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MELLIA (DUBIA) KADBEVU

Saplings of the above species were planted by Hunsur Plywood Works


Pvt.Ltd, Hunsur at their factory premises. The growth was very
promising attaining a girth of 3 to 4 after 10 years.
One tree was felled and timber obtained was as follows;
Sl#
1

Sizes
18.0 x 3.8

Cuft.
15.3
4 4 nos

The trees were grown in marginal laetrile soil with an annual rainfall of
40. No special fertilizer or irrigation was carried out. Kadbevu
branches at 20 to 30 from ground. The bole is straight, round, without
any knots and without any butteress the average growth of girth after 8
years will workout to more than 5 to 6 per annum. It is expected to
produce 12 to 15 Cuft. of timber in 10 years time. The average can be
taken as 13.5 Cuft.

At present one cubic foot of Kadbevu fetches about Rs.160/- to Rs.200/per Cuft. At this rate tree value will work out to Rs.2,430/-. The logs will
fetch better price as availability increases and minimum annual increase
in price may workout to 7%.

5 year old trees grown


along the border of a farm

The present rate M/s.Hunsur Plywood is purchasing the timber is as


follows;
Length
x Girth
8
x 4 up
8
x 3 to 4 up
6 - 7 x 4 up
6 7 x 3 to 4 up
5
x 4 up
4
x 30 up

Rs.
240.00
210.00
210.00
180.00
180.00
140.00

The average can be taken at Rs.180/- per Cuft.


At a planting distance of 20 x 20 an acre can be planted with 109 trees.
At the present value of Rs.180/- per Cuft. the income from one acre
planted with this species should produce gross timber value of
Rs.2,64,870/-.

Note: This report was prepared in 1995. Figures of costs


may be suitably altered to arrive at todays cost.

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1

The planting cost per acre will be as follows;


Estimated mandays to maturity in five years.
Account
Preliminary
Pitting
Planting
Weeding
Watering
Manuaring
Misc.
Total:

1st Year
4
14
2
8
6
2
1
37

2nd Year
Nil
Nil
Nil
8
6
1
1
16

3rd Year
Nil
Nil
Nil
6
8
1
1
16

4th Year 5th Year


Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
4
4
8
8
1
1
1
1
14
14
Mandays

Total expenditure for one acre to maturity;


97 Mandays @ Rs.40.00
109 Plants @ Rs.2.50
109 Trees logging

=
=
=
Total

Rs.
3880.00
273.00
550.00
4703.00

Profitability
109 Trees at 13.5 Cuft. Per tree total timber 1471.50 Cuft.
@ Rs.180/- per Cuft.
Total Expenditure

Net Profit:

Rs.264870.00
4,703.00
-----------------260168.00
==========

Cost of land not included . Present cost of Dry land can be considered
at Rs.30,000/- per acre.
The timber was found to be ideal for plywood manufacture.
The details of quality & technical specification are as follows;
1. The logs had very high moisture contents and were green
2. All logs were round and good for peeling. Roundness seems to be
inherent quality of this tree.
3. Logs peel easily.
4. Outturn is excellent 70% & better in fresh cut logs
5. Veneer strong and firm
6. On drying waviness and cracks in veneers were noticeable but all
veneers were usable as cores.
7. Two small logs were peeled for faces. Quality obtained was
acceptable.

The Miracle Tree

M.R.Grade Plywood pressed with these veneers and in combination with


other veneers gave excellent results.
Note: This report was prepared in 1995. Figures of costs may be suitably
altered to arrive at todays cost.

HUNSUR PLYWOOD WORKS PVT.LTD


2

MELIA COMPOSTIA WILLD.


(Syn: MELIA DUBIA Cav.;M.dubia Hiern non Cav.;M.robusta Roxb.;M.superba Rexb.)

LOCAL NAMES
Assamese Dingkurlong; Bengali Ghora-nim, mahanim; Gujarati Kadu-kajar, ambaro,
limbaro, nibara; Hindi Ghora-nim, mahanim; Kannada Heb-bevu, karibevan, bevu, bettabevu; Kadbevu; Malayalam Malei-vembu, kattu-veppu, malayembu; Marathi Kuriaput; Oriya
Maha-limbu, batra; Tamil Malai-vembu; Telugu Munnatikaraka, munnuthi-karaka; Urdu
Labshi, kala-khajur.

Trade Name Malabar Neem Wood.


GROWTH HABIT
It is a fairly large, handsome, deciduous tree, attaining a girth of 1.2-1.5m and a height of
about 20m, with a spreading crown and a cylindrical, straight bole of about 9m. An exceptionally
large tree measured in South Chanda Division, Maharashtra, had a height of 32m and a girth of
2.7m at breast height (12).

MORPHOLOGY
Young branches densely clothed with stellate pubescence, ultimately smooth. Bark reddishbrown or dark brown, exfoliating in thin, narrow strips. Blaze thin, crimson, then white. Leaves
clustered towards the ends of the branches, bi-, sometimes tri-pinnate, 20-75 cm long; pinnae up
to 20 cm long, 3 foliate or with up to 3-6 pairs of leaflets; ultimate leaflets opposite, 2-7.5 cm x
0.6-3.8 cm (the terminal the largest), [mostly ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, crenate or
crenulate; base acute or rounded, more or less oblique; petiolules 0.3-0.6 cm long. Flowers
greenish-white, 0.6-1.0 cm long, fragrant, in stellately-pubescent, many-flowered, branched
panicles shorter than the leaves. Calyx 5-partite. Petals 0.6 cm long, linear-spathulate. Drupes
ovoid or ellips id 2-4 cm x 1.8-2.3 cm, yellowish, smooth, with very hard endocarp and one seed.

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION
It is a tree of the easten Himalayas, ascending upto 1800m in North Bengal and in the Khasi
and Cachar hill tracts. It is also found in the Peninsula from the Ganjam hills southwards to
Tirunelveli in the east and from the Konkan southwards in the west. It is usually seen in
deciduous hill forests in the Northern Circars, Nallamalai hills and Western Ghats from South
Kanara southwards. (Fig.XXI-17). It also occurs in Sikkim and Bhutan.

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SITE FACTORS
Climate
In its natural habitat, the absolute maximum shade temperature varies from 37.50 47. 50C and
the absolute minimum from 00 150 Cand the absolute minimum from 00 150 C. The mean daily
maximum temperature in May, which is generally the hottest summer month varies from 300 42.
50C; the mean daily minimum temperature in January, which is the coldest month of the year,
varies from 70 210C.
It does well in moist regions, with a mean annual rainfall exceeding 1000 mm. The mean
relative humidity in July varies from 70-90% and in January from 50-80%..

TOPOGRAPHY
It is commonly found in the hills at elevations ranging from 600-1800 m.

OCCURRENCE IN FOREST TYPES


It occurs in Tropical moist and dry deciduous forests in the following sub-types as distinguished
by CHAMPION & SETH (1968):(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Very moist teak forest (3B/Cla), in association with teak, terminalia crenulata, Grewia
tiliaifolia, Lagerstrocmia lanceolata, Dalbergia latifolia etc.
Northern secondary moist mixed deciduous forest (3C/2S1), in association with
Mangifera indica, Anthocephalus cadamba, Alstonia scholaris, Dillenia pentagyno,
etc.
Northern dry mixed deciduous forest (5B/C2), in association with Adina cordifolia,
Largestroemia parviflora, Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia spp., Clerstanthus collinus,
etc.

PHENOLOGY
The tree is leafless for a short time from December-February. The new leaves appear in
February March along with the flowers. The fruits ripen during the cold season from OctoberFebruary.

NATURE AND ARTIFICIAL REPRODUCTION


The seeds weigh 250-320 to the kilogram. The germinative capacity is about 1.5 for
untreated seeds. They have a hard endocarp and are therefore quite difficult to germinate.
Several experiments to accelerate and increase the germination percent have so far proved
unsuccessful. It has been observed that germination is hastened by splitting the seeds
longitudinally with a sharp bill-hook before sowing. Another method which has given fair results is
burying the seeds in a pit for a about a year and then sowing them in a nursery bed. If a light
ground fire is run through around the mother trees immediately after seed fall, there is a fair

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4

amount of natural reproduction. In Karnataka, soaking the seeds in cold water for a week has
been found very effective in accelerating and improving germination. In one experiment, 50%

germination was obtained within a period of 48 days by this means (54).


For raising seedlings in the nursery, the following method evolved in Tamil Nadu, has been
found to give the best results. The seeds, after collection, are pounded in a wooden mortar to
remove the pulp. They are then spread out in the seed bed, covered with a 7.5cm layer of leaf
litter and burnt.

Immediately after the burn, the seeds are covered with a 7.5-10 cm layer of earth and
watered copiously.
Of the 3 methods, viz., direct sowing, entire planting and stump planting, entire planting is
significantly the best method of raising the species. Both nursery-raised and natural seedlings
that are 20-30 cm in height are suitable for planting out at the commencement of the south-west
or north-east monsoon rains.

Afforestation *
It has been successfully used along with other species for afforestation work in the arid tract of
Ahmednagar forest division in Maharashtra. It was found to give almost 100% success once it
got established, and attained a height of 1.8 m in 3 years. Direct sowings were done in the earlier
years but, after 1960, these were followed by planting of nursery-raised seedling or polythene bag
seedling. Sowing and planting were done in contour trenches on steeper slopes, on raised
earthen bunds on gentler slopes and in pits of 0.3m cube at an espacement of 3.6 m x 3.6m in
other areas.
* Remarks:
(1) Suggested Pit Size is 2 x 2- 0.6m Cube
(2) Espacement of 5.0m x 5.0m is recommended this will give better girth in shorter
duration.

MANAGEMENT AND SILVICULTURAL SYSTEMS


In Kerala, it is worked under the selection system with a minimum exploitable girth of 180 cm.

GROWTH STATISTICS **
The growth is rapid. GAMBLEs specimens gave 8-12 rings/dm of radius (mean annual girth
increment 5.3-8 cm) for a Tamil Nadu specimen, and 28 rings/dm (mean annual girth increment
2.3 cm) for a specimen from Bengal. North Kanara

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specimens showed 12-16 rings/dm of radius (TALBOT, 1909), giving a mean annual girth
increment of 4-5.3 cm. Trees grown in the Calcutta Botanical Gardens
from seeds of Malabar origin are said to have reached in 7 years an average height of 14m and a
girth of 112 cm at breast height; this rate of growth is equivalent to 4 rings/dm of radius. Even in
comparatively dry regions with a rainfall of 750-1000 mm, a height growth of 3-4.5 m is obtained
in plantations, against 6-7.5 m in more favourable locations.
** Remarks:
Growth statistics will vary from locality to locality. In plantation areas with better spacing
and more favourable conditions it is noticed that growth rate is better.

UTILISATION
Physical and Mechanical Properties of the Wood
The sapwood is greyish-white, usually with a yellowish cast; the heartwood is light pink to light
red when first exposed, ageing to pale russet-brown, subject to grey stain. It is lustrous and
without characteristic odour or taste. It is very light (sp.gr., approximately 0.34, weight at 12%
moisture content about 336 kg/m3), straight-grained, coarse and somewhat uneven-textured.
Annual growth ings are distinct but not conspicuous and number 12-16/dm of radius.

Seasoning and Preservation behaviour;


The timber seasons well if the logs are converted in a green state, though if left long in the
log, It is liable to develop end-splitting and discoloration. Like many other meliaceous timbers, it
contracts very considerably across the grain while drying out. The best method of dealing with
the timber is to convert the logs as soon after felling as possible and to open stack the sawn
material, preferably under cover, to avoid grey stain.
The wood is not durable in exposed locations, but is moderately so under cover. It is not
readily attacked by white ants. It is rarely subjected to antiseptic treatment.

Present day Uses


The wood is chiefly used for making light packing cases, cigar boxes, ceiling planks, etc.
Though not accepted as standard, it is used for match boxes and splints and for plywood. It is
used for making cheap pencils. The wood can be used as fuel.

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Statistics from Melia Dubia Tree grown in year 1995 in Hunsur


Plywood Works Pvt.Lt,d Hunsur-571 105, Mysore Dist.

DATE OF PLANTING

15.07.1995

ENUMARATION DATE:
SPECIES:

28.10.2009
MELIA DUBIA (KAD BEVU)

(APP: TREE MEASURMENT)

Log
#

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Length

Length

Girth

Girth

Volume

Volume

in Feet

In Mtrs.

In Ft.

In Cms

Cuft.

CBM

28'

8.55

3' 9"

1.14

24.6

0.694

30'

9.85

3' 0"

0.91

16.9

0.510

28'

9.20

3' 5"

1.04

20.4

0.622

20'

6.55

2' 9"

0.84

9.4

0.289

27'

8.85

3' 4"

1.02

18.7

0.575

26'

8.55

2' 11"

0.89

13.8

0.423

30'

9.85

3' 8"

1.12

25.8

0.772

24'

7.85

2' 10"

0.86

12.0

0.363

20'

6.55

2' 6"

0.76

7.8

0.236

149.4

4.484

Total: 9 Trees Average Girth 3.2

Deduction for

Cuft.
CBM
9 LOGS
149.4
4.484
Less 10%
14.8
0.498
134.6
3.986
(APP: 15 Cuft per Tree)

{For 14 Years}

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Statistics from Melia Dubia Tree grown in year 1995 in Hunsur Plywood Works Pvt.Lt,d
Hunsur-571 105, Mysore Dist.
Age of the Plantation

14 years

No.of Trees per Acre = 43,560 400

108 Trees

No. of surviving trees per Acre

97 Trees

Distance between Trees

20 x 20 (6 Mtrs. X 6 Mtrs)

Average Girth of Tree

3.2

(96 Cms)

Average Height of Tree

26

(7.84 Mtrs)

Average yield per tree

15 Cuft (0.425 CBM)

Market Value of Timber at present

Rs.250/- per Cuft. (Rs.8,830/- per CBM)

Average Value of Tree

Rs.3750/-

Value of Timber after 14 years for 97 Trees


@ rate of 15 Cuft per tree at todays price of
Rs.250/- per Cuft (i.e. year 2009)
Average annual inflation

Rs.3,63,750/-

Inflation after 14 years at rate of 4% per annum


compounded
Rate of timber after 14 years will be

80% Compounded Annually

Value of Timber after 14 years i.e. in year


2023 at rate of Rs.450/- per Cuft will be
15 Cuft x 97 x Rs.450/- =
Value realized / Acre / year
Rs.6,54,750 14 years
1 acre = 0.405 Hectar
Value realized per Tree per year
=
Remarks:

4% per annum

Rs.450/- per Cuft


Rs.6,54,750/-

Rs.46,768/Rs.482/- per tree.


1) Only clear bole of tree is taken into a/c. Lops &
tops not accounted for 2) Soil condition, average, red
loam 3) Rainfall about 30 (75 Cms) per year. 4)
Melia Dubia has profuse seeding annually. 5) Seeds
can be collected for use in extraction of Bio-pesticides
6) Distance between the trees can be 15x15 but our
recommendation is 20x 20

HUNSUR PLYWOOD WORKS PVT.LTD


Post Box#2, B.M.Road,
Hunsur-571105,Karnataka State, India
Ph: 0091-8222-252860 & 252025
Fax: 0091-8222-252140
e-mail: hunsply@gmail.com

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