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A
Report
on
ALLIED AREA TRAINING

(G.T., S.T., H.E., P.E.D.)

Under the guidance of:


Mrs.Y.V.Rama Lakshmi
Sr.Manager
T&C Engineering
(Compressor Engg)

Submitted by:
Miss Surbhi Aggarwal
ET/6119379
T&C Engineering
(Compressor Engg)

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED


Ramachandrapuram, Hyderabad 502 032

1.1 GAS TURBINE


BHEL Hyderabad is one of the Gas Turbine manufacturers in India; with the
state-of-art facilities in all areas of Gas Turbine manufacture provide
complete engineering in-house for meeting specific customer
requirement. With over 100 machines and cumulative fired hours of over
four million hours, BHEL Hyderabad has supplied gas turbines for variety of
applications in India and abroad. BHEL Hyderabad also has the worlds
largest experience of firing highly volatile naphtha fuel on heavy-duty gas
turbines.
Different models:
[i] Frame 1:
Output: 5070 KW
Heat Rate: 3311 Kcal/KWhr
Dimension: 5.8 X 2.5 X3.4 m
Weight: 18 tons
[ii] Frame 3:
Output: 10450 KW
Heat Rate: 3357 Kcal/KWhr
Dimension: 5.8 X 3.3 X3.8 m
Weight: 69 tons
[iii] Frame 5:
Output: 26300 KW
Heat Rate: 3022 Kcal/KWhr
Dimension: 11.6 X 3.3 X3.8m
Weight: 84 tons
[iv] Frame 6:
Output : 39620 KW
Heat Rate: 2515 Kcal/KWhr
Dimension: 11.6 X 3.3X3.8 m
Weight: 91 tons
[v] Frame 6 FA:
Output: 70140 KW
Heat Rate: 2515 Kcal/KWhr

Dimension: 12 X 5 X4.4 m
Weight: 110 tons
[vi] Frame 9 E:
Output : 12340 KW
Heat Rate: 2545 Kcal/KWhr
Dimension: 12.5 X 5 X5 m
Weight: 220 tons
1.2 STEAM TURBINE
BHEL Hyderabad has the capability to design, manufacture and commission
steam turbines of up to 125 MW rating for steam parameters ranging from
30 bars to 300 bars pressure and initial & reheat temperatures upto 600 0C.
Steam Turbines are manufactured under technical collaboration with
Siemens, Germany covering the whole rang of requirements for Drive,
Cogeneration, Captive Power, Utility and Combined Cycle applications.
BHEL Hyderabad is fully equipped to provide comprehensive service to
clients covering system engineering, equipment design, and turnkey erection
and commissioning.
Selection of Steam Turbine depends on the following:
Inlet Parameters
Exhaust Parameters
Power Requirements
Type of Extraction
Feasibility of the model
Proneness of the Model
High speed / Direct Drive
Cost Economics
Availability of Existing Material/Stock material
Delivery periods of the machine
Inlet Parameters:
Size of Inlet section depends on inlet parameters. The velocities in stop and
control valves have to be limited to ensure that pressure drop is with in
limits.(Generally the inlet pressure drop shall be limited to 5%).Selecting 2
stop valves (i.e. 2 inlets) if required, thus reducing the size of inlet section
thereby reducing the cost.H or N inlet section based on inlet pressure and
temperature.
Exhaust parameters:
Condensing or Back pressure turbine, Select suitable exhaust pressure based
on cooling water inlet temperature and maximum CW temperature rise

permitted. Sometimes the exhaust pressure is specified by customer. Select


suitable LP balding (for condensing turbine) for exhaust flow and exhaust
pressure selected above by pitching at optimal exhaust velocity. For back
pressure turbines, the exhaust section is decided based on exhaust velocity
through exhaust flange.
Power Requirements
Selection based on flow or power criterion, optimal selection is done to
ensure that best performance (Specific steam consumption/Heat rate), least
cost, best deliveries are achieved. The selection is done to ensure that the
turbine is capable of delivering the maximum power specified by customer
under all valves wide open condition.
Type of Extraction:
Controlled / Uncontrolled
For controlled extraction turbines, data required are:
- Extraction flows (Normal, min and max)
- Normal / Maximum flow through control valves.
- ZER (Zero Extraction Rating).

Type of Extraction:

Feasibility of the Model:


The offered model shall be rotor dynamically suitable. Most preferred: The
model is already offered for a similar rating. Documentation available with
BHEL.
Proneness of Model:

Specific requirement by some customers like EIL/NTPC Model shall be in


operation with similar parameters/rating.
High Speed/Direct drive:
Manufacturing cycle time is less for high speed turbines. High speed models
are offered upto 40 MW only.
Cost Economics:
Offered model shall be most cost competitive. Cost competitive models with
slightly inferior performance are some times offered to bag orders.
Usage of Available stock / material:
First priority is given while selecting steam turbine to offer best delivery
periods.
Steam Turbine Systems
Lube oil system
Steam &Drain system
Governing oil system
Condensate and evacuation system
Cooling water system
Controls &Instrumentation system
1.3 PIPING ENGG.
BHEL manufactures Seamless steel tubes for a wide spectrum of customers,
ranging from Power stations, Petro-chemicals, Oil & Gas, Refineries, Sugar
industries to Textile and Automobile manufacturers, as per National &
International standards.
BHEL's capabilities in the field of manufacture of quality seamless steel
tubes and pipes have been accorded recognition by reputed
National/International agencies. These include Indian Boiler Regulations
approval as a "Well known Tube maker and a Well known Pipe maker";
authorization by American Petroleum Institute, USA, to use their monogram
on products conforming to API 5L specification and the Lloyds Register of
Shipping, London, recognition as an "Approved Manufacturer of Steel
Tubes and Pipes". BHEL also received ISO 9002 accreditation from Bureau
Veritas Quality International (BVQI), London. BHEL ensures adherence to
the respective standards and also caters to specific customer requirements.
BHEL's in-built quality checks from raw material selection to finished
product ensures, each and every tube or pipe that rolls out is to meet various
codes, standards and customer requirements. Some of the quality checks on
finished tubes include the online-non-destructive tests (Eddy current/Stray
Flux/Ultrasonic Tests); Hydrostatic tests and Mechanical tests (Tensile,
Flattening, Flaring, Bend, and Hardness).

BHEL's sophisticated and unique facilities, manufacture both hot-finished


and cold-drawn seamless steel tubes and pipes - in Carbon and Low Alloy
steel grades. Seamless tubes and pipes of random or fixed lengths in a wide
range of sizes (outer diameters: 19mm to 133mm and wall thickness: 2mm
to 12.5mm) are offered. Edge preparation as per customer requirement is
also done. BHEL manufactures Seamless steel tubes and pipes, high
frequency Spirally Fin-Welded Tubes and Rifled Tubes. The BHEL
manufactured spiral finned tubes find extensive application in waste heat
recovery.
1.4 GENERATORS
BHEL presently has manufactured Turbo-Generators of ratings upto 560
MW and is in the process of going upto 250 MW. It has also the capability to
take up the gas based and combined cycle power generation as-well-as for
diverse industrial applications like Paper, Sugar, Cement, Petrochemical,
Fertilizers, Rayon Industries, etc. Based on proven designs and know-how
backed by over three decades of experience and accreditation of ISO 9001,
the Turbo-generator is a product of high-class workmanship and quality.
Adherence to stringent quality-checks at each stage has helped BHEL to
secure prestigious global orders in the recent past from Malaysia, Malta,
Cyprus, Oman, Iraq, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Saudi Arabia. The
successful completion of the various export projects in a record time is a
testimony of BHEL's performance.
(1) Small turbine generators: From 500 to about 2500 kW rated capacity,
turbine generators will usually be single stage, geared units without
extraction openings for either back pressure or condensing service.
Rated condensing pressures for single stage turbines range from 3 to 6
inches Hga. Exhaust pressures for back pressure units in cogeneration
service typically range from 15 psig to 250 psig.
(2) Intermediate turbine generators: From about 2500 to 10,000 kW rated
capacity, turbine generators will be either multi-stage, multi-valve
machines with two poles direct drive generators turning at 3600 rpm, or
high speed turbines with gear reducers may also be used in this size
range. Units are equipped with either uncontrolled or controlled
(automatic) extraction openings. Below 4000 kW, there will be one or
two openings with steam pressures up to 600 psig and 750F. From 4000
kW to 10,000 kW, turbines will be provided with two to four
uncontrolled extraction openings, or one or two automatic extraction
openings. These turbines would have initial steam conditions from 600

psig to 1250 psig, and 750F to 900F. Typical initial steam conditions
would be 600 psig, 825 For 850 psig, and 900F.
(3) Large turbine generators: In the capacity range 10,000 to 30,000 kW,
turbine generators will be direct drive, multi-stage, multi-valve units.
For electric power generator applications, from two to five uncontrolled
extraction openings will be required for feed water heating. In
cogeneration applications which include the provision of process or
heating steam along with power generation, one automatic extraction
opening will be required for each level of processor heating steam
pressure specified, along with uncontrolled extraction openings for feed
water heating. Initial steam conditions range up to 1450 psig and 950 F
with condensing pressures from 1 1/2 to 4 inches Hga.
1.5 Turbine Rotor Balancing
Since the turn of the century, steam turbine generators have earned an
enviable reputation for economy and reliability in converting heat energy to
electrical energy under the most exacting service conditions. BHEL provides
engineering expertise to meet the challenges imposed in the design,
assembly, and reliable operation of turbines of all sizes.
Capabilities include:
Nondestructive evaluation
Materials degradation studies
Remaining life assessment
Structural integrity analysis
Failure analysis
Materials evaluation and testing
Field hardness testing and replication
Vibration problem diagnosis
Telemetry testing
Vibration Control and Rotor Balancing
Using advanced techniques for field measurement, signal processing,
diagnostic analysis, and other predictive tools, BHEL can identify and solve
rotor, blade, and structural dynamics problems that put steam turbine
generators out of commission. These techniques are used to solve field
problems, while providing confidence at the design stage that turbine trains
will exhibit low vibration levels. Analysis of vibration problems with
rotating machinery and piping Steam turbine-generator rotor balancing
Custom design of instrumentation and components for special applications
Component testing of valves, pumps, pressure vessels, and instruments This

on-site impact modal analysis equipment measures blade resonance and


mode shapes. Shown here is a high pressure turbine rotor from a 580 MW
unit undergoing static blade resonance testing .A low power laser and system
continuously monitors changes in alignment between turbine and generator
to define and solve vibration problems caused by misalignment. A portable
spectrum analyzer is used in vibration surveys of turbine generator rotors.
BHEL regularly performs these surveys to assist in rotor balancing.

1.6.) Some other important systems in steam power plant:GLANDS& SEALING SYSTEMS:Glands and sealing systems are used on turbines to prevent
(or) reduce the leakage of steam (or)air between rotating and stationery
components that have a pressure difference across them.. e .g. where
the turbine shaft is extended through the cylinder end walls to the
atmosphere . When the cylinder pressure is higher than atmosphere
will be a general steam leakage outwards whilst if the cylinder
contains steam below atmosphere pressure there will be leakage of air
inwards and a sealing system must be used to prevent the air from
entering the cylinder and the condenser.
As most of the steam leakage from glands does not pass
through the turbine stages , a loss of power output is involved and
every effort is made to reduce this power loss by an efficient
arrangement of seals and glands. Three types of glands and seals are
in general use on steam turbines , the carbon ring gland and the
water seals. The first two glands act as restrictors to steam and air
leakage ,whilst the water seal will prevent all leakage of steam and
air. Pump glands are generally of the mechanical type .Clean water
flushing is provided to reduce the heavy wear that would otherwise
occur on startup after a lengthy shutdown. Conventional soft packing
glands are used on the older smaller cooling water pump design.
LUBRICATION SYSTEMS:Oil is required by the bearing in order to provide a continuous
oil wedge on which the shaft revolves , this requires only a small
quantity of oil .However shaft conductivity , surface friction and
turbulence set up in the oil produces considerable ,amount of heat and
in order to keep the bearing temperature constant at the desired level a

further quantity of oil is required to remove this heat. Oil is supplied


to the bearing at a pressure from 5 to 25 lb/in 2 gauge. This pressure is
required to ensure that the pressure in the upper part of the bearing
does not below atmosphere ,in which case discontinuities in the oil
film would form .On the other hand if the pressure is too high the oil
be sprayed out from the end of the bearing at a high velocity &will
become finally atomized. In the conditions the oil may easily escape from
the bearing house. The temperature of oil must be kept within certain limits.
If the oil temperature entering the bearing is too low , in sufficient
bearing lubrication will occur due to high velocity of the oil ,whilst if
the oil temperature on leaving the bearings too high, this will lead to
deterioration
of oil due to high rates of oxidation.
This
0
temperature of oil leaving the bearing is limited to 160 F .So that the
maximum temperature with the bearings not more than 160 0F and
required leaving temperature is achieved by adjusting the supply of oil
to each bearing .
OIL PUMPS:Types of oil pumps
Main oil pump
Auxiliary oil pump
Jacking oil pump
Emergency oil pump
MAIN OIL PUMP:The main oil pump is invariably driven from the turbine shaft,
either directly or through gears , to ensure maximum reliability .It
may also provide high pressure oil for the relay system at a pressure
of from 50 to 2000 lb/in 2 usually by raising all the oil to this pressure
the lubricating oil being drain off through a reduction valve .Although
this method is often adopted because of its simplicity and because
the relays automatically close the stop valve, if the lubricating oil
supply falls it is wasted of pumping energy. Some turbines use a
double gear pump having high and low pressure outputs, but on large
turbines it may be advantageous to employ to separate pumps.

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The normal type of pump used on turbines has been the gear
pump. This requires no priming and provides positive oil displacement but
must be driven from the shaft through reduction gear at about 400 RPM. The
pump has two or three meshing gears.
On large turbines the quantity of oil used makes it economically to
incorporate a centrifugal pump driven directly from turbine shaft. It is not
self priming and requires oil ejector to over come the suction head both
when starting and during running. When a separate governing hydraulic
systems is used the oil lubricating system may be simplified by the adoption
of ac motor driven centrifugal pumps. The pumps may be mounted directly
in the main oil tank with their inlets submerged below the oil level thus
obviating the need for an oil ejector.
AUXILLIARY PUMP:It is used for starting, stopping, and emergencies. It is sometimes
driven by a steam turbine, but for some years the tendency has been to use a
motor driven auxiliary pump feed with supply. The auxiliary pump is
automatically brought into operation by a relay when the oil pressure falls
below a certain value.
EMERGENCY OIL PUMP:It is invariably provided as a stand by the auxiliary pump. In the event
of a fault interrupting the normal station or unit supply the d. c. pump which
is fed from the station battery circuits in, thus ensuring the safety of the
bearing whilst the turbine is brought to rest.
JACKING OIL PUMP:Supply of very high pressure oil provided by a small capacity positive
displacement. Jacking oil is fed into the base of the bearings in sufficient
quantity to establish each oil film on which the heavy rotors may float at
very low speed of rotation, when the normal oil wedge would not be formed.
The presence of jacking oil film whilst the machine reduces the torque
required by the turbine motor and prevents the metal to metal contact
damaging the bearings.
HEAT EXCHANGERS: -

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A heat exchanger is any device used for affecting the process of heat
exchange between two fluids that are at different temperatures. A heat
exchanger in which two fluids exchange heat by coming in to direct contact
is called a direct contact heat exchanger. Example of this type is open feed
water heaters, de super heaters and jet condensers. The wall may be simple
plane wall or a tube or a complex configuration involving fins, baffles
and multiple passes of tubes. These units are called surface heat
exchangers, are more commonly used because they can be constructed
with large heat heat transfer surfaces in a relatively small volume and are
suitable for heating cooling, evaporating or condensing applications. A
periodic flow type of heat exchanger is called a regenerator. In this type of
heat exchanger, the same space is alternately occupied by the hot and cold
gases between which heat is exchanged. Regenerators find their application
in pre heaters for steam power plants, blast furnaces, oxygen producers etc.
TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS:Heat exchangers may be classified in several ways. One classification
is according to the fluid flow arrangement or the relative direction of the hot
and cold fluids. The fluids may be separated by a plane wall but more
commonly by a concentric tube(double pipe) arrangement. If both the
fluids move in the same direction, the arrangement is called a parallel flow
type. In the counter flow arrangement, the fluids move in parallel but in
opposite directions. In a double pipe heat exchanger, either the hot or cold
fluid occupies the annular space and the other fluids moves through the inner
pipe. Since both fluids streams traverse the exchanger only once, this
arrangement is called single pass heat exchanger.
Another flow configuration is one in which the fluids move at right angles
to each other through the heat exchanger. This type of arrangement is called
a cross flow type. When large quantities of heat are to be transferred, the
heat area requirement of the exchanger also becomes large. In this case
multiple pass arrangements can be used.

1.7.) Project Engineering Department (PED):The Project Engineering Department (PED) of BHEL Hyderabad
carries out system engineering for Gas turbine based power projects of the
following types:

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*Simple Cycle Plants covering Gas turbine units and their auxiliaries for
power generation.
*Cogeneration Plants covering Gas Turbines & Heat Recovery Steam
Generator (HRSG) for power and steam generation.
*Combined Cycle Plants covering gas turbines, HRSG and steam turbines
for combined power and steam generation.
PED carries out system engineering for the project, by integrating the
products supplied by the unit, sister units and Balance of Plant (BOP)
packages sourced from outside, along with facilities provided by the
customer to enable fulfillment of performance requirements of the plant. The
civil, mechanical, electrical and C&I scope of works connected with the
projects is broadly described below:
Civil sub group of PED :- This deals with civil engineering works for gas
turbine based power projects, steam turbine, compressor, oil and gas
processing projects. The scope of work varies depending on the type of
contract viz, where entire civil works from tendering to design execution are
included to specific equipment - based civil engineering design such as
foundation, structures for deaerators, pipe racks etc.
Mechanical sub group of PED:- This executes projects to meet specific
customer requirements with reference to steam parameters, fuel availability,
plant layouts etc for gas turbine based power projects and involves interface
engineering with customer/consultants, sister units of various suppliers and
other engineering groups within the unit.
Electrical subgroup of PED :- This carries out system engineering for gas
turbine based power projects specific to contract, right from hooking
up/drawing power from local grid to ensuring reliability of power supplies to
all equipments, catering to power plant auxiliaries and customer house loads.
This calls for an integrated approach wherein reliability, economics and
satisfactory operation are balanced optimally and involves interface
engineering as stated above.
C&I subgroup of PED :-The deals with various activities relevant with
Controls & Instrumentation System engineering, engineering of bought out
items, layouts preparation, interaction with sister units and also internal engg

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groups. Responsible for the Design of Control Philosophy for the overall
Plant in line with the customer specification requirements.
Contract closing subgroup of PED:-deals with contract closing issues like
closing of punch points raised by customer, supply of pending supplies,
generation of as built documents and commercial settlement for any balance
engineering items.
PED OBJECTIVES:To meet the Companys Quality policy and Quality objectives, the
following objectives are defined: Customer satisfaction through timely
execution of design documentation for BOP packages and system
engineering. This is ensured by: Customer documentation schedule aligned
to the Overall Project schedule. Critical documents submission within the
agreed schedule and clearance from customer obtained within 4-6 weeks of
submission so that downstream detailed engineering and procurement can
proceed smoothly. List of such documents /drgs are elaborated in the
description of activities of the respective disciplines. Revision of
documents / drawings incorporating customer comments within 4-6 weeks.
Satisfactory performance of the packages and products to meet
customer specifications including statutory and regulatory requirements.
This is ensured by: Procurement of bought out packages based on the
customer approved Vendor list. Submission of sizing criteria/ calculations to
the customer and obtaining approvals as per agreed documentation schedule.
Review of purchase specifications for ensuring the incorporation of project
specific requirements. Settlement of Vendor specific deviations with the
customer for critical packages. Updating of Package purchase specifications
to meet customers present and future requirements. This is ensured by
incorporation of the following into the procurement specs and sizing
documents: Project specific requirements. Clear terminal points with
specific details, for packages covering hookups with customer facilities.
Contract stipulated margins in sizing, wherever packages are to cater to the
customers non-power plant requirements also. Outcome of the completed
improvement projects.