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Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.c.

alternating current

AES

Auger electron spectroscopy

AFC

alkaline fuel cell

AFM

atomic force microscopy

AGM

adsorptive glass-mat

ALABC

Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium

AM

active mass

APU

auxiliary power unit

aq.

aqueous

ATR

autothermal reforming

BCI

Battery Council International

BESS

battery energy-storage system

BET

Brunauer-Emmet-Teller adsorption

BEV

battery electric vehicle

BMS

battery management system

BoP

balance-of-plant

BP

British Petroleum

1BS

monobasic lead sulfate, PbO.PbSO 4

3BS

tribasic lead sulfate, 3PbO.PbSO 4 .H 2 O

4BS

tetrabasic lead sulfate, 4PbO.PbSO 4

CAES

compressed-air energy storage

CAFE

corporate average fuel economy

CB

conduction band

CBM

coal-bed methane

CC

constant current

CCA

cold-cranking amps

CCGT

combined-cycle gas turbine

CCS

carbon capture and storage

CE

counter electrode

CFC

chlorofluorocarbon

CHP

combined heat and power

CMC

carboxymethyl cellulose

CNG

compressed natural gas

CNT

carbon nanotube

CoS

cast-on-strap

CSIRO

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

CSM

copper-stretch-metal

CUTE

Clean Urban Transport for Europe

CV

cyclic voltammetry; also: constant voltage

DAFC

DBFC

direct alcohol fuel cell direct borohydride fuel cell

d.c.

direct current

DCFC

direct carbon fuel cell

DEMS

differential electrochemical mass spectroscopy

DLC

double-layer capacitor

DMC

dimethyl carbonate

DMF

N,N-dimethylformamide

DMFC

direct methanol fuel cell

DoD

depth-of-discharge

DOE

Department of Energy (USA)

DSC

differential scanning calorimetry

DSK

double skeleton

DSSC

dye-sensitized solar cell

DST

dynamic stress test

EC

ethylene carbonate

ECE

Economic Commission for Europe

ELDC

electrochemical double-layer capacitor

EDX

energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

el

(subscript) electrical

emf

electromotive force

EO

ethylene oxide

EoL

end-of-life

EPA

Environmental Protection Authority

EPMA

electron probe microanalysis

EU

European Union

EV

electric vehicle

EXAFS

extended X-ray adsorption fine structure

FC

FCV

fuel cell fuel cell vehicle

FTIR

Fourier transform infra-red

FUDS

Federal Urban Drive Schedule

GDE

GDL

gas-diffusion electrode gas-diffusion layer

GDP

gross domestic product

GHG

greenhouse gas

GM

General Motors

GTL

gas-to-liquid

GTL

gas-to-liquids

GWP

global warming potential

HER

HEV

hydrogen evolution rate hybrid electric vehicle

HHV

higher heating value

HOR

hydrogen oxidation reaction

HTS high-temperature shift

IAHE International Association for Hydrogen Energy

IC intermittent charging

ICE Internal combustion engine

ICEV internal-combustion-engined vehicle

IEA International Energy Agency

IEC ion-exchange capacity; also: International Electrotechnical Commission

IGCC integrated gasification combined-cycle

IPCC Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change

IPHE International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy

IR infra-red

ISO International Standards Organization

IT information technology

l

LAB

LED

LEED

LH 2

LHV lower heating value

LMW low average molecular weight

LNG liquefied natural gas

LPG liquified petroleum gas

LTS low-temperature shift

liquid lead–acid battery light emitting diode low-energy electron diffraction liquid hydrogen

M

M

M

ox

red

metal redox mediator in oxidized state redox mediator in reduced state

MCFC

molten carbonate fuel cell

MCMB

mesophase carbon microbeads

MEA

membrane–electrode assembly

MH

metal hydride

MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MOF

metal–organic framework

MOSFET

metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor

MPP

maximum power point

MPV

multi-purpose vehicle

MS

mass spectroscopy

Mtoe

million tonne (of) oil equivalent

MWCNT

multi-wall carbon nanotube

NAM

negative active-mass

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA)

NASICON

Na (sodium) s uper ionic conductor

NEXAFS

near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy

NG

natural gas

NGL

natural gas liquids

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

NO x

nitrogen oxides

NTP

normal temperature (273.15 K) and pressure (101.325 kPa)

OECD

OCSM

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development copper-stretch-metal (battery grid technology)

OCV

open-circuit voltage

OEM

original equipment manufacturer

OER

oxygen evolution reaction

ORR

oxygen reduction reaction

OPV

organic (polymer-based) photovoltaic

OSHA

Occupational Safety & Heath Administration

PAAM

PAFC

polyacrylamide phosphoric acid fuel cell

PAM

positive active-mass

PAN

polyacrylonitrile

PBI

polybenzimidazol

PC

propylene carbonate

PCL

premature capacity loss

PCM

phase-change material

PCS

power-conditioning system

PE

polyethylene

PEC

photo-electrochemical

PEG

poly(ethylene glycol)

PEM

proton– exchange membrane; also : polymer electrolyte membrane

PEMFC

proton–exchange membrane fuel cell; also: polymer electrolyte

PEO

membrane fuel cell poly(ethylene oxide)

PF

pulverized fuel

PFC

perfluorocarbons

PG&E

Pacific Gas & Electric

PHR

power-to-heat ratio

PMMA

poly(methyl methacrylate)

POX

partial oxidation

PP

polypropylene

PPO

poly(propylene oxide)

PSoC

partial state-of-charge

PSoR

partial state-of-recharge

PSU

polysulfone

PTFE

polytetrafluoroethylene

PV

photovotaic

PVA

poly(vinyl alcohol)

PVC

poly(vinyl chloride)

PVD

physical vapour deposition

PVdF

poly(vinylidene fluoride)

PVP

polyvinylpyrolidone

PWM

pulse-width modulation

RAPS

remote-area power supply

RBSM

recombinant-battery separator mat (same as AGM)

RC

reserve capacity

RDE

rotating disk electrode

RE

reference electrode

rel. dens.

relative density

RFI

radio frequency interference

RH

relative humidity

RHE

reversible hydrogen electrode

RMS

root mean square

rpm

revolutions per minute

RRDE

rotating ring-disk electrode

s

solid

SAE

Society of Automotive Engineers

S:C

steam-to-carbon ratio

SCE

saturated calomel electrode; also: Southern California Edison

SCR

silicon controlled rectifier

SEM

scanning electron microscopy

SHE

standard hydrogen electrode

SIMS

secondary mass spectroscopy

SLI

starting, lighting and ignition

SI

Système International

SNL

Sandia National Laboratory

SoC

state-of-charge

SOFC

Solid oxide fuel cell

SoH

state-of-health

SO x

sulfur oxides

SPE

solid polymer electrolyte

SPEFC

solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell (same as PEMFC)

SR

steam reforming

STM

scanning tunnelling microscopy

STP

standard temperature (298.15 K) and pressure (101.325 kPa)

SULEV

super ultra low emission gasoline vehicles

SUV

sports utility vehicle

syngas

synthesis gas

TEM

TGA

transmission electron microscopy thermogravimetric analysis

th

(subscript) thermal

ToCV

top-of-charge voltage

UAV

UPS

unmanned aerial vehicle uninterruptible power supply

USABC

United States Advanced Battery Consortium

USCAR

United States Council for Automotive Research

UTC

United Technologies Corporation

VB

valence band

VPC

volts per cell

VRLA

valve-regulated lead–acid battery

WE

WGS

working electrode water-gas shift

XPS

XRD

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy X-ray diffraction

YSZ

yttrium-stabilized zirconia

ZEV

zero emission vehicle