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# Stress Transformation

## GENERAL EQUATIONS OF PLANESTRESS TRANSFORMATION

SignConvention
Positivenormalstressesx andy actsoutwardfromallfaces.
Positiveshearstressxy actsupwardontherighthandfaceoftheelement.

Theorientationoftheinclinedplaneisdeterminedusingtheangle.
Establishapositivexandyaxesusingtherighthandrule.
Angleispositiveifitmovescounterclockwisefromthe+x axistothe+xaxis.
y

## Normal and shear stress components

Sectionelementasshown.
AssumesectionedareaisA.
Freebodydiagramofelementisshown.

Applyequationsofforceequilibriumtodetermineunknownstresscomponents

Simplifytheabovetwoequationsusingtrigonometricidentities:
sin2= 2 sincos
sin2= (1 cos2)/2
cos2=(1+cos2)/2

Normalandshearstresscomponentsare:
y

(1)
(2)
Thenormalstresscomponentycanbeobtainedbysubstituting=+90o intox
expression,then:
(3)
5

The stress transformation equations show that if the state of stress (x, y and xy)
at a point is known, we can calculate the stresses that act on any plane passing
through that point.
From the expressions of normal stress components, one obtains:
x + y = x + y
(4)
How to obtain the Inclined Angle
y
y

=30o

=135o

## Example (1): State of stress at a point is represented by the element shown.

Determine the state of stress at the point on another element orientated 30clockwise
from the position shown.

x = -80 MPa
y = 50 MPa

xy = -25 MPa
=30o (or330o)

80 50 80 50

## cos 60 ( 25) sin( 60) 25.85 MPa

2
2

80 50 80 50

cos 60 ( 25) sin( 60) 4.15 MPa
2
2

80 50
x y
sin 60 ( 25) cos( 60) 68.80 MPa
2

Problem 1: Determine the normal stress and shear stress acting on the inclined plane
AB. Solve the problem using the stress transformation equations. Show the result on
the sectioned element.

Trytosolvethis
problem

InPlanePrincipalStressesandPrincipalPlanes
The maximum and minimum normal stresses (1 and 2) at a point are called the
principal stresses at that point. The planes on which the principal stresses act are
referred to as the principal planes. The directions that are perpendicular to the
principal planes are called the principal directions. The values of the angle that
define the principal directions are found from the condition dx/d=0. If we use
the expression for x from equation (1), this condition becomes:
x y
d x
2
sin 2 2 xy cos2 0
2
d

tan 2 p

2 xy

x y

(5)

Equation (5) yields two solutions for 2p that differ by 180o. If we denote one
solution by 2p1, the second solution is 2p2 = 2p1+180o. Then, the two principal
directions differ by 90o.
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sin2p andcos2pcanbeobtainedas:

sin 2 p xy

x y
2

xy
2

x y
cos 2 p

(7)

x y
2

xy
2
2 p

x y
2

xy
2

xy

(8)

x y

Substitutingtheaboveexpressionsintoequation(1),yields:

1,2

x y

2

x y
2

xy
2

(9)

## wherethemaximumandminimuminplaneprincipalstresses1 (ormax )and2(ormin )

actontheprincipalplanesdefinedbyp1 andp2,respectively,notethat1 2.
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The shear stresses acting on the principal planes are obtained by substituting equations (78)
into equation (2). The result is:

x y

xy
2
x y
x y

xy
xy
sin2 xy cos2

2
2
2 x y 2 2
2

x y xy
xy
2

Itcanbeseenthatxy=0.Thatmeansthereisnoshearstressactsontheprincipalplanes (p1
andp2).

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MaximumInPlaneShearStress
The largest magnitude of xy at a point, denoted by max, is called the maximum inplane
shear stress. The values of that define the planes of maximum inplane shear are found
from the equation dxy/d=0, where xy is given in equation (2). Setting the derivative equal
to zero and solving for the angle give:
d xy
x y
x y cos2 2 xy sin 2 0

d
2

xy
2 S1
x y
(10)
tan 2 S
2 xy
2
S2

Thetworootsofthisequation,S1and
trianglesasshown.

x y

xy

Theplanesformaximumshearstresscanbedeterminedbyorientinganelement
45fromthepositionofanelementthatdefinestheplaneofprincipalstress.
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Fromtriangleshown:

sin2 S x y

x y
2

xy
2

and cos2 S xy

x y
2

xy
2

Substitutingtheaboveexpressionsintoequation(2),themaximuminplaneshearstressis:
2

x y
1 2
2
max

xy
2
2
in plane

Thenormalstressesactingontheplanesof
maximuminplaneshearstressarefoundby
substitutingtheexpressionsofsin2 andcos2
intoequation(1)as:

avg

x y
2

(12)

(11)

avg

max
inplane

avg
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Examples
Example(1): Findtheprincipalstressesandtheprincipaldirectionsforthestateofplanestressgivenin

Solution:
x=8000,y=4000andxy=3000.

1,2

x y

2

x y
2

xy
2

1 1 2 xy
p1 tan
x y
2

8000 4000

15

isused:

x y x y

cos2 y sin2
2
2

## 8000 4000 8000 4000

cos 2 28.2 3000 sin 2 28.2 9605.6 1
2
2

whichisequalto1.Thentheprincipalplaneanglep1 is
associatedwithmaximumprincipalstress1.

Notethatthereisnoshearstressontheprincipalplanes.

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UseMohrsCircleforPlaneStress:
x:(x,xy)=(8000,3000)
y:(y,xy)=(4000,3000)

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Example (2): For the state of plane stress shown in the figure, determine (i) the principal stresses and the
principal directions, (ii) the maximum inplane shear stress and the planes on which it acts. Show the results on
sketches of elements aligned with the planes of principal stresses and maximum inplane shear stress.
Solution: x=40MPa,y=100MPaandxy=50MPa.

1,2

x y

2

x y

2
xy

1 56 and 2 116
2
1
xy
1
p1 tan
y
2
x

## tan 1 2 ( 50) 17.8o

40 100

p 2 90 o ( 17.8) o 72.2 o
Tocheckwhichofthetwoanglesisp1 (associatedwith1)andwhichisp2 (associatedwith2),equation(2)is
used:

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x y x y

cos2 y sin2
2
2

40 100 40 100

cos 35.6 50 sin35.6 56.0 1
2 2

2=-116MPa
p2=72.2o

Sincex =56.0MPa=1,thentheprincipalplaneangle
p1=17.8o isrelatedtomaximumprincipalstress1.
p1=17.8o
x
1=56.0MPa

MaximumInplaneShearStress:

m ax
in p lan e

1 2
2

56 116
86 M P a
2

Theorientationofplanesthatcarrythemaximuminplaneshearstressareas:

1
S1 tan 1
2

x y

2 xy

2

100

## S 2 90o 27.23o 117.23o

19

Todeterminethedirectionsofthemaximuminplaneshearstressesonthesidesoftheelement,wemustfind
thesignoftheshearstressononeoftheplanes.BysubstitutingS1=27.23o intoequation(2):
x y
sin2 xy cos2
2

xy

40 (100)

sin2 27.23 50 cos 2 27.23 86.0MPa
2

Thenegativesignindicatesthattheshearstressonthepositive
xfaceactsinthenegativeydirection,asshowninthefigure.
Thenormalaveragestressesactingontheelementarecomputedas:
x y 40 ( 100)

30.0MPa (comp)
2
2

avg

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UseMohrsCircleforPlaneStress:
x:(x,xy)=(40,50)
y:(y,xy)=(100,50)

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Problems
Problem(1):Thestateofstressatapointisshownwithrespecttothexyaxes.Determinetheequivalent
axes.
(a)

(b)

Problem(2):Forthestateofstressshown,determinetheprincipalstressesandtheprincipaldirections.Show

(a)

(b)
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Problem(3):Forthestateofstressshown,determinethemaximuminplaneshearstress.Showtheresults

(a)

(b)

Problem(4):Forthestateofstressshown,usingtheMohrscircledetermine(a)theprincipalstresses;and
(b)themaximuminplaneshearstress.Showtheresultsonproperlyorientedelements.

(i)

(ii)

PreparedbyDr.MohammedAliHjaji
MechanicalandIndustrialEngineeringDepartment,OfficeL105;Emails:mahjaji@hotmail.com orm.hjaji@me.uot.edu.ly
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SolvedProblems
Example(1):Thestateofplanestressatapointwithrespecttothexyaxesisshowninthefigure.Determinetheequivalentstate