [of the

moment of maximum

eclipse,

i.e..

eclipse.

(MR)

the base

the result will be the

at the

33

II

Sun and the Moon]

SP^ - M jff^

'

MQ

from half the sum of the angular diameters


{bimba) [of the Sun and the Moon], will give the maximum eclipse.
23a.

This, subtracted

236-24a.

All that

school that says that the

11.

A. TTTf

12.

This

Moon
Moon

under

or both South,
the rule

When

in

conjunction

only

fact,

when

is

with the

the

Moon

follows from
is

because

in

the

advance of the

the

there

is

the

this correction

has

Node,

maximum-eclipse-position

this condition the


i.e.,

When

following consideration

is

behind

vik&pa and the sara are both

sameness of direction,

(dik-sdmya).

the

North

Hence

'Dik-samye rna\ 'Deduction when the directions are the same'.


the Moon at conjunction is behind the Node, the
maximum:

eclipse-point

be added.

is in

Under

directions, one

advance of the

Moon

and hence the correction

this condition, the viksepa

North and the other South.

dhanam\ 'Addition when


R, 4

moment of

accords,

at conjunction

to be deducted

said here

is

and

iara

Hence the

the directions are different'.

are
rule

has to

of different
'Dig-bhede

RAglGOLASPHUTANlTI

26

q^aRt^i ni# 3s

aft

along the

(kalas) as the Sun, [both measured

same [number of] minutes

attains the

ecliptic].

(Refutation of the Second view)


says that the moment
But, according to the school which
the node], [the calculations
is equality of distance [from

246.

of conjunction
as

below]

fifltfi*s f

[Firstly],

(i)

Moon

is

how

[measured] along

may

It

(ii)

nadika (gaty-antara-amia)
(But

hypotenuse.
of the Lunar
taken

every

it

(viz

be

its

own

argued

not taken

relative

the

of the

fact

out

that
as

eclipse,

A.

it

is

argued

this

Let

motion

motion per

but only as

base,

so in the

in the case of the Solar eclipse,

according to

*Tff for iff*

that the

relative

the

the

to parallax in latitude

If,

(iii)

motion per

orbit ?

the
the hypotenuse, since the path of

276-28.

13.

is

but,

moment owing

the Solar

this,

has to be noted that) this might be

eclipse

as

can

as the base in view

MR), be taken

25b-27a.

be

reasons set

25a.

of the

several

the

for

impossible

are

above

described

is

case

cannot
changing

(nat'i).

school
the

Moon

it

the

and with reference to

relative

motion [along the

%^

fas*

3%1f^ft^M

*ffit

^imi* w^m*r ^
*TpR: jftfo:

ara^r

i^r^TO^nr WFn*prat
!

Moon's

path] (anu-gaty-antara-am'sa) be

^r^rr

taken

ll

as

it

the

base,

and

variation in latitude corrected for parallax (nati-khanda) as the

sum of

then the root of the

their

squares

will

give

the

altitude,

the path of

the

Moon.
[The answer

29-30.

form the base and


tudinal variation
variation

altitude [of a

No, because
right-angled

in

this

case

triangle]

they do not
for,

the

the

Moon's path

there cannot be any base-altitude relationship between them.

31.

(iv)

Further,

[if it is

relative variation in longitude

said that] the base taken

above

is

32-33a.

in

is

(measured)

hence the

along

but the

relative variation

Moon's path
subtraction of one from the other

possible.

14.

A.

cPTT for

15.

B.

mAv;

improper]; for, here, the variation in parallax in

measured along the Sun's path

is

longitude

different)

[this is

the

{gati-bheda-amsa) minus the variation in

parallax in longitude {lambana-khanda) per nadika (ghatika-kalaja)

longitude

lati-

perpendicular to the Sun's path and the longitudinal

[measured], according to this school, along

is

and hence

is

is

the

(these
is,

two are

in fact,

not

raSigolasphutaniti

28

aft

srwpraro^T

^T^sfira-i

'rat

ft

however, in order to remove

this

parallaxes in latitude (nati) and longitude {lambana)

and

336-34.

(v)

If

11

objection,
their

the

variations

Bhaskara,
ikhan4as) be calculated according to the method prescribed by
then, the rectification (samskara, addition or subtraction)

34M6.

longitude
of the variation in longitude by the variation in parallax in
permissible

but addition or subtraction between variations

in latitude

(vik$epa-khanda) and variation in parallax in latitude {nati-khanda)

not be possible, for, according to Bhaskara,


[measured] perpandicularly
[measured], according to
37a.

to

all,

the

Moon's

orbit,

will

in latitude is

parallax

the

is

and the

latitude

is

perpendicularly to the ecliptic.

Thus, [according to

this

school],

every approach leads us

to a dilemma.
376-38<i.

(vi)

according

Again,

traction of the velocity of one

to

this

from the other

is

school, even the sub-

not

possible

because

paths.
the two are [measured], along different

16.

combination of ^fcT and


his Mahabhaskariya, V. 27-28.

The reference

ciated by BhSskara I in

is

to the

17.

A. has a gap here

18.

B.

gfta^

it

reads

fa^T

*^?T:

M<T

enun-

^qm^dtak

^3<rcg^q<TT

tot^^^to^ ^ f%
^^Tg^n^^te^^^
11

3$b-39a.

(vii)

traction between the


as required in the

Then

again,

Moon

and the

according

Final-Moon-minus-lagna'',

also

is

a$ n

II

this

impossible,

school,

of the ecliptic

"of the

with,

II

to

rising point

beginning

[verse]

II

the sub(lagna),

bhuja and koti of

because

the two

move

in different circles.

396-41.

(viii)

Now

there

is

the rule

of the eclipse (sthiter-dala) from the Moon's


parallax, (krta-natya ksiptya)

(lamba) for the times (tat-kala)


the eclipse)

The

Calculate the half-duration


latitude

calculate also

obtained,

and thus determine them

the parallax

(viz.

(?) at

not possible, since, really,

corrected
in

the beginning

for

longitude

and end of

conjunction."

calculation of the half-duration of the

this rule is also

as

there

is

eclipse according

no

to

similarity between

the fields on which the half-duration and the relative variation


in motion
are represented, (viz.. the ecliptic and the Moon's orbit)
which form,
respectively, the consequent (iccha) and the antecedent
(pramarta).

Therefore in the Solar eclipse, the two, the rectified velocity


Moon (antya- or samskrta-bhukti) and latitude corrected for

42.

of the

19.

Uparaga-kriyakrama,

20.

UparSga-kriyakrama,

21.

A. has a gap

III.

28

ff.

III. 41.

in the place

of T*cq\

RASIGOLASPHUTANITI

30

Ijlfaft

and the

it

43.

h^t

stit:

measured only

latter

II

II

$13: qsftat

parallax, have to be

along

Wn^m^^B^ W

II

[the
in relation to the ecliptic,

perpendicular to

former

it.]

between
would be proper to take the differences
between their rectified
of the Sun and the Moon and that

Again,

the velocities

it

determination of the sines


and so also in the matter of the

latitudes

In the Kriyakrama,

44

the

rectified

and hence the

along the (planet's) orbit,

velocity too

is

etc.

measured

derivation of the sines etc.

is

not quite accurate.


In the solar eclipse,

45.

the

moment

the

Moon

of conjunction

on the

when

celestial sphere

that

moment

alone

to be taken

is

the rectified latitudes


(of which the ecliptic

as

of the Sun and


is

great circle)

are identical.
46.

Otherwise,

corrections for parallax

would not be correct

of parallax
of conjunction, for the seconds
circle of the ecliptic.
are in terms of the seconds of the

the

moment

22.

A. Omits, verses 43-46.

23.

B. nfa:

TTf^nft^iTT

at

(lambana-liptah)

1%

ft

q^kr:

HT^T^t *

II

tfs.

II

(Correction for Reduction to the Ecliptic) 25

Now, according

47-48#.

the true motions of the

to the view of

Moon and

the other [planets] are

Sastrakaras] along the ecliptic, and hence their true


vitiated

the

by

their orbital

moment

who

those

consider that

given

[by the

longitudes

are

not

motion (kepatah means k$epa-vrtta~gamanatah),

of equality

in

degrees

itself

will

give

the

moment

of

conjunction (parvUnta).

On

496-50.

Moon

and other

the other hand, according to the view that

[planets] always

move on
iffRR

[their

24.

A. nwrat:

25.

Having established that measurement

tude are to be

made

?qj5t2rfw fe

only

with

reference

own]

since the

orbits (k$epa-vrtta)

to

of longitude and

the

ecliptic,

the

lati-

former

and the latter perpendicular to it, the text takes up another


question, whether a correction is necessary to the orbital longitude of
the Moon in view of the fact that it actually moves along its orbit and
On this question there might
its longitude is measured on the ecliptic.
be a school who would consider that the rules for calculating the
longitude given by the SSstrakaras include this correction
for them
no more correction would be necessary.
But if it is be viewed that the
along

it

basic

textbooks

(Nostras)

give

the

true-longitude

the respective orbits, a correction called


is

necessary,

which

in a restricted sense.

the 'Reduction to the Ecliptic'

might be expressed by the term Ra'sigolasphutamti,


Obviously, Acyuta is one who deems the correction

necessary.
26.

(sphufa) only along

B. reads the verse as

52

RASIGOLASPHUTANITI
:

^r^^TT tori*

^m<^ss<f

miww^
and hence
the

f|*r^

of conjunction

*r^>

are [measured]

not equality

is

||

fwft $fj

wsf

ftftf

their true longitudes

moment

(No

in

on

their

ii

orbits,

degrees [measured on the

ecliptic].

50-52.

because, according to this view, a


further correction
has to be applied to the true
longitude [as measured
It is

on

orbit] to

its

obtain the true longitude as


measured on the ecliptic {rasigola-sphutauptaye), that a method to this
effect has been enunciated by
Acyuta in
the Sphutanirnaya.

"

Malti P y
l

the

tabular

cosine

Moon-mmus-Node and the product by


maximum latitude (antya-ksepa) of

(kotijyj)

and

sine

(bhujajya) of

the tabular versine (Sara)

of the

the Moon.
Divide this by the
tabular cosine of the latitude at
the particular moment and the
quotient
is to be divided again
by the tabular radius {vyasa-dala). The
result
[will give the correction for
longitude which] is to be added to
or
subtracted from, the moon's longitude,
as Moon-minus-Node
is

even or an odd quadrant, respectively.


ecliptic

is

in

The True-Moon measured on

an

the

thus got."

The proof for

this

may

be understood by wise
(nuances of astronomical) science (kalasu).
27.

The

28.

A.B. read 5rs*R.

men

learned in the

verse next quoted is Sphutonimaya', IV.


2.
See Intn>"
duction, pp. 12-14, for the trigonometrical
verification of the correction
of Reduction to the Ecliptic enunciated here.

The

better reading

Sphutanirnaya,
29.

verse which

B. omits
is

the

further

edited below as

verses,

Appendix

I.

but has

is

from the

original

a discussion on

this

^mWTCTfftfcT:
f|

mmft *rf$^

33

fwn^

OTrfflW^^TOTitaT nt^Rrrqi

This very correction

53.

form by the

same [author]

in

has

[his

||

been enunciated in

Vparaga-]Kriyakrama

"Apply one twenty-fourth part of the latitude"


Thus has been enunciated

54.

II

the

a simplified
in

the words

etc.

"True-longitude Computation

on the Sphere of Zodiac" by Acyuta,

True longitudes [of planets]


the ecliptic should be calculated by experts
in this manner.
[

THUS ENDS TRUE- LONGITUDE COMPUTATION


ON THE SPHERE OF ZODIAC

ACCORDING TO ACYUTA

30.

The

Introduction!'^
31.
R, 5

on

reference

is

Acyuta's Uparaga-kriyakrama,
ch.

ZTe" ^^i

A.B. have ffcpr in


the neuter,

* f this

>

I.

see

41

^ove,

APPENDIX

DISQUISITION
fi

ON REDUCTION TO THE

ECLIPTIC

qirft^ fNtaa' fwrf^ta** tort

w\&Rti$$
3*n3wnd<pt

irfe

^4

fttr^

ft

3^

*t<M

trow ^i^THta^

'ott* ffc^ra 'g*RT*qf'?rt

vn^-

^
^

fe#Ts*r r|^st3*rf1

sr

^ ^f%srfa*rw

The following disquisition occurs in the manuscript of


Rasigolasphutantti, No. 755 (G) of the Kerala Univ. Or. Res. Inst,
and Mss. Library, Trivandrum, in continuation of the verse qrafaw
1.

fNt*

etc.

34

35

(1.42),

'^q^T^TTq;

WU\ Wl\\W\ z^ S^tf

*3g*t

fsr^st:

f*rfa

(II-

6)

"

5*rf^

(STOlf^TT^*T:,

^frr^r 5 ^"fagfaifa:

<r

(c/. Tifinf^.,

^TfcTT

4-6)

OT** (TTfwfT^,

<tts: ^t?t:

41)

^^CTSTTf^ra- r& refers

^c?TTT^^

(C/.,

%fa

I.

fWtffa: srr^T^TXt
25a)"

^TST^

^TOTTf^T^fT:,

'^rftsRT

^TiT^T

I.

39)

sp^fTO^tafafTTt^

(Cf.,

^T^PTftaim:,

HI. 13)

*TTfr

RX6IGOLA5PHUTANITI

36

5fir

^^t^tit w^r

qn*f

*TFft:

fUTCIrT

f^^^fiRRT^,

3T^rf^TT?r

qsrsfq

faw>sq7?Ttcrq jH
,

sq^TT

^tf^r 5

StF^V:

^q^sfa^^qT^qr

?*TT^

*TSq-

ac^rarq%

ft^q^qr^qfqfir f ferr ftqw^fmfinfaof

ft^raste -s^tf ^frSrqTqRorsfq

<rats*q?R

eq^Tcr

^tb^ tort

ST^fafWq^

qm

^irrafireit

?r

cfta:

5^fa<sssri*rR*RW

'^retff^^

f fir

*qr<r,
2tt

qrs:

arrar

^r:

w^^t^jt'
atam^crq^fq

?TTsrc<?fr%

^grTCTST

TOW

^nnrq% WNr:\

reft

smwiT^

^X^f^TT
No.

'T

srifcrc,

(C/. *PJ*T.

W^t'
?rnPr

%fir

<Fnfi^

5rcOTn**nfr

sn^Tr, IV.12,

128, Poona, 1946, p. 51).

ed.,

mA*

,4a<Wma

Skt. Ser.,

APPENDIX

II

INDEX OF AUTHORITIES CITED


Acyuta,

vv.

10, 52, 53,

54

Ap.

I,
I

p. 34.

See also Kriyakrama,


I

Ldghubhaskriyavyakhya,

A pp.

I,

P. 37

Sphutanirnaya.
,

Aryabhata,

Bhaskara

v.

I, v.

Kriyakrama

34

36, 37

I,

p.

Somayaji (unidentified),
p.

52
of Acyuta,
I,

vv.

37

App.

I,

36

Sphutanirnaya of Acyuta,

39-40, 44,53; Ap.

Laghubhaskarlya-

vyakhyn, Ap.

Kecana (Anonymous astronomers),


vv. 3,

ParameSvara's

Ap.

I,

vv.

51,

p. 54

38,

pp. 35,

Uparaga-Kriyakrama of Acyuta
See under Kriyakrama,

APPENDIX III
INDEX OF HALF-VERSES
AND PASSAGES CITED
The numbers refer to the verses, their
halves being distinguished by 'a' and 'b\ respectively.
[

pages are prefixed with

3T5TTfTl

aaat

'p'.

atfwit *lfe**hft,

?>:5T^, 16 b

47b

<Tcft Sp?:,

qrTftaf?TCTaTsf,

30b

3T?fts*iftfa<qt,

and

second
References
to

first

Note:

31b

33b

q$ ^gfWZimm, 37a

W^ciRTCfarc*, 27b
Stfalt

fw$R:, 22b

46a

3T?hstt ?i*a?fe*rrc:,

ic^tftift^fq, 37b

mmH,

swSfa f

53a, p. 14

fa^T 5(5^?3U3^ 31a

3w*n*TreT7*^?r, 5b

fairer $*R$9t:, 39b

w^qnTfe^^m,

3a

sp^fafcT
14a

3TO*TT*Tfgarc"l s*T?r,

fowVFftTOfy

26a

%cT,

p.

37

srfoR q f ^'rJW, 50a

$ cHctNt:,
3TTWf%T^TW: TsrfrcTRT,

39b

8b

40a

acftTcFPFsr

S^sffWt

wiat, 18a

S^roafa*

?rer,

f^rqsir c^c^^fTB, 44a

16a

^Tfora^stT^qT:, 46b

^sjTsmrn^f^, 4ib
^fcT

5fa

^t,
q?ff

licit

^fowrfaWR,

29a

STRT,

snf^TTfcres^ift, 36b

q^r:, 49b

stojti

%T$%% TTT^rcfa, 42b

52b

^q^tm f

Sc^f^FcTser, 40b

S^tffcTmH

54b

irfcT,

"TOngSR*

la

^qT:

53b

*mei, 25a

st^ts,

p. 14

^"Hsqnferor:, p. 35

rafomfq

mvm

IW^TCfalTOTO, 32b
nfer:,

fesr,

p.

47a

TcqJcTCTST^^TftqvT, 30a

36

Ic^^TrlT^
99

&ft, 18b

40

rajSigolasphutaniti

"T^seft ^srretat 44b


^'ff*rmfcT^:

fi

14b

*j<>t:,

VSTTOl:

^qg^, 48b

ac^m^rcfa:, lib

cT?T:

mn^r,

*Kf:

*$dsfq

fe?g*$^

2b

tffe^fr:,

20a

<T*TOraf;TtT?*T,

*T*mS^T?TtSrft, 2b

t^i^^t^sit,

11a
ftai,

20b

^T"i qjR,

^raim^gss, 12b

^T^T: ^fTTT^t, p. 37
iricj

^^i

22a

8a,

<*Ncf <tifcftf, pp. 15, 35

49a

TTfTTT!Srfcr^ fTT^t,

fl^qlfatftiftsfq, 33a

4a

ercSi^msHsgffa, 52a

qram??T!il$r

em ^I^^o^stT, 32a

<mft?fW faefag, 50a, pp. 12, 34

cfTT

$*t*lh gwrq,

WW,

cT*TI

eroW^,

23b

sn?Fwa*ptf?JT

17a

SriTTT^5f9F^, 19b

STT^T

28b

fawtwef, 23a

fTfff

7b

*wf5?H>:, 43a

rWTfq gfrfifa^TcT, 10a

?T5T

6b

sftrR:

I^Fft
sresat

6a

STsrfcf,

sjtrw

pp.

fTNa5T^q)iTfii, 17b

9T*Tc# ffh^T^T,

28a

cT^TSTasm

fas^enc

15b

19c

eras q?*mrf?T:,

atf:

HTWVffa

lb

sftrWfasi, 24a

fT*Tf>

isprft *r

5c?srmif,

^tr%, 34a

mtfrT:,

fa?JmT*TmcHreiT,

Sr3S*

fff^

ST^T^t^,

rT?TT?T

25b
34b

SJciRsr^cnw^:, p. 8

38a

mTcT^, 9a

sntTstfffacrcTPsr,

cTf^ TcK?5TTT?T?Er,

34b

*rs*T?nlr

p. 8

g ^ 2a
}

ts^t^ ^fwicT,
*wtfq:

wfotffc:,

10b

15a

a^fgsft^mfrf;, 42a
qs^qT^SST^frT^, 21a
({CTTOsqreTOracT:,

7b
TOtarvrcrfarviw, p. 36

ftfsj

<*ftTOT t 53 b
Stat

fcrararwr, 13a

facftiTt ^T,

Tel: ftqfiftTOffff,
Rfir:

q^,

35b

41a
36a

8,

left fTfcr3*nfeft:,

^ifli, 3b

u?t

TO

*I?T

gsfo

3^,

S*$fir:,

gfgrosnci

faftiftsfa

* g?As*, 39 a

5a

forfeit fftt^t 3rtar,

35a

tercet

9b

43b

wirer, p. 35
Twnccft, p. 35

26b

Ti ftm>M%fl4 Hjf:,

^TftlJTlHW>dW

qM^l^^
mi

27a

54a

% 45a

ttftesft:,

38b

*r

<rafoft,

45b

*wfatTOT*l q^, 48a


*fts* tTCfSWftfltg;,

p 35
.

*n*i**ftecr, 51 b

^fcTcr*rer% , p. 19

^siwi %

qscfor:,

24b

TOstaTnra:

50b

fTO<TO^ TO:, 4b
^qfauareT^ 21b
fatftwsHTsnfar:, 23b

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