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# Distan

F(gravity
E change
NEWTONS FIRST LAW: Objects have inertia, i.e. a
WORK - Work is done by a system on another system during
stationary object remains stationary, or a moving object keeps energy transfer in which the former exerts a force on the
)
on moving at the same speed in the same direction, if there is latter W=Fx=E
CENTRIPETAL MOTION
no net force acting on it.
CHANGE IN KINETIC ENERGY
NEWTONS SECOND LAW: Acceleration of an object is directly Change in kinetic energy of an object results from work done
proportional to and in the same direction as the net force on it, and
by the net force.
PROJECTILE MOTION
inversely proportional to its mass. a = Fnet /m.
W=Ek i.e. Fnetx=1/2mv2-1/2mu2
Only force on projectile is gravity. Air
NEWTONS THIRD LAW: When object A exerts a force on objectWhen
B, an object moves in a gravitational field, e.g. in
resistance is opposite direction of
motion, kinetic energy changes to gravitational
B exerts a force of the same magnitude in the opposite direction projectile
on
motion.
potential energy and vice versa. The total energy remains
A .Net force is determined by vector addition. In one dimension: by
constant during its flight. EK1+EP1=EK2+EP2
addition of directed numbers. In two dimensions: by placing vectors

head to tail or by resolving each vector into two perpendicular At the Earths surface, EP=mgh, EP=mgh2-mgh1
If an object moves a long distance away from(or towards) the
components. E.g. net force on an object at rest (or sliding at
earth, gravitational field cannot be considered constant, E P is
constant speed) on an inclined plane is zero.

## given by area under force-distance graph or field-distance graph.

HOOKES LAW F=kx When an object interacts with a spring

## that obeys Hookes law, kinetic energy is changed to elastic

potential energy and vice versa. The total energy remains
UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION (Constant Speed)
2
2
constant during the interaction. Ek1+EP1=EK2+EP2 where
F=1/T, V=2r/T or 2rf
EP=1/2kx2
2
2
Direction of the motion is given by the velocity vector that is of a Area under force-distance graph gives Ep= k(x2) k(x1)
2
tangent to the circular path; magnitude of acceleration is given byELASTIC COLLISION Elastic collision between objects: the

2
2
a=v2/r or 42r/T2 or a=42rf2, and the direction of the accelerationtotal
is kinetic energy of objects before and after collision
always towards the centre of the circle; i.e. centripetal acceleration.
remain the same. During collision some kinetic energy is
2
Velocity and Acceleration in uniform circular motion are not constant
changed to elastic potential energy and all elastic potential
because their directions are changing continuously. They are always

## energy is changed back to kinetic energy at the end of

perpendicular to each other. A net force towards the centre of thecollision.
circle (centripetal force) is required to keep an object in uniform
2
circular motion; F=ma
Energy and Force Total mechanical Energy =

## NON-UNIFROM CIRCULAR MOTION (Not Constant Speed)

2
kinetic + potential energy.
Besides the centripetal force, a force at the tangent is also required
INELASTIC COLLISION
to speed up or slow down the object. Hence the net force and Total kinetic energy after collision is less than total before,
2
(Elastic: Ekfinal
acceleration are no longer towards the centre of the circular motion.
because some kinetic energy is changed to other forms of
energy as well, such as sound and heat.
Weightlessness
UNIVERSAL GRAVITAIONAL FIELD
=Ekinitial, if not equal, inelastic as energy is to sound
An object will experience apparent
GMm/r2=mv2/r=ma=
g=GM/r2
or heat etc. Momentum conserved for both)
weightlessness when
falling with acceleration
2
mg=(42rm)/(T2)
-1
equal to gravitational field strength (Free fall
g=(Nkg )
PROJECTILE MOTION
-2
2
towards earth). They
feel weightless when
a=ms
Two-dimensional motion under a constant force (force or gravity or
Fnormal = 0.
F=(N)
weight).
-1
2
2
V=(ms )
GRAVITAIONAL FORCE
Gravitational weight force is force by earth on
M=Central mass(kg)
F=GM1M2/r2
you. Reaction force is force by surface on you.
m=Orbital Mass(kg)
2
HORIZONTAL COMPONENT
True weightlessness
T=Period of orbit (s)
BANKED
ROADS when g=0 N/kg usually in
The horizontal component of the velocity vector remains constant
deep space. 2
throughout the whole motion.
Sample
Whatlighter.
is the role of
PLANETARY AND SATELLITE MOTIONS
Fn>Fg, heavier.

VERTICAL COMPONENT
crumple zones in cars or tanbark in
Planets around the sun
The vertical component of the velocity vector is affected by gravity
playground in reducing the effect of a
move in its gravitational field
Circular Motion
and has a constant acceleration of the force of gravity downwards
g they are in free fall
collision?
a=g,
F=1/T V=2r/T

(g=10ms-2)
2
If an object with a certain velocity is brought
(also true for satellites
V=2rf A=v /r
Let V be the speed of the projection at the angle of to the
2
2
2 2
to rest, it will2 have a certain change in
around the earth),
A=4 r/T A=4 rf
horizontal.
2

Design
momentum that is constant
for that particular
=or = , hence v r=GM or =
For the horizontal component: a=0, V=u=Vcos, x=ut
V= grtan
collision. The average force exerted on the
For the vertical component: Five equations of motions, under a Graph Interpretation Impulse
object, therefore, is dependent on the time of
speed
X-axis
Y-axis
Area
constant acceleration of g downwards, where u=Vsin is the initial
I=P Ft=mv-mu
collision
(F =toI/t,
since I is
constant
F 1/t). If
Relate
angle
velocity
and
gravity
velocity, v is final velocity, a is -g, x is the displacement from the
M1U1+M2U2=M1V
Under
nt
1+M2V2
the time is prolonged then the average force
initial position at time (t). Up is +ve
Extensio
Force
U(spring)
Spr
Total
Centripetal
acceleration
=
exerted would be less and consequently, less
IMPULSE
n
Const
injuries would result from these collisions.
Impulse=Change in momentum, I=p or Ft=mv-mu
Time
Velocity
Displacme
Accel
CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
nt
Ignore
In collisions between objects, total momentum before is equal
Time
Accele
Velocity
Apparent weightlessness is achieved when an
to the total momentum during = total momentum after
Increase the force towards the centre
object falls with an acceleration equal to the
Time
Net F
Impulse
collision. m1u1+m2u2= m1v1+m2v2
with a banked road so you can go
gravitational field strength, as no normal
When one object gains momentum, the other loses
Displac
Force
Work
at greater speeds as they give a
reaction force is experienced. For example,
momentum by the same amount, the total remains constant.
greater
centripetal acceleration.
p2=-p1 i.e. I2=-I1
astronauts in a satellite in stable orbit will feel

## v=u+ at which is up max height

0=usin

usin
2usin
t=
therforetotal time=
g
4g r v
a=
=
1
T
ra t
x=vt
2
4 mr mv
F=
=
1 ( )r usin
T
h=0 g
Distance g 2 r
Speed = 2
=
T
( usintime
)
h= mv
T + mg=2 g 1
v =u+at
E( Kinetic r)= m v
t(u+ v )
2
x=
2
x=ut+ 0.5 a t
a t ( ONLY IF GRAVITY IS
U x=vt0.5
( gravity ) =mgh
vW
=u
+ 2ax
=Fxcos

v
1
=ma
a=
UmgN
)= k x
( gravity
t
2
m v a hook )
F=kx(for
nsin=
1
r
ncos=mg 2
1
=tan=v /rg
2

F( friction)cos

This is because

## , Normal is larger now.

Force Normal > Force Weight (FN is
hypotenuse when resolving forces).
ONLY gravitational weight force and
normal forces on diagram.

## Note: When an applied force opposing

friction or gravity is doing work with no
increase in speed of object then

P=

Fx
=Faveragevelocity average
t

TENSION
Connected bodies.

T=

m1 m2 g
m1g
a=
m1 +m 2
m 1+ m2

## ISOLATE AND DRAW a force diagram when

finding tension.
Tension in cars on ramp,

F=ma=TF (Friction)mgsin
acceleration