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Saint Claire Science School

Acceptance And Approval

This Thesis hereto attached, entitled The Performance in English

Grammar by the Residents of Brgy. Del Remedio: A Normative Survey
Test, prepared and submitted by Carie Justine P. Estrellado, in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the fourth year high school, examined and
recommended for acceptance and approval.

Ms. Marites Platero
Ms. Lina A. Buencillo

Performance in English Grammar by the

Residents of Brgy. Del Remedio: A Normative
Survey Test

-BYCarie Justine P. Estrellado

-Saint Claire Science SchoolS.Y. 2007-2008

Performance in English Grammar by the Residents of Brgy. Del

Remedio: A Normative Survey Test

-BYCarie Justine P. Estrellado

A Term-Paper/Report Survey Submitted
Partial Fulfillment For Requirements
(Science Research)
Students Signature
(Signature of Faculty)

Saint Claire Science School

Brgy. Del Remedio, San Pablo City
S.Y. 2007-2008

To the Readers
- Being a Filipino learner in the system of rules in Grammar as
well to those persons who equipped their knowledge.
There are the survey questionnaire that led to sign by the
surveyor who permanently accomplished its solemn
informative, it is also consist of coherent paging.
In the second-language situation, mastery of form does not
guarantee communicative proficiency; neither dos
communicative practice necessarily result in mastery of form.
This thesis represents of understanding in a way through done
by the survey test, yet it still a better learning institutions to any
of individual standards.
Grammar in Focus
- In the bilingual setup, only grammatical patterns and forms
needed in the Philippine setting should be taught to the point of
their mastery.
- Concepts, Values, and Skills necessary for young Filipino
citizens, not just to fulfill themselves as Filipino citizens but
as citizens of the world, have been thoughtfully chosen.
- Try to explore the passions of joy and sorrow to accumulate
the reading skills and communications.

Chapter I : The Problem and its Setting


English Grammar have started to somewhat thousand of years ago, it is a set

of principles which a language functions. English grammar serves as guide
to ways that words can be arranged and changed so that people can
communicate easily and accurately.
All Language do not functions in the same way. Latin depends heavily on
changes in the forms of words, Chinese stresses the pitch of the speakers
voice. English emphasizes the order of words. However, many languages
included all these features to some degree.
Many Grammarians believe that babies begin to learn basic grammar during
their first year. By the age of 4 or 5 years old , children have absorbed
enough of it to communicate their thoughts. By the time they start school,
they have used grammar continually for several years, but they study
grammar in school to improve understanding of their language and of
other languages.
Just as some people drive cars better than others do, some speak and write
more grammatically than others. A language that does not change becomes a
dead language. Latin is a dead language because it exists almost exclusively
as literature written centuries ago. To change, a language and its system that
further be used in everyday life.
Many people want to know what is correct or incorrect English. A
sentence may be grammatical or ungrammatical, but no absolute agreement
exists about all usage and standard practices. The best guide to usage of
English is what is appropriate or inappropriate at any particular time or
place. Dictionaries and grammar hand books can provide guidelines for

Significance of the Study

The study will be significant to the ff.

- To the respectful residents of Brgy. Del Remedio, because they will be

informed of how important learning English is; not only they can gain
knowledge and performance from it, it can also be a rewarding part of
their lives, yet learning the technique of Grammar in how it will use to
the progress state of our community, even in fulfilling their goals in
life and in obtaining their fruitful success.

- Also to the learner of any individual any of its type of profession, that
brings importance and good things to conduct more advantages to the
real linguistics of world.

Statement of the Problem

In this study, the major problem was to find out the performance of the
residents in Brgy. Del Remedio regarding to the subject or topic in English
grammar, it will help us to know their interest and will somewhat influence
us in good ways.
Specifically, it sought the answer to the ff. questions.
1. What is the Profile of the Respondents in terms of :
Educational Attainment
Civil Status
2. Rate your performance when it comes to English proficiency.
3. What category do you find most difficult in English grammar?
4. What are the reasons why some are being neglectful when it comes to
English Grammar?

Scope and Limitations

This study was on the evaluation of the residents whom live in Brgy. Del
Remedio, these are use to rate their performance in English Grammar, it
involved the perceptions of forty (40) Respondents composed of the
persons living in Del Remedio and were selected by random sampling.
The main source of data was the survey Questionnaire, which was
prepared by the researcher and statistically treated by the use of
descriptive such as frequency, percentage, means and graphical analysis.
The study was conducted for two (2) months.

Chapter III : Research Methodology

This chapter presents the descriptions of the research design, the population and
samples of the study, sampling procedure, research instruments, the data-gathering
techniques, data processing and the statistical treatment of the data.

Research Design
This study is primarily a descriptive study using the normal survey method, which
made use of the perceptions of the respondents as its main source of data.

Population Sampling
The respondents of the study were forty (40) respondents composed of people who
residents of Brgy. Del Remedio in a random sampling through statistical
manipulations of data.

Research Instrument
The main instrument used in the study was a survey questionnaire made by the
researcher which consisted of eight (8) items about the status perception of the
respondents in Brgy. Del Remedio

Data Collection
The questionnaires were distributed to the respondents on the last week of January. It
the researcher only one (1) week to retrieve or collect the questionnaires for the data
needed in the study.

Statistical Treatment of Data

Data collection were classified, tabulated, and coded for analysis using sample
descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentage.
the percentage was computed by using this formula.
P = F/N x 100

where: P = Percentage
F = Frequency
N = total no. of respondents

Performance in English Grammar by the

Residents of Brgy. Del Remedio: Normative
Survey Test

Saint Claire Science School

In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements

of the
Elective Course (Science Research)

- Carie Justine P. Estrellado

S.Y. 2007-2008

The Grammarians are scholars and respected teachers who can be found throughout
Kamos teaching the young for little or no reward, living of donations of food and the
hospitality of the people. They are popular with the common people. The rich also value
them as trustworthy scribes and book keepers, though they charge for the service the
money mostly going back to the order. The group is centred on the famous Library of
Minos, possibly the worlds greatest collection of knowledge. The Grammarians have
spent hundreds of years collecting cataloguing and hoarding documents, histories etc.
They are dedicated to the study and understanding of magic. They control the Great
Library, and many of them live in it. They believe in a multi-dimensional universe
containing many mysteries, and a variety of powerful creatures. Their attitude to Gods is
unique, and causes some people to call them atheists. The say there are two basic types of
Powerful creatures from beyond the mundane world, like elves and dragons. These are
sometimes worshipped, out of fear, ignorance or the human desire for a spiritual crutch.
Gods created by their worshippers. People are naturally disposed to offer worship, and
the act of worship draws power from the dream world (as does magic), to bring the object
of the worship into existence. So it is not the God who rules, but the worshippers, who,
through their unconscious wishes, shape their Gods to their needs.
Magic comes from the dream world. Everyone has a connection with this other world,
and the potential to draw on its power, which is called mana. However, raw mana has a
chaotic nature and unpredictable results. Mages use their will to force the mana into
certain shapes and natures, using the methods they were taught when they learned the
spell they are casting.
Grammarians study the way mana is manipulated: they collect and catalogue the various
patterns that it can have, and its effects on the mundane world.
The Great Library visible in Minos is a small part of the area they have for their
documents. They have dug across to the Holy Mountain, and created a complex of
tunnels and chambers in its sides. Here the Grammarians claim to store the knowledge of
the world, with chronicles older and more exact than those maintained in Khem. Kings,
Emperors, and, above all, mages, come here seeking knowledge, and usually reward the
Grammarians well when they leave, though without revealing what they have learned.
It is said that the Grammarians also share in the gifts given to the Oracle of Delona: a
strange relationship.

The Grammarians themselves are scholars, who spend their time in search of new
knowledge, or maintaining the Great Librarys vast treasure-house of knowledge. It is
mainly the older members of the sect who stay in the Great Library: they encourage the
younger members to travel the world in search of new material for their catalogue.
There are four ranks in the Grammarians hierarchy:
Apprentices. The young men and women who wish to join the Order of Grammarians.
They are taught to read and write, Simple Spells, and the basics of a spell college or two.
They also do the cleaning and cooking.
Sages. They must have proved they know at least one spell to M-L 10, and can read and
write. They then undergo a simple initiation ceremony, swearing an oath not to betray the
order, and to keep its secrets. From this point on they are susceptible to the Black Writ
(see below). Sages are permitted to learn the spell college Gramarye. They usually then
spend some years travelling the world.
Librarians. These are Sages who have become tired of travelling, and wish to retire from
the world so that they can continue their studies free from distractions. Very few
Librarians are less than 50. They are taught the spell Secret Magic to help them in their
Scholars. These are the most senior of the Order of Grammarians. They have access to
area of knowledge forbidden to lesser ranks, but even they may not look at all the
documents stored in the Great Library. The greatest of the Scholars is appointed Head
Grammarian, and is the only person granted access to all knowledge in the Library.

100- Common Misspelled Words and its Vocabularies

Several words made the list because of the suffix pronounced -bl but sometimes spelled -ible,
sometimes -able. Just remember to accept any table offered to you and you will spell this word
It is no accident that the test for adverbs on -ly is whether they come from an adjective on -al
("accidental" in this case). If so, the -al has to be in the spelling. No publical, then publicly.
Remember, this word is large enough to accommodate both a double "c" AND a double "m".
Try to acquire the knowledge that this word and the next began with the prefix ad- but the [d]
converts to [c] before [q].
See the previous discussion.
a lot
Two words! Hopefully, you won't have to allot a lot of time to this problem.
Amateurs need not be mature: this word ends on the French suffix -eur (the equivalent of English
A parent need not be apparent but "apparent" must pay the rent, so remember this word always
has the rent.
Let's not argue about the loss of this verb's silent [e] before the suffix -ment.
Lord help you remember that this word comprises the prefix a- "not" + the "god" (also in theology) + -ist "one who believes."
You must believe that [i] usually comes before [e] except after [c] or when it is pronounced like
"a" as "neighbor" and "weigh" or "e" as in "their" and "heir." Also take a look at "foreign" below.
(The "i-before-e" rule has more exceptions than words it applies to.)
Often misspelled "bellweather." A wether is a gelded ram, chosen to lead the herd (thus his bell)
due to the greater likelihood that he will remain at all times ahead of the ewes.
This word has an [e] between two [a]s. The last vowel is [a].
This word is not in a category with "catastrophe" even if it sounds like it: the middle letter is [e].
Don't let this one bury you: it ends on -erynary an -ary in it. You already know it starts on [c],
of course.
The verb "change" keeps its [e] here to indicate that the [g] is soft, not hard. (That is also why
"judgement" is the correct spelling of this word, no matter what anyone says.)
Another -ible word. You just have to remember.

Silent final [e] is commonplace in English but a silent final [n] is not uncommon, especially after
If you are committed to correct spelling, you will remember that this word doubles its final [t]
from "commit" to "committed."
Don't let misspelling this word weigh on your conscience: [ch] spelled "sc" is unusual but
Work on your spelling conscientiously and remember this word with [ch] spelled two different
ways: "sc" and "ti".
Try to be conscious of the "sc" [ch] sound and all the vowels in this word's ending and i-o-u a
note of congratulations.
The census does not require a consensus, since they are not related.
Don't make yourself another daiquiri until you learn how to spell this funny word-the name of a
Cuban village.
This word definitely sounds as though it ends only on -it, but it carries a silent "e" everywhere it
A little discipline, spelled with the [s] and the [c] will get you to the correct spelling of this one.
You would be surprised how many sober people omit one of the [n]s in this one.
Even smart people forget one of the [b]s in this one. (So be careful who you call one when you
This one won't embarrass you if you remember it is large enough for a double [r] AND a double
This word is misspelled "equiptment" 22,932 times on the web right now.
Remembering that [h] when you spell this word will lift your spirits and if you remember both
[a]s, it will be exhilarating!
Remember that this one is -ceed, not -cede. (To exceed all expectations, master the spellings of
this word, "precede" and "supersede" below.)
No word like this one spelled with an [a] is in existence. This word is a menage a quatre of one [i]
with three [e]s.
Don't experience the same problem many have with "existence" above in this word: -ence!
The silent "e" on "fire" is also cowardly: it retreats inside the word rather than face the suffix -y.

Here is one of several words that violate the i-before-e rule. (See "believe" above.)
You must learn to gauge the positioning of the [a] and [u] in this word. Remember, they are in
alphabetical order (though not the [e]).
You should be grateful to know that keeping "great" out of "grateful" is great.
I guarantee you that this word is not spelled like "warranty" even though they are synonyms.
This word is too small for two double letters but don't let it harass you, just keep the [r]s down to
English reaches the height (not heighth!) of absurdity when it spells "height" and "width" so
The i-before-e rule works here, so what is the problem?
Humor us and spell this word "humorous": the [r] is so weak, it needs an [o] on both sides to hold
it up.
Don't show your ignorance by spelling this word -ence!
The immediate thing to remember is that this word has a prefix, in- "not" which becomes [m]
before [m] (or [b] or [p]). "Not mediate" means direct which is why "immediately" means
Please be independent but not in your spelling of this word. It ends on -ent.
Knowing that this word ends on -able is indispensable to good writing.
This one sounds like a shot in the eye. One [n] the eye is enough.
Using two [l]s in this word and ending it on -ence rather than -ance are marks of . . . you guessed
The apostrophe marks a contraction of "it is." Something that belongs to it is "its."
Sure, sure, it is made by a jeweler but the last [e] in this case flees the scene like a jewel thief.
However, if you prefer British spelling, remember to double the [l]: "jeweller," "jewellery.")
Traditionally, the word has been spelled judgment in all forms of the English language. However,
the spelling judgement (with e added) largely replaced judgment in the United Kingdom in a nonlegal context. In the context of the law, however, judgment is preferred. This spelling change
contrasts with other similar spelling changes made in American English, which were rejected in
the UK. In the US at least, judgment is still preferred and judgement is considered incorrect by

many American style guides.

kernel (colonel)
There is more than a kernel of truth in the claim that all the vowels in this word are [e]s. So why
is the military rank (colonel) pronounced identically? English spelling can be chaotic.
Yet another violator of the i-before-e rule. You can be sure of the spelling of the last syllable but
not of the pronunciation.
Another French word throwing us an orthographical curve: a spare [i], just in case. That's an [s],
too, that sounds like a [z].
It may be as enjoyable as a berry patch but that isn't the way it is spelled. That first [r] should be
pronounced, too.
Where does English get the license to use both its letters for the sound [s] in one word?
Learning how to omit the [e] in this word should lighten the load of English orthography a little
The main tenants of this word are "main" and "tenance" even though it comes from the verb
"maintain." English orthography at its most spiteful.
Man, the price you pay for borrowing from French is high. This one goes back to French main +
oeuvre "hand-work," a spelling better retained in the British spelling, "manoeuvre."
The medieval orthography of English even lays traps for you: everything about the MIDdle Ages
is MEDieval or, as the British would write, mediaeval.
Why would something to remind of you of a moment be spelled "memento?" Well, it is.
Here is another big word, large enough to hold two double consonants, double [l] and double [n].
Since that [a] is seldom pronounced, it is seldom included in the spelling. This one is a "mini
ature;" remember that.
Since something minuscule is smaller than a miniature, shouldn't they be spelled similarly? Less
than cool, or "minus cule."
This mischievous word holds two traps: [i] before [e] and [o] before [u]. Four of the five vowels
in English reside here.
What is more embarrassing than to misspell the name of the problem? Just remember that it is
mis + spell and that will spell you the worry about spelling "spell."
The word "neighbor" breaks the i-before-e rule and invokes the silent "gh". This is fraught with
error potential. If you use British spelling, it will cost you another [u]: "neighbour."

The [e] is noticeably retained in this word to indicate the [c] is "soft," pronounced like [s].
Without the [e], it would be pronounced "hard," like [k], as in "applicable."
Writers occasionally tire of doubling so many consonants and omit one, usually one of the [l]s.
Don't you ever do it.
Remember not only the occurrence of double double consonants in this word, but that the suffix
is -ence, not -ance. No reason, just the English language keeping us on our toes.
Since a pastime is something you do to pass the time, you would expect a double [s] here. Well,
there is only one. The second [s] was slipped through the cracks in English orthography long ago.
All it takes is perseverance and you, too, can be a (near-)perfect speller. The suffix is -ance for no
reason at all.
Funny Story (passed along by Bill Rudersdorf): The assistant Vice-President of Personnel
notices that his superior, the VP himself, upon arriving at his desk in the morning opens a small,
locked box, smiles, and locks it back again. Some years later when he advanced to that position
(inheriting the key), he came to work early one morning to be assured of privacy. Expectantly, he
opened the box. In it was a single piece of paper which said: "Two Ns, one L."
Those who play right are right-players, not playwrights. Well, since they write plays, they should
be "play-writes," wright right? Rong Wrong. Remember that a play writer in Old English was
called a "play worker" and "wright" is from an old form of "work" (wrought iron, etc.)
Possession possesses more [s]s than a snake.
What follows, succeeds, so what goes before should, what? No, no, no, you are using logic.
Nothing confuses English spelling more than common sense. "Succeed" but "precede." (Wait
until you see "supersede.")
The spelling principle to remember here is that the school principal is a prince and a pal (despite
appearances)--and the same applies to anything of foremost importance, such as a principal
principle. A "principle" is a rule. (Thank you, Meghan Cope, for help on this one.)
According to the pronunciation (not "pronounciation"!) of this word, that middle vowel could be
anything. Remember: two [i]s + two [e]s in that order.
Nouns often differ from the verbs they are derived from. This is one of those. In this case, the
pronunciation is different, too, an important clue.
Let me publicly declare the rule (again): if the adverb comes from an adjective ending on -al, you
include that ending in the adverb; if not, as here, you don't.
The French doing it to us again. Double up on the [n]s in this word and don't forget the silent [e].

Maybe someday we will spell it the English way.

I hope you have received the message by now: [i] before [e] except after . . . .
I would recommend you think of this word as the equivalent of commending all over again:
re+commend. That would be recommendable.
Final consonants are often doubled before suffixes (remit: remitted, remitting). However, this rule
applies only to accented syllables ending on [l] and [r], e.g. "rebelled," "referred" but "traveled,"
"buffered" and not containing a diphthong, e.g. "prevailed," "coiled."
Refer to the last mentioned word and also remember to add -ence to the end for the noun.
The relevant factor here is that the word is not "revelant," "revelent," or even "relevent." [l]
before [v] and the suffix -ant.
'Ey, you! Remember, these two words when you spell "restaurant." They are in the middle of it.
Actually, "rime" was the correct spelling until 1650. After that, egg-heads began spelling it like
"rhythm." Why? No rhyme nor reason other than to make it look like "rhythm."
This one was borrowed from Greek (and conveniently never returned) so it is spelled the way we
spell words borrowed from Greek and conveniently never returned.
If perfecting your spelling is on your schedule, remember the [sk] is spelled as in "school." (If
you use British or Canadian pronunciation, why do you pronounce this word [shedyul] but
"school," [skul]? That has always puzzled me.)
How do you separate the [e]s from the [a]s in this word? Simple: the [e]s surround the [a]s.
The [a] needed in both syllables of this word has been pushed to the back of the line. Remember
that, and the fact that [e] is used in both syllables, and you can write your sergeant without fear of
misspelling his rank.
This word supersedes all others in perversity. As if we don't have enough to worry about, keeping
words on -ceed and -cede ("succeed," "precede," etc.) straight in our minds, this one has to be
different from all the rest. The good news is: this is the only English word based on this stem
spelled -sede.
They're all pronounced the same but spelled differently. Possessive is "their" and the contraction
of "they are" is "they're." Everywhere else, it is "there."
This one can push you over the threshold. It looks like a compound "thresh + hold" but it isn't.
Two [h]s are enough.
Even if you omit the [f] in your pronunciation of this word (which you shouldn't do), it is retained

in the spelling.
If you are still resisting the tyranny of English orthography at this point, you must face the
problem of [y] inside this word, where it shouldn't be. The guy is a "tyrant" and his problem is
"tyranny." (Don't forget to double up on the [n]s, too.)
I will never stop harping on this until this word is spelled with an extra [l] for the last time!
If your head is not a vacuum, remember that the silent [e] on this one married the [u] and joined
him inside the word where they are living happily ever since. Well, the evidence is suggestive but
not conclusive. Anyway, spell this word with two [u]s and not like "volume."
Whether you like the weather or not, you have to write the [a] after the [e] when you spell it.

I assumed that most of the people have slight uninterested and that they are more
interested in doing other things rather to focus on their intellectual studies on English
grammar, and I found that there are some similarities of what I had assumed. The
respondents are logically interpreted that their performance in English grammar affected
by act of not being such studios and focusing only to peers or companions, but I also
found out that the reasons why they are sometimes considerate to the subject because
It regards to their mutual interest or to do it typically some reasons.

Definition of Terms

Spatial Concerning the position.

Peers Someone of the same age, social class etc.
Ideal A principle or perfect standard that you hope to achieve.
Unsurpassed High performance and excellent.
Certainty That state of being certain.
Logical Seeming reasonable and sensible.
Diminutive Reduction or less.
Unqualified Not pertaining to attain or to pursue.
Vocabularies All the words that someone knows, learns, or uses.
Speech A talk to someone or in particular subject.
Grammar A system of Language that deals with communication, writing etc.
Normative-Survey Method - The compound adjective is applied to this method in order
to suggest the two closely related aspects of this kind of study.
Survey indicates the gathering of data regarding current conditions.

Appendix A

Letter to the Respondents

Saint Claire Science School

Del Remedio

San Pablo City

February 27, 2008

Dear Respondent,
I am presently conducting a research study on the evaluation of
performance in English Grammar by the residents of brgy. Del Remedio: Normative
Survey Test, as part of the requirements in my subject. In this regard, I am asking for
your full cooperation in accomplishing the attached survey questionnaire.
Your answers will be a great help for me in fulfilling this study. Rest
assure that these answers will be taken with the strictest confidence.
Thank you very much.

Carie Justine P. Estrellado

Appendix B
Survey Questionnaires

Performance in English Grammar by the

Residents of Brgy. Del Remedio: Normative
Survey Test

Saint Claire Science School

In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements

of the
Elective Course (Science Research)

- Carie Justine P. Estrellado

S.Y. 2007-2008

Chapter III : Research Methodology

This chapter presents the descriptions of the research design, the population and
samples of the study, sampling procedure, research instruments, the data-gathering
techniques, data processing and the statistical treatment of the data.

Research Design
This study is primarily a descriptive study using the normal survey method, which
made use of the perceptions of the respondents as its main source of data.

Population Sampling
The respondents of the study were forty (40) respondents composed of people whom
residents of Brgy. Del Remedio in a random sampling through statistical
manipulations of data.

Research Instrument
The main instrument used in the study was a survey questionnaire made by the
researcher which consisted of six (6) items about the status perception of the
respondents in Brgy. Del Remedio

Data Collection
The questionnaires were distributed to the respondents on the last week of January. It
takes the researcher only one (1) week to retrieve or collect the questionnaires for the
data needed in the study.

Statistical Treatment of Data

Data collection were classified, tabulated, and coded for analysis using sample
descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentage.
the percentage was computed by using this formula.
P = F/N x 100

where: P = Percentage
F = Frequency

N = total no. of respondents


In western civilization, formal language study began with the ancient Greeks.
Their approach to language was very philosophical in its orientation. Plato, for example,
investigated whether language arose by convention or by nature. He concluded that
men did not simply agree to call an apple an apple, but that there was a logical
connection between the object and its name. Much of his study, then, was directed toward
understanding the etymology of a word--its history--in order to better understand the true
meaning of the word.
Todays school child, for example, might be mystified at the term blackboard,
for most modern schools have green or tan surfaces on which the teacher writes with
chalk. By investigating the history of blackboard, however, the student would learn that
these objects at one time were indeed black; that the teacher would write upon a board
that had been painted black. Thus, the name for this particular furnishing of a schoolroom
was logical, even if there should be no black blackboards.
Aristotle disagreed with Platos position, contending that language was arrived at
by convention or agreement. Accordingly, he was not interested in the etymology of
words, but in describing the words as they were used. Aristotle was the first to contend
that words could be classified into parts of speech; he distinguished three parts of
speech, the noun, the verb, and a third class that he labeled conjunctions.
Around 100 B.C. the first formal grammar of Greek appeared. Written by
Dionysius Thrax, the grammar followed the Aristotelian view of language by presenting a
description of Greek orthography, pronunciation, and morphology. Sentences were
viewed as being composed of words, which themselves could be classified as belonging
to one of eight classes; these classifications ultimately led to the traditional eight parts of
speech. This early study formed the basis for grammatical study to be considered
essentially as taxonomic in nature; that is, the role of the grammarian was to classify
parts of speech, syntactic functions, sentence types, and so on.
When the Roman civilization supplanted the Greek, the Romans borrowed from
the Greeks their way of life, their architecture, and their gods. They also borrowed from
the Greek grammars then extant, simply translating them into Latin. Statements about the
structure of Greek, then, were incorporated into descriptions of Latin, even though the
two languages were quite dissimilar. The first Latin grammar of any consequence was
written by Varro around 50 - 40 B.C. This grammar consisted of twenty six books, of
which only a few are extant. Varros grammar was succeeded by those of Donatus and
Priscian, books which were used well into the Middle Ages.
It is well to consider how such books were used during the Middle Ages. At that
time, Latin was a dead language, replaced by the ancestors of todays modern Romance
languages. It was not spoken anywhere as a native language, but instead existed primarily
as the language of the Church and of the scientific/academic community. Consequently,
those studying Latin approached it as a foreign language. Moreover, they approached it as

a language fixed for all time (new vocabulary could not be created) and as a language that
had models, Cicero in particular, universally acclaimed as practitioners of good
writing. The student of Latin, then, had to acquire a fixed set of rules that applied to the
language; he could not vary from those rules, for to do so would make him guilty of using
the language improperly. It is important to keep in mind that no one gave any thought to
studying his own language, whether it be Old English, Old French, or whatever. One
studied grammar only to acquire Latin.
Keep in mind also that Latin was a language with a wealth of inflectional forms.
Each noun had to be inflected to show its case, or function, and the verb forms would
differ greatly depending on the person or tense used. Consider, for example, the following
declensions for the Latin words puella (girl, feminine gender), amcus (friend, masculine
gender), and verbum (word, neuter gender):



The Latin verb forms also had a wealth of inflectional endings that represented
various tenses, voices, moods, and numbers. Consider the following verb paradigm for
the present tense, indicative mood, of vocre (to call):


Active Voice

Passive Voice

In addition to these forms, Latin also had the following tenses and forms; for the
sake of brevity, I give only the first person singular form, active voice, but other forms
exist for the first person plural, the second and third singular and plural, and the passive
for all voices.
Imperfect Indicative: vocbam
Future Indicative: vocb
Perfect Indicative: vocv
Pluperfect Indicative: vocveram
Future Perfect Indicative: vocver
Present Subjunctive: vocem

Imperfect Subjunctive: vocrem

Perfect Subjunctive: vocverim
Pluperfect Subjunctive: vocvissem
Imperative Present (2nd singular): voc
Imperative Future (2nd singular): voct

Latin also had the following verbals, which were used in more complicated verb
structures. While these forms were not inflected for number, they did have a
corresponding passive voice:
Present Infinitive: vocre
Perfect Infinitive: vocvisse
Future Infinitive: voctrus esse
Present Participle: vocns
Future Participle: voctrus
Gerund (Genitive): vocand
Gerund (Dative): vocand
Gerund (Accusative): vocandum
Gerund (Ablative): vocand
Those learning Latin, as well as other foreign languages, then, had to memorize
verb and noun paradigms, frequently having to commit to memory several different
paradigms depending on the class of the verb or gender and class of the noun. When
English became a subject of study, the approach used for Latin was adopted even though
English does not have a comparable variety of forms. Many people even today remember
quite clearly days in their grammar class when they would recite the verb paradigm for
such infinitives as to call:

I call
You call
He, she, it calls

We call
You call
They call

Note that English does not have the multiplicity of forms common to Latin or the
languages, such as French and Spanish, derived from Latin; it has in the simple present
tense only calls for the third person singular and call for all other persons and
numbers. Note also that there is only one past tense form of the verb-- called.
The supposition that English has the same pattern of verb forms as Latin or the
Romance languages has undoubtedly caused confusion for students since the study of
English began. One should also keep in mind that Latin was taught chiefly as a written
language; consequently the Latin grammarian was preoccupied with letters rather than
the sounds they represented. The fact that language is primarily spoken and only
secondarily written was completely overlooked. Traditional grammarians, then, seldom
refer to the sounds of language (although some do reveal their dialectal prejudices by
identifying correct pronunciations for a few words), while most structural grammarians
begin their discussion of a language with an examination of its phonological system.
Returning to the topic of Latin during the Middle Ages, let me emphasize that
Latin was the language of the Learned Man. Virtually all works dealing with science,

philosophy, or theology were written in Latin, as was much of the literature of the time.
Even after the Reformation, Latin occupied a special role in the life of the scholar as the
principles of Humanism led him to a study of the Greek and Roman classics.
Consequently, literally thousands of Latin words were imported into English, perhaps
leading some later scholars to see a closer affinity between English and Latin than
actually existed.
When scholars turned their attention to the vernaculars--the languages of the
common man-- they naturally looked to Latin grammars for models. Not only were Latin
grammars the only ones in wide circulation, some scholars felt that by making English
conform to the rules of Latin, they would somehow be ennobling the language, making it
more logical and refined. Thus, the early grammars of English began appearing, such as
Jonathan Hewes 1624 work A Perfect Survey of the English Tongue Taken According to
the Use and Analogie of the Latine.
Most of these early grammars are now rarities, though one is still available
because of the literary eminence of its author, Ben Jonson. Entitled English Grammar,
the work nevertheless cites Varro, Cicero, and Quintillian concerning particular
grammatical problems. It is not surprising that English writers of the time, such as John
Dryden, grew up thinking that English had no grammar of its own and that the only way
to understand English sentences was to translate them into Latin.
Even today it is not uncommon to hear people state that they never fully
understood English grammar until they took Latin in school. The truth, of course, is that
one cannot understand Latinate rules applied to a language whose structure is radically
different from Latin. Grammarians formulate such rules as Never split an infinitive,
giving no thought to the fact that in Latin the infinitive is one word, incapable of having
another inserted inside it. The English infinitive, on the other hand, is sometimes
interpreted as being two words (to plus the uninflected verb form--the true infinitive)
that frequently need to be separated for clarity of expression.
Though several grammatical studies of English appeared in the 17th century (a
few, indeed, appeared in the 16th), the major outpouring of grammatical study occurred
in the 18th century, with scholars in the 19th century simply expanding upon the base
already established. Those writing grammars in the 18th century were generally
motivated by three factors: 1) they wished to restore the language to a purity of
expression and logic which had been lost as the language went through a period of
corruption; 2) they wished to express the language in terms of a series of inviolable
rules, comparable to those which described Latin; 3) they wished to standardize and fix
(in the sense of setting in concrete) the language for all time so that future generations
would have access to their writings, access which most Englishmen of the times did not
have to material written in Old or even Middle English.
English writers were influenced in their ideas by academies in Italy and France
that were busily preparing comprehensive dictionaries of Italian and French, as well as
passing judgment on the purity and eloquence of particular grammatical constructions. In
1712, for example, Jonathan Swift proposed the creation of an English Academy that
would be responsible for correcting, improving, and ascertaining the English tongue.
Though Swifts proposal was not implemented (opposition arose primarily
because of Swifts political views rather than to the proposal itself), scholars did turn
their attention more rigorously to an examination of English. In 1729, for instance,
Thomas Cooke published Proposals for Perfecting the English Tongue; and in 1755
Samuel Johnson published A Dictionary of the English Language, the first major study of

the vocabulary of the language. Johnson stated that his purpose in producing the
dictionary was to refine our language to grammatical purity, and to clear it from
colloquial barbarisms, licentious idioms, and irregular combinations. Most learned men
of the time applauded his efforts.
Johnsons Dictionary was soon followed by a spate of grammars: The Rudiments
of English Grammar by Joseph Priestly (1761); A Short Introduction to English
Grammar by Robert Lowth (1762); The British Grammar by James Buchanan (1762);
Grammatical Institute by John Ash (1763); and, in America, A Grammatical Institute of
the English Language by Noah Webster (1784).
Of these grammars, that by Robert Lowth was undoubtedly the most important.
Lowth also serves as a somewhat typical example of the sort of person writing grammars
at that time. A clergyman who eventually rose to become Bishop of London, Lowth had
no grammatical training other than that he received in the study of Latin and Greek. He
was conservative in his attitudes toward language, believing in a standard for all
speakers, including a set of prescriptive rules that he was quite willing to supply. It is
from Lowths first revision of his grammar, for instance, that we receive the rule that
two negatives constitute an affirmative. Prior to Lowths pronouncement, speakers of
English were free to have as many negatives in a sentence as they wished; the greater the
number, the greater the negative import.
Many of the conventions that continue to trouble students also first appeared in
the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1653, John Wallis in his Grammatica Linguae Anglicanae
first applied the rule that simple futurity is expressed by shall in the first person and by
will in the second and third; prior to that time no distinction was made between the use of
the two words. During the 18th century we also received our rules for distinguishing
between lie and lay and using different from rather than different than, distinguishing
between the use of between and among, and using the comparative for two things only
while the superlative was reserved for three or more. It was also during this period that
the first condemnations appeared concerning the use of between you and I, it is me, more
perfect or more unique, and this here or that there. John Dryden was responsible for
deciding that a sentence could not end with a preposition, while an obscure American
grammarian named Richard Taylor in 1840 created the rule banning the use of split
The plain fact of the matter is that English has been saddled with a number of
rules which do nothing more than reflect the prejudices or lack of knowledge of people
not trained in the scientific study of language. What is most amazing, however, is that the
public still consider these rules to be inviolate.
The public attitude in America concerning such language rules is undoubtedly
connected to the history of the country. Let us not forget that many of the settlers of the
eastern seaboard of the United States, if not condemned criminals, were largely from the
lower classes in England. As is common with many colonials, the Americans tended to
feel somewhat inferior to those in the homeland (even today Americans tend to perceive a
person with a British accent as being more refined or cultured, if not more intelligent,
than his American counterpart).
Following the American Revolution, consequently, there was an immediate effort
to provide the citizenry with the schooling necessary to make them the equals of the
British. In Britain, however, education during the 18th century was limited primarily to
the children of the wealthy; though the schools the children attended were called
grammar schools, the grammars studied were those of Latin and Greek. The

Americans, however, may have misinterpreted the term grammar, for grammar in
America came to be the study of English. This in itself was rather strange, for never
before had it been assumed that one needed to study his own language in order to use it
effectively. We have no reason to believe, for example, that Chaucer and Shakespeare, the
greatest writers of the language, ever formally studied English. Nevertheless, even as
Americans now continually turn to authorities, whether they be Martha Stewart
describing where to place the butter knife or Ann Landers offering advice about pregnant
teenage daughters, so they turned to language authorities in the 18th and 19th centuries.
There were more than enough prescriptive grammarians willing to tell the
unenlightened what was correct and what was incorrect. The Edwin Newmans and John
Simons of today, then, merely reflect such early grammarians as Lindley Murray, perhaps
the most influential of the early American grammarians. Murray, a Philadelphia lawyer
and devout Quaker, made a modest fortune as a merchant during the American
Revolution. Upon the conclusion of the Revolution, he retired to England where he
planned to lead the life of a country squire.
Impressed by the need of students at a nearby girls boarding school for an
understandable grammar, Murray generously simplified Lowths grammar. His
recasting of Lowths work proved so popular, however, that the work eventually went
through more than 600 printings with millions of copies being sold. Murrays
presentation of grammar involved parsing--taking each word of a sentence in isolation,
giving its part of speech, case, gender, etc.
Other grammarians soon began to follow the same schema, but they also began
including examples of false syntax. That is, incorrect sentences would be presented
for the students analysis. The student would identify what was wrong in the sentence,
give the rule that would state how the sentence should have appeared, and then recast the
sentence. This same procedure is followed even today in many schools, with students
being forced to identify errors that might never appear in their own writing and then to
give the rule that applies to the error.
A natural consequence of this approach to grammar study is that students begin to
make errors in their own writing that would not have otherwise occurred to them. Never
certain about the prescriptive rules they have been expected to learn, and never certain
about how many new, arbitrary rules lie (or is it lay in wait for them, students lose
confidence in their own command of the language, a command fully established before
they ever set foot in a classroom.
Although grammar is a cherished part of the schoolroom ritual, it is seldom
thought about or discussed and is not even expected to be of practical value in the real
world. Moreover, because reading, writing, and rithmetic are considered to be such basic
skills (and grammar is usually thought to be a part of writing), everyone is an expert on
the subject.
This attitude probably developed with the little red schoolhouse of years past: to
be a teacher of the sixth grade, the frontier schoolmaam or schoolmaster need only have
completed the sixth grade. Many parents, indeed, would teach the children of a new
community until a teacher could be hired. Even then, parents would continually evaluate
teachers and their skills.
Today, even though there are professional supervisors of public school teachers,
parents still feel qualified to make judgments about the textbooks to be used in the
language arts classes or to disapprove of the introduction of new math. If Johnny cant

read or write, then quite clearly the school system should go back to the basics, even if
no one can specify what the basics are. There is little appreciation of the fact that such
basic skills as arithmetic or writing might involve complexities beyond the reach of
everyday common sense.
Thus, grammar as a subject of advanced study and research seems inconceivable;
the facts--that is, the rules of the language-- are well known and have been with us
since at least the 18th century. Any fool can learn these rules; failure to do so simply
indicates faulty education if not inferior intelligence.
In sharp contrast to this common notion of language and grammar is the
structural grammar which developed in the early twentieth century in this country.
Believing that each language should be studied as an entity in and of itself without
reference to any other language, the structural grammarians have tried to describe English
as objectively as possible, making no judgments about what is correct or incorrect.
Rather, the structuralisms note the forms of language that appear and try to characterize
the environments in which they appear. It may indeed be a fact that a particular form,
such as the subjunctive, occurs only among a particular social class, but that occurrence
does not make the form better or more nearly correct than a different form used by a
different social class.
A few years ago a television talk-show host devoted two programs to the plight
of the English language. Guest experts on the English language included, besides the
erudite host, a television newsman, a choreographer, an economist, and a drama critic
(whose native language is not even English!). All agreed that English has come upon hard
times, that people just are not using the language properly.
Most modern language scholars feel that the plight of the language is not as
dire as the panelists indicated. English, indeed, is vibrant and growing--the closest thing
to a world or universal language now in existence. If its speakers can better
understand the basic principles of English and remove from the language the burden
placed by eighteenth century prescriptive grammarians, English will continue to grow
and to serve the communicative needs of its society


Applebee, Arthur N. 1974. Tradition and Reform in the Teaching of English: A History.
Urbana, Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English.
Cohen, Murray. 1977. Sensible Words: Linguistic Practice in England, 16401785.
Baltimore; The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Davies, Hugh Sykes. 1953. Grammar Without Tears. New York: John Day.
Gere, Anne Ruggles and Eugene Smith. 1979. Attitudes, Language and Change. Urbana,
Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English.
Hymes, Dell. 1974. Studies in the History of Linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press.
Liebert, Burt. 1971. Linguistics and the New English Teacher. New York: MacMillan.
Lyman, R. L. 1929. Summary of Investigations Relating to Grammar, Language, and
Composition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Parret, Herman, ed. 1976. History of Linguistic Thought and Contemporary Linguistics.
New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Robins, R. H. 1951. Ancient & Mediaeval Grammatical Theory in Europe. London:
Kennikat Press.
-----1967. A Short History of Linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Sebeok, Thomas A., ed. 1975. Current Trends in Linguistics, Volume 13: Historiography
of Linguistics. The Hague: Mouton.
Waterman, John T. 1963. Perspectives in Linguistics. Chicago: The University of Chicago

Chapter II : Related Literature and


The History of English

The history of English is conventionally, if perhaps too neatly, divided into three periods
usually called Old English, (or Anglo-Saxon), Middle English, and Modern English. The
Earliest period begins with the migration of certain Germanic tribes from the continent
Britain in the fifth century A.D., though no records of their language survive from before
the seventieth century, and it continues until the end of the eleventh century or a bit later.

The Systems of Language

The grammatical system of a language governs the way in which

words are put together to form the largest unit of discourse
mentioned earlier. Grammar, of course, varies a great deal from
language to language just a lexicon does; in English, word order is a
dominant factor in determining meaning while the use of inflectional
endings to mark the grammatical function of individual words within a
sentence plays a clearly subordinate role though important in some
ways {as in indicating the number of noun the case of personal
pronoun and the tense of verb}. Other languages show markedly
different patterns, such as Latin with its elaborate set of paradigms
for nouns, verbs, adjective and pronouns in highly flexible word order.
The semantic system of language has to do with meanings and thus
the relation between the conventionalized symbols that constitute
through language. The phonological system of a language is what
allows a speaker of that language has to do with meaning into a flow
uttered sounds that can be heard and interpreted {accurately, if all
goes well} by another speaker of language This systems is always
very tightly organized. The inventory of meaningful units of sounds
within a language {called phonemes by linguists} is never very large
compared with the number of words and word of element in the

lexicon; most speakers of English get by with about 40. Phonemes are
identified by the fact in some pair of words they create a contrast
thats signals a difference meaning: we consider the vowel sounds of
trip and trap to be different phonemes because the difference in the
vowel sounds is the sole determinant of their being two distinct
words. Their consonant sounds are identical.

Table of Contents
*Title Page
*Approval Sheet
*Table of Contents
Chapter I: The Problem and its Setting
*Statement of the Problem
*Scope and Limitations
*Significance of the Study
Chapter II: Related Literature and Studies
*Related Studies
*Related Literature
*Definition of Terms
Chapter III: Research Methodology
*Research Design
*Population and Sampling
*Research Instrument
*Data Collection
*Statistical Treatment of Data
Chapter IV: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
*Distribution of Respondents in terms of Age
*Distribution of Respondents in terms of Civil Status
*Distribution of Respondents in terms of Educational Attainment
*Perception of the Respondents in terms of reasoning to a certainty of categories
*Perception of the Respondents in terms of Performance in English Grammar

*Perception of the Respondents in terms of the things that affected of an individual to

neglect the subject
Chapter V: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
*Significant Finding
*Conclusions and Recommendations

Chapter IV: Presentation, Analysis, and

Profile of the Respondents
Distribution of Respondents in terms of Age
10-12 y /o
13-15 y/o
16-18 y/o
19 and above



Table 1 Represents the accurate tabulation to the respondents in terms of their Ages.
The highest percentage was both the ages of 13-15 y/o and 19 and above they got the
33%, then the ages between 16-18 y/o got the second highest percentage 20% which
yield to the frequency of 8 respondents, While the lowest percentage got by between
10-12 y/o yield to 15% and 6 respondents to its frequency. From a Total of 40
This selected random sampling shows that most respondents interpreted were the
Ages of 13-15 y/o and 19 and above.

Distribution of Respondents in terms of Civil

Civil Status









The Table 2 represents to the respondents of their civil status, the highest frequency
was 28 to the Single, Married got the frequency 10 with the second highest
percentage of 25%, then both the Widow/er and Separated got the same frequency
and its Percentage. Overall with 40 respondents. This shows that most respondents
are in Single Status.

Distribution of Respondents in terms of

Educational Attainment
Educational Background



Out of school youth



The Table 3 represents the Educational Attainment of the chosen respondents. The
Secondary level got the highest frequency of 17 and with 43% with its percentage,
then the tertiary level got the second highest frequency of 14 and 35%, the out of
school youth got total of 5 frequency with the percentage of 13%, and the Elementary
level go the least percentage with only 10%.
This shows that most of the random chosen subject are in the Secondary level,
because the cases of the Surveyor is more likely to the Secondary unlike to the other

Perception of the Respondents

Perception of the Respondents in terms of Performance in English
Performance in English








Table 4 represents the performance of the residents of Brgy. Del Remedio in English
Grammar, the highest frequency and its percentage was Fair got 16 in frequency
and 40% to Percentage mostly the respondents have due to their reasons why they
chosen that of subject, 28% for the Average, 25%for the Logical, 18% for the Spatial,
10% for the Ideal, 3% for the Unqualified and O% Percent for the Diminutive as well
as Unsurpassed. Many Respondents not well-known to their real performance and
few of the respondents chosen the Unsurpassed, yet residents of Del Remedio have a
Fair performance in English Grammar.

Perception of the Respondents in terms of reasoning to a certainty of

Reasoned in English
Misspelled Words
Punctuation Marks
Part of Speech





Table 5 represents the uncertainty of the respondents due to the subject of English
Grammar. The Highest frequency and its percentage was in Vocabularies, got
frequency of 19 and 48% for the Percentage, and for the Clauses which got the
second highest Percentage was 38% , 33% for the reasoned of having misspelled
words, 28% for the Part of Speech including much broad topic in English Literature,
then 5% for the Punctuation marks and also 3% for the Other(s).
This states that more unlike people have some unconditional certainty to its weakness to
the English Grammar.

Perception of the Respondents in terms of the things that affected of an

individual to neglect the subject
Reasoned in English
Addicted from something
Phobias among Teachers





Favoritism among subjects

Not being such studios
Having some Illness
Focusing only on Peers



Table 6 represents the things that affects of being a slow learner of an individual. The
highest was Tardiness/Laziness which got 48%, 23% for Addicted from something,
20% suggest that Peers is the one should involved, both Percentage got the two
subject- Not Being such studios/Having some illness or disorder, 13% conclude
Favoritism among subjects persecute to neglect the English Grammar, 3% for having
phobias among teachers and 0% for the Other(s).This shows that the respondents
more likely conclude that Tardiness/Laziness are the one whom engage a persons to
neglect the Subject of English Grammar.

Chapter V: Summary, Conclusion, and


This Research wants to imply the performance of the residents of brgy. Del Remedio,
through survey and to conclude some hypothesis of the assumptions for having thoughts
about in English Grammar. These was consisted of six (6) items about the status to the
perception to the respondents as well as their Profiles. (1) Age, (2) Status, (3) Educational
Attainment, (4) Performance in English Grammar, (5) Reasoning to a subject, and (6)
Causes related to their responds. It is primarily a descriptive study using the normal
survey method, to tabulate the corresponding survey study and to manipulate it by
random sampling and its percentage.

Significant Findings
Through random of means to each respondents. I have found out the total frequency and
its percentage by arranging of coherent details.
-Majority of its specific findings
1.Distribution of the respondents in terms of Age was specifically made that the major
responds was ages between 13-15 y/o.
2. Distribution of the respondents in terms of Civil Status gave to its findings that more
on respondents filled were in a Single Status.
3.Distribution of the respondents in terms of their Educational Background, resulted that
most of the respondents are in high school level.

4.Perception of the respondents in terms of their performance in English Grammar,

resulted that the term Fair were the most acceptable to their performance whom live in
Del Remedio.
5. Perception of the respondents in terms of their Reasoned in English Grammar, yet most
of the respondents have reasoned to their certainty that Vocabularies are the one who held
their situation more uncomfortably.
6. Perception of the respondents in terms of having neglectful of an individual to the
subject like in English. This cases resulted more complicated to their responds of
preempting suggestions, that being Tardy and Laziness are the ones involved of a person
to perceive his temptation to his/her studies.

This study of the performance of the residents of the brgy. Del Remedio was conducted in
a random sampling. Most of the respondents was to shy to cooperate and to know their
responds of the survey questionnaire. My conclusion is that, the residents of brgy. Del
Remedio having a Fair performance in a subject of English Grammar. I therefore include
that this requirements in English as well as Science research was like to be a successful
plan, also to the respondents whom respect and cooperate to finish this study. This thesis
will shrine to its endeavor mechanism as well as to the taken responds of the respondents.

To the chosen respondents as well as the residents of brgy. Del Remedio. Most people of
our country lessen their attention pertaining in English subject that is why most people
have some problem in writing skills and communication towards our second language. I
recommend to know or to have some effort regarding to the subject of English Grammar,
like reading some of your references like books in literature or workbooks that will
enhance your credibility in English. We Filipinos our one of the countrys associated to
communicate and treating the other foreign works and establishments by communicating
our second languages, so we should not neglect this language, yet we also try to be
persevere to conduct in a helpful ways in learning because that is why we further
acknowledge this from now up to the further times.


-To my Family and mentors for their untiring support and forgiveness.
-To my Alma mater, Saint Claire Science School.
-To my dearest classmates and peers.
-To the Netopia computer shop for their great distribution to overcome this
-To the Faculty teachers of Saint Claire, especially T. Chee
and T. Tess and ;
-To our Almighty God, For His guidance and Love that shown to fulfill this


Nostalgia is like a grammar lesson. You find the present tense and the
past perfect.
- Orbens comedy Fillers

I Dedicate this thesis To God For His Fruitful help to finish this thesis,
as well as my Family, and also to myself!!!!..