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Deposition (phase transition)

Moore, John W., et al., Principles of Chemistry: The

Molecular Science, Brooks Cole, 2009, p. 387 ISBN
Whitten, Kenneth W., et al., Chemistry, BrooksCole, 9th ed., 2009, p. 7 ISBN 978-0-495-39163-0
Glencoe Science Focus on Physical Science

Deposition of water causes humid air to condense into frost patterns, for example in single-layer window glasses and windshields

Deposition, also known as desublimation, is a

thermodynamic process, a phase transition in which
gas transforms into solid. The reverse of deposition is
One example of deposition is the process by which, in
sub-freezing air, water vapor changes directly to ice without rst becoming a liquid. This is how snow forms in
clouds, as well as frost and hoar frost on the ground. Another example is when frost forms on a leaf. For deposition to occur, thermal energy must be removed from a gas.
When the leaf becomes cold enough, water vapor in the
air surrounding the leaf loses enough thermal energy to
change into a solid. Deposition in water vapor occurs due
to the pureness of the water vapor. The vapor has no foreign particles, and is therefore able to lose large amounts
of energy before forming around something. When the
leaf is introduced, the supercooled water vapor immediately begins to condensate, but by this point is already past
the freezing point. This causes the water vapor to change
directly into a solid.
Another example of physical deposition is the articial
process of physical vapor deposition, used to deposit thin
lms of various materials onto various surfaces.
Deposition releases energy and is an exothermic phase

Jacobson, Mark Z., Fundamentals of Atmospheric
Modeling, Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed.,
2005, p. 525 ISBN 978-0-521-83970-9


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