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ENDANGERED LANDSCAPES

WHY LANDSCAPES OF THE PAST ARE IMPORTANT FOR THE FUTURE

BY:
NAMITHA SC
(LA 514)
KUMAR RAHUL VERMA
(LA 522)
N
D
T
H
2
YEAR, 4
SEMESTER,
DEPTT. OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE: NEW DELHI

METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO
ENDANGERED
LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE
INDIAN
LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION

THREATS TO
VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES
(GLOBAL &
CHANGE FACTORS)

CONSERVATION
ACROSS
LANDSCAPE

CONCLUSIONS

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION

UNDERSTANDING THE TERM LANDSCAPE


"Landscape" means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of
the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors.

INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF PROTECTION

Landscape is not defined by its sizes but defined by an interacting mosaic of


ecosystems relevant to some phenomenon under consideration. Thus landscape can
THREATS TO VALUABLE
be called as an area of land containing an interesting pattern of ecological processes.
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

Landscapes and their associated ecosystems are shaped by complex and interrelated
THREATS TO VALUABLE biological, geological and hydrological responses to both natural and cultural
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
influences.
CHANGEFACTORS)
Source: The European Landscape Convention.
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Source:
http://www.wwfindia.org/about_wwf/critical_regions/khangchendzonga_landscape/about_khangchendzonga/

Indias Khangchendzonga Landscape

METHODOLOGY

UNDERSTANDING THE CHANGES INDUCED IN LANDSCAPE

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

The cultural changes such as population


increase, growing social complexity and
technological
capacities
constantly
altering the human relationship with their
environment.

The environmental itself can change


sometimes independently. Eg. climate
change, sea level rise and spread of plant
and animal diseases this again are
interlinked by the human activities.

This changes restructure the landscape


gradually.

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

The constant relationship between the


human and its habitat leads to continuous
process of landscape change. This may be
due to cultural changes or environmental
changes.

An example of habitat fragmentation


sourced from sunyjcc.edu

METHODOLOGY

LANDSCAPE CHANGES OVER TIME

INTRODUCTION

HISTORIC LANDSCAPE PRACTICES


In the earlier times, the landuse system of the farmers were relatively stable owing to
the practices and beliefs evolved to maintain some equilibrium with the landscape
THREATS TO VALUABLE
and involving concepts of landscape conservation.
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF PROTECTION

CHANGEFACTORS)

INDUSTRIAL ERA
THREATS TO VALUABLE Post industrial era differs form pre industrial era in terms of increasing ability to
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
destroy the environment and showing little concern towards the long term problems
CHANGEFACTORS)
that may occur.
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

CONTEMPORARY TRENDS
Increasing urbanization, industrialization, intensive scientific farming and improved
communications are leading to cultural standardization
and landscape
homogenization. but in many places the use of landscape resources are determined
by the cultural and the landscape heritage rooted in the distant past. The perspective
landscape ecology in this case can be extremely helpful for landscape management
The past can be extremely helpful to understand the present and to evaluate the
modern trends and the impacts of the future policy proposals especially those aiming
to bring about the transition to sustainable landuse pattern.

METHODOLOGY

DESIGNED LANDSCAPES

INTRODUCTION

In any artificially created landscapes, human activities still do not override the
ecological processes. Rather they are channeled towards a culturally preferred
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF PROTECTION outcome which may not be stable or sustainable in the long run. The land use
practices have very often been continued to the verge of ecological breakdown and
THREATS TO VALUABLE
have resulted in transformations in succession on the cultural landscapes
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

source: Bryn green and William Vos, Threatened Landscapes.


THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY

ENDANGERED LANDSCAPES INDIAN CONTEXT

India has a wide


range of ecosystems
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
and
habitats,
WORTHY OF
including
forests,
PROTECTION
wetlands, grasslands,
THREATS TO VALUABLE
coasts, marshes and
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
deserts. Almost all
CHANGEFACTORS)
the major ecosystem
types in the world
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
can be found in India.
INTRODUCTION

CHANGEFACTORS)

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

It is one of the 17
megadiverse
countries
and
accounts for around
eight percent of the
faunal and 11 percent
of the worlds floral
species.

METHODOLOGY

ENDANGERED LANDSCAPES INDIA CONTEXT

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

INDIAS

BIOGEOGRAPHIC

ZONES

TransHimalaya

this zone includes high altitude cold and arid mountain areas, including cold
deserts.
An extension of the Tibetan Plateau, this zone has sparse alpine steppe vegetation.

Himalaya

Consisting of the entire Himalayan mountain range, has alpine and sub-alpine
forests, grassy meadows and moist deciduous forests.

Desert

This arid zone falls west of the Aravali hill range and comprises both the salt and
sand deserts of northwestern India.
This zone also includes large expanses of grasslands that support several
endangered species

Semi-Arid

This zone also has several lakes and marshlands.


The grasses and palatable shrub layer of this zone support the highest wildlife
biomass.

Western
Ghats

Western Ghats is a mountain range running along the western coast of peninsular
India, from Tapti River in the north to Kanyakumari in the south.
This zone supports tropical evergreen forests

METHODOLOGY

ENDANGERED LANDSCAPES INDIA CONTEXT

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

INDIAS

BIOGEOGRAPHIC

ZONES

Deccan
Peninsula

This is the largest zone and it supports some of the finest forests in India

Gangetic
Plain

Flanking the river Ganga and its tributaries, the Gangetic Plain zone extends up to
the Himalayan foothills in the north.
.

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE

Coasts

The coastal zone covers beaches, mangroves, mud flats, coral reefs and marine
angiosperm pastures. Sundarbans shared with Bangladesh is the largest
contiguous mangrove area in the world.

CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

NorthEast

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS

Characterized by diverse habitats and long-term geological stability, the North-East


zone is located at the junction of the Indian, Indo-Malayan and Indo-Chinese
biogeographical regions, it is considered a gateway for much of Indias flora and
fauna..

Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands have some of Indias finest tropical evergreen
moist forests and show high degree of endemism in flora and fauna.
The Lakshadweep Islands having a biodiversity-rich reef lagoon system are also
included in this zone.

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY

ENDANGERED LANDSCAPES INDIA CONTEXT

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

TWO KEY LANDSCAPES

Eastern
Himalayas

Western
Ghats

- BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS

The Eastern Himalayas landscape is spread over India, Nepal, Bhutan and China.
The landscape is considered an important centre of speciation of several plant
families.
It has wild relatives of many plants of economic importance, viz., rice, banana,
tea, citrus plants, chilli, jute and sugarcane

The Western Ghats is a mountain range that runs along the west coast of India.
It has a number of forest ecosystems including the tropical wet evergreen,
montane evergreen and moist deciduous forests.
The Shola grasslands found in the higher reaches are unique to this landscape.
The Western Ghats landscape is an important centre of speciation and
endemism.

METHODOLOGY

GOBAL CHANGE FACTORS:

The key global threats confronting Indias landscapes


Rising Temperatures
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
Rising Sea Level
INTRODUCTION

WORTHY OF
PROTECTION

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS

RISING TEMPERATURES

SEA LEVEL RISE:

Coastal sea level rise will change shoreline boundaries, ground water salinity,
saturation level, tidal flat coverage and other coastal conditions that will affect
wetland dependent species.

Increase in sea level also sifts the forest boundaries.

CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Climate is an important environmental influence on ecosystems.


Climate strongly influences the kinds of organisms that have adapted to each
ecosystem.
Global warming could force species to migrate to higher latitudes or higher
elevations where temperatures are more conducive to their survival.
Overall climate pattern changes, including changes in precipitation negatively
impact breeding and nesting habits.
Increase drought in some areas and flooding in others, alter competition patterns
in species and pose other problems.
Forested areas may become vulnerable to erosion if climate change leads to
increases in heavy rain storms.

METHODOLOGY

IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CHANGE FACTORS

Location and Relief:


Latitude & Altitiude
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
Distance from Sea
WORTHY OF
Distribution of land and water
PROTECTION

Air pressure and wind:


Surface pressure and wind
Upper air circulation
Western Cyclones

INTRODUCTION

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

FOREST
FIRE

FLOOD

SPREAD OF
TROPICAL
DISEASES

MELTING
OF ICE
SEA LEVEL
RISE

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

RISE
IN
TEMPERATURE

INCREASE IN
GREEN HOUSE
GASES

EXCESSIVE
SUN
STROKE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

TSUNAMI &
EARTHQUAKE

FOOD
SCARCITY

LOSS OF
BIODIVERSITY

SINKING
COAST

METHODOLOGY

THREATS
Indias valuable landscape faces a range of direct and indirect threats. The magnitude
INTRODUCTION
of these threats is very high, with as many as a third of all endemic species (faunal as
INDIAN LANDSCAPES well as floral) facing the threat of extinction.
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION

LOCAL CHANGE FACTORS:


The key local threats confronting Indias landscapes
THREATS TO VALUABLE 1) Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation;
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
2) Unsustainable use and overexploitation;
CHANGEFACTORS)
3) Pollution;
THREATS TO VALUABLE 4) Invasive alien species.
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

The gharials habitat has been drastically These illustrations compare an area (A) that has
altered in many places due to sand mining.
wildlife corridors linking habitat with an area (B)
where habitat is fragmented and has limited wildlife
corridors.

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY

I D E N T I F Y I N G T H R E AT E N E D L A N D S C A P E S

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

All the land cannot be given equal priority for protection, management and
planning.

Selection of territory is important to use the latest techniques on environmental


management in resource and landuse.

An universally accepted hierarchical classification of landscapes on the basis of


species, biotopes etc. are essential to envisage the areas of nature reserves or
wildlife.

Finally endangered landscape are identified on the basis of a systemic inventory


of all regional and national landscape.

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

SURVEY
To facilitate research into the landscape trends, particularly to be able to predict the
future of a landscape and to substantiate the threats to the landscape.

The inventories and multi temporal analysis need to be carried out.

Thus complete landscape survey would include the following.

1. A widely accepted typology of landscape.


2. Systematic inventory of landscape features.
3. Regular inventory to monitor change.

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION

L A N D S C A P E A P P R E C I AT I O N
Landscape appreciation is very subjective topic as the idea of beauty could not be the
same as other.

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholders.


Plato

The idea of beauty may be tall cliff for one while it could be countryside for
another.

Thus the evaluation of landscapes become very difficult.

CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

Most of the people enjoy particular kind of landscape which gives them more
pleasure.

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS

Thats is why it is very difficult to define however , there are certain qualities that
have been found to exist in the landscapes .

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE

CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION

THERE ARE CERTAIN QUALITIES THAT HAVE BEEN FOUND TO EXIST IN LANDSCAPES
AND HAVE BEEN UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTED TO CATEGORIZE THE LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF PROTECTION

The characteristics like coherence, cultural identity, accessibility, safety, security


are difficult to define and measure but extremely important for evaluation.

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

The other features are rarity and diversity which helps in landscape evaluation.

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

Diversity is the very key element in ecological evaluations, but despite of the
global trends towards species and landscape uniformity, high diversity doesnt not
necessarily impart high value in landscape.

The criterions for diversity are genetic diversity, habitat diversity or regional
landscape diversity.

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Ex: A grassland may have a lesser biodiversity than a forest, it could be at loss. Thus,
what is important is the mixture of habitats which would then increase the regional
diversity.

METHODOLOGY

EVALUATION

The concept of endangered landscape is based on the approach which is very


objective and based on the value judgements at different stages of the decision
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
making process.
WORTHY OF
INTRODUCTION

PROTECTION

Evaluation is based on the two aspects.

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

1. Is there a threat or likelihood that the landscape may be threatened?


2. Is the landscape worth conserving?

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

Answers to this questions determine the landscape that need to probed


into. These can help to determine which landscapes are most cherished and
where the slightest disturbance can be cause of concern.

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

The landscape can be threatened by causes like modern agricultural practices


involving great loss of features such as hedgerows or lowering of the water table
due to drainage.

If the features like the count of species or the biodiversity is noted then the threats
can be easily determined.

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

EVALUATION METHODOLOGIES

MONETARY EVALUATION

Landscape planners are not only interested in the landscape evaluation as a means
of comparing different landscape with one another in order to decide on priorities
for their protection or to monitor change.

Comparing different landscape is done through number of sieve maps and


number surface analysis techniques of Mc Harg (1969).

To ascertain the potential land uses which might most appropriately occupy
particular piece of territory.

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Agriculture
Silviculture
Hydrological
Recreational
Wildlife
Scenic value are commonly compared in this process

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION

EVALUATION METHODOLOGIES
A common denominator is therefore required and this usually is the mischievous
quantifies i.e. money.

INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION

AGRICULTURE, SILVICULTURE, HYDROLOGICAL, RECREATIONAL, WILDLIFE, SCENIC VALUE


MONEY

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Recent approaches attempt to use actual monitory measures or estimates.

Travel cost methods: calculate how much money is spent in reaching the site.

Contingent valuation method: uses market research to estimate how much people
are willing to pay .

All these methods can give some idea of the actual use value.

Only contingent valuation can give estimates of the option value of the benefits of
the environmental goods at some future time or for existence value.
Ex: some people may never see but still cherish.

METHODOLOGY

STEPS FOR CONSERVATION

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION

LANDSCAPE CONSERVATION

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

IN SITU

EX SITU

Protected Area Network

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Sacred
Grooves
Sacred
lakes

Biosphere
reserves

Terrestrial

National Parks
Wildlife
sanctuaries

Marine

Seed banks
Sacred
plants Field gene banks
Home Cryopreservation
gardens

Botanical
gardens
Arborata
Zoological
gardens
Aqueria

METHODOLOGY

PROTECTED AREA

According to the
International
INDIAN LANDSCAPES Union for
WORTHY OF
Conservation of
PROTECTION
Nature (IUCN), a
THREATS TO VALUABLE protected area is :
INTRODUCTION

LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

a geographically
defined area which
THREATS TO VALUABLE
is designated or
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
regulated and
CHANGEFACTORS)
managed to
CONSERVATION
achieve specific
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
conservation
objectives.
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREAS IN INDIA


Unlike the IUCN classification India has its own nomenclature for protected areas:

National Park:

This category accords the highest degree of protection to an


area that has unique ecological, faunal, floral,
geomorphological, natural or zoological significance, and is
declared a National Park for the purpose of protecting,
propagating or developing wildlife or its environment.

Wildlife Sanctuary:

A Wildlife Sanctuary is an area with ecological, faunal, floral,


geomorphological, natural or zoological significance, which is
protected for the purpose of propagating or developing wildlife
or its environment.

Conservation Reserve:

This category of protected areas is declared in any area owned


by the state government, particularly those adjacent to
National Parks and Sanctuaries, and those that link one
protected area with another for the purpose of protecting
landscapes, seascapes, flora and fauna and
their habitat. Conservation Reserves are declared after
extensive prior consultations with local communities.

Community Reserve:

These areas are declared by the state government on any


private or community land, where an individual or community
has volunteered
to conserve wildlife and its habitat for the purpose of
protecting fauna, flora and traditional or cultural conservation
values and practices.

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY

MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS


Each protected area in India is managed as per a management plan.
INTRODUCTION
One of the approaches emphasized in management planning is the adoption of a
INDIAN LANDSCAPES core-buffer strategy.
WORTHY OF
While core areas are largely inviolate,
PROTECTION
coexistence is promoted in buffer areas.
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

The buffer area is a multiple-use area with 2 objectives:


1) To supplement habitat for wild animals that spill over from the core area
THREATS TO VALUABLE
2) To provide site specific eco development inputs for surrounding villages to reduce
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
their impact on the core.
CHANGEFACTORS)
Connecting the protected areas to create network so that habitat allows wildlife to
CONSERVATION
pass more safely .
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION

CONSERVATION EFFORTS IN INDIA OVER TIME

The notion of protected spaces in India dates back to 300 BCE, for example,
Kautilyas Arthashastra, an ancient Indian text, refers to Abhayaranyas or forest
refuges.

In the colonial era, several wildlife-rich areas were designated as protected areas.
These included

INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

o
o
o
o

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary (1858),


Kaziranga National Park (1916),
Kanha (Banjar Valley, 1933) and
Corbett (Hailey National Park, 1936).

At the time of Indias independence, there was no central legislation on protected


areas. The Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act, 1912 accorded some protection
to the birds and animals specified in the Schedule to the Act.

Initially, when the Indian Constitution came into effect in 1950, little attention was
given to detail out environment protection.

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION

CONSERVATION EFFORTS IN INDIA OVER TIME

In 1976, protection of forests and wildlife found a place in the Directive Principles
of the State Policy 'the Right to Life' has served the cause of environmental
protection.

In 1980 An important dimension was added to forest conservation in the form of


the Forest Conservation Act, to regulate the diversion of forestland for non-forest
purposes.

In 1986 The National Environmental Protection Act, (Environment Impact


Assessment Notification), makes it mandatory to seek environmental clearance for
infrastructural development.

2002 recently passed Biological Diversity Act, provides for conservation of


biological diversity,
sustainable use of its components and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of
the use of biological resources including agro biodiversity.

INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

CASE STUDIES

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

1. TERAI ARC LANDSCAPE (TAL)

2. WESTERN GHATS

METHODOLOGY

TAL-TERAI ARC LANDSCAPE

The Terai-Duar Savanna Ecoregion is spread over the southern slope of the Himalaya
spreading across India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. In India and Nepal, the
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
ecoregion is represented by the TAL, a green necklace around the foothills of the
WORTHY OF
Himalaya along the border of the two countries from the river Bagmati in the east to
PROTECTION
the Yamuna in the west.
INTRODUCTION

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY

ECOLOGICAL CONTEXT:

It has surviving remnants of alluvial grassland and forest ecosystem.


There are 13 existing Protected Areas (PAs) that fall within this Terai landscape in
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
which 9 protected areas falls under Indian boundary.
WORTHY OF
In India, the landscape represents the upper Gangetic plain biogeographic zone
PROTECTION
and the vegetation is mainly tropical moist and dry deciduous type.
THREATS TO VALUABLE The landscape is also home to some of Asia's largest and most well-known wildlife
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
such as tigers, elephants and rhinos along with a large variety of other rare,
CHANGEFACTORS)
endangered and endemic wildlife species.
INTRODUCTION

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

http://www.wwfindia.org/about_wwf/critical_regions/terai_arc_landscape/about_terai_arc_landscape

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION

ECOLOGICAL CONTEXT:
Vegetation structure is highly heterogeneous throughout the landscape.

INDIAN LANDSCAPES Predominant species :


WORTHY OF
Tall grasses :
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

Mallotus philippensis
Lagerstroemia parviflora.
Themeda
Saccharum
Phragmites,
Vetiveria

Economically important trees :


Teak, shishoo, eucalyptus, acacia, poplar and several
THREATS TO VALUABLE
others also characterize the terai portion of the
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
landscape.
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
Aerial view of Terai plains near Biratnagar, Nepal
SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terai#mediaviewer/File:Terai_nepal.jpg

METHODOLOGY

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT

INTRODUCTION

The Indian side of the TAL has a complex history of human settlement and land use
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
by the communities.
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS

About 70% area of the landscape is under direct human use for agriculture and
settlements.

The pastoral Gujjar people rear a large number of livestock, mostly buffaloes, for
milk production. earn their livelihood by selling milk and milk products in the
nearby market .
Another group of people called the taungyas who were engaged in timber (sal)
plantations in forests.
Owing to high soil fertility replenished naturally by the sediments brought down by
numerous rivers originating in the Himalaya, intensive agriculture is practiced by a
large number of people inhabiting the landscape.

CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

A sizeable section of the society is heavily dependent on the forests for fuel wood,
fodder and timber apart from livestock grazing.

METHODOLOGY

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Rice field of terai landscape during October


Source: http://www.adventurewomen.com/adventure-vacation/nepal-2014/

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION

THE PROTECTED AREAS OF TAL INDIA


The landscape in India is mainly spread over three states viz., Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh (UP)
and Bihar from west to east.

THREATS TO VALUABLE

LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Rajaji National Park

Kishanpur WLS

Suhelwa WLS

Sonanadi WLS

Dudhwa National Park

Sohagibarwa WLS

Corbett National Park

Katarniaghat WLS

ValmikiNational Park and Valmiki Sanctuary

METHODOLOGY

THREATS

INTRODUCTION

Most important factors affecting the terai arc landscape are


INDIAN LANDSCAPES 1. Habitat Fragmentation
WORTHY OF
2. Biological Invasion
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

1. Major factors responsible for the fragmentation are:

Burgeoning human population (and therefore the escalating pressure for


THREATS TO VALUABLE
resources),
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
changed socio-economic scenario (e.g., changed lifestyle of the Gujjars and Khatta
CHANGEFACTORS)
holders; therefore overgrazing, over cutting of firewood, timber and fodder
CONSERVATION
species),
ACROSS LANDSCAPE Encroachment of forest lands (by agriculture, monoculture plantation and other
land use),
CASE STUDY 1:
Infrastructure development (like rail, roads, hydroelectric and irrigation projects),
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE
Various illegal/legal activities (timber harvesting, boulder mining in river beds),
Sectoral approach of various departments
CASE STUDY 2:
Lack of proper awareness among key stakeholders.
WESTERN GHATS
Little/no community participation.
Obsolete policies less amenable to adapt to changes
CONCLUSIONS
Lack of adequate scientific knowledge and proper monitoring plans.
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY

THREATS

INTRODUCTION

2. Biological invasion
INDIAN LANDSCAPES Invasive alien species are an increasing ecological threat being identified
WORTHY OF
throughout the globe.
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

Throughout the world, over 40% of the species on the list of threatened and
endangered species are there due
to the impact of invasive species

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

Among the invasive species, Lantana camara has already invaded a sizeable chunk
of terai landscape.

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
Mono culture plantation threatening the TAL.

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

CONSERVATION PLANNING AND POLICIES


1. Judiciary Processes and Enforcement
The Supreme Court has organized a special committee called the Central Empowered
Committee (CEC) to investigate cases related to environment and conservation.
Many illegal encroachments have been successfully removed from critical corridors across the
landscape through judicial intervention.
2. The Indian Forest Act, 1980
Helps the Forest Department to protect forest conversion for non-forest activities.
3. Joint Forest Management (JFM) and Eco-development
Since 1991, the Govt. of India has been providing financial assistance, particularly to Protected
areas, to implement Eco development activities with the basic objectives of minimizing
pressures on the natural resources.
Providing alternative livelihood earning activities like organic farming , bee-keeping and a
number of village youths were trained to act as wildlife guides to promote ecotourism.
4. Trans-boundary Cooperation
Ministry of environment and forests ,government of India and Nepal held a meeting at
Katmandu to Create awareness of the existence of illegal trade of timber, wild flora and fauna,
including their parts and products.
5. The Environment Protection Act
Under the Environment Protection Act, 1989 put ban on certain kinds of infrastructural
development, land use,
mining and grazing detrimental for the environment.
(Environment Impact Analysis Notification, 1994), it is mandatory to perform environment
impact assessment before any infrastructural projects are given the green signal.
6. Tiger and Elephant Reserves, Wildlife Corridors
Considering the fact that the PAs in this human dominated landscape are themselves isolated
habitats, the Government, with support from other stakeholders, has created two Tiger
Reserves.
Efforts are also made to provide network wildlife corridors to link the isolated protected areas
further to encourage the continuous habitat movement.

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

CONSERVATION PLANNING AND POLICIES


7. Assisted Natural Regeneration, Habitat Management, Species Reintroduction
Monoculture plantations of economically important trees are gradually less emphasized, rather,
Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR) by keeping away disturbances like fires and grazing are
being promoted
ANR helps in improving the quality of forests, as mixed vegetation is regenerating.
Efforts have also been made to reintroduce the lost species. Reintroduction of the rhinoceros
could be cited as an example.
8. Human-Wildlife Conflict Management
Most of the human killing during the recent past occurred outside the PAs either in corridors or
in the sugarcane fields in the vicinity of the forests suggesting that habitat fragmentation makes
humans as well as wild animals vulnerable in the landscape.
Earlier, trenches were dug out and now solar powered electric fences have been erected along
the park boundary to avoid man-animal conflicts
9. Capacity Building and Partnerships
Local communities are given orientation courses in wildlife protection and management.
10. Regulating Impacts of Infrastructure Development
Measures were taken to realign the infrastructural activities like Railway lines and motor
roads/highways running
through the parks in favour of wildlife and forest conservation.
PA managers seeking help from the railways to regulate the speed of the trains and mandatory
whistle blowing while passing through the parks to minimize accidental killings of wildlife.
Wildlife scientists have suggested Several alternatives including underpasses at some Locations
11. Control of Invasive Species
Lantana at many places is physically removed every year and planted with some palatable
grasses and bamboos.
12. Community Awareness and Outreach
Help from the NGOs and community representatives is taken to increase conservation
awareness among the local people in particular and other stakeholders in general through
several outreach programmes.

METHODOLOGY

POLICIES AND PLANNING RELATED PHOTOS

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE Local women's involved in weed removal from forest area
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
People depend on forest for food and fodder

METHODOLOGY

POLICIES AND PLANNING RELATED PHOTOS

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Reintroduced population of Rhinoceros


http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://hillpost.in/wpcontent/uploads/2012/10/Rhino.jpg&imgrefurl=http://animaluntamed.yuku.com/topic/59/Animal-News-Except-B

METHODOLOGY

W E S T E R N G H AT S
The Western Ghats: Global
INTRODUCTION
biodiversity hotspot extraordinarily
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
rich in biodiversity.
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Huge diversity of natural, seminatural and agro ecosystems.


The Western Ghats, extending
along the west coast of India,
covers an area of 180,000 square
kilometers.

One of 34 global biodiversity


hotspots for conservation and one
of the two on the Indian
subcontinent.

METHODOLOGY

PARAMETERS FOR DELINATION OF REGION

INTRODUCTION

Areas: Maharshtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu;


INDIAN LANDSCAPES
Satpura Range, Sahyadhri, Servarayan range, Tirumala
WORTHY OF
range, Nilagiri malai range.
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
The northern portion of the narrow coastal plain
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

known as the Konkan Coast or simply Konkan, the


central portion is called Kanara and the southern
portion is called Malabar region or the Malabar Coast.
The foothill region east of the Ghats in Maharashtra is
known as Desh, while the eastern foothills of the
central Karnataka state is known as Malenadu.
The largest city within the mountains is the city of Pune
(Poona), in the Desh region on the eastern edge of the
range.
The area is ecologically sensitive to development and
was declared an ecological hotspot in 1988 through the
efforts of ecologist Norman Myers.

METHODOLOGY

EC O LO G I C A L C O N T E X T:

The forests of the Western Ghats are


some of the best representatives of nonINDIAN LANDSCAPES
equatorial tropical evergreen forests in
WORTHY OF
the world.
PROTECTION
INTRODUCTION

With less than 6 percent of the land


area of India, contains more than 30
percent of all plant, fish, herpeto fauna,
bird, and mammal species found in
THREATS TO VALUABLE India.
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

it supports wide range of forest types


CONSERVATION
from tropical wet evergreen forest to
ACROSS LANDSCAPE grasslands.
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Predominant species:
Dipterocarpus, Anacardiaceae, Eugenia,
Leguminosae

some 4000 species of flowering plants


with high degree of endemism.
rich fauna with endemism ranging from
11% to 78% among different groups.

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT:

The source of all the


major rivers of peninsular
India.
The
rivers
Originating in the western
ghats sustain the lives of
entire Peninsular India.
And also influences the
monsoon.

Directly and indirectly


supports the livelihoods of
Over 200 million people
belonging to the six states
of the country through
ecosystem services.

It
supports
biodiversity.

The landscape supports


people
with
diverse
socioeconomic
Status.

INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

rich

METHODOLOGY

THREATS

The life supporting and


biodiversity rich ecosystems of
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
western ghats are threatened
WORTHY OF
today due to habitat pressures.
PROTECTION
INTRODUCTION

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

Climate change is the major


global environmental problem.

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

Its is likely to threaten food


production.

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Shifts in area and boundary of


forest types and threat to
biodiversity.
Increase water stress and
decrease availability of fresh
water due to the decline of
rainfall.
Lead to sea level rise resulting
in flooding crop fields and
coastal settlements.

METHODOLOGY

INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT POSING SERIOUS PROBLEM

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION

Industry:
Industries are developing adjacent to the ghats because of cheap unskilled labour,
easy availability of water and raw materials.
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

The mining and tourism industries have severely impacted the integrity of its
ecologically diverse landscape elements.
Mangrove ecosystems are under heavy pressure as a result of increase in human
activity.

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE

Roads:

CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

Roads to link the economic development zones to move goods and business
services.

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS

These roads are effectively fragmenting the forests of the western ghats region.

CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY

INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT POSING SERIOUS PROBLEM

INTRODUCTION

Agriculture:
INDIAN LANDSCAPES Eco sensitive zones has been converted into intensive agriculture.
WORTHY OF
Factors such as mono cropping pattern and the use of fertilizers, herbicides has
PROTECTION
been considered an ecological problem.
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

Pesticides can have serious implication on the biodiversity of the adjacent pas.
This includes disruption of food chains where insects from major link species as
well as deranging their function of pollinating both forest plants and crops.

Tourism:
The tourism facilities on the boundaries of the PA have equally serious impacts
CONSERVATION
which create high levels of water pollution, large amounts of non degradable
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
wastes noise etc.
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

New townships
No scientific development.
Illegal encroachment of forest areas.
Mew townships in the western ghats have the most deleterious consequences for
the integrity of the eco-sensitive slopes of the western ghats.

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION

CONSERVATION

For conservation of the western


ghats
the
government
has
demarcated
the areas into
ecologically sensitive areas.

Such as protected areas, hill station


areas, reserve forests, water bodies,
sacred groves and specialized
ecosystem.

Again protected areas have already


been prioritized based on their legal
status into national parks, wildlife
sanctuaries
and
community
reserves.

Currently MOEF has mandated that


a 10km buffer zone around the
protected areas should be notifies
as an ecological sensitive area.

There are 18 PAs within the western


ghats.

INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

CONSERVATION
Landcover map: Vegetation map of the
northern western ghats.

Protected area map: Protected areas, their


surrounds(ESA) & proposed corridors of
northern western ghats.

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

CONSERVATION: ACTS PROPOSED BY GOVERNMENT TO PROTECT WESTERN GHATS

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION

AUTHORS NOTE

The environments are free of human intervention this some times generates
ecosystems that are rich in biodiversity, historical interest, recreational
opportunities and scenic beauty but some times this interventions are necessary
for maintenance of landscapes.

India has extraordinary biodiversity ranging from top trans Himalayan landscape
with its alpine forest to Deccan peninsular region in the middle, to semi arid
regions of aravalli hills, to tropical evergreen forest of western ghat.

Many have survived for centuries due to age old cultural values of the society,
wherein, protection of various life forms was emphasized by creating abhayaranas
and also presence of scared groves through out the country. Past changes have
mostly added to valued characteristics to the landscape.

But now due to global and local change factors such as urban expansion, sea level
rise, demography and modern practices of farming and forestry are creating sterile
and monoculture leading to loss of cherished biodiversity.

These changes are visible in case studies of representative selection of threatened


landscapes of India such as terai arc landscape and western ghats.

INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY

AUTHORS NOTE

Terai Arc landscape: it is green necklace around the foot hills of the Himalaya. It is the
best surviving remnant of the once extensive alluvial grasslands and forest ecosystem.
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
The study shows the global change factors affecting TAL such as fragmentation and
WORTHY OF
invasive species as well as potential responses to address them.
PROTECTION
INTRODUCTION

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)

Western Ghats: The Western Ghats is the majestic mountain range on the fringes of
the west coast of India. Its landscape is unique in terms of geology, biology and
ecology. This unique landscape has been threatened by continuously increasing
THREATS TO VALUABLE habitat pressure. The expanding awareness among people led to protect and
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
rejuvenate the western Ghats in recent days.
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Some times human interventions is a key element in generating and maintaining


biodiversity. Luckily, India has a long history of conservation and a reverence for
nature, with a number of government institutions and non-governmental
organizations actively involved in wildlife conservation. This will become increasingly
important as the country tackles the challenge of strengthening conservation efforts
in the face of the expanding human population.

METHODOLOGY

CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
PROTECTION
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
CHANGEFACTORS)
CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

Our ancient landscape that may soon be gone, future generation can only
see these landscapes through painting or photograph.

METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION

REFERENCES
1.

INDIAN LANDSCAPES
WORTHY OF
2.
PROTECTION
3.

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (GLOBAL
4.
CHANGEFACTORS)
5.

THREATS TO VALUABLE
LANDSCAPES (LOCAL
6.
CHANGEFACTORS)
7.

CONSERVATION
ACROSS LANDSCAPE 8.
CASE STUDY 1:
TAL-TERAI ARC
LANDSCAPE

CASE STUDY 2:
WESTERN GHATS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

9.

Conservation Across Landscapes: Indias Approaches to Biodiversity Governance Authors: Pramod Krishnan,
Rajesh Ramakrishnan, Sushil Saigal, Shailesh Nagar, S. Faizi, H.S. Panwar, Subrata Singh, Nimesh Ved Copyright:
UNDP 2012. All rights reserved. Published in India by UNDP
http://wildflowerturfblog.wildflowerturf.co.uk/2012/02/16/habitatfragmentation/
LANDSCAPE PLANNING AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT IN THE MEDITERRANEAN Thematic study By Mojca
Golobi and Lidija Breskvar aucer

POLICY BRIEF: Biodiversity Conservation through Landscape Ecology: The PARC Approach
THREATENED LANDSCAPES CONSERVING CULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS, By Bryn Green and Willem Vos SPON Press,
Taylor & Fransis Group: London and New York, ISBN 0-419-25630-X
LANDSCAPE AT RISK, By Edward Holdway and Greald Smart, SPON Press, New York, Canada, 1988

Dissertation on ENDENGERED LANDSCAPES, SPA Library/ CP 1590


THE TALLGRASS PRAIRIE: AN ENDANGERED LANDSCAPE, By Pam Graham
Paper on CHANGES IN LANDSCAPE COMPOSITION INFLUENCE THE DECLINE OF A THREATENED WOODLAND
CARIBOU POPULATION, by HEIKO U. WITTMER, BRUCE N. MCLELLAN, ROBERT SERROUYA and CLAYTON D. APPS

10. PROTECTING
AUSTRALIAS
executivedirector@iru.edu.au

MOST

ENDANGERED

LANDSCAPES,

IRUSecretariatw//

iru.edu.aue//

11. BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION THROUGH LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY: THE PARC APPROACH, Author: Andrew Greiser
Johns, PARC Project biodiversity conservation specialist, FRR Ltd. (frrhn@fpt.vn) Copyright: 2004, Forest Protection
Department

12. LEVERAGING THE LANDSCAPES: BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION BEYOND THE BOUNDARIES in Nepal (Edited) 2011.
Nepal Foresters Association (NFA) Kathmandu, Citation: Acharya, K.P., Tripathi, D.M., Joshi, J. and Gurung, U.M.
(eds.). 2011, ISBN: 978-9937-2-3974-5

Special thanks to AR. AARTI GROVER for helping us in preparing this


p r e s e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e m e s t e r.

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