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A Batch of 2011 - 2015 Craft Documentation Bharmour National Institute of Fashion Technology Kangra

A Batch of 2011 - 2015 Craft Documentation

Bharmour

A Batch of 2011 - 2015 Craft Documentation Bharmour National Institute of Fashion Technology Kangra Fashion
A Batch of 2011 - 2015 Craft Documentation Bharmour National Institute of Fashion Technology Kangra Fashion

National Institute of Fashion Technology Kangra

Fashion Communication

To start a task is easy but to finish it with great efficiency

can only be done with great effort, contribution and support.

Through this document, we take the opportunity to express our sincere gratitude and thankfulness to the almighty and all those who made Bharmour an everlasting experience. We would like to thank our college National Institute of Fashion Technology for taking initiatives for the overall development of a student. Without the help of our institute we wouldn’t be able to venture areas like Bharmour and would be unknown to hidden treasures of India. We would like to extent our regards for our faculty Ms. Apla Srivastava for being the backbone to carry the project forward with continuous guidance and deliberate discussions on the topic and finalizing this project within the limited time frame.

A true efforts and cooperation of the artisans and the people of Bharmour made this book a reality.

Acknowledgement

The Mourning Within The dying craft of Indian Handicrafts have made numerous people homeless. In
The Mourning Within The dying craft of Indian Handicrafts have made numerous people homeless. In

The Mourning Within

The dying craft of Indian Handicrafts have made numerous people homeless. In turn now they don’t make their children learn the crafts itself, which they were heeded for generations, in fear that their children might have to sleep with an empty stomach and no path for their future.

The plight of the artisan shows in her eyes.

their future. The plight of the artisan shows in her eyes. Content 12 14 16 18

Content

future. The plight of the artisan shows in her eyes. Content 12 14 16 18 20

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Bharmour

Geographic Profile

History, Myths and Legends

Places To See

Mani-Mahesh

Bharmani Devi

Chaurasi Temple

Chhatrari Temple

Architecture

Gaddi Tribe

Costume and Jewellery

Handlooms

Wood Crafts

Stone Carving

20 Places To See
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Places To See

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Problems faced by People

78 Infographics 80 Glossary 81 Bibliography
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Infographics
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Glossary
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Bibliography
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The Core Team

80 Glossary 81 Bibliography 1 4 2 5 The Core Team 3 6 1 Ankan Pratik
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1 Ankan Pratik Roy - Design & Photography

2 Anna Chakravorty - Design & Articles

3 Asha Mahato - Motifs & Photography

4 Kajal Yadav - Articles

5 Rajarshi Verma - Photography

6 Rahul Pandey - Photography

We rise with the sun, Sleep under the stars, Drink pure water, Eat what we grow, We make what we are.

We are strong, We live under the great one’s shed, Survive the extreme, We believe, we have faith.

We play simple roles, We preserve, we unite. We are proud that our land is blessed with lords, making us believe its heaven on earth, land of Shiva, we reside.

The Gaddi

Bharmour The last resort for departing souls “ Himachal Pradesh is famous for its abundant
Bharmour The last resort for departing souls “ Himachal Pradesh is famous for its abundant

Bharmour

The last resort for departing souls

Bharmour The last resort for departing souls “ Himachal Pradesh is famous for its abundant natural

Himachal Pradesh is famous for its abundant natural beauty. The state attracts lots of tourists from different part of the world. However people are quiet often unknown to those little places that are full of hidden treasures. Dwelling in the tranquil adobe of Himalayas, lies the unexplored, beautiful stretch of scenic attraction called Bharmour.

It lies between the Pir-Panjal and Dhauladhar range, between Ravi and Chenab valley. The land is blessed with deep beauty of abundant alpine pastures and provides home for nomadic shepherds, known as Gaddi, thus also called Gadderan. The foothills are filled with orchards and terraced farmsteads. The epitome of spirituality lies in this land as it is endow with ancient temples. The area goes through inhospitable terrain and severe climate changes. “Kailash Vasio” as the people of Bharmour are known are extremely courteous and welcomes you like their own family member. Along with its ethnic traditions, culture and ancient history, Bharmour forms the perfection of divine splendor.

So let the destination help you discover yourself, your consciousness and lead you to the path of Nirvana.

The City of Life

This small town comes alive at the time of summer, when the snow melts and the roads open

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Introduction

Population

Education

Population Education Male: 12805 Female: 12213 Total Family: 5136 Post Graduate: 174 Graduate: 503 Matric and
Population Education Male: 12805 Female: 12213 Total Family: 5136 Post Graduate: 174 Graduate: 503 Matric and

Male: 12805 Female: 12213 Total Family: 5136

Post Graduate: 174 Graduate: 503 Matric and Above: 1242 Literate: 454 Illiterate: 16

Crops

and Above: 1242 Literate: 454 Illiterate: 16 Crops Cereal: Maize, Wheat, Barley Cash Crops: Potato

Cereal: Maize, Wheat, Barley Cash Crops: Potato Vegetables: Cabbage, Cauliflower, Tomato, Peas, Cucumber, Brinjal, Bitter Gourd Pulses: Rajmash, Mash, Kulthi Fruits: Apple, Peach, Walnut

Import In Areas Like Pathankot, Jalandhar, Amritsar, Jassur.

Distance from the nearest cities

Amritsar, Jassur. Distance from the nearest cities Chamba (from District Headquarter): 64 km Kangra: 140 km

Chamba (from District Headquarter): 64 km Kangra: 140 km Dharamsala: 145 km Manali: 220 km Shimla: 350 km Pathankot: 150 km Chandigarh: 350 km Delhi: 650 km

350 km Pathankot: 150 km Chandigarh: 350 km Delhi: 650 km 14/ Geographical Profile Profile Area:

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Geographical Profile

km Chandigarh: 350 km Delhi: 650 km 14/ Geographical Profile Profile Area: Located in Chamba district,
km Chandigarh: 350 km Delhi: 650 km 14/ Geographical Profile Profile Area: Located in Chamba district,
km Chandigarh: 350 km Delhi: 650 km 14/ Geographical Profile Profile Area: Located in Chamba district,
km Chandigarh: 350 km Delhi: 650 km 14/ Geographical Profile Profile Area: Located in Chamba district,

Profile

350 km Delhi: 650 km 14/ Geographical Profile Profile Area: Located in Chamba district, Himacahal Pradesh

Area: Located in Chamba district, Himacahal Pradesh

Altitude: 7000 feet

Climate: In winter, the temperature gets quite low and in summer temperature is mild

Rainfall: 1264.4mm

Primary rainy season: June to September

Temperatures: Summer: 15°C – 20°C Winter: comes down to even 0°C or even lower

Languages: Hindi, Gaddi

Months in which Bharmour can be visited are April to October as in winters the land there can get under snow as high as 5-6 ft as informed by the locals.

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EI

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Life

Meru, the father of the first recorded prince Jaistambh in the Chamba Vanshavali was the first to settle Bharmour. He belonged to a ruling family of Ayodhya. Accompanied by his youngest son Jaistambh, Meru penetrated to the upper Ravi valley through the outer hills. He defeated the petty Ranas holding the territory there and founded the town Brahampura and made it the capital of a new state. This event is believed to have taken place in the middle of 6th century A.D.

The name Brahampura was in use at a still earlier period for the more ancient kingdom of Bharmour which existed in the territories of Garhwal and Kumaon, and that Meru gave the same name of Brahampura to the state that he founded with present Bharmour as his capital.After Meru, several Rajas ruled in succession until Sahil Varman. It was Sahil Varman who conquered the lower Ravi valley and transferred the seat of government from Brahampura to the new capital he founded at Chamba. Bharmour was capital for probably four hundred years.

The local legends says that the name Bharmour has come from the goddess of Vatika, Bharmani Devi. It is believed that because of Bharmani Devi the region is blessed with water supply and that the land is blessed with Lord Shiva and is considered the one of the most spiritual destination of the world.

the one of the most spiritual destination of the world. Do You Know? There are a

Do You Know?

There are a number of graphiti art (like the one on the right) on the roads of Bharmour! You can check them out on all over the place, some even on the start of the Mani-Mahesh Trip itself!! Others are there for you to explore, have fun.

of the Mani-Mahesh Trip itself!! Others are there for you to explore, have fun. History, Myths

History, Myths and Legends

of the Mani-Mahesh Trip itself!! Others are there for you to explore, have fun. History, Myths
of the Mani-Mahesh Trip itself!! Others are there for you to explore, have fun. History, Myths

Legends

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Places To See

Places To See 18/ 18/ \19 \19

Mani - Mahesh

The journey for your soul

About

Mani - Mahesh The journey for your soul About M animahesh Lake is a high altitude

M animahesh Lake is a high altitude lake (elevation 4,080

meters (13,390 ft.)) situated close to the Manimahesh

Kailash Peak in the Pir-Panjal Range of the Himalayas.

The religious significance of this lake is next to that of the Lake Manasarovar in Tibet.

The lake is the venue of a highly revered pilgrimage trek undertaken during the month of August/September corresponding to the month of Bhadon according to Hindu calendar, on the eighth day of the New Moon period. It is known as the ‘Manimahesh Yatra’. The Government of Himachal Pradesh has declared it as a state-level pilgrimage. Etymology of ‘Manimahesh’ signifies a “jewel (Mani) on Lord Shiva’s (Mahesh’s) crown”. According to a local legend, the moon-rays reflected from the jewel can be seen from Manimahesh Lake on clear full moon night (which is a rare occasion).

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Places to See

Manimahesh is approached from three routes. Pilgrims from Lahaul and Spiti pass through Kugti pass. Pilgrims from Kangra and Mandi take the Karwarsi pass or Jalsu pass via Tyari village, near Holi in Bharmour. The easiest and popular route is from Chamba via Bharmour. The most popular is the Bharmour–Hadsar-Manimahesh route which involves a 13 kilometers (8.1 mi) track from Hadsar village to the Manimahesh Lake. The highest altitude touched in this route is 4,115 meters (13,501 ft.) and it takes two days with an overnight stay at Dhancho.

Season to be undertaken is from June to October and it has a gentle grade. Even though the Manimahesh Lake is of small size with shallow depth, its location, directly below Manimahesh Kailas peak and several other peaks and dangling glaciers, is an “inspiration even to the least devout pilgrim”.

T here are several mythical legends narrated on the sanctity of this peak and the lake at its base.

In one popular legend, it is believed that Lord Shiva created Manimahesh after he married Goddess Parvati, who is worshipped as Mata Girja. According to a local myth, Lord Shiva is believed to reside in Manimahesh Kailash. A rock formation in the form of a Shivling on this mountain is considered as the manifestation of Lord Shiva. The snow field at the base of the mountain is called by the local people as Shiva’s Chaugan (play field).

It is also believed that Manimahesh Kailash is invincible as no one has so far scaled it, in spite of claims to the contrary and the fact that much taller peaks have been scaled, including Mount Everest. According to one legend, a local tribe, a Gaddi, tried to climb along with a herd of sheep and is believed to have been turned into

Myths And Legends

and is believed to have been turned into Myths And Legends stone along with his sheep.

stone along with his sheep. The series of minor peaks around the principal peak are believed to be the remnants of the shepherd and his sheep.

Another legend narrated is that a snake also attempted to climb the mountain but failed and was converted into stone. Devotees believe that that they can view the peak only if the Lord wishes so. Bad weather covering the peak with clouds is also explained as a displeasure of the Lord.

Places to See

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It is considered the second most spiritual place in the world after the Mansarover Lake

It is considered the second most spiritual place in the world after the Mansarover Lake in Tibet according to the Hindu Mythology. It is one of the ‘Char Dham’.

The Manimahesh Temple The main temple and shrine of the place

Temple ► The main temple and shrine of the place Do You Know? At the time
Temple ► The main temple and shrine of the place Do You Know? At the time

Do You Know? At the time of August, there is a mass celebrated ‘Manimahesh Yatra’ held every year. In this a vast number of people come from all over the world to take part in the trek! And estimates say that there are also free-food provided (known as ‘Lungaar’) too!

also free-food provided (known as ‘Lungaar’) too! ► The Sacred Lake “ Kara - Caranna Krtam
also free-food provided (known as ‘Lungaar’) too! ► The Sacred Lake “ Kara - Caranna Krtam

The Sacred Lake

provided (known as ‘Lungaar’) too! ► The Sacred Lake “ Kara - Caranna Krtam Vaak -

Kara - Caranna Krtam Vaak - Kaaya - Jam Karma - Jam Vaa | Shravanna - Nayana - Jam Vaa Maanasam Va - Aparaadham | Vihitam - Avihitam Vaa Sarvam - Etat - Kssamasva | Jaya Jaya Karunna - Abdhe Shri Mahadeva Shambho ||

“ Whatever sins have been comitted by actions performed by my mind and my body, please forgive them all, as I surrender to you, my victory to you, O Sri Mahadeva Shambho, I surrender to you, O ocean of compassion. ”

Bharmani Mata temple complex is at the top of the ridge covered with full of

Bharmani Mata temple complex is at the top of the ridge covered with full of pine and deodar trees situated 4km away from the Bharmour. The place is mainly known for Goddess Bharmani Mata one of the avatars of Durga Ma. Bharmani Devi is the patron Goddess of people of Bharmour. There is Bharmani holy pool in front of Bharmani Mata temple. The dip in the pool is compulsory to complete the holy

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Manimahesh Yatra. It is believed that Goddess Bharmani had stolen this holy water from Lord Sandhola Naag which is located on another side of the ridge.

Seven water streams are coming from the bottom of cave which are presently serving water supply facility to Bharmour and running many flourmills. The place is mountainous with aesthetic natural beauty and gives glorious view of beautiful Bharmour.

The Bharmani Devi Way

beauty and gives glorious view of beautiful Bharmour. The Bharmani Devi Way The Path for Nirvana

The Path for Nirvana

Places to See

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► Bharmani Devi Temple The temple after you trek for about 2.6 km from the Bus
► Bharmani Devi Temple The temple after you trek for about 2.6 km from the Bus

Bharmani Devi Temple

The temple after you trek for about 2.6 km from the Bus Stand in Bharmour.

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The Budhal Valley On the way to Bharmani Temple, one can see the roads in such a perspective that it looks like an inception!

// The Local Inception

Places to See \27 \27

C haurasi Temple is located in the center of Bharmour town and it holds immense religious importance because of temples built around 1400 years ago. Life of people in Bharmour centers

around the temple complex-Chaurasi, named so because of 84 shrines built in the periphery of Chaurasi Temple. Chaurasi is Hindi word for number eighty four. The beautiful Shikhara style temple of Manimahesh occupies the center of the complex. Chaurasi Temple Complex was built approximately in 7th century, although repairs of many temples have been carried out in later period.

Major temples here:

have been carried out in later period. Major temples here: Lakshana Devi Temple (Lakhna Devi/Bhadrakali): The

Lakshana Devi Temple (Lakhna Devi/Bhadrakali): The temple of Lakshana Devi is the oldest temple at Chaurasi Temple Bharmour.

It retains many of the old architectural features of wooden temples

and has richly carved entrance. It is said to be constructed by Raja Maru Varman (680 AD). Durga is represented here in her aspect of four armed Mahishasuramardini, the slayer of the demon Mahishasura.

Manimahesh (Shiva) Temple: Manimahesh temple which stands in the centre of Chaurasi temple, is main temple, enshrining

a huge Shiva linga. The Shiva linga is nothing but a symbol of

characteristic mark of lord Shiva and is worshiped in a symbol.

Narsingh (Narasimha) Temple: Narasimha (Sanskrit: Narsingh)

or Nrusimha, also spelled as Narasingh whose name literally translates from Sanskrit as “Man-lion”. Narasimha is an incarnation

of Vishnu in which the god is represented in therianthropic form

as half man and half lion. The bronze image of this god, which is exquisitely cast, is awe-inspiring.

The Manimahesh Temple On the main entrance and the prime temple of the complex. The Mani like this, can be seen once in a lifetime when there are no clouds over the main Kailash Parvat

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Chaurasi Temple

Parvat 28/ 2 8 / Places to See ► Chaurasi Temple There are 84 big and

There are 84 big and small temples in Chaurasi temple complex. Chaurasi is a spacious level ground in center of Bharmour where the galaxy of temples mostly in the form of Shivlingas exists. The Chaurasi Temple Complex offers a delightful, clean and a scenic view. Another temple built in the same style is that of Lord Vishnu cast in his Narsimha avatar.

style is that of Lord Vishnu cast in his Narsimha avatar. The Chaurasi Comples Lord Nandi
style is that of Lord Vishnu cast in his Narsimha avatar. The Chaurasi Comples Lord Nandi
style is that of Lord Vishnu cast in his Narsimha avatar. The Chaurasi Comples Lord Nandi

The Chaurasi Comples

Lord Nandi Bull Temple: The life size metal bull Nandi, locally known as Nandigan with the broken ear and tail can be seen standing in a modern shed in front of Manimahesh temple. Nandi is chief of Ganesh and Shiva’s foremost attendant, who had shape of the bull and qualities of noble devotee.

Usually in front of Shiva temples the Shilpa Texts provide for a couchant bull paced outside and staring at his lord Shiva. But here we have a life size Nandi bull standing on all fours (legs). ‘Visnudharmotra Purana’, however describes of such Nandi bull, as representing solidity and stability of dharma.

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Places to See

Dharmeshvar Mahadev (Dharamraj) Temple: Dharamraj, known as Dharmeshvar mahadev was given a seat on the northern corner of Chaurasi by Maru Varman. It is the belief of locals that every departed soul stands here to seek final permission of Dharamraj to proceed ahead and travels through this temple after death seeking dwelling in Shiva Loka. It is believed to be the court of Dharamraj and is locally called ‘dhai-podi’, which means two and half steps.

Ganesh or Ganpati Temple: Lord Ganesha temple is situated near the entrance of Chaurasi temple, Bharmour. The temple was constructed by the rulers of the Varman dynasty as stated in an inscription erected in the temple, by Meru Verman in circa 7th century A.D. The wooden temple of ganesha was probably set on fire in Kira invasion of Bharmour and image was mutilated by cutting off legs. The temple of Ganesha is enshrined in a bronze image of Ganesha. This magnificent image is life size with both legs missing.

Myths And Legends

image is life size with both legs missing. Myths And Legends Vishnu Avatar ► At the

Vishnu Avatar At the entrance and in around the temples, one can see Stone crafts all around the place

the temples, one can see Stone crafts all around the place It is believed the land

It is believed the land was firstly watched by goddess Bharmani Devi. One day 84 Siddhas, who had come from Kurukshetra, were passing through Bharmour to visit Manimahesh along with Lord Shiva. He asked Bharmani Devi if they could take shelter for the night at Bharmour. Bharmani Devi allowed them but the next day when she woke up she saw smoke and fire. She saw that the 84 siddhas had settled on her land. Angry at this trespassing she ordered Shiva and the siddhas to get out of the place as she believed that now the people would pray to Lord Shiva and her level of importance would fall.

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of importance would fall. 3 0 / 30/ Places to See Shiva importuned in all his

Shiva importuned in all his humility and to console Bharmani Devi he said "whoever comes to Manimahesh first had to take a dip in the pool of Bharmani Devi then only the yatra will be completed”. To this Bharmani Devi went to the ridge of Bhudhal valley and from there at any point no one can see the Chaurasi temple. Lord Shiva left but the 84 siddhas transformed themselves into 84 Shivlingas as they fell in love with the calmness of Bharmour and reconciled to meditate here.

Chhatrari Temple

Bharmour and reconciled to meditate here. Chhatrari Temple Shiv Shakti Mataji Temple It is a famous
Bharmour and reconciled to meditate here. Chhatrari Temple Shiv Shakti Mataji Temple It is a famous

Shiv Shakti Mataji Temple

to meditate here. Chhatrari Temple Shiv Shakti Mataji Temple It is a famous historical temple of

It is a famous historical temple of Shiv Shakti Mataji

which is constructed by King Meru Var-man in 7th Century. It is generally located 6 km apart from Luna village situated above the Ravi. This temple is more than 100 years old. The specialty of this temple was

it was made by a person with one hand. There are

no nail used in this temple. The walls of the temple are engraved by Hindu mythological folk tales that is ‘’Krishna Leela’.Also a fair is celebrated in which low caste people of the society wear masks known

as “khappar bhudde” and sit in a chariot and take a round of the city. To protect them the pundits use a type of itching grass and surround the char-iot forming

a barrier.

The Story

grass and surround the char-iot forming a barrier. The Story Once upon a time the ruling

Once upon a time the ruling Meru king of Chhatrari had a dream that a spiritual power existed in the forest belonging to his kingdom and a temple has to be constructed there. So, he calls for an artisan named Goga from Medhi village and cuts his one hand, to challenge the artisan for his skill. When the temple’s construction was at the verge of completion, the artisan falls and dies.

The Shrine There is a variety of intricate and sub-dued wood-work all over the temple premises

The Shrine There is a variety of intricate and sub-dued wood-work all over the temple premises

The Shrine There is a variety of intricate and sub-dued wood-work all over the temple premises

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Places to See

Architecture

Though old, the tradition of India has also incorporated modern values as it steps towards being a modern nation state. As the country became more integrated with the world’s economy, traditional Vastu Shastra remains influential in India’s architecture during the contemporary era. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. A number of Indian architectural features one of which is temple spire or sikhara have become famous symbols of Asian culture. Thus we can say that architecture of a given place to a great extent reflects human knowledge and requirements, culture, art and expression of that place at a given time. Architecture reflects society, it tells stories of the past history.

► The Wooden Palace Houses like these go upto third floor as well, all made up
► The Wooden Palace Houses like these go upto third floor as well, all made up

The Wooden Palace

Houses like these go upto third floor as well, all made up of wood

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Architecture

Houses

well, all made up of wood 34/ Architecture H o u s e s The traditional

The traditional dwelling which have evolved over the ages of Himachal Pradesh have been influenced by these factors:

Climatic response to the environment. Cultural pattern of the inhabitants. Adaptability of the house according to the social lifestyle. Locally available construction material.

Bharmour signifies a locally rooted, thriving culture, symbolic of the notion of Himalayan life and living processes. Its built environment reflects this refined state in all its expressional aspects. Hints of change and shifts in this apparently stable system have begun.

The housing type, cluster formations, constructional systems are all nature-based responses to a very large extent. Community preferences vary with physical conditions. Also, it is an earthquake prone area. As Bharmour is a town at a very high altitude and large amount of snowfall, these all factors are given utmost importance while designing and construction.

• Windows are huge and beautifully carved.

• Sloped roofs so that the snow does not stay

• Vivid use of wood as the chief material

• Old houses had a single thick long tree as the beam for the whole construction

• The panels in walls are made in a special way in which blocks of

cement and wood are fitted in a specific manner that makes the house

earthquake resistant. The old houses had a feature worth noticing in self-made long wooden nails with the help of which these blocks were joined.

• The roofs are mostly made with stacking the locally available stones

that are cut flat. It is called “chinnayi”. Without any actually joining, just with the perfect placement the roof becomes sustainable.

• According the locals, the so called Pakka houses cannot survive the

harsh weather conditions during the snow fall.

• Most of the villages or settlements are at hill tops and it requires an uphill walk of about 1-2 km to reach. The main reason to this is that those locations are best suited to grow apples.

Bharmour is endowed with a repertoire of iconic structures, refined domestic vernacular, articu-lated open space, environmental assets, and an evolved cultural system reflective of the identity and character of a tribal Himalayan society.

Peek-A-Boo Most of the houses are as old as of 50 years!

character of a tribal Himalayan society. Peek-A-Boo Most of the houses are as old as of

Architecture

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► ► ► ► Temples The Chaurasi temple square in Bharmour was identified as one of
► ► ► ► Temples The Chaurasi temple square in Bharmour was identified as one of

Temples

► ► ► ► Temples The Chaurasi temple square in Bharmour was identified as one of

The Chaurasi temple square in Bharmour was identified as one of its most vital assets both in terms of physical and social significance. Detailed studies on Chaurasi revealed the complex juxtaposition of a diverse range of form, functions and activities. These at one level comprised and defined the place as the nucleus of the settlement. It is a unique example of community-oriented public architecture. Most of the shrines in Chaurasi are built influenced from the Shikhara style of architecture as it is best suited for higher altitudes and areas with high snow-fall for which a tower like conical formation is built of stone and decorated with carvings.

The tallest temple in the whole complex is of Manimahesh built in Shikhara style of architecture. This monumental temple with high beehive shikhara bearing no sculptures on the outer surface is of middle Pratihara type. The temple has a Shiva lingam on a raised platform. The other temple in Shikhara style is of Narsimha. Lord Vishnu in his avtar as Nar Singh has been cast vividly. Even the less significant temples of the Chaurasi are wonders in terms of their architecture and detailing.

One of the oldest temples in the area is that of Lakshna Devi. This temple is made in the hill style with gable roofs and rubble masonry. The outer facade, the inner facade of sanctum, circum ambulatory path and the ceiling are exquisitely carved. The idol of Lakshna Devi in her incarnation as Mahisasurmardini is magnificent.

Devi in her incarnation as Mahisasurmardini is magnificent. The Vishnu Temple These delicate stone craft have
Devi in her incarnation as Mahisasurmardini is magnificent. The Vishnu Temple These delicate stone craft have
Devi in her incarnation as Mahisasurmardini is magnificent. The Vishnu Temple These delicate stone craft have

The Vishnu Temple These delicate stone craft have been applied on the outer surface of the temples throughout

Around the central core of Chaurasi lies an intricate

weave of some of the finest manifestations of Himalayan vernacular architecture reflected through the traditional residential fabric surrounding the space. Laid in accordance with topographical conditions and social groupings, this inter-woven fabric of domestic spaces and dwellings depict the refined evolution of community-based constructional wisdom and collective aesthetics.

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Architecture

The Lion Intricate wood works can be seen along the Chaurasi Temple Complex

wood works can be seen along the Chaurasi Temple Complex Chaurasi Temple The front architecture of
wood works can be seen along the Chaurasi Temple Complex Chaurasi Temple The front architecture of
wood works can be seen along the Chaurasi Temple Complex Chaurasi Temple The front architecture of
wood works can be seen along the Chaurasi Temple Complex Chaurasi Temple The front architecture of
wood works can be seen along the Chaurasi Temple Complex Chaurasi Temple The front architecture of
wood works can be seen along the Chaurasi Temple Complex Chaurasi Temple The front architecture of
wood works can be seen along the Chaurasi Temple Complex Chaurasi Temple The front architecture of
wood works can be seen along the Chaurasi Temple Complex Chaurasi Temple The front architecture of

Chaurasi Temple

The front architecture of the temple in Shikhara Style

Chaurasi Temple Another style of architecture in the complex

The Shrine Intricate wood work

in the complex The Shrine Intricate wood work ► Do You Know? Most of the houses
in the complex The Shrine Intricate wood work ► Do You Know? Most of the houses

Do You Know? Most of the houses are built with a combination of Wood and Concrete blocking and also Stone Slabs on the top to keep the atmosphere equal irrespective of the weather outside.

Architecture

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The

Gaddi

Tribe

► Do You Know? The Gaddi people sometimes have to walk for around 14-15 km just

Do You Know? The Gaddi people sometimes have to walk for around 14-15 km just to get fresh grass for their herds! That’s why most of the people are so vivid and lively!

The Gaddi On the Bharmani Devi way

vivid and lively! The Gaddi ► On the Bharmani Devi way 40/ Gaddi Tribe Origin The

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Gaddi Tribe

The Gaddi ► On the Bharmani Devi way 40/ Gaddi Tribe Origin The origin of the
The Gaddi ► On the Bharmani Devi way 40/ Gaddi Tribe Origin The origin of the
The Gaddi ► On the Bharmani Devi way 40/ Gaddi Tribe Origin The origin of the

Origin

The origin of the Gaddis is rather unclear and they themselves believe that their ancestors fled from plains of India due to the lack of security. During that period the persecution of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb forced them to move to more protected area. According to research of anthropologists the origin of these tribes has a rich history behind the development of tribal community India.

The fact about their origination lies in the popular myths in whole state of Himachal Pradesh. It is believed that the Rajput - Chauhan Gaddies emigrated to Bharmour from Rajasthan. The history confirms that Gaddi Rajputs migrated from Lahore to this place in order to avoid religious persecution.

There are several castes of Gaddis Tribal Society namely Khatri, Brahmin, Dhangar, Rajput, Thakur & Rana. The people here are usually oriented towards religion and even spiritualism. Both Hindu and Islam religions customs are practiced by huge population of Gaddi Tribal Community. Most of them worship Lord Shiva and also celebrate Shivratri festival with pomp and show. Gaddis go round and round in circles as they dance to the tune of music and drums. The hip hop goes as the dream beat increases till the foot is tired. Gaddis have mix of cultures some of Islam and other of Hindus. The most important thing for any Gaddi Tribe is the 25 yards long strand that is tied to their wrist worn by both men and women which serves as the symbol of the Tribe.

Culture

The Old Recital At the Chatrari Temple, one can find people of all ages and sharing their daily commute

Recital At the Chatrari Temple, one can find people of all ages and sharing their daily

Gaddi Tribe \41

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Festivals Baishakhi: Baisakhi or ‘Bisu’ is celebrated on the 1st of month of mid- April

Festivals

Festivals Baishakhi: Baisakhi or ‘Bisu’ is celebrated on the 1st of month of mid- April “Baisakh”

Baishakhi: Baisakhi or ‘Bisu’ is celebrated on the 1st of month of mid- April “Baisakh” by the people of Gaddi Tribe. They take cakes of Bhares and wheat flour on this day.

Sair: “Sair” is celebrated by Gaddi Tribe with great enthusiasm on 1st of Asuj (Sept-Oct) month. Meat is eaten and some even take “Sur” (homemade beer) & Babrus of wheat flour are eaten with variety of vegetables. All of them go to their relatives, specially married daughters visit their parents. This day is considered as the end of rainy season. And new clothes are purchased for this occasion.

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Gaddi Tribe

Patroru Sagrand: “Patroru Sagrand” is celebrated by Gaddi Tribe on 1st of Bhadon (August-September) month. On this day `Kachalu leaves’ roled with `Besan’ (gram dal flour) are fried in oil and Babrus is even eaten on this day.

Lohri: “Lohri” is also celebrated by Gaddi Tribes. `Khichari’ of rice and Mashed Dal is eaten with Desi Ghee and curd on this day.

Shivratri: favourite festival of Gaddis is Shivaratri as it is associated with Lord Shiva in the month of Phalgun (Feb-March). Some Gaddi Tribe keeps fast and cereals are not taken by many persons.

Manimahesh fair is the best occasion to see and study the custom and rituals of the Gaddis as it is their largest affair of the year.

of the Gaddis as it is their largest affair of the year. Habitat Earlier, Gaddis are
of the Gaddis as it is their largest affair of the year. Habitat Earlier, Gaddis are

Habitat

Gaddis as it is their largest affair of the year. Habitat Earlier, Gaddis are known to

Earlier, Gaddis are known to have occupied one of the most inhospitable geographic regions in the world - highlands in the shadows of the mighty Dhauladhar and the Middle Himalayas - but over the last century they have also made lower areas in Himachal Pradesh their home. There are still a lot of Gaddi hamlets hidden in the shadows of the mighty mountains that have not fallen on the path of an outsider, except the ‘adventurous’ ones.

The peculiarity of Gaddi Tribe is their Khanabadosh Nature, they are Gypsies in true nature as they always travel to the pastures along their flocks. These particular tribes are not nomadic in strictest of sense as they already have villages where they reside. Still they do make their way to higher pastures in the summer season with their flocks. Gaddis are found in the Dhauladhar Range of the state. Some of the Gaddis dwell in Bharmour Region of Chamba District, near the higher regions of Ravi River and valleys of Budhil River.

Tailoring Smiles

Local people are always cherished when tourists arrive, especially with a camera!

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Gaddi Tribe

► People Gaddi tribes have strict moral values to which they try to stick always in

People

► People Gaddi tribes have strict moral values to which they try to stick always in

Gaddi tribes have strict moral values to which they try to stick always in even in the worst of circumstances. Indian Anthropologists have also observed that Gaddis are highly esteemed for their honesty, friendly disposition and peaceful lifestyle. Crime is rarely found in this community. Most of the Gaddi tribe is non-vegetarian and they even consume goat milk. In the earlier days child marriages and polygamy were mainly in practice but with the change in lifestyle the community has also grown up educationally.

Profession

the community has also grown up educationally. Profession In order to meet their day to day

In order to meet their day to day expenses and living, Gaddi have taken up many occupational acitivities. The occupation of Gaddis mainly is shepherding. They make their livelihood by rearing and selling sheeps, goats, mules and horses. Apart from it the community even has farmers, weavers and tinkers ( a mender of metal household utensil) also. In earlier times, Gaddi people indulged into crushing of millets and carrying of loads to make a living for themselves.

Language

carrying of loads to make a living for themselves. Language Majority of Gaddi Tribe speak the

Majority of Gaddi Tribe speak the Gaddi Language but for writ- ing they use Takri Language. But now the Devangiri script is in vogue. Due to the impact of modern day culture the Gaddi Tribal have now mastered the Hindi Language.

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Gaddi Tribe

Tribal have now mastered the Hindi Language. 44/ Gaddi Tribe Spreading Smiles The serene lifestyle of
Tribal have now mastered the Hindi Language. 44/ Gaddi Tribe Spreading Smiles The serene lifestyle of

Spreading Smiles

The serene lifestyle of the Gaddi Tribe reflects on her face

The Gaddi Smoking among both males and females is considered a part of their culture

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46/ Costume & Jewellery

4 6 / Costume & Jewellery Costume and Jewellery It can be safely said that the

Costume and Jewellery

4 6 / Costume & Jewellery Costume and Jewellery It can be safely said that the

It can be safely said that the Gaddis are better shepherds than farmers. Bharmour has extreme weather and rough terrains and so are the Gaddis residing in this area. This is well reflected in their distinctive style of dressing. Another fact very clearly reflected in their costumes is their faith and belief in Lord Shiva. The Gaddis are not nomadic in its strict sense as they have villag-es in which they reside but they travel to higher mountains of Lahaul in summers and lower hills near plains in winters with their flock of sheep and goats. Their dresses are best suited for this activity and might have been designed or evolved keeping all this in mind. Though the clothing pattern is going through change with the passage of time, yet some traditional clothing remains an indispensable part of special occasions such as marriages and festivals such as the Manimahesh Yatra even today.

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Costume & Jewellery

► ► Traditional Attire Although it being a tradition, now-a-days people prefer to wear modern suits

Traditional Attire Although it being a tradition, now-a-days people prefer to wear modern suits more

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Costume & Jewellery

Traditional Women’s Wear

more 48/ Costume & Jewellery Traditional Women’s Wear Female costume consists of luanchardi, dora along with

Female costume consists of luanchardi, dora along with a dupatta with frill, called gothan wala gundu. This attire is worn over

regular clothes i.e. salwar suit. It required 20 m of fabric to make

a

luanchari. Complete luanchri reaches down to the ankles and

is

made with a special pattern and design. Traditionally luanchrdi

was made in a single color with 108 panels and was called swaj. The present day luanchrdi has a maximum of 36 panels and has

a fall mostly in green/blue called sanjap which is around 8 inches wide and is folded in a manner that one inch can be seen on the outside. Piping is done commonly in white and yellow over this visible part of sanjap and is called gaala.

Dora

over this visible part of sanjap and is called gaala. Dora Dora is the most important

Dora is the most important part of the dress as it is worn over ‘Chola’ or ‘Luanchari’ around the waist. The maximum weight of the dora is 2 kg which is worn by adult males. The ‘Dora’ of adult woman weighs in be-tween 1 to 2 kg, whereas the `dora’ of a child is about half kilogram. The maximum length of a traditional dora can run up to 40 feet and is around 2 cm thick.

It is made of sheep wool yarn through the manual process of

continuous compression in a special container locally called okhli or kund filled with water. This process is called “mandhna”. It is usually black in colour. It can take days to prepare a dora. It is worn due to a number of reasons. It is used as saddle for carrying the load on the back. It keeps the waist erect specially while climbing up the hills. Small articles like leather pouch of tobacco, flute and money bag are tied in it. This is also used as pillow especially during journeys. It has a reli-gious touch to it as well because the Gaddi’s take it as a sign of ‘Lord Shiva”.

In fact the traditional Gaddi costumes are believed to be the replicas of the divine clothing of Lord Shiva and Parvati

replicas of the divine clothing of Lord Shiva and Parvati The Launchardi Mostly worn on special

The Launchardi

Mostly worn on special ocassions now-a-days

Say Cheese! A group of women wearing the traditional dress

Cheese! ► A group of women wearing the traditional dress Materials Traditionally the pattern of luanchardi

Materials

A group of women wearing the traditional dress Materials Traditionally the pattern of luanchardi was made

Traditionally the pattern of luanchardi was made in the hand-spun material and was also called chola. Lu-anchardi on the other hand is made of two fabrics: contrast plain yolks which are mostly in velvet and the printed lower flair whose material can vary from cotton to other fabrics that can be easily sourced from the lo-cal market. The laces used for the embellishment of the garment are also self-made from fabrics and threads. Men’s cholu or even coats are made from hand spun home-made fabric i.e. Patti. Mostly people make their own fab-ric and get it stitched from the local but skilled tailors.

Techniques

it stitched from the local but skilled tailors. Techniques No special sewing machines or threads are

No special sewing machines or threads are required to stitch these traditional costumes but it takes special skills to stitch a luanchardi because of its unique pattern and even higher levels of expertise to stitch a chola as it is made of hand-spun fabric and hence is thick and has coarse texture. Chola is hand stitched and yarn threads are used at times.

is thick and has coarse texture. Chola is hand stitched and yarn threads are used at

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Costume & Jewellery

► ► Traditional Men’s Wear Traditional male Gaddis wear Chola (or Cholu) which is a long
► ► Traditional Men’s Wear Traditional male Gaddis wear Chola (or Cholu) which is a long
► ► Traditional Men’s Wear Traditional male Gaddis wear Chola (or Cholu) which is a long

Traditional Men’s Wear

► ► Traditional Men’s Wear Traditional male Gaddis wear Chola (or Cholu) which is a long

Traditional male Gaddis wear Chola (or Cholu) which is a long loose woolen dress up to their knees and tied round the waist with several rounds of Dora. The Chola is made from patti (hand spun woolen cloth) and is stitched in such a way that Gaddis during migration can keep new born lambs in their ‘Chola’. ‘Chola’ is also used as bedding during the long journeys. Special design of the ‘Chola’ is made of wool as it is believed to be the dress of Lord Shiva. Legs generally used to be kept naked by men earlier. But now “Suthan” or “Pyjama” is worn on certain oc- casions especially on marriages etc. This “Pyjama” or “Suthan” is made of cotton or woolen fabric (also called ‘Un-ali-suthan’) which is loose above the knees and tight after that. A loose shirt “Kurti” is worn by men under “Cho-la”. This “Kurti” or “Kurta” is also made of cotton.

Both cap and turban are used to cover the head by the males. The most common topi (cap) is made of woollen piece of cloth and is a round one which is 5 to 6 inches in height.

The Tight Getup

A student wearing the traditional attire

The Tight Getup A student wearing the traditional attire Back Side Front Side ◄ Pattern of
The Tight Getup A student wearing the traditional attire Back Side Front Side ◄ Pattern of
The Tight Getup A student wearing the traditional attire Back Side Front Side ◄ Pattern of

Back Side

Getup A student wearing the traditional attire Back Side Front Side ◄ Pattern of a Male

Front Side

student wearing the traditional attire Back Side Front Side ◄ Pattern of a Male Choli 12
student wearing the traditional attire Back Side Front Side ◄ Pattern of a Male Choli 12

Pattern of a Male Choli 12 Panels are attached on the either sides

Chain Stitch used for the lower fold

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Costume & Jewellery

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Costume & Jewellery


► ► ► Ornaments Chakk or Chonk: It is put in the top/back portion of the
► ► ► Ornaments Chakk or Chonk: It is put in the top/back portion of the

Ornaments

► ► ► Ornaments Chakk or Chonk: It is put in the top/back portion of the

Chakk or Chonk: It is put in the top/back portion of the head. It is conical in shape. It has two small round structures called chakdi in uniform size attached with silver strings. These are fixed on both sides of the main part after mounting it over the head. It is also considered sign of a married lady.

Gojru: Gojru are silver bracelets with narrow width and are worn in pair. Chanderhar: It is a big sized necklace made up of silvers with mina work over it. It is worn in marriag-es and fairs. It is worn with Chola-dora and can be worn with a salvarkamij as well. On marriage groom also wears chanderhaar.

Malka-ke-Rupaon-ki-Mala: Gaddi women wore necklaces of silver rupee coins with the em-blem of Queen Victoria (also the literal meaning of the name). Many necklaces were just coins of 4 Annas and 8 Annas of pure silver.

Chiri: Chiri is worn on forehead and is fixed with the help of strings. It is similar to mangtika and is im-portant ornament of a married lady. Toke: These are also flat silver bracelets but are wider as compared to gojru. Tokes are also worn in pair.

Pari: Pari is Payal (foot necklace). Worn on ankles usually made of silver. It makes loud sound while walk-ing. It is usually a symbol of the presence of a newlywed in the house.

Jhumka: Jhumkas are the ear rings which may vary in shape size and metal.

BeeniChakk: It is round in shape and fixed over the plait after combing hair properly. One loop and two strings are attached to fix the beenichakk.

Phullu: These are toe ornaments. These are of different shapes and sizes. Although these are worn by most of women, for newlyweds they are considered mandatory.

most of women, for newlyweds they are considered mandatory. Chandrahaar The necklace is made of silver

Chandrahaar The necklace is made of silver and has Meena work on it

The necklace is made of silver and has Meena work on it Gojroo Worn as bangles
The necklace is made of silver and has Meena work on it Gojroo Worn as bangles

Gojroo

Worn as bangles during wedding time

Meena work on it Gojroo Worn as bangles during wedding time Chakk Worn over the head

Chakk

Worn over the head

Fulli: Fulli is big sized nose pin made up of gold. It is round in shape and generally red colored stone is placed in the middle of fulli. It is also considered as the symbol of a married lady.

Balu: Balu is a big sized nose ring. It is made up of gold and may vary in shape and size. Traditional jewelry of Gaddis was handmade but now with new trends they go for machine worked jewelry as well.

Toke

Worn as bangles during wedding time

Head Ornaments: Chakk, Chiri, Jinjroo, Litki, Nam Tika, Clip

Ear Ornaments: Jhumke, Kante, Chhalka, Boonde, Bor, Bali, Pher

Hand and Arm Ornaments: Gojroo, Toke, Choorian, Kangnoo, Char Kangna, Thoti (of beads), Nag Band, AngothiBorWali, Angothi Nag Wali, AngothiBager Nag

Foot Ornaments: Tore, Jhanjar, Panjeb(Pari), Patadi(Pattari), Ghun Karl, Phuloo

Nose Ornaments: Balu, Besar, Phulli, Tilli, Blak, Long

Neck Ornaments: Gal Sari, Kapoor-ri-mala, Singi, Chamkali, Dhulsete, Chanderhaar, Malka-ke-Rupaon-ki-Mala, Jaun Mala, AthaniChawani- ri-Mala.

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Costume & Jewellery

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Costume & Jewellery

Handlooms

Handlooms Spinning and weaving is one of the basic livelihood that is deep rooted all over

Spinning and weaving is one of the basic livelihood that is deep rooted all over Himachal Pradesh. As Himachal Pradesh faces extreme cold winters the people are compelled to develop the craft of wool weaving and is being practiced over centuries. According to their traditional beliefs handlooms have become their necessity, their self-identity and a pattern of their daily routines.

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History First handlooms were just necessities. They were used for protecting the people from severe
History First handlooms were just necessities. They were used for protecting the people from severe

History

History First handlooms were just necessities. They were used for protecting the people from severe winters

First handlooms were just necessities. They were used for protecting the people from severe winters but soon the necessities became a commodity. Families started doing more and more of the craft to build status and ranking in the society. For example in marriages a person’s status and background is measured by the number of exchanges of handlooms.

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Handlooms

For many generations the craft was kept on practicing but soon modernization and globalization started replacing the inborn craft with materialistic things like money, car, houses etc. The practice of handloom is now just left in the backyard of the houses and is soon disappearing.

left in the backyard of the houses and is soon disappearing. Khaddi The traditional loom used

Khaddi

the backyard of the houses and is soon disappearing. Khaddi The traditional loom used for weaving

The traditional loom used for weaving blankets, pattu, chaddars is locally known as ‘Khaddi’ also known as ‘Khat’. Almost every house in this area have Khaddi and weave for personal use and sometimes commercially too. The width of Khaddi is 5 feet and the height is about 5 to 6 feet. The main parts of Khaddi are front beam, needles, shafts, shuttle, reed column and pedal shafts.

The front beam is where the woven fabric gets wrapped and is situated close to the weaver’s seat. The heedless or the harnesses which are connected to the shafts, placed in which every yarn gets its position and alignment. The heedless are made up of cotton threads .The shafts are the columns which differentiate each set of yarns. There are 4 shafts in Khaddis. The shuttles used in Khaddi are made of plastic and one end is closed. Yarns are either tied to it or stuffed inside it. The movement of shuttle is manual.

The reeds or the Kanghi is approximately 4 to 5 inches in height and it combs the wrap yarns, thus setting the weft insertion into a straight alignment. The back beam supports the wrap yarns and aligns them under tension. The wrap threads are taken to the top back loom and tied.

Tailoring Smiles

Local people are always cherished when tourists arrive, especially with a camera!

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Handlooms

The Process

The Process Step 1: Firstly they wash the sheep and after 2-3 days of drying, then
The Process Step 1: Firstly they wash the sheep and after 2-3 days of drying, then

Step 1:

Firstly they wash the sheep and after 2-3 days of drying, then the sheep is reared using large sized scissors/Shearer which is locally called ‘Kaatra’ or large electric shavers.

Step 2:

Then the wool is combed and spun on local charkhas to make yarn. To make the wool soft, the wool goes under ‘Panjal’ machine and then it is spun. The yarn is never dyed as a result of which the color of what is to be woven is the same as the color of the sheep. To make the yarn stronger, it is doubled by rotating over spindle.

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Handlooms

it is doubled by rotating over spindle. 58/ Handlooms ◄ A Traditional Worker An artisan working
it is doubled by rotating over spindle. 58/ Handlooms ◄ A Traditional Worker An artisan working

A Traditional Worker

An artisan working over the Khaddi

Step 3:

Weaving on Khaddi takes place. It has a paddle shaft mechanism; the paddles are attached to the shafts/heedles. The warp is made manually by winding it around the peg-stands placed at a distance as required. The drafting and denting is done by pulling the yarns manually by hands through the heedles and reed column respectively. The main weave employed in the weaving of the fabrics are plain and twill and the local name for the most common pattern is “dabbidaar” or chequered.

Step 4:

The woven specimen is then washed in “kund” for about 2 days as it makes the woven piece soft and light as it shrinks.

is then washed in “kund” for about 2 days as it makes the woven piece soft

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Handlooms

► Woven Woollen Products Gardu: Gardu, a blanket, which has black and white squares patterns formed

Woven Woollen Products

► Woven Woollen Products Gardu: Gardu, a blanket, which has black and white squares patterns formed

Gardu: Gardu, a blanket, which has black and white squares patterns formed alternatively. Cloth of 45 x 60 m width, called patti is made and then two pieces are joined together to broaden it. Its length is approxi- mately 5 to 5.5 m and width is 1 to 1.25 m. Possession of gardus is consid- ered as a status symbol of the Gaddi family. Gardu is considered so warm it protects Gaddi shepherds from both snow and rain.

Gardi: Gardi is a blanket of smaller in size and weighs lighter than Gardu. It is also having same pattern as that of Gardu but is smaller in size.

Dodh: It is generally of one colour, i.e. white or gray. It is almost equal in size and weighs that of the gardu. It can be decorated with the col-oured threads.

Patti: The Patti is a cloth woven in single colour, white or black and is nar- row in width, i.e. 45 x 60 m and length is approximately 5-6 m. It generally used to make coat, cholu (gent’s upper costume), suthan (gent’s lower costume), kurti, topi etc.

Shawls: Shawls are woven for both males and females but are of remark- able difference. The shawls made for males are of one colour and in black and white check, whereas shawls of females are woven in multicolored designs. Male shawls are large in size, heavy in weight as well as rough in texture as compared to female’s shawls. The size of female shawl is 2.5 X 1m, whereas male shawl is about 3X 1.5 m

Thobi: It is a carpet made up of goat hair is very rough, in texture but very durable. Its dimensions can vary according to the requirement of the users.

Thalch: Thalch is an intricate rope made from goat hair. It is generally 8-10 m in length.

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Handlooms

goat hair. It is generally 8-10 m in length. 60/ Handlooms Leap of faith Sheeps are

Leap of faith Sheeps are being washed a day before they are smeared for cutting wool

being washed a day before they are smeared for cutting wool ◄ Gardu Used for protection

Gardu

Used for protection from snow

for cutting wool ◄ Gardu Used for protection from snow Gardi ► Smaller in size but

Gardi Smaller in size but used for the same motive as of Gardu

Gardi ► Smaller in size but used for the same motive as of Gardu ◄ Shawls

Shawls

Used for regular purposes

Handlooms

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1 2 Spinning 1. Dhawani Devi Village Malkotta She makes yarns out of wool 2.
1
1
2
2

Spinning

1 2 Spinning 1. Dhawani Devi Village Malkotta She makes yarns out of wool 2. Guddi

1. Dhawani Devi Village Malkotta She makes yarns out of wool

2. Guddi Devi Village Malkotta She is the Daughter-in-law of Dhawani She is also does spinning.

Weaving

of Dhawani She is also does spinning. Weaving 1. Sunita Devi Village Malkotta She is doing

1. Sunita Devi Village Malkotta She is doing weaving from last 15 yrs.

2. Nihatu Devi Village Malkotta She does weaving as well as spinning. Phone: 01895-225599

3. Punni Devi Village Malkotta She does weaving. Phone: 8894533187, 9805722752

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1
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Handlooms

3
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6

4. Satya Devi Village malkotta Spinning as well as weaving

5. Bhagi Devi Village malkotta She does spinning as well as weaving

6. Pinky Devi Village malkotta She is the daughter in law of Bhagi devi She also does spinning as well as weaving.

7. Firoz Rana Village malkotta He is a weaver Phone: 9459836766

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7

Handlooms

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W
W

O O

dcrafts

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The Last Man to Carve The last skilled man to do wood carving in Bharmour
The Last Man to Carve The last skilled man to do wood carving in Bharmour
The Last Man to Carve The last skilled man to do wood carving in Bharmour

The Last Man to Carve

The Last Man to Carve The last skilled man to do wood carving in Bharmour is

The last skilled man to do wood carving in Bharmour is Jagiya, from Jagati village. A 66 year old craftsman who has been practicing wood work for 50 years now. He makes wooden spoons, combs, cups etc. He has made his own tools and uses a lathe machine for his craft. He teaches his craft to his son Kuldeep Kumar and to the neighborhood kids but no one has license to cut the wood like Jagiya has. The government has stopped issuing license for wood cutting hence no one practices the craft and buying wood is not financially viable. The problem he faces are that even though he used to go to the fairs with his products, the wood craft of other states were more developed hence his sale could not be counted. Also, due to financial problems he is now facing problems to even keep a shed above his head.

His age has become his enemy.

Woodcrafts

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above his head. His age has become his enemy. Woodcrafts \67 Materials and Techniques Deodar wood

Materials and Techniques

become his enemy. Woodcrafts \67 Materials and Techniques Deodar wood was chiefly employed for wooden architecture

Deodar wood was chiefly employed for wooden architecture of temples as well as local houses. Since it is water as well as oil proof it is used in making ‘diyas’. Deodar wood as it is considered scared is used in temples for worshiping and it has a strong fragrance.

Ghun a type of wood that can be dipped in pickles and doesn’t get affected. It also is used to makes glasses as it is believes it kills germs and good for digestion. It is their lifeline and is available in abundance in the surrounding forests.

Other variety of woods that are used in craft are Dhaun, Akhrot ki Lakdi, Pack, Sbetut.

Tools they use is regular chisels and regular lathes machines run either by hand or by motor. Some tools are made by the craftsman Jagiya himself, like “khuri shul” to give depth.

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Woodcrafts

► 6 8 / Woodcrafts A plethora of work Some of the woodcrafts done by the
► 6 8 / Woodcrafts A plethora of work Some of the woodcrafts done by the
► 6 8 / Woodcrafts A plethora of work Some of the woodcrafts done by the

68/ Woodcrafts

► 6 8 / Woodcrafts A plethora of work Some of the woodcrafts done by the
► 6 8 / Woodcrafts A plethora of work Some of the woodcrafts done by the

A plethora of work Some of the woodcrafts done by the artist, this includes spoon, brush and incense stand

1
1
2
2

Woodcarving Artisans

spoon, brush and incense stand 1 2 Woodcarving Artisans 1. Kuldeep Kumar ( He is the

1. Kuldeep Kumar (He is the Son of Jagiya) Village Jagti

2. Visnna Das (He is the brother of Jagiya) Village Jagti Phone: 93185007723

Woodwork Artisans

Jagiya) Village Jagti Phone: 93185007723 Woodwork Artisans 1. Pritam Chand Village Jagti 2. Chikun Ram (He

1. Pritam Chand Village Jagti

2. Chikun Ram (He is the brother of Pritam Chand) Village Jagti

1
1
2
2

Woodcrafts

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70/ Stone Carving

Stone Carving

70/ Stone Carving Stone Carving Stone carving is an ancient activity where pieces of rough natural

Stone carving is an ancient activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the con-trolled removal of stone. Owing to the permanence of the material, evidence can be found that even the earliest societies indulged in some form of stone work. The landscapes of Himachal Pradesh are dotted with numerous beautifully carved temples. The shrines at Bharmour and Chhatrari are exemplary of the superb creations in the medium dating back to the 7th- 13th centuries. Shaktidevi in Chhatrari and Lakhnadevi temple in Chaurasi in Bharmour is the mas-terpiece of the classical wooden architecture in entire Himalayan region. Most parts of this tem-ple are made of wood and stone. The undated inscription on the pedestal, records that it was built by an artist named Gugga on the order of King Meru Verman.

The legacy has carried on in this area though not very wide spread now as there are a very few people associated with this craft.

Stone Carving

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► ► Materials The local and easy availability of Khaddi pathhar makes it the most commonly
► ► Materials The local and easy availability of Khaddi pathhar makes it the most commonly

Materials

► ► Materials The local and easy availability of Khaddi pathhar makes it the most commonly

The local and easy availability of Khaddi pathhar makes it the most commonly used for carving in Bharmour. The main reasons for this are its apt properties. The stone is in complete control of the carver as the cut to be made is directly proportional to the force that is applied without any variations. Also, the stone does not wither away during the chiseling process. Labour is em-ployed to dig out the stone from the mountain and carry it to the workshop. The whole process of getting the raw material for the stone carving is cumbersome.

Techniques

raw material for the stone carving is cumbersome. Techniques The process starts from choosing a stone

The process starts from choosing a stone of an appropriate size which is normally a bit bigger than the final form to be given. The design is then sketched over the surface. The pieces that are now carved have relief only on one side and the rear side is flat. The larger chunks are then chiseled out with the help of chhiniya (chisels) and hammer. The intricate detailing is done with chhoti chhiniya. A new tool has been developed recently to make holes in the sculpture like nostrils or passage for flowing water in case of a fountain. This is lo-cally called Kruru. Other local tools that are used are dangu and behla. After the carving is done, the surface is made smooth by sand papers (no. 60, 80, 100, 400) and filers (locally called tesi and chosa) that are bought in from Chamba unlike the other tools that are either self-made or made by local blacksmiths. One filer can be used for only one sculpture as its rough surface then smoothens out. The same is then used as chisels by sharpening their front edge. The last step is of varnishing the work piece for finishing. It is not mandatory. The varnish is self-made by mixing the gum of an apricot tree with oil. Previously only mustard oil, locally called kauda tel was used. The sculpture after polishing become waterproof.

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Stone Carving

after polishing become waterproof. 72/ Stone Carving The Robot Stone works like these are now a
after polishing become waterproof. 72/ Stone Carving The Robot Stone works like these are now a

The Robot

Stone works like these are now a rare and is degrading day by day

Do You Know? According to a local tradition , In old times when a lady wasn’t able to give birth to a child the people of village instead of cursing her made a statue of the dead child and believed that the child is God himself and cannot be born into this mortal world .

is God himself and cannot be born into this mortal world . Krishna Most of the

Krishna

Most of the stone carving are made for temples and god figures are abundance

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Stone Carving

1 7 4 / Stone Carving Stone Carving Artisans Tara Ram: He is doing this
1 7 4 / Stone Carving Stone Carving Artisans Tara Ram: He is doing this
1
1

74/ Stone Carving

Stone Carving Artisans

1 7 4 / Stone Carving Stone Carving Artisans Tara Ram: He is doing this work

Tara Ram:

He is doing this work from last 50 years, his ancestors were also in this work, and he can replicate a person and make sculpture of the person as it is. Previously he used to send his work in trade fair but not now, because there was no profit and no government help. Ganesh ki murti made by Tara Ram, is there in shiv-shakti temple. Village: Chhatrari Phone: 9817550286

2
2

1. Jharam Singh:

Village: Jagti

2. Milaap Singh: He is doing stone carving for 40 years now. His father Bhagat Ram was also into this craft. Village: Jagti Contact: 98176489206

3. Krishan Singh: Brother of Milap Singh also does the same craft. Village: Jagti

4. Manjeet: 35 years old, he also does stone carving.

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Problems within Bharmour

Problems within Bharmour Why the craft is dying? Gaddi tribe’s craft is dying because the sheep

Why the craft is dying?

Gaddi tribe’s craft is dying because the sheep is of old times, hence the wool is hard and rough which is not suitable for skin and causes rashes. To avoid this the government started giving them chemicals to soften the wool, but due to the greed of money, people tend to sell their sheep’s and take money by saying that “It died because of their medicine” and took the insurance from the government.

But the government thought that when the same medicine can work in the New Zealand (same environment) then how they can die here, hence the government stopped putting efforts in the tribe and therefore the craft is dying.

Environmental issues:

No proper sanitation. Garbage dumping anywhere and everywhere. Water streams highly polluted. Dam leakage problems. Too much construction causing the land to weaken.

Government doesn’t support the people and their craft hence it has become very difficult for the artisans to earn their livelihood, therefore they don’t want their coming generations to learn this craft or come in this occupation.

Temples are not so well maintained by the authorities.

Local press doesn’t talk to common people.

Problems within Bharmour \77

Infographics 78/ \79 Infographics Infographics
Infographics
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\79
Infographics
Infographics
G l o s s a r y B K Barma – Type of chisels.

Glossary

G l o s s a r y B K Barma – Type of chisels. Kamncha

B

K

Barma – Type of chisels.

Kamncha – Wooden frame for lathe

L

C

Katra – Sharp edged tool to take out wool from sheep. Khurmani – Appricot.

Chaddar – Blanket. Chakdi – Chakk has two small round structures. Chakk or Chonk – Conical headgear. Chandrahar – Chandrahar is a necklace comprising five or seven rows

Kingari – Arrangement of pleating with double folded fabric. Kururu – Chisels used for making holes.

of facetted silver beads.

Luanchadi – Traditional wear for Gaddi’s women.

Charkha – Spinning wheel. Chiri – Mangtika

M

Cholu – Traditional wear constructed through hand spun fabric for men and women.

Malka- ki- rupaon-ki-mala – Silver rupee necklace Mandhana – Process of compessing the wool or threads.

Chhiniya – Tool used for wood carving and stone carving.

N

D

Nali – Bobbin.

Dangu and Bhela – Types of chisels. Dora – Belt used for tying cholu and luanchadi.

P

Dodh – Monocrome and made up of undyed yarn.

Pari – Payal. Patti – Woven in single colour.

G

Gaddi – Community involved in sheep rearing. Gardi – Smaller than gardu. Gardu – Gardu is a blanket. Gojru - Silver bracelets Gota – A trimming made of gold or silver threads. Gundu – Lace used for the edeges of the duptta.

J

Jhumka – Earrings.

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Glossary

S

Suthan – Pyjama. Swaz – Earlier version of Luanchadi used to be constructed with 108 pannels.

T

Toke – Silver bracelets worn in pair.

Bibliography

T Toke – Silver bracelets worn in pair. Bibliography Handmade in India Handicraft of Himachal Handcrafted

Handmade in India

Handicraft of Himachal

Handcrafted Indian textiles

Photographer’s eye

Tribes of India

Handmade in India Handicraft of Himachal Handcrafted Indian textiles Photographer’s eye Tribes of India \81 Bibliography

\81

Bibliography

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