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in Doppler Scenarios

Mario Poggioni, Student Member, IEEE, Luca Rugini, Member, IEEE, and Paolo Banelli, Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper proposes a novel simulation model to ing the ICI as an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), whose

characterize the bit-error rate (BER) performance of coded or- average power can be derived in a closed form [6], [7], [9]. It

thogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems that was shown in [10] that the jointly Gaussian approximation of

are affected by the Doppler spread. The proposed equivalent

frequency-domain OFDM model (EFDOM) avoids the exact gen- the ICI is good for phase-shift keying OFDM, whereas for non-

eration of the time-varying channel by introducing several param- constant envelope constellations, such as quadrature amplitude

eters that summarize the statistical properties of the channel modulation (QAM), the probability density function (pdf) of

and of the intercarrier interference (ICI) that is generated by the ICI is a Gaussian mixture, i.e., a weighted sum of Gaussian

the time variation of the channel. Simulation results are used to functions. However, a more appropriate figure of merit of a

prove that the proposed model can be used to accurately predict

the BER of coded OFDM systems in Rayleigh and Rice doubly communication system is the coded BER performance, and,

selective channels. An attractive feature of the proposed model is consequently, we want to model the ICI in coded OFDM

the significant reduction of the simulation time with respect to the (COFDM) systems. We will show that a simple extension of

exact model. We show by simulation that the simulation efficiency the AWGN-like ICI model from which it is derived [8] is

increases for channels with many multipath components, whereas not adequate for assessing the BER performance of COFDM

it is independent of the size of the fast Fourier transform (FFT).

systems. Specifically, we will show that the channel power-

Index Terms—Bit-error rate (BER) performance, coded orthog- delay profile, which does not affect the BER performance of

onal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), Doppler spread, uncoded systems [8], conversely, can greatly impact the coded

intercarrier interference (ICI), simulation, time-varying fading

channels. BER performance.

The broader scope of this paper is to assess the BER of

I. I NTRODUCTION COFDM systems that use simple per-subcarrier equalization

to combat the adverse effect of doubly selective channels.

is a well-established technique for high-rate communi-

cations in frequency-selective fading channels due to its easy

To this end, we introduce an equivalent frequency-domain

OFDM model (EFDOM), which is capable of predicting with

good accuracy the BER performance without replicating the

per-subcarrier equalization in the frequency domain [1]. Con- entire OFDM transmitter–receiver chain. The main idea of

sequently, OFDM is widely used in many popular wireless the EFDOM is to replace the exact generation of the ICI by

standards, such as IEEE 802.16e, IEEE 802.11a, digital video a computer-generated “BER-equivalent” ICI to speed up the

broadcasting—terrestrial (DVB-T) and handheld (DVB-H), simulation time while maintaining the same BER produced by

digital audio broadcasting (DAB), and terrestrial digital mul- the exact ICI realization. This equivalent ICI is obtained by

timedia broadcasting (T-DMB) [2]–[5]. However, in high- a moment-matching technique that tries to keep only a few

mobility environments, the time variation (i.e., the Doppler relevant moments of the true ICI, such as its power and its

spread) of mobile radio channels destroys the orthogonality cross-correlation with the useful channel. A specific merit of

of the OFDM subcarriers, leading to the so-called intercarrier our model is its capability to highly reduce the simulation time

interference (ICI) [6], [7]. If advanced time-varying equaliza- with respect to the simulation of the exact OFDM model. We

tion techniques are not used, the ICI can significantly degrade will show that the saving in simulation time mainly depends

the performance of OFDM systems introducing bit-error rate

on the number of channel paths and is almost independent of

(BER) floors that channel coding can only try to reduce [6].

the size N of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). This new model

Consequently, a statistical characterization of the ICI is neces-

could be used, for instance, to compare the BER of different

sary to analytically assess the BER performance.

OFDM-based standards, such as DVB-T/H, DAB, and T-DMB.

Several previous works [6]–[8] have shown that, for uncoded

However, the comparison among different standards, although

OFDM systems, BER performance can be obtained by model-

important, would require a significant space, and it is partially

addressed in [11].

Manuscript received October 27, 2006; revised September 10, 2007 The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II

and October 12, 2007. The review of this paper was coordinated by briefly describes the COFDM system model in time-varying

Prof. H.-C. Wu.

The authors are with the Department of Electronic and Information Engi- multipath channels. We will refer to this model as the exact

neering, University of Perugia, 06125 Perugia, Italy (e-mail: paolo.banelli@ model. In Section III, we introduce our simplified model, i.e.,

diei.unipg.it). the EFDOM, by explaining all the constraints that we impose

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. in the ICI generation. The accuracy of the proposed model is

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2007.913178 validated in Section IV, which illustrates the BER comparison

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2970 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 57, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2008

between the exact and simplified models in many scenarios. Rayleigh channels and the RA for Rice channels. It is worth

Section V shows the simulation time saving due to the use of noting that the former has a much longer power-delay profile

the EFDOM, and Section VI concludes this paper. (10 μs) than the latter (0.7 μs).

Notation: Bold uppercase (lowercase) letters denote matri-

ces (column vectors); the superscripts ∗ , T , and H denote the

B. OFDM System Model

conjugation, the transpose, and the Hermitian transpose, respec-

tively, whereas · 2 and ⊗ denote the Frobenius norm and We consider the classical OFDM system with cyclic prefix

the Kronecker product, respectively. We use [X]i,j to denote (CP) and no interblock interference because we consider a

the (i, j)th entry of the matrix X; [X]i ([x]i ) denotes the ith CP length LCP ≥ L − 1 [15]. The received signal, after CP

row (element) of the matrix X (vector x); IK and 1K denote removal and FFT processing, can be written, with a notation

the identity matrix and the all-ones column vector of size K, that is similar to [15], as follows:

respectively, whereas 0M ×N is the M × N matrix with all the

elements equal to zero. Diag(a) is a diagonal matrix with the y(n) = H(n)x(n) + w(n). (2)

entries of a on the diagonal, whereas diag(A) is the column

vector containing the main diagonal of A. E[·] is used to denote In (2), x(n) is the frequency-domain transmitted vector, and

the statistical expectation, while Rxy = E[xyH ] represents H(n) = FH̃(n)FH is the frequency-domain channel matrix,

the cross-correlation, and Cxy = Rxy − E[x]E[yH ] the cross- where H̃(n) is the corresponding matrix in the time domain,

covariance, between x and y. Last, · indicates the integer whereas F is the unitary FFT matrix of size N . Thus, the noise

ceiling function, whereas a mod N stands for the remainder w(n) = Fw̃(n) in the frequency domain has the same statistics

of the division of a by N . of the AWGN noise w̃(n) in the time domain.

In time-invariant channels, i.e., when fD = 0, the matrix

H̃(n) = H̃ is circulant, as expressed by [H̃]i,j =

II. E XACT S YSTEM M ODEL h(i−j) mod N [i + nNT ], where NT = N +LCP . Thus, H(n) =

We describe in this section a well-established OFDM system H is diagonal [15], [16] with entries √ corresponding

characterization, in time-varying channels, which we refer to as to the channel frequency response h = N F[h0 , . . . ,

the exact system model. hL−1 , 01×(N −L) ]T , which leads to the low-complexity per-

subcarrier equalization that characterizes OFDM systems.

However, if the channel is time varying, H(n) is no longer

A. Channel Model diagonal, and some ICI is introduced. To express the impact of

ICI when simple time-invariant per-subcarrier (i.e., diagonal)

According to the COST 207 standard [12], the continuous

equalizers are employed, it is helpful to express the time-variant

channel hc (t, τ ) is modeled as a frequency-selective time-

channel matrices as follows:

varying fading channel, which is assumed to be wide-sense

stationary with uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) [13]. The H̃(n) = H̃U (n) + H̃I (n)

discrete-time complex-valued channel is obtained by sampling

the continuous channel, as expressed by H(n) = HU (n) + HI (n) (3)

hl [k] = hc (kTS , lTS ), l = 0, . . . , L − 1 (1) where the relations HU (n) = FH̃U (n)FH and Hi (n) =

FH̃i (n)FH link the frequency-domain with the time-

where hl [k] represents the time evolution of the lth tap, L = domain channel matrices. In (3), H̃U (n) represents the

τMAX /TS + 1 is the number of channel taps, TS is the useful part of the time-domain channel matrix and is a

sampling period, τMAX is the maximum excess delay, and circulant matrix whose elements are obtained by the time

{Pl = E[|hl [k]|2 ] = σl2 + |ml |2 , l = 0, . . . , L − 1} represents average of the channel in the nth OFDM block, which

the power-delay profile of the WSSUS channel, where σl2 is the is expressed by hT (n) = N −1 N T

i=LCP +1 T (i + nNT ),

h

variance, and ml is the mean value of the lth tap. The COST 207 where hT (i + nNT ) = [h0 (i + nNT ), . . . , hL−1 (i + nNT ),

standard encompasses four multipath channels, i.e., the typical 0, . . . , 0]T . On the contrary, H̃I (n) = H̃(n) − H̃U (n) is the

urban, the bad urban (BU), the hilly terrain, and the rural area ICI generating matrix. By inserting (3) into (2), we obtain

(RA), where each path is modeled as a random process with

Rayleigh statistics, except for the first path of the RA, which is y(n) = HU (n)x(n) + n ICI (n) + w(n) (4)

characterized by a Rice envelope. The line-of-sight path in the

where yU (n) = HU (n)x(n) represents the useful received

RA has a deterministic value that is added to the first nonline-

signal, and

of-sight path of the channel. Each path is characterized by

the autocorrelation R((n − k)TS ) = E[h∗c (kTS )hc (nTS )] = n ICI (n) = HI (n)x(n) (5)

|ml |2 + σl2 J0 (2πfD (n − k)TS ), where J0 (τ ) is the zero-order

Bessel function of the first kind, and fD is the maximum stands for the ICI that is introduced by the time-variant

Doppler frequency, which leads to the widely used Jakes’ part HI (n) of the channel matrix. By defining hU (n) =

√

Doppler spectrum [14]. The taps are independent, and the time N FhT (n), it can be easily verified that

variation of the taps is obtained by the sum-of-sinusoids method

described in [14]. We will focus on two scenarios—the BU for HU (n) = Diag (hU (n)) , diag (HI (n)) = 0N ×1 . (6)

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POGGIONI et al.: NOVEL SIMULATION MODEL FOR CODED OFDM IN DOPPLER SCENARIOS 2971

It is worth noting that E[|[yU (n)]i |2 ] = 1 − We assume that the channel equalization is performed by

E[|[n ICI (n)]i | ] = 1 − P ICI ∀i, where the ICI power P ICI is

2 using a diagonal time-invariant equalizer that compensates for

expressed by [6] the diagonal matrix HU (n). Specifically, for the QPSK mod-

ulation considered in this paper, we compensate only for the

P ICI = E [|[n ICI (n)]i |2 ] estimated phase of the channel. This way, we can implicitly take

N −1

N −1 2 fD into account the channel state information, thus allowing for

= − 2 J0 2π (N − k) (7) better exploitation of soft convolutional decoding techniques,

N N N

k=1 conceptually similar to [18].

where f D is the normalized Doppler spread defined as f D =

fD /Δf = fc TS N v/c, Δf is the subcarrier separation, fc is the

D. Simulation of the Exact Model

carrier frequency, c is the speed of light and v is the vehicle

speed. For simplicity, the reduction of the ICI power at the To simulate the exact COFDM model, we should generate

edge of the active bandwidth, due to switched-off subcarriers NS OFDM blocks using (8) and successively transmit them

acting as guard bands [10], is not considered in (7). However, through the time-variant channel using (2). Since the channel

N here is quite large, and the expression in (7) is a very good matrices {H(n)}n=1,...,NS are correlated, the generation of

approximation for nearly all the active subcarriers. Equation (7) the time-variant channel is generally very cumbersome, par-

is slightly pessimistic for just a few subcarriers at the edge of ticularly when the number N of subcarriers is quite large or

the spectrum. Thus, the use of (7) also for these subcarriers does when the interleaver time span is very long (i.e., NS is large).

not noticeably affect the average BER performance. In addition, when the channel is time variant, each channel

matrix H̃(n) is neither circulant nor Toeplitz. This means that

C. Channel Coding, Interleaving, and Equalization the convolution between the transmitted signal and the channel,

which is represented by the matrix multiplication in (2), cannot

We consider a rate-compatible punctured convolutional be performed using those FFT algorithms [19] that are usually

(RCPC) channel coding scheme with polynomial generator adopted to speed up the simulation over time-invariant chan-

G = [ 171 133 ] and 64 states [17]. For the decoding, we nels. As a result, the generation of the time-variant channel and

consider a soft Viterbi decoder with a four-bit quantization its interaction with the data signal require the biggest part of the

of the input signal. We assume that the bits at the output simulation time of the whole COFDM system.

of the channel encoder are permuted by a bit interleaver and

successively mapped to symbols that belong to an M -level con-

stellation, such as quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and III. EFDOM

M -quadrature amplitude modulation (M -QAM). This stream To reduce the simulation time of COFDM systems, while

of symbols is then permuted using a pseudorandom symbol maintaining the same BER performance, we develop a sim-

interleaver with depth D = NS NA , where NS is the number ple, accurate, and flexible simulation model that is based

of OFDM blocks that correspond to the interleaver depth, and on a frequency-domain approximation of (4) rather than on

NA = N − NG is the number of active subcarriers in a single the exact (2). Since we are interested in the coded BER

OFDM block. We also assume that the RCPC codewords have a performance, all the received vectors {y(n)}n=1,...,NS that

length that is equal to nb D, with nb = log2 M , i.e., equal to the correspond to the same RCPC codeword s I should be con-

depth of the symbol interleaver. This is motivated by the forced sidered together. Hence, let us group the received vectors

termination that is usually employed in the Viterbi decoding {y(n)}n=1,...,NS in a superblock y = [yT (1), . . . , yT (NS )]T

to attain manageable complexity [17]. In this paper, we will that considers all the NS blocks that are related to the

consider QPSK modulation, and hence, nb = 2. same time span of the symbol interleaver. This way, (9)

By denoting with s the D-dimensional vector that rep- becomes

resents the RCPC-coded symbol stream, we express the

interleaved stream as s I = P s, where P is a square permu- y = HU G P s + n ICI + w (10)

tation matrix. The stream s I is then parsed in NS blocks,

each one of dimension NA , which will be transmitted in dif- where H U = Diag(h U ), h U = [hTU (1), . . . , hTU (NS )]T ,

ferent OFDM blocks. The nth block, which is denoted with G = INS ⊗ G, n ICI = [nTICI (1), . . . , nTICI (NS )]T , and w =

sI (n), can be expressed by sI (n) = T(n)sI , where T(n) = [wT (1), . . . , wT (NS )]T . From (10), it is clear that the useful

[0NA ×(n−1)NA , INA , 0NA ×(NS −n)NA ] for n = 1, . . . , NS . Af- part of the channel can be generated in a simple way because

ter the insertion of the frequency guard band by the matrix H U is diagonal. In other words, in the exact model, the time-

G = [0NA ×(NG +1)/2 , INA , 0NA ×(NG −1)/2 ]T , we can express consuming part is represented by the generation of n ICI by

the nth OFDM block that is transmitted in (2) as follows: means of (5). As a consequence, to reduce the computational

complexity, (10) suggests to use a statistically equivalent

x(n) = GsI (n) = GT(n)P s. (8) (E)

vector n ICI with a faster generation than the exact n ICI ,

By inserting (8) into (4), the received signal that is related to preserving the average BER performance of the system. This is

the nth OFDM block can be expressed by the main idea that will lead to our EFDOM.

We remark that a theoretical coded BER performance analy-

y(n) = HU (n)GT(n)P s + n ICI (n) + w(n). (9) sis would be a better alternative to the simulation model we

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2972 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 57, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2008

are going to introduce. Anyway, the analytical BER approach the interleaver depth D is short, the covariance matrix Caa , due

presents two obstacles. First, the BER analysis would require to the cross-correlation among consecutive elements of a, sig-

the knowledge of the joint pdf fh U ,n ICI (h U , n ICI ), whose nificantly departs from a diagonal structure and, consequently,

derivation is not easy to find. Second, the union bound tech- reduces the correcting capabilities of the Viterbi decoder, as

nique, which is widely employed for the theoretical BER it happens in the exact model. On the contrary, for an infinite

analysis of convolutionally coded systems, usually introduces interleaving depth, Caa approaches a scaled identity matrix

too much approximation, particularly at a low SNR [20], [21]. because it contains a few diagonal elements that are different

To develop our model, we assume in our analysis that from zero, which are quite distant from one another. Exploiting

deinterleaving is performed before the equalization. Although, the uncorrelated scattering assumption, and the same Doppler

in a practical system, these two operations are reversed, our power spectrum density for all the channel taps, the covariance

analysis is correct, because our time-invariant equalizer sep- matrix Ch U h U can be expressed as follows (see Appendix A):

arately acts on each subcarrier by a diagonal matrix. Hence,

the nonequalized received signal, after guard band removal and Ch U h U = Cnorm ⊗ ChU (n)hU (n) (13)

deinterleaving, can be written as follows:

where Cnorm is the NS × NS covariance matrix of a power-

z = P T GT y = A s + i + v (11) normalized channel path, as expressed by

1 2πf D

sents the aggregate effect of the useful channel, guard bands, [Cnorm ]n,k = J0 ((n − k)N + j − i)

N 2 i=0 j=0 N

and interleaving, i = PT GT n ICI is the ICI after the dein-

terleaver, and v = PT GT w stands for the AWGN. Interest- n, k = 1, . . . , NS . (14)

ingly, the channel that directly impacts on the performance

of the Viterbi decoder can be expressed by a = diag(A) = In (14), ChU (n)hU (n) = N FΣFH , and Σ is a diagonal matrix,

PT GT h U . Instead of the exact model of (11), the EFDOM representing the power-delay profile, with nonzero entries only

generates statistically equivalent versions of the useful channel in its first L elements, as expressed by [Σ]l+1,l+1 = σl2 , 0 ≤

and of the ICI, as expressed by l ≤ L − 1. It is noteworthy that in (13), the effect of the Doppler

spread, which is represented by Cnorm , is separated from the

z(E) = A(E) s + i(E) + v (12) effect of the power-delay profile contained in ChU (n)hU (n) .

where i(E) is a suitable approximation of i, and the matrix A(E) From a practical point of view, a(E) can be generated as a

is generated with the same statistics of the exact A. As we will linear transformation of a computer-generated white Gaussian

detail, the generation of a(E) = diag(A(E) ) and of i(E) is quite random vector g 1 , with zero mean and covariance Cgg =

fast. This way, the EFDOM avoids the time-consuming steps INS N , by exploiting the knowledge of Caa , the eigenvalue de-

that appear during the simulation of the exact OFDM model. composition (EVD) technique [16], and the Kronecker product

One is the generation of the exact time-varying channel over all property AC ⊗ BD = (A ⊗ B)(C ⊗ D). Specifically, by the

the interleaver length D, which forces to generate (possibly) EVD Cnorm = Unorm Λnorm UH norm , the EFDOM generates

several channel taps for many time instants; the other is the

(E)

time-variant convolution with the transmitted data signal. h U = Unorm Λ1/2 norm ⊗ FΣ 1/2

g 1 + E[h U ] (15)

In addition to the faster simulation, which will be justified

(E)

later, a second merit of the EFDOM is the analytical insight on A(E) = Diag a(E) = Diag PT GT h U . (16)

the effects of the ICI. Indeed, to maintain the model as simple

as possible, the generation of a(E) and i(E) should be related

to only a few parameters, such as the ICI power and cross- B. Parameter 2: ICI Vector

correlation, i.e., those statistical moments that mostly affect

the coded BER performance. In some cases, the identification Within the interleaver depth, the ICI vector i is very close

of these key parameters is based on theoretical considerations, to a complex jointly Gaussian random vector, as confirmed by

whereas in other cases, it is based on intuitive arguments and the theoretical models that are used to analytically derive the

validated by simulation of the exact model. In the following, uncoded BER [8]. This is true particularly for QPSK [10] or

we discuss each key parameter of the EFDOM. when the FFT size N is large enough to invoke the central

limit theorem (e.g., N ≥ 64). In addition, i is not white. Its

covariance Cii , which is derived in Appendix B, depends on the

A. Parameter 1: Useful Channel Vector

channel only through the Doppler spread and does not depend

In Rayleigh and Rice scenarios, the useful channel vector a is on the power-delay profile.

jointly Gaussian. Consequently, in the EFDOM, a(E) is gener- In principle, we could generate a jointly Gaussian ran-

ated as a complex jointly Gaussian random vector, with covari- dom vector, with covariance Cii and independent from a(E) ,

ance matrix Caa = PT GT Ch U h U G P, where Ch U h U is the similarly to the generation of the useful channel. Indeed, as

covariance of the useful channel h U . The size of the covariance shown in [10], this approach is accurate enough to model

matrix Caa depends on the (finite) length of the interleaver, and the uncoded BER performance, whose dependence on the

it has a significant impact on the BER performance. Indeed, if power-delay profile is almost absent. Moreover, this approach

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POGGIONI et al.: NOVEL SIMULATION MODEL FOR CODED OFDM IN DOPPLER SCENARIOS 2973

when the interleaver length tends to infinity. However, in

practical cases, where the interleaver time-span D is finite,

the superblock ICI power P ICI , which is defined as P ICI =

i2 /(NS NA ), does not coincide with the statistical power

P ICI in (7). By observing the extensive simulation results

that are obtained with the exact model, we found out that the

variability of P ICI from superblock to superblock plays an

important role and cannot be neglected. As a consequence, our

EFDOM has to include in its model also the variability of the

superblock ICI power.

Intuitively, the variability of P ICI depends on the correlation

of the channel realizations during the interleaver time span.

Thus, different channel realizations produce different values of

P ICI and, therefore, different BER performances. A possible

way to include this dependence could be by linking the covari-

Fig. 1. Comparison between the simulated pdf of ϕ and of ϕ(E) (BU,

ance Ci(E) i(E) of the modeled ICI i(E) to the actual channel f D = 0.14, and NS = 4).

realization. However, this method would require the generation

of the time-varying channel realization over all the interleaver random variables, and the mean tap values {ml } are all zero for

time span, which we want to avoid. Therefore, in the EFDOM, Rayleigh channels but not for Rice channels. Therefore, looking

we choose an alternative way, and we model the effect of the at (17), we expect the pdf fϕ (ϕ) to be close to the pdf of the

superblock ICI power P ICI by a random variable. Specifically, sum of (possibly correlated) exponential random variables. By

we define exploiting the simulation results of the exact model, we found

a close match between the histograms that approximate fϕ (ϕ)

P ICI i2 and the pdf of the useful channel power in the superblock. As a

ϕ= = (17)

P ICI NA NS P ICI consequence, the EFDOM selects

as the ratio between the superblock ICI power P ICI and the 1 (E)

NS L−1 2

ϕ(E) = hl [n] − ml (20)

statistical ICI power P ICI expressed by (7). This ratio should NS n=1

l=0

be used as a multiplicative correction factor on the ICI power.

(E)

Consequently, we split the ICI vector as follows: where hl [n] represents the lth tap of an equivalent channel

that has the same power-delay profile and the same Doppler

(E)

i(E) = ϕ(E) î (18) spread of the true channel. Since the time-variation index n

(E)

of hl [n] changes on an OFDM-block basis, the equivalent

(E)

where the two independent parameters ϕ(E) and î model channel is undersampled by a factor NT = N + LCP with

the superblock ICI power ratio and the statistical properties respect to the true channel. As a consequence, the generation

of the ICI, respectively. In the EFDOM, we impose that the of the equivalent channel in the EFDOM is, by far, faster than

random variable ϕ(E) has approximately the same pdf of ϕ that of the true channel in the exact model.

in (17), as will be discussed later on. This way, E[ϕ(E) ] = Figs. 1 and 2 show the close match between the histograms

(E) that estimate fϕ (ϕ) and fϕ(E) (ϕ(E) ). Interestingly, when

E[ϕ] = 1, and, therefore, i(E) and î will have the same

covariance, as expressed by Ci(E) i(E) = E[ϕ(E) ]Cî(E) î(E) . As NS = 1, the pdf fϕ(E) (ϕ(E) ) can be calculated in closed form,

as detailed in Appendix C.

(E)

a result, the EFDOM generates a vector î such that its

covariance Cî(E) î(E) is equal to the covariance Cii of the exact

C. Parameter 3: Cross-Correlation Between the Useful

ICI, which is derived in Appendix B. As already explained Channel and the ICI

for the generation of a(E) , we start from the generation of a

jointly Gaussian random vector g 2 , and exploiting the EVD Thus far, we have separately considered the main statistical

(E) moments of a(E) and i(E) . However, the ICI i is generated by

Cii = Ui Λi UH

i , we generate î as expressed by the channel and, therefore, could be correlated with the useful

channel h U . Since this correlation can have a nonnegligible im-

(E) 1/2

î = Ui Λi g 2. (19) pact on the BER performance, we will accordingly modify the

EFDOM. To be precise, the EFDOM should impose the cross

As far as ϕ in (17) is concerned, the exact derivation of its covariance Ca(E) i(E) = Cai , which is an NS NA × NS NA

pdf fϕ (ϕ) is very difficult. Anyway, fϕ (ϕ) can be accurately matrix. However, this multidimensional constraint would

approximated resorting to some intuitive considerations. We highly complicate the simulation model. Therefore, to keep the

already know that the superblock ICI power P ICI depends model simple, we want to impose a single parameter.

on the time-variant part of the channel taps {|hl [k] − ml |2 }, Clearly, the coded BER performance on a superblock will

where the channel elements {hl [k]} are complex Gaussian depend on the total power of the useful signal, of the ICI, and

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2974 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 57, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2008

characterized by a low variance [22].

The correlation coefficient ρP is analytically calculated

in Appendix D. To impose this correlation coefficient, the

EFDOM first generates two independent jointly Gaussian

vectors g a and g i and then exploits the EVD of

√ √

I ρP INS NA 1 ρP

CρP = √ NS NA = √ ⊗ INS NA .

ρP INS NA INS NA ρP 1

(23)

follows:

1 INS NA −INS NA

UρP = √

2 INS NA INS NA

Fig. 2. Comparison between the pdf of ϕ (simulated) and ϕ(E) (analytical) √

(1 + ρP )INS NA 0NS NA ×NS NA

(RA, f D = 0.14, and NS = 1). ΛρP = √ (24)

0NS NA ×NS NA (1 − ρP )INS NA

of the noise in that superblock. A meaningful parameter that where we exploited the following EVD:

captures the role played by all these quantities is the superblock

√ √ T

signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), as expressed by 1 ρP 1 1 −1 1 + ρP 0 1 −1

√ = √ .

ρP 1 2 1 1 0 1 − ρP 1 1

A s2 (25)

SINR = . (21)

i2 + v2

From (23), it is clear that the correlation coefficient ρP is im-

For a given statistical SNR, due to the high number N of posed subcarrier by subcarrier. Although this approach reduces

subcarriers, the superblock noise power term v2 can be the simulation complexity, in practice, the correlation holds true

considered as constant for every superblock with high accuracy. only on the average. In other words, we wanted to impose ρP

Therefore, the most important joint statistical moment that as the correlation coefficient between the average power, which

is related to the superblock SINR should be the correlation does not necessarily require an analogous correlation on each

between the superblock energies a2 and i2 . Consequently, subcarrier. As a consequence, after imposing (23), the EFDOM

let us consider SINR in (21) as a random variable that assumes employs a pseudorandom NS NA × NS NA permutation matrix

different values for different superblocks, and let us define the P̃ to scramble the ICI samples among different subcarriers.

superblock correlation coefficient as follows:1 This procedure is expressed by

E A s2 i2 − E A s2 E i2 g1

=

INSNA 0NSNA ×NSNA

(M ⊗ INSNA ) a

g

ρP = . g2 0NSNA ×NSNA P̃ gi

2 2

E (A s − E [A s ]) E (i − E [i ])

2 2 2 2 √ √ √

2 1 + ρP − 1 − ρP

(22) M= √ √ (26)

2 1 + ρP 1 − ρP

To understand the impact of the correlation coefficient ρP on where the output vectors g 1 and g 2 are those used as input

the BER performance, let us assume a sufficiently high statisti-

cal SNR, so that v2 is small compared to A s2 . When ρP is vectors for the generation of a(E) and i(E) in (16) and (18),

low, the random variable SINR in (21) will have a high variance respectively. Interestingly, when ρP → 0, as expressed by

from a superblock to another, whereas for ρP → 1, SINR will

E A s2 i2 ≈ E A s2 E i2 (27)

have a lower variance. Clearly, the BER performance in the

former case is worse than in the latter case. Indeed, when the the coefficient ρP can be neglected, and CρP can be approx-

mean SINR E[SINR] is fixed, a high variance of SINR implies imated by an identity matrix. In this case, the two vectors g 1

that there are many OFDM signal realizations with low values and g 2 in (26) can be directly replaced by the two independent

of SINR and many others with high values of SINR. On the jointly Gaussian vectors g a and g i , respectively. This situation

contrary, a low variance of SINR implies that all the realizations occurs when the interleaver spans a single OFDM block, i.e.,

have an SINR that is close to the mean SINR E[SINR]. Since when NS = 1, as we analytically derived in Appendix D and

the BER increase due to low SINR values is superior to the BER verified by simulations. Anyway, ρP can be neglected also

reduction that is guaranteed by high SINR values, the net effect when the interleaver depth is very long, or the Doppler spread is

very high, such that each channel realization can be considered

1 We consider the superblock received signal energy A s2 instead of the

as ergodic over the interleaver time-span D.

superblock useful channel energy a2 ; however, these values are very close Summarizing, we have identified a few parameters that affect

to each other. Moreover, for QPSK data, A s2 = a2 . the BER performance. These parameters are the autocovariance

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POGGIONI et al.: NOVEL SIMULATION MODEL FOR CODED OFDM IN DOPPLER SCENARIOS 2975

Fig. 3. Effect of the EFDOM parameters on the coded BER (BU, f D = 0.28, Fig. 4. Effect of the removal of a single EFDOM parameter (BU, f D = 0.28,

N = 2048, and CR 1/2). N = 2048, and CR 1/2).

ICI, the ratio ϕ between the superblock ICI power and the (triangles), and Caa (crosses). With this representation, it is

statistical ICI power, and the correlation coefficient ρP be- possible to separately appreciate the importance of each param-

tween the superblock useful signal power and the superblock eter for the accuracy of the EFDOM. First, it is worth noting

ICI power. By (12), the EFDOM generates the nonequalized the excellent match between the BER performance that is ob-

received signal (including symbol deinterleaving), where the tained with the exact model and with the EFDOM, particularly

quantities in (12) are obtained using (15), (16), (18)–(20), between the BER floors. The importance of the parameters Caa

and (26). and ϕ(E) is clearly evident in Fig. 3. Specifically, the parameter

We remark that the EFDOM is an inner step. Hence, to sim- Caa imposes the autocovariance of the useful channel, which

ulate the whole COFDM system, the other operations should affects the effectiveness of the convolutional code, by possibly

be simulated as in the exact model. Specifically, before using enhancing the probability to have error bursts at the input of the

the EFDOM, we should simulate channel coding, bit interleav- soft Viterbi decoder.

ing, and mapping, whereas after the EFDOM, we should per- Fig. 3 shows that none of the four parameters alone is able

form equalization, demapping, bit deinterleaving, and channel to accurately model BER performance. It is difficult, however,

decoding. to predict the separate effect on the BER floors of each single

parameter, which can change with the simulation scenario, e.g.,

with the delay spread (RA or BU), the Doppler spread, and so

IV. EFDOM VERSUS E XACT M ODEL : forth. This fact is better clarified by the curve in Fig. 3, which

BER P ERFORMANCE is obtained with the partial EFDOM that considers only the

In this section, we validate the proposed EFDOM by com- parameter ρP (diamonds). Indeed, the parameter ρP alone leads

paring its BER with that one obtained using the exact model to an underestimation of the BER floor because it reduces the

for different FFT sizes N . We assume that the frequency guard variance of the average SINR on a superblock, as explained in

subcarriers are NG = 3N/16. We also fix the product N NS = Section III. This means that if we consider, for instance, the

8192, which means that the interleaver length has been fixed to partial EFDOM with Caa , and we add the other two parameters

D = NA NS = 13N NS /16 = 6656 complex symbols. Cii and ϕ(E) , we end up with a new partial EFDOM that

Fig. 3 plots the BER of a COFDM system for N = conversely overestimates the BER floor, as shown in Fig. 4. The

2048 (NS = 4) assuming a BU channel [12] with a normal- introduction of the fourth parameter ρP pushes back the BER

ized Doppler spread of f D = 0.28. For a DVB-H scenario, floor to the exact one.

where the sampling time is TS = 0.125 μs, and the carrier Fig. 5 plots the BER performance of a COFDM system with

frequency is fc = 1.4 GHz, this Doppler spread corresponds to N = 256 and NS = 32 in an RA channel. The normalized

v = 840 km/h. This unrealistic value for a DVB-H system has Doppler spreads are f D = 0.009 and f D = 0.017. Also, in this

been chosen to obtain a high Doppler spread and, consequently, case, we can observe a very good match between the perfor-

high BER floors, which better highlight the role played by the mance of the EFDOM and of the exact model. Specifically, the

ICI and its accurate modeling by the EFDOM. Fig. 3 displays BER performance that is obtained with the EFDOM is very

the BER estimates that are obtained with the exact model close to that obtained with the exact model for all the code

(circles), the EFDOM (stars), a model without any parameter rates and the Doppler spreads we considered. These curves

of the EFDOM (right triangles), which can be used to derive are very interesting because they show an opposite behavior

uncoded BER performance [8], and four partial EFDOMs, each with respect to the uncoded BER performance [8], that is, a

one obtained considering just one of the four parameters that lower BER for higher Doppler spreads. This is due to the fact

characterize the EFDOM—ϕ(E) (squares), ρP (diamonds), Cii that, in this scenario, with N = 256 and NS = 32, the OFDM

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2976 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 57, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2008

Fig. 5. Coded BER comparison between the EFDOM and the exact model Fig. 7. Coded BER comparison between the EFDOM and the exact model

(RA, N = 256). (RA, N = 8192).

in the frequency domain, and the normalized Doppler spreads

are f D = 0.56 and f D = 0.28. These values would correspond

to an 8K DVB-T/H system that, for a 7-MHz bandwidth and

a carrier frequency fc = 1.4 GHz, is moving at speeds equal

to v = 210 km/h and v = 420 km/h. Clearly, with this high

Doppler spread, the ICI has a very high power (specifically, for

a Rayleigh channel, P ICI ∼= 0.38 for f D = 0.56), which makes

it almost impossible for a per-subcarrier channel equalizer to

get rid of the ICI, which produces a high BER at the Viterbi de-

coder output. However, we observe that for a Rice channel with

K = 0 dB, the ICI power is reduced by 3 dB (because it de-

pends only on the scattered part of the channel), and the Viterbi

decoder is able to reduce the BER despite the high Doppler

spread. This is why, in Fig. 6, we show the BER performance

in the BU channel only for f D = 0.28, whereas Fig. 7 includes

Fig. 6. Coded BER comparison between the EFDOM and the exact model also f D = 0.56 for the RA channel. From Fig. 6, we can also

(BU, N = 8192).

notice very good accuracy of the EFDOM BER estimates in

this scenario. Similar considerations hold true for Fig. 7, which

system is more capable of exploiting the time diversity that is illustrates the BER performance in the RA channel. Although,

offered by the time-variant channel with respect to N = 8192 for f D = 0.56, the BER performance in a Rice channel is much

and NS = 1. Indeed, when N = 8192 and NS = 1, there is better than in a Rayleigh one, as expected by the previous

only a set of 8192 useful frequency channel values with a considerations, we observe a completely different behavior

frequency correlation that is imposed by the channel power- for f D = 0.28, which still permits correct performance of the

delay profile. Using NS > 1 lets the system to have N useful convolutional decoder, also with per-subcarrier equalization. In

frequency channels every OFDM symbol that are NS times less this case, the coded BER performance in a Rayleigh channel,

correlated with one another. Moreover, the interleaver works on such as the BU, can significantly outperform the coded BER in

different useful frequency channel vectors, where each one is a Rice channel such as the RA, despite the higher ICI power,

obtained from a different OFDM block. Because of the channel due to the different power-delay profile characteristics of the

time variation, these channel vectors have a time correlation two channels. This confirms the importance of the power-delay

that decreases for higher Doppler spreads. This way, the system profile for the coded BER performance, whereas it is irrelevant

with NS > 1 is capable to significantly reduce the BER floors for the uncoded BER [8].

by coding, which can benefit from the increased time diversity.

All these observations are captured by the EFDOM by imposing

V. EFDOM VERSUS E XACT M ODEL : S IMULATION T IME

the covariance matrix Caa , which we derive in Appendix A,

showing its separate dependence on the power-delay profile and The EFDOM greatly enhances the efficiency of the sim-

on the Doppler spread. ulation of a COFDM model because the generation of a(E)

Figs. 6 and 7 plot the BER of a COFDM system with for the useful channel and i(E) for the ICI is much faster

N = 8192 and NS = 1 in a BU and in an RA channel (with than the generation of the true vectors a and i. Indeed, the

Rice factor K = 0 dB, as defined in [12]), respectively. In this generation of the true vectors requires the generation of the

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POGGIONI et al.: NOVEL SIMULATION MODEL FOR CODED OFDM IN DOPPLER SCENARIOS 2977

Fig. 8. CTR and BTR for different FFT sizes. Fig. 9. CTR for different numbers of multipath components.

exact time variability of the channel taps in the time domain. VI. C ONCLUSION

This corresponds to the generation of L(N + LCP )NS samples In this paper, we have proposed a novel simulation model,

per simulation iteration, whereas the EFDOM generates only i.e., the EFDOM, to characterize the BER performance of

(2N + L)NS samples per iteration. Clearly, the efficiency of COFDM systems in time-varying scenarios. The EFDOM al-

the EFDOM increases with the number L of channel taps. lows for a faster BER simulation in Rayleigh and Rice channels,

It is worth noting that the generation of the useful channel with a simulation efficiency that increases with the number of

and of the ICI directly in the frequency domain also avoids channel paths. Another merit of the EFDOM is the identifica-

the time-varying convolution of the channel with the data, tion of few significant parameters that affect the coded BER

which, in the simulation of the exact model, is the most time- performance. The proposed model can be useful for a detailed

consuming operation, excluding the channel generation. To be performance comparison among OFDM-based standards (like

more precise, we present a comparison between the simulation DAB, DVB-T/H, and T-DMB), which are expected to also work

time that is required by the EFDOM and that required by the in mobile environments. The EFDOM could be useful also

exact model. Two different types of simulation time have been to develop an analytical BER performance analysis for those

investigated—the channel-plus-ICI generation time, which is OFDM systems that employ coding strategies whose perfor-

the time that is required to generate one realization of the useful mance in Gaussian channels can be theoretically characterized

channel vector and of the ICI vector, and the BER simulation with good accuracy.

time, which is the time that is required to simulate one coded

BER iteration for a given SNR. We performed these simulations A PPENDIX A

using the MathWorks software MATLAB version 7.0.4 on a PC

In this Appendix, we derive the covariance matrix

with an Intel Xeon processor characterized by a 3-GHz clock

Ch U h U = E[h U hH U ] of the useful channel h U . Since h U =

frequency and a 2-GB RAM.

Fig. 8 displays the channel-plus-ICI generation time ratio [hTU (1), . . . , hTU (NS )]T , we can write

(CTR) between the exact model and the EFDOM for the RA ⎡

⎤

E hU (1)hH U (1) . . . E hU (1)hH U (NS )

and BU channels as a function of the size N of the FFT. It is ⎢ .. .. ⎥

Ch U h U = ⎣ .. ⎦

evident that the EFDOM efficiency gain is much greater for the

. .

.

BU channel, which has more paths than the RA. Specifically, E hU (NS )hH U (1) · · · E h U (N S )hH

U (N S )

the CTR for the BU is about 130, whereas it is approximately

(28)

15 for the RA. From Fig. 8, it is also clear that the CTR is

√

practically independent from the FFT size. Fig. 8 also illustrates where, by exploiting the relation hU (n) = N FhT (n), each

the BER simulation time ratio (BTR) between the exact model block can be expressed by

and the EFDOM for the RA and BU channels as a function of

H

the FFT size N . In this case too, the EFDOM efficiency gain is E hU (n)hH H

U (n + k) = N FE hT (n)hT (n + k) F .

much greater for the BU channel, with BTR = 15 for BU and (29)

BTR = 3 for RA, independently from the FFT size. Obviously,

T

the BTR is lower than the CTR because the BTR also includes Since hT (n) = N −1 N i=LCP +1 hT (i + nNT ), the following

the channel decoding simulation time, which is the same for the holds true:

two models and, consequently, has a bigger impact in the

NT

NT

1

EFDOM BER simulation time than in the exact model. Fig. 9 H

E hT (n)hT (n + k) =

shows the CTR as a function of the number L of channel N2

i=LCP +1 j=LCP +1

paths. As expected, the simulation efficiency linearly increases

with L. ×E hT (i + nNT )hH

T (j +(n + k)NT ) (30)

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2978 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 57, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2008

1), . . . , hl (nNT )]T ; and hl = N −1 N i=1 hl ((n − 1)NT +

E hT (i + nNT )hH

T (j + (n + k)NT ) LCP + i). Clearly, dl = diag(Dl ) = hl − hl 1N is the

fD deviation from its average of the time-domain realization of the

= J0 2π (kNT + j − i) Σ (31) lth tap in the nth OFDM block. Since [Dl Zl−j D∗j ]k,m =

N

[Dl ]k,k [D∗j ]m,m , for k = (m + l − j) mod N , and

and Σ denotes the power-delay profile matrix, which is diag- l−j ∗

[Dl Z Dj ]k,m = 0 otherwise, by the independence of the

onal because the channel taps are uncorrelated in the delay channel taps in the delay domain, we obtain

domain. By inserting (30) and (31) into (29), we obtain

E [Dl ]k,k D∗j k,k = 0 (38)

E hU (n)hH U (n + k) = Cnorm n,n+k ChU (n)hU (n) (32)

where Cnorm is defined in (14), and ChU (n)hU (n) = N FΣFH . when l is different from j. Hence, E[Dl Zl−j D∗j ] = 0N ×N , and,

By combining (32) with (28), we obtain the result of (13). L−1

therefore, E[H̃I H̃H I ]=

H

l=0 E[Dl Dl ]. Consequently, the

entries of the diagonal matrix CH̃I H̃H = E[H̃I H̃H I ] can be

I

A PPENDIX B expressed as follows:

In this Appendix, we derive the ICI covariance matrix Cii .

L−1

Since i = PT GT n ICI , we have Cii = PT GT Cn ICI n ICI G P, CH̃I H̃H = E [hl (k)h∗l ( k)]

where I k,k

l=0

Cn ICI n ICI

1

N N

⎡

⎤ + 2 ∗

E [hl (m1 )hl ( m2 )]

E n ICI (1)nHICI (1) · · · E n ICI (1)nH ICI (NS ) N m =1 m =1

⎢ .. .. .. ⎥ 1 2

=⎣ . .

. ⎦.

2

N

E n ICI (NS )nH (1) · · · E n (N )nH

(N )

ICI ICI S ICI S

=1 − J0 (2πfD TS (k − m))

(33) N m=1

∼ n.

We now observe that E[n ICI (n)nH 1

N N

ICI (k)] = 0N ×N for k =

Indeed + J0 (2πfD TS (m1 − m2 ))

N 2 m =1 m =1

1 2

E n ICI (n)nH H

ICI (k) = E HI (n)x(n)x (k)HI (k)

H

(39)

= E HI (n)Cx(n)xH (k) HHI (k) (34)

L−1 2 −1

since l=0 σl = 1. Interestingly, N tr(CH̃I H̃H ) = P ICI ,

where the data covariance Cx(n)xH (k) imposed by the con- I

where P ICI is expressed by (7). Summarizing

volutional code is very weak and can be approximated as

Cx(n)xH (k) ∼

= 0N ×N when k = n. Since Cn ICI (n)nHICI (n) =

E[n ICI (n)nH Cii = PT GT INS ⊗ FCH̃I H̃H FH G P (40)

ICI (n)] is independent from the OFDM block in- I

where CH̃I H̃H , expressed by (39), depends on the Doppler

Cn ICI n ICI = INS ⊗ Cn ICI (n)nHICI (n)

I

(35) spread and is independent of the power-delay profile.

where Cn ICI (n)nHICI (n) is expressed by (34) with k = n. Af-

ter the convolutional code, Cx(n)xH (n) ∼ = IN ×N , and hence, A PPENDIX C

we approximate

When NS = 1, the pdf of ϕ(E) can be analytically derived.

Cn ICI (n)nHICI (n) = FE H̃I (n)H̃HI (n) FH (36) In this case, (20) becomes

L−1

(E)

2

ϕ(E) = hl − ml (41)

culate the matrix E[H̃I (n)H̃H

I (n)] in (36), we drop the OFDM l=0

block index n for notation simplicity, and we express H̃I as

follows: (E)

where hl is a random variable with the same statistical

L−1 properties of the lth channel path. For Rayleigh channels, the

H̃I = H̃ − H̃U = Dl Zl (37) (E)

terms {|hl |2 } are exponentially distributed, with parameters

l=0

{λl = 1/σl2 }, l = 0, . . . , L − 1. Since the channel taps are un-

(E)

where the circular-shift matrix Z is defined by [Z]j,k = 1 for correlated in the delay domain, the random variables {|hl |2 }

j = (k+1) mod N , and [Z]j,k = 0 otherwise; Dl = Diag(hl − are mutually independent. From [23], it is possible to show that

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POGGIONI et al.: NOVEL SIMULATION MODEL FOR CODED OFDM IN DOPPLER SCENARIOS 2979

TABLE I 1 T

VALUES OF ρP FOR NS = 4 a(n) = 1 a(n) (46)

N N

[B(n)]i+1,j+1 = J0 2πf D |i − j|/N + a(n)

− [a(n)]j − [a(n)]N −i

i, j = 0, . . . , N − 1. (47)

0.0542 for a wide range of normalized Doppler spreads, which

are expressed by 0 ≤ f D ≤ 0.56. Hence, when NS = 1, the su-

perblock correlation coefficient ρP ∼

= 0 can be safely omitted.

When NS > 1, the correlation coefficient ρP can be signifi-

cantly different from zero. Anyway, the analytical value of ρP

is very close to the simulated values. This is shown in Table I

for NS = 4 for both BU and RA channels, thus confirming the

independence of ρP from the power-delay profile.

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NS = 4. Anyway, the same procedure of [24] can be used for coded OFDM in Doppler scenarios: DVB-T versus DAB,” in Proc. IEEE

any value of NS . The final result of this procedure is given by Int. Conf. Commun., Glasgow, U.K., Jun. 2007, pp. 5689–5694.

[12] COST 207, Digital Land Mobile Radio Communications, 1989,

S −1

N Luxembourg: Office Official Pubs. Eur. Communities. Final Rep.

NS c(0)2 + 2 (NS − n) c(n)2 [13] P. Bello, “Characterization of randomly time-variant linear channels,”

n=1

ρP = IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-11, no. 4, pp. 360–393, Dec. 1963.

S −1

N [14] Y. R. Zheng and C. Xiao, “Improved models for the generation of multiple

2 2

NS a(0) + 2 (NS − n) a(n) uncorrelated Rayleigh fading waveforms,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 6,

n=1 no. 6, pp. 256–258, Jun. 2002.

[15] Z. Wang and G. B. Giannakis, “Wireless multicarrier communications,”

1

× (43) IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 29–48, May 2000.

S −1

N [16] G. H. Golub and C. F. Van Loan, Matrix Computations, 3rd ed.

2 2

NS B(0) + 2 (NS − n) B(n) Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1996.

n=1 [17] J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-

Hill, 2001.

[18] W. C. Lee, H. M. Park, and J. S. Park, “Viterbi decoding method using

where channel state information in COFDM system,” IEEE Trans. Consum.

Electron., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 533–537, Aug. 1999.

c(n) = a(n) − a(n)1N (44) [19] A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing.

N −1 Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989.

1 f [20] J. Jootar, J. R. Zeidler, and J. G. Proakis, “Performance of finite-depth

[a(n)]i+1 = J0 2π D |i − k + nNT | interleaved convolutional codes in a Rayleigh fading channel with noisy

N N

k=0 channel estimates,” in Proc. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf.—Spring, May–Jun.

i = 0, . . . , N − 1 (45) 2005, vol. 1, pp. 600–605.

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 2, 2009 at 06:53 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

2980 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 57, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2008

[21] J. K. Cavers and P. Ho, “Analysis of the error performance of trellis- Luca Rugini (S’01–M’05) was born in Perugia,

coded modulations in Rayleigh-fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun., Italy, in 1975. He received the Laurea degree in elec-

vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 74–83, Jan. 1992. tronics engineering and the Ph.D. degree in telecom-

[22] Z. Wang and G. B. Giannakis, “A simple and general parameterization munications from the University of Perugia in 2000

quantifying performance in fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun., and 2003, respectively.

vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1389–1398, Aug. 2003. From February to July 2007, he visited Delft Uni-

[23] S. V. Amari and R. B. Misra, “Closed-form expressions for distribution of versity of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands. He

sum of exponential random variables,” IEEE Trans. Rel., vol. 46, no. 4, is currently a Postdoctoral Researcher with the De-

pp. 519–522, Dec. 1997. partment of Electronic and Information Engineering,

[24] M. Poggioni, L. Rugini and P. Banelli, “A novel simulation model for University of Perugia. His research interests include

coded OFDM in Doppler scenarios: DVB-T/H versus T-DMB,” Dept. the area of signal processing for multicarrier and

Elect. Inform. Eng, Perugia, Italy, Tech. Rep. RT-004-06. Oct. 2006. spread-spectrum communications.

[Online]. Available: http://www.diei.unipg.it/rt/RT-004-06-Poggioni-

Rugini-Banelli.pdf

Paolo Banelli (S’90–M’99) received the Laurea

degree in electronics engineering and the Ph.D.

degree in telecommunications from the Univer-

sity of Perugia, Perugia, Italy, in 1993 and 1998,

respectively.

In 1998, he was an Assistant Professor with the

Department of Electronic and Information Engi-

Mario Poggioni (S’07) was born in Perugia, Italy,

neering, University of Perugia, where he has been

in 1979. He received the Laurea degree (cum laude)

an Associate Professor since 2005. In 2001, he

in electronics engineering from the University of

joined the SpinComm group at the Department of

Perugia in 2005, where he is currently working

Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of

toward the Ph.D. degree with the Department of

Minnesota, Minneapolis, as a Visiting Researcher. His research interests in-

Electronic and Information Engineering.

clude nonlinear distortions, broadcasting, time-varying channel estimation and

His research interests include the areas of sig-

equalization, and block-transmission techniques for wireless communications.

nal processing for multicarrier communications,

He has been serving as a Reviewer for several technical journals and as a

fast-fading channels, broadcasting, and cross-layer

Technical Program Committee Member of leading international conferences

designs.

on signal processing and telecommunications.

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 2, 2009 at 06:53 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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