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SET - 1

01 Differentiate between Old English, Middle English and Modern English.


Answer:
The English language is classified into Old English, English and modern English. English is
also known as the third world native language, most widely spoken after Mandarin, Chinese
and Spanish. There is a significant fact that is known to many of us that English has become
the official language of many other countries where it is not considered the native language.
The reason that puts English language apart from most of the other popularly spoken
languages in the globe is its popularity worldwide. The same is the reason behind the fact that
English is also known as a global language that is used in all sects of life. There is an
interesting fact that English which is spoken today is drastically different from that which
was spoken during the ancient times. The condition is such that even the modern speakers of
the English language cannot recognize the older version of it. English language has a history
of about 1700 years and it can be classified into three categories the Old English, the
English middle and the modern English.
The English language has been bifurcated into three periods that range from Old English to
Middle English and then finally to modern English. English began its journey at time when it
was brought to Britain by Germanic intruder. These three periods of English can be classified
in terms of the years during which they were much in vogue, as follows : Old English (from 450AD to 1100AD)
English medium (from 1100AD to 1500AD)
Modern English (from 1500 AD until now)
Old English
The English language originates from the West Germanic languages that have been made in
Britain when Germanics came to this great continent. This language was a combination of
different languages because of three important tribes who invaded Britain this time Anglos,
Jutes and Saxons were the tribes. The words spoken by the people speaking these languages
then became the words of original Old English.
Medium English
In the eleventh century, there were different incoming Norman conquests in the region of
Britain. And it made a huge difference in the development of the English language. William
the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, conquered Britain in 1066 and this victory left several
important marks on the language of English. The most significant and important affect on the
English language was the influence of French language on the English that was spoken
during the time. This is the reason why modern English of today sees its roots in the French
language.

Difference Between Old English and Middle English and Modern English
The English language is classified into Old English, English and modern English. English is
also known as the third world native language, most widely spoken after Mandarin, Chinese
and Spanish. There is a significant fact that is known to many of us that English has become
the official language of many other countries where it is not considered the native language.
The reason that puts English language apart from most of the other popularly spoken
languages in the globe is its popularity worldwide. The same is the reason behind the fact that
English is also known as a global language that is used in all sects of life. There is an
interesting fact that English which is spoken today is drastically different from that which
was spoken during the ancient times. The condition is such that even the modern speakers of
the English language cannot recognize the older version of it. English language has a history
of about 1700 years and it can be classified into three categories the Old English, the
English middle and the modern English.
The English language has been bifurcated into three periods that range from Old English to
Middle English and then finally to modern English. English began its journey at time when it
was brought to Britain by Germanic intruder. These three periods of English can be classified
in terms of the years during which they were much in vogue, as follows : Old English (from 450AD to 1100AD)
English medium (from 1100AD to 1500AD)
Modern English (from 1500 AD until now)
Old English
The English language originates from the West Germanic languages that have been made in
Britain when Germanics came to this great continent. This language was a combination of
different languages because of three important tribes who invaded Britain this time Anglos,
Jutes and Saxons were the tribes. The words spoken by the people speaking these languages
then became the words of original Old English.
Medium English
In the eleventh century, there were different incoming Norman conquests in the region of
Britain. And it made a huge difference in the development of the English language. William
the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, conquered Britain in 1066 and this victory left several
important marks on the language of English. The most significant and important affect on the
English language was the influence of French language on the English that was spoken
during the time. This is the reason why modern English of today sees its roots in the French
language.
Modern English
Right from the onset of the fifteenth century, this language has taken a big change. This flow
could be seen in the context with pronunciation of vowel. The pronunciation of vowels
became shorter and so it took the form which inhibits most of the countries now in this
modern era. With this change of vowel, started the classical period of the Renaissance, the

Romantic period and after that period, came the Industrial Revolution in Britain, which has
added more to the final evolution of the English language. Although the changes that came
into the English language after the Industrial Revolution is the reason why the name
MODERN ENGLISH has been given to the language. Modern English at present tends to
have a more diverse vocabulary in comparison with the initial version of modern English.
Now, for this evolution, English has become what is called as the official native language and
in most countries around the world. In Anglo-Saxon, the words tended to end in words that
were inflectional and represented their character. The order of words in the sentence of
Anglo-Saxon language to verify the meaning as it is these days in English. In Middle English,
several of these purposes were dropped and the role that a word represented in a sentence was
determined by the order in which the words were written or said. There are some differences
of course, but a mass structure of the English-speaking environment is like modern English.
Old English had also factors related to grammar, which the other two had forgotten.
02 What do you mean by a Phrase? How is it different from a Clause?
Solution:

03 What are the main rules you keep in mind while changing a direct speech into an
Indirect speech?
Solution:
We may report the words of a speaker in two ways:
1. Direct Speech
We may quote the actual words of the speaker. This method is called Direct Speech.
2. Indirect Speech
We may report what he said without quoting his exact words. This method is called Indirect
Speech or Reported Speech.
Example:
Direct: Clinton said, I am very busy now.
Indirect: Clinton said that he was very busy then.
Direct: He said, My mother is writing letter.
Indirect: He said that his mother was writing letter.

How to change Direct to Indirect Speech?


It will be noticed that in Direct Speech, we use inverted commas to mark off the exact words
of the speaker. In Indirect Speech we do not use the inverted commas.
It will be further noticed that in changing the above Direct Speech into Indirect speech,
certain changes have been made.
Thus:
i. We have used the conjunction that before the Indirect Statement.
ii. The pronoun I is changed to HE. (The Pronoun is changed in Person)
iii. The verb am is changed to was.
iv. The adverb now is changed to then.
Rules for changing Direct into Indirect Speech:
A. When the reporting or principal verb is in the Past Tense, all the Present Tenses in
the Direct Speech are changed into Past Tense.
a. A simple present tense becomes simple past tense.
Example:
Direct : He said, I am unwell.
Indirect: He said that he was unwell.
b. A present continuous tense becomes a past continuous.
Example:
Direct: He said, my mother is writing letter.
Indirect: He said that his mother was writing letter.
c. A present perfect becomes a past perfect:
Are you clear about the conversion of Direct to Indirect Speech?
Example:
Direct: He said, I have passed the examination.
Indirect: he said that he had passed the examination.
d. As a rule the simple past tense in the Direct Speech becomes the past perfect tense in
Indirect Speech.

Example:
Direct: He said, His horse died in the night.
Indirect: he said that his horse had died in the night.

04 What activities you would participate in to enhance your Vocalbury?


Solution:
Vocabulary Strategies:
1. Open your mind like a child and you will learn words faster.
Children can learn new words almost 200 times faster than grownups because of their open
minds and inquisitive natures..
2. Playing vocabulary games is a fun way to increase your vocabulary.
Any word game you choose is bound to increase your vocabulary. There are ways to
maximize the learning that you get from playing games.
3. While reading, list the unfamiliar words you see.
Most readers do not completely understand what they're reading because they are inclined to
disregard unfamiliar words as they read. While reading, make sure you have a notepad nearby
so you can jot down any new word that you see.
4. Attach a mental image to the words.
Your brain will remember a word better if there is a mental image associated with it. You can
try creating your own mental pictures to correspond to new words that you are trying to learn.
5. Find a way to make new words relevant to you.
Studies have shown that the more relevant a word is, the easier it is to learn it. If you can
attach some kind of relevance to every new word you encounter, you will tremendously
increase your vocabulary, and at a very fast rate.
6. Elaborate on the meaning of a word.
Elaboration is a simple yet effective tool if you want to increase your vocabulary. The more
you expand on a word, the more you can remember what it means.
7. Say words repeatedly.
Word repetition is also an easy but effective method to increase your vocabulary. There are
many ways of doing this.

05 Change the following sentence from Passive to Active Voice:


a) This room was decorated by my brother.
Solution: