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New Power Management Concepts in conjunction

with LUDV Technology and Closed Centre Steering Units


in Backhoe Loaders

New Power Management Concepts in


Conjuction with LUDV Technology and
Closed Centre Steering Units
in Backhoe Loaders
2.1 Horse power control or
torque limiting

1. Introduction
The excavator loader is an all-round machine
suitable for many different applications. Employing
a tractor as its base, it unites the functions of an
excavator and a loader. Robust and easy to operate
as you would expect, its hydraulic system is rated
for medium pressure.
As development of this machine type has
advanced, so too have the requirements and
demands placed on it. Today, attention must be
paid more than ever before to efficiency and
controllability. Besides, ergonomic operation, fuel
economy, reduced exhaust and noise emission are
expected. A satisfactory emergency operation is
mandatory.
These targets can only be achieved with a modern
hydraulic drive system based on the technology
already presented during last MOBILE
CONFERENCE in 1997 steering unit LAG, LUDV
block SX 14, joy sticks 4TH, variable displacement
pump A10VO further developments of the
components were carried out. The new option that
are now available form even better systems, that
cover the whole range from basics to benchmark
performance.

2. Power management
concepts
Only in few cases the available power, usually
provided by a diesel engine, is sufficient to drive
the hydraulic pump used for the implements at full
displacement against the maximum pressure level.
A variable displacement pump in conjunction with
the adequate control offers the possibility to manage the installed power. Depending on the
desired quality of control the A10VO, axial piston
pump in swashplate design for medium pressure
levels, can be selected with different regulator
options.
Detlef van Bracht
Brueninghaus Hydromatik
Horb Plant
Phone +49 (0) 74 51 92 14 41
Fax
+49 (0) 74 51 8221

RE 00 207/10.00

As long as a hydraulic pump without power


controlling device is considered, the decision on
the pumps displacement is based on the corner
power (power at maximum displacement and
pressure) taken up. Corner power should not
exceed power available from the diesel engine.
Exceeding the available power the diesel engine
will stall, not using all the power available results
in insufficient machine performance.
The power controlling device restricts the torque
taken up and enables installation of pumps
regardless of their corner power. This permits larger
flows of oil at lower pressures and smaller flows
of oil at higher pressures (see Figure 1), thus
preventing the diesel engine from being
overloaded or even stalled. This also produces
significant advantages in terms of machine
behaviour:
greater handling power as a result of
higher corner power
- faster working speeds through higher oil
flow rates
- higher forces through higher pressures
better utilisation of diesel engine
output
- greater fuel economy
- lower noise emission
- better exhaust emission behaviour, i.e.
meeting the most stringent of emission
standards
maximum handling convenience
- no overloading of diesel engine
- no stalling of diesel engine
- machine easier to control

Philippe Fillon
Mannesmann Rexroth S.A.
Division Sigma International
Phone +33 (0) 4 78 78 52 52
Fax
+33 (0) 4 78 78 52 71

Dr. Udo Haker


Rexroth Hydraulics
Parchim
Phone +49 (0) 38 71 606-236
Fax
+49 (0) 38 71 606-201

A10VO 74 DFLR/31

The A10 standard horse power control (DFLR, see


also figure 2) limits the pumps discharge pressure
depending on its displacement. The horse power
control valve (or torque limiter) is a pressure relief
valve connected to the swivel cradle via two
springs. Its opening pressure is therefore governed
by the position of the swivel cradle - when delivery
from the A10 variable displacement pump is low,
opening pressure is high, when delivery from the
A10 variable displacement pump is high, opening
pressure is low. It is piloting the flow regulator (or
in cases that LUDV blocks are used a separated
regulator) and limits pressure in the LS-line. Since
the control oil is delivered through a nozzle, the
power regulating valve is able to generate a
pressure drop in the control line as soon as its
opening pressure is attained, thus influencing the
flow regulator in such a way that the pump swivels
into position (please also note, that once the horse
power control is active the flow regulator becomes

p
(+)

Eckleistung
Corner power

(+)
Q (Vg)
figure 1: advantage horse power control

figure 2: A10VO DFLR

83

New Power Management Concepts in conjunction


with LUDV Technology and Closed Centre Steering Units
in Backhoe Loaders

a remote pressure controller). The flow rate is


reduced as the pump swivels into position,
increasing the opening pressure (control pressure)
and thus keeping pump drive torque constant.

2.2 Dual horse power control


or dual torque limiting
It is in a backhoeloaders nature to be used either
as excavator or loader. Since nearly all diesel engine
power can be used for the implement hydraulic
when excavating, but only partial diesel engine
power when loading here the power basically
has to be shared between the transmission and
implement hydraulic , the possibility to shift
between a high and a low setting is highly
desirable (figure 3).

T ~ VG x p P ~ T x n ~ Q x p = const.

Torque
torque
available

engine characteristic
high pump
setting

transmission

low pump
setting

pump
only

pump

Excavation implement hydraulic only


high setting
Loading implement hydraulic plus
driving low setting
On the base of A10 standard horse power control
this capability is fairly easily achieved. Simply and
Rexroth patented the horse power control
becomes a dual horse power control (figure 4).
By
utilising the power control valves
dependency on the rate of control oil
flow
it is possible to modify the power output setting.
Increasing the rate at which control oil is delivered
to the power control valve raises pressure in the
control line and increases the power output setting
(also refer to Standard power control).
Delivering a lower rate of control oil flow will bring
pressure down and reduce the power output
setting.
By feeding back the LS-pressure signals over different orifice sizes the control oil flow can be
influenced (within limits). Using a
Larger orifice higher setting Backhoe
Smaller orifice lower setting Loader

low
idle

high
idle

figure 3: power sharing - (dual) horse power control

engine dual horse power control is simply and cost


speed
effective achieved.
In some loader operating conditions, for example

Loader

Backhoe
larger
orifice

smaller
orifice

Bagger
lifting the loader boom at machine standstill, or
Backhoe only to leave the machine operator the last choice

full diesel engine power could be applied to the


implement hydraulic. For these cases dual horse
power control is optional available electrical
shiftable.

DFR1

Lader
Loader
LR

Loader

Backhoe

Q
figure 4: A10 VO dual horse power control

DFR1

Regardlessly, which type of dual horse power


control is used, the setting can now be controlled
inside limits, i.e. the A10 variable displacement
pump takes up the power available to it - to meet
the operating status of the excavator loader.
Whereas setting the standard power regulator
demanded a compromise between excavator and
loader operation, the advantages of power control
are now utilised to the full extent for both
operating modes. Moreover, it is possible to adjust
the power output setting to the particular diesel
engine speed (diesel engine power output). This
is, for example, welcomed in residential areas
where machines may only be operated at reduced
speed for noise reasons.

LR

84

RE 00 207/10.00

New Power Management Concepts in conjunction


with LUDV Technology and Closed Centre Steering Units
in Backhoe Loaders

2.3 Speedsensing power


control or variable torque
limiting
The latest development on cost effective controls
of the A10VO is the EP control electroproportional
displacement control (figure 5). The pumps
displacement is governed by an electric current
applied to the controls solenoid. Its unique design
is compact and directly connected via a pilot spool
to the displacement control cylinder. It acts like an
adjustable maximum displacement stop and
allows the optional combination with flow and
pressure control, enabling the use of LS- or LUDV
mobile blocks. As the current applied is
determining the pumps maximum displacement,
flow and pressure control still can control the
pumps displacement from maximum to minimum
a speed-sensing power control can be built up
(figure 6).
X

Mikrocontroller RC2
A10VO...EPDF/53

If the drop of diesel engine is too high, the diesel


engine is overloaded. The microcontroller will
reduce the solenoid current of the A10VOs EP
control bringing the pump to a smaller
displacement. Decreasing the displacement will
reduce the load on the diesel engine allowing it
to recover.
If the drop of diesel engine speed is too low, the
diesel engine power is not fully utilised. The
microcontroller will increase the solenoid current
of the A10VOs EP control bringing the pump to a
larger displacement. The larger displacement will
increase the load on the diesel engine using all the
power that is available.

The power taken up by the implement hydraulic is


automatically adjusted to the power that is
available regardless what power is used by the
gearbox (see also figure 7), whereas with (dual)
horse power the controller setting is always a
compromise. Tests have proven that therefore,
especially in loader operation, even a smaller sized
pump with EP control can lead to machine
performance set out by a larger sized pump with
(dual) horse power control. Besides,

RC2

Mobil
Block
SX

WS

L1

ID

Pump Displacement

A10VO...EPDF/53
Diesel-Engine

figure 6 speed sensing power control

Solenoide Current
figure 5 A10VO EP

Speed controlled diesel engines are commonly


used in Backhoeloaders, i.e. the drop of diesel
engine speed reflects the load on it. Detecting the
position of the gas pedal or the stroke of the
injection pump (WS) equals the power available.
Sensing the actual diesel engine speed (ID) equals
the load on the diesel engine. Both signals are
compared and processed in a microcontroller (RC2)
determining the utilisation of the diesel engine
power.
RE 00 207/10.00

Torque

Gear Box

torque
available

engine characteristic

transmission
pump

low
idle
figure 7 sharing - speed sensing power control

high
idle

engine
speed

85

New Power Management Concepts in conjunction


with LUDV Technology and Closed Centre Steering Units
in Backhoe Loaders

automatic compensation of weak diesel engines


- tolerances
- low idle
- high altitude operation
automatic compensation of load taken up by
other components, for example gear pumps,
air conditioning compressors, alternators, etc.
programmable machine operation modes
diagnosis feature

The enhanced utilisation of primary energy


provides more power at partial load for the travel
drive in loader mode.

become state of the art and all benefits of (dual)


horse power controlled pumps are further
improved.
The new EP control of A10VO pumps combines the
strength of the electronics (controlling) with the
strength of hydraulics (power transmission). Its
unique and cost effective design and the concept
of speedsensing without any electronic pressure
transducer will bring the power management in
Backhoeloaders into the next generation.

A10VO...DFR/52

3. A10VO flow control the


link to LUDV-, LS-blocks
In addition to the capability to manage the power,
the variable displacement pump in conjunction
with LS or LUDV systems enables to benefit fully
from the advantages provided by the pumps flow
control over a fixed displacement pump. The main
difference between a system with a flow-controlled
variable displacement pump and an otherwise
identical system with fixed-displacement pump lies
in the fact that a system with flow-controlled variable adjustment pump delivers just as much oil
as is required whereas in a system with fixeddisplacement pump the flow of oil is governed by
the pump drive speed and pump size. In the latter
case, excess oil flow must be throttled back against
pump pressure, resulting in high amounts of energy
being lost in the form of heat (see figure 8).

constant displ. pump


p

corner power

A10 variable displ.


pump /DFR
corner power

figure 8: advantages A10VO DFR

Oil flow delivered = oil flow required


This means no energy is lost through
excess flows of oil.
This produces the following direct advantages for
backhoeloaders:
better fuel economy
lower operating costs
environmentally friendly
lower cooling capacity requirement
smaller radiator
smaller tank and thus less fluid
exposure of fluid to lower temperatures
longer service life

86

RE 00 207/10.00

New Power Management Concepts in conjunction


with LUDV Technology and Closed Centre Steering Units
in Backhoe Loaders

4. LUDV technology
The load sensing flow sharing concept improves
the standard. Load sensing by giving to the system
an independance to the load variations but also
to the flow availibility.
This possibility is obviously a break through in the
attempt to make the machines more user friendly
and more performant.
Since 1997 thousands of machines equiped with
SX14 flow sharing were delivered to the
market,the feed back we have had confirms the
points we were listing back in 97 (see fig 9),the
best compliment we ve had was given by a professional operator who said "the machine is so
easy to operate that nobody will need me
anymore".
Obviously this operator will still be needed because
the performances of the machine being improved
in such a drastic way by the flow sharing means
that he will be able to perform quicker and better.
What are the next improvements that operators
will expect from their machines ?
Because the flow sharing allows to give to the
operator a perfect control even at maximum engine
speed, limitation in speed is now given by the

pump displacement installed. Most commonly


used today are pump displacement of 74 cm3/rev..
The new A10VO 85 and especially its speed sensing power management option in combination
with the SX14 will allow you to improve the
machines in this direction,of course for the smaller
models the A10VO 74 with power management
based on horse power control version is always
good to consider and for the more price sensitive
models the SX14 can work with a gear pump still
bringing the advantages listed in fig 9.

The other field of improvement is the ergonomy


and the comfort ; at that point it is interesting to
consider what other machines are competing
against the back hoe loaders.
The 7 tons wheeled excavator in combination with
a small /medium loader is probably the classic alternative to a backhoe loader, if one looks at the
controls used on those machines, it will be very
obvious that in the comfort and ergonomical
department the backhoe is still lacking a little bit
of it, with its long, out of reach, hudge
displacement levers, it is certainly not the best
reference as far as operators comfort is concerned.

Again the controls of the back hoe loaders are an


heritage of what the machine was in the past : a
tractor to which some attachments were added
later on ; The levers directly mounted on the valves
were in this respect the best and probably only
solution .
Also because of the lack of controlability and the
impossibility to perform several movements
simultaneously there was little improvement to be
expected by only changing the type of control.
Today with the flow sharing giving to the backhoe
loader a controlability comparable to modern
excavators it is probably the opportunity to improve
also the way the control is made by using remote
controls and locate them in the armrests of the
seats to come closer to the excavators ergonomy.
There are 2 main possibilities to control a
valve with remote controls :
hydraulic controls
electronic controls
The choice between the 2 technologies
depends on many factors :
costs packaging
space available to run pipes
remote controls as option or serie
type of functions to be controlled
number of functions to be controlled
etc etc
Since its creation the SX14 our flow sharing valve
was available with mechanical and hydraulic
controls ; in 2000 it will be available as well with
electronic control (see fig 10).

figure 9 SX14 - flow sharing system

RE 00 207/10.00

87

New Power Management Concepts in conjunction


with LUDV Technology and Closed Centre Steering Units
in Backhoe Loaders

figure 11b Joystick EC 3000

figure 10 SX14 - flow sharing system

5. Joysticks-control
With regards to the joysticks Rexroth has in its
range all necessary joysticks in hydraulic or in
electronic version (see fig 11):
In hydraulic version :
-4TH6 (heavy duty) 4TH5 (light duty) for the
excavator side (see data sheet: RE 64555)
-4THF6 with electric detents for float & return
to dig on the loader side (see data sheet :
RE 64553).

also many possible combinations between all types


of controls (mechanical,hydraulic,electrical on off
,electrical proportional) that can be used
simultaneously on the same machine to take in
account the different impositions given to machine
designers.

In electronic version :
-M control signal control joystick
(see data sheet RE 29882).
-4THE6 power control joystick
(see data sheet: RE 29711).
Because a joystick can only control 2 axis and the
backhoe loader control requires a minimum of 5
proportionnal functions : Boom, arm, bucket,
slew, telescopic, Rexroth has created the EC3000
handle (see fig 11a) that will provide a
proportionnal electrical slider and 4 on off
switches, this handle is available on any of the
Rexroth joysticks hydraulic or electronic version
and will provide a third proportionnal control to
the joysticks.
As said previously there are 2 main solutions to
perform a remote control but obviously there are

To summerize ,the next improvements allowed by


the flow sharing are : the increase of speed and
the improvement of the ergonomy,there are also
some possibilities to make simpler ,more cost
effective and more flexible option controls
(see fig 12) . Also the flow sharing technology gives
the possibility not to use a priority flow divider to
feed the power steering with the only imposition
to use a power steering and steering cylinders that
can accept the system working pressure.

Bv
Pr

B
T

P1

A
A

4TH6
B

M Controller
figure 11a Joystick 4TH6 and M Control

88

A
B

figure 12 LUDV-komplete system

RE 00 207/10.00

New Power Management Concepts in conjunction


with LUDV Technology and Closed Centre Steering Units
in Backhoe Loaders

6. Steering units
Two types of hydrostatic steering are used in
backhoe loaders: Open centre Non reaction
and Closed centre Non reaction. The forces
acting on the steered wheels are not felt by the
driver via the steering wheel. The trend is currently
towards closed-centre steering systems (Fig. 13).
As Fig. 14 shows, the closed-centre steering units
are supplied by a pump with constant or variable
displacement via a priority valve. Since the priority
valve is controlled via a load-sensing (LS) signal,
it ensures that the steering unit is supplied as
required.

Other hydraulic actuators can also be connected


to the priority valve; these are then supplied at the
second level.
The following actuators may be connected:

High axial loads and kinematic conditions produce


correspondingly high steering pressures in
backhoe loaders. The standards and regulations
governing a machines steerability including its
emergency steering when the steering unit
operates as hand pump also apply for backhoe
loaders. To meet these specifications, it may be
necessary to use steering units with speed
reduction in emergency operation.

Implement functions with pressures up to


250 bar
Remotely powered braking system
Fan drive
Pilot oil supply
Feed functions
Further information on the open-centre and
closed-centre steering units can be found in data
sheets RE 14 365/01.98. The LPS priority valves
are described in more detail in data sheet
RE 27 548/10.98.

LAGU

Fig. 13: LAGC und LAGC../LD

Working
Hydraulic

EF

CF

LS

LAGZ
P

Fig. 15: LAGU and LAGZ

LS conected with Tank

High Pressure (unmetered)


Low Pressure
Suction Presure
Entrapped Oil
Ambient Pressure

Fig. 14: Steering circuit with dynamic load sensing

RE 00 207/10.00

89

New Power Management Concepts in conjunction


with LUDV Technology and Closed Centre Steering Units
in Backhoe Loaders

The LAGU steering units with chamber isolation


and the LAGZ steering units with rotor block
disconnection have been specially developed for
these applications (Fig. 15).
Operation of the LAGU and LAGZ units is no different from that of other steering units in servo
operation, but the delivery rate is reduced
automatically in emergency operation. This
reduces the drive energy (= manual force applied
to the steering wheel) by roughly 50% or more in
comparison to a conventional steering unit.

EF

CF

Working Hydraulic

LS

Priority Valve

In the LAGU units, individual chambers of the rotor


block are connected to the tank in emergency
mode (Fig. 16) so that only 50% of the flow rate
in servo mode is now routed to the steering
cylinder.
Two rotor blocks operate in the LAGZ in servo
mode. One of these is disconnected completely in
emergency mode (Fig. 17), thus permitting further
reductions in addition to the 50% reduction in flow
rate.
High Pressure (unmetered)
Low Pressure
Suction Presure
Entrapped Oil
Ambient Pressure

Further information on the LAGU and LAGZ


steering units can be found in data sheets
RE 11 867/09.98 and RE 11 868/04.00.
Fig. 16: LAGU in emergency mode

High Pressure (unmetered)


Low Pressure
Suction Presure
Entrapped Oil
Ambient Pressure

Fig. 17: LAGZ in emergency mode

90

RE 00 207/10.00

New Power Management Concepts in conjunction


with LUDV Technology and Closed Centre Steering Units
in Backhoe Loaders

For the operator, the LAGU and LAGZ


units offer a number of advantages over
the LAGC units:
Lower steering torque with the same steering
pressure in emergency operation.
Better ergonomic conditions for the driver
due to:
- fewer turns of the steering wheel from
end to end in servo mode
- smaller steering wheel
Cost savings for the manufacturer due to:
- smaller steering cylinders
- no supplementary equipment required
(emergency steering pump)

Pressure
Druck

These steering units deliver the same flow rate in


servo operation (160 cm3 per revolution of the
steering wheel).
Figure 18 shows the achievable steering pressure
over the steering torque for the various units.
The flow rate is reduced in the LAGU and LAGZ
units if the auxiliary energy fails

LAGZ
LAGU
LAGC

Lenkmoment
Steering torque
Fig. 18: Emergency steering torque over steering pressure of LAGU and LAGZ units as compared
with LAGC

7. Summary
Based on proven technology - steering unit LAG,
LUDV block SX 14, joy sticks 4 TH, variable
displacement pump A10VO Rexroth can offer a
large variety of products to be used in
Backhoeloaders. These products are under
constant development to adapt the hydraulics
components even better for the optimum
utilisation in Backhoeloaders. The new options,
which are available now, will not only further
improve efficiency and controllability but also
opens new opportunities for future
Backhoeloaders.
The new power management concept of speedsensing on the base of an electroproportional
displacement controlled A10VO EP guarantees
optimum diesel engine power utilisation at any
time without overlaoding or stalling. In conjunction
with SX14 LUDV technology the full hydraulic
power can be controlled at operators convenience
enabling him to operate the Backhoeloader even
better and quicker. The electric actuation of SX 14
combined with the newly design EC3000 handle
of 4TH joy sticks allows to operate three proportional axis. Afuture development on the closed
centre steering unit LAG will prove if the priority
flow divider will become unnecessary by employing
flow sharing. The steering with optional chamber
RE 00 207/10.00

switch off can be mounted in confined space


providing sufficient steering flow in emergency
operation.
At the end of the day, decision upon the hydraulic
system will be based on cost of products compared
to the operating cost and performance.
Optimum machine utilisation keeps operating
costs down, also making this system an attractive
option compared with the costs of the technically
inferior fixed displacement pump.

91

New Power Management Concepts in conjunction


with LUDV Technology and Closed Centre Steering Units
in Backhoe Loaders

92

RE 00 207/10.00