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CHAPTER 9

TIME-DOMAIN ELECTROMAGNETIC
9.0
Transient electromagnetics, (also time-domain electromagnetics / TDEM), is a
geophysical exploration technique in which electric and magnetic fields are induced
by transient pulses of electric current and the subsequent decay response measured. TEM /
TDEM methods are generally able to determine subsurface electrical properties, but are also
sensitive to subsurface magnetic properties in applications like UXO detection and
characterization. TEM/TDEM surveys area very common surface EM technique for mineral
exploration, groundwater exploration, and for environmental mapping, used throughout the
world in both onshore and offshore applications.

9.1
BASIC THEORY
By using a primary field which is not continuous but consists of a series of
pulses separated by periods when it is inactive. The secondary field
induced by the primary is only measured during the interval when the
primary is absent. This method solves the problem with many EM
surveying techniques which is a small secondary field must be measured in
the presence of a much larger primary field, with a consequent decrease in
accuracy. This problem is overcome in time-domain electromagnetic
surveying (TDEM).
The eddy currents induced in a subsurface conductor tend to diffuse
inwards towards its centre when the inducing field is removed and
gradually dissipate by resistive heat loss. Within highly conductive bodies,
however, eddy currents circulate around the boundary of the body and
decay more slowly. Measurement of the rate of decay of the waning eddy
currents thus provides a means of locating anomalously conducting bodies
and estimating their conductivity.
In ground surveys, the primary pulsed EM field is generated by a
transmitter that usually consists of a large rectangular loop of wire, several
tens of metres across, which is laid on the ground. The transmitter loop can
also be utilized as the receiver, or a second coil can be used for this
purpose, either on the ground surface or down a borehole (Dyck & West
1984).The transient secondary field produced by the decaying eddy
currents can last from less than a millisecond for poor conductors to more
than 20 ms for good conductors. The decaying secondary field is quantified
by measuring the temporal variation of the amplitude of the secondary at
a number of fixed times (channels) after primary cut-off.

The previous profile showing the quantification of a decaying TDEM response by


measurement of its amplitude in a number of channels (16) at increasing times
(t16) after primary field cut-off. The amplitudes of the responses in the
different channels are recorded along a profile.

In good conductors the secondary field is of long duration and will register
in most of the channels; in poor conductors the secondary field will only
register in the channels recorded soon after the primary field becomes
inactive. Repeated measurements can be stacked in a manner analogous
to seismic waves to improve the signal-to-noise ratio.
9.2 METHODOLOGY/FIELD PROCEDURE
SURVEY PROCEDURE
Two different wires, the transmitter cable which generates the primary
pulsed EM field was in form of a rectangular loop, 50m long and the
receiver cable, also a 50m long rectangular loop of cable placed on the
transmitter loop 1m apart. Both cables were connected to their respective
ports in the Terra-Tem which was powered up by a battery. We covered 40m
i.e. 3 different lines, 10m apart and 20m apart, injected current through
the transmitter cable and measured conductivity.
METHODOLOGY
Two different types of procedures can be practiced using the Time Domain
method, i.e.
1. The In-Loop
2. The Coincidental Loop

50m

Tx (transmitter)

50m
Rx (Receiver)
1m

Terra-tem
FIGURE SHOWING THE COINCIDENTAL LOOP METHOD APPLIED AS A METHODOLOGY IN THE TIME-DOMAIN
ELECTROMAGNETIC METHOD

EQUIPMENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.

Terra-tem (Inbuilt transmitter & receiver by Monex Geoscope)


Transmitter & Receiver wire cables
Battery
Meter Rule

9.3 DATA PROCESSING

TABLE OF READING
Rx= Receiver resistance ()
Tx= Transmitter resistance ()
Ramp Time (sec)
Current (A)
LINE 1 (0-10m)
STATION
1
3
6
9

Rx ()
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.7

Tx ()
5.02
4.91
4.96
4.94

Ramp (sec)
20.4
25.2
25.0
25.4

CURRENT (A)
4.64
5.05
5.00
5.00

Rx ()
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.7

Tx ()
5.06
5.08
5.11
5.09
5.09

Ramp (sec)
24.0
24.2
23.5
24.5
24.2

CURRENT (A)
4.88
4.86
4.79
4.83

Rx ()
2.7
2.7
2.8
2.7
2.7

Tx ()
5.05
5.10
5.11
5.07
5.09

Ramp (sec)
25.9
25.7
25.7
26.6
25.7

CURRENT (A)
4.89
4.81
4.80
4.83
4.81

LINE 2 (10-20m)
STATION
1
3
6
9
10
LINE 3 (20-40m)
STATION
1
3
6
9
10

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED
1. Cables tangled against each other so took a while before it could be
released
2. The root of trees caused vibrations on the subsurface hereby creating
noise on the data interpreted.
-

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEM
Reversing the polarity by changing the exchanging the receiver cable and
transmitter cable reduces noise from data acquired.
Repeated measurements can be stacked in a manner analogous to
seismic waves to improve the signal-to-noise ratio.
Chapter 10
FREQUENCY DOMAIN ELECTROMAGNTIC (EM-34)

Terrain conductivity EM systems are frequency domain electromagnetic instruments, which use two
loops or coils. To perform a survey, one person generally carries a small transmitter coil, while a
second person carries a second coil, which receives the primary and secondary magnetic fields.
Such devices can allow a rapid determination of the average conductivity of the ground because
they do not require electrical contact with the ground as is required with DC resistivity techniques.
The disadvantage is that unless several (usually three) intercoil spacings for at least two coil
geometries are measured at each location, minimal vertical-sounding information is obtained. If
the geology to the depth being explored is fairly homogeneous or slowly varying, then the lack of
information about vertical variations may not be a problem, and horizontal profiling with one coil
orientation and spacing is often useful. This technique is usually calibrated with a limited number
of DC resistivity soundings. Horizontal profiling with the terrain conductivity meter is then used to
effectively extend the resistivity information away from the DC sounding locations.
McNeill (1990) gives an excellent review and tutorial of electromagnetic methods, and much of his
discussion on the terrain conductivity meter is excerpted here (see also Butler (1986)). He lists
three significant differences between terrain conductivity meters and the traditional HLEM
(horizontal loop electromagnetic) method usually used in mining applications. Perhaps the most
important is that the operating frequency is low enough at each of the intercoil spacings that the
electrical skin depth in the ground is always significantly greater than the intercoil spacing. Under
this condition (known as operating at low induction numbers), virtually all response from the
ground is in the quadrature phase component of the received signal. With these constraints, the
secondary magnetic field can be represented as

1.5 BASIC THEORY/GENERAL PRINCIPLE


Transmitter produces continuous EM field, secondary field is determined by
nulling the primary field (need two coils); Frequency domain is also a
characteristics of the following properties:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Measure the frequency response H() and E()


Alternating field source
In-phase and quadrature
Host rock is ignored (assume electromagnetically transparent)
Electromagnetic (EM) survey makes use of the response of the ground to
the propagation of electromagnetic fields which are composed of an
alternating electric intensity and magnetizing force. Primary
electromagnetic fields may be generated by passing alternating current
through a small coil made up of many turns or through a large loop of wire.
The response of the ground is the generation of secondary electromagnetic
field and the resultant field may be detected by the alternating currents

that they induce to flow in a receiver coil by the process of electromagnetic


induction.
In general a transmitter coil is used to generate a primary EM field which
propagates above and below the ground. When the EM radiation travels
the subsurface media, it is modified slightly relative to that which travels
through the air. The transmitter induces an electrical current into the
subsurface, which produces secondary fields. These secondary fields are
sensed and recorded by the receiver coil. The properties (amplitude and
phase) of these secondary fields are related to the electrical properties of
the subsurface.
1.6 PROCEDURE AND METHODOLOGY
The EM-34 records the quadrature and in-phase components of the
electromagnetic fields. The data recorded by the quadrature component
are measurements of the apparent terrain conductivity. Subsurface
materials and groundwater that are highly conductive are detected by the
EM-34 and recorded as anomalies. The in-phase component is considered
the metal detection mode. This component senses buried metal objects
within 6m of the surface such as steel tanks, drums and buried pipes and
records them as anomalies. The in-phase component also senses soil and
groundwater with elevated levels of salt.
We laid out our survey line with tape. The Transmitter operator stopped at
measurement station. Then, the receiver operator moves coil forward and
back until his meter indicates correct intercoil spacing.
The transmitter operator reads apparent conductivity in millimhos/m and
takes 10-20 sec per reading. Normally survey in horizontal dipole mode
(coils are in vertical position) which is less subject to coil misalignment. We
also used vertical dipole (coils are in horizontal position).
INSTRUMENT USED
1. Two coils( transmitter and receiver) connected by wires that permit
several different separations and configurations
2. EM-34 receiver manufactured by Geonics, Canada
3. Two operators i.e. a receiver coil operator and transmitter coil operator
1.7 DATA PROCESSING
For both horizontal and vertical positions we measured at coil separation
10m, 20m and 40m.
10m SPACING
COIL SEPARATION

HORIZONTAL

VERTICAL

0-10
5-15
10-20
15-25
20-30
25-35
30-40
35-45
40-50
45-55
50-60
55-65
60-70
65-75
70-80
75-85
80-90
85-95
90-100
95-105
100-110
105-115
110-120
115-125
120-130
125-135
130-140

DIPOLES
24
23
23
23
22
23
22
22
20
19
19
19
20
20
22
23
24
24
23
23
21
22
22
22
22
22
22

DIPOLES
28
27
25
25
28
25
21
21
24
24
25
24
23
22
24
21
21
23
27
27
24
25
26
26
27
27
27

20m SPACING
COIL SEPARATION
0-20
5-25
10-30
15-35
20-40
25-45
30-50
35-55
40-60
45-65
50-70
55-75
60-80
65-85
70-90

HORIZONTAL
DIPOLES
27
27
26
27
25
23
23
22
20
21
21
20
21
23
23

VERTICAL
DIPOLES
25
24
25
25
25
24
23
25
29
31
29
27
25
22
20

75-95
80-100
85-105
90-110
95-115
100-120
105-125
110-130
115-135
120-140

23
23
25
23
23
23
23
23
24
23

22
22
24
25
26
25
27
29
28
27

40m SPACING
COIL SEPARATION
0-40
5-45
10-50
15-55
20-60
25-65
30-70
35-75
40-80
45-85
50-90
55-95
60-100
65-105
70-110
75-115
80-120
85-125
90-130
95-135
100-140

HORIZONTAL
DIPOLE
54
46
50
46
44
46
48
45
42
46
41
46
41
44
47
51
45
49
42
43
49

VERTICAL DIPOLE
41
47
47
48
55
52
55
54
52
52
51
47
46
45
45
46
44
48
46
47
44

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
The Horizontal Dipoles (as well as the Vertical Dipoles) are then
plotted against the Stations (using Microsoft Excel software) for each of
the spacings of a given traverse. This is repeated for all the three traverses
as shown in the graphs below.
NECK

CROSS-OVER ANOMALY
45
40
35
30
25

Apparent Conductivity(ms/m)

Horizontal Dipoles

20

Vertical Dipoles

15

Linear ()

10
5
0
0

50

100

Tx-Rx
midpoint

10m SPACING

150

GRAPH SHOWING APPARENT CONDUCTIVITY AGAINST STATION SEPARATION

35
30
25
20
Apparent Conductivity(ms/m)

Horizontal Dipoles

15

Vertical Dipoles
10
5
0
0

50

100

150

Station

20m SPACING
GRAPH SHOWING CONDUCTIVITY AGAINST STATION SEPARATION

60
50
40

APPARENT CONDUCTIVITY

30

HD
20

VD

10
0
0

20

40

60

80

STATION

40m SPACING

100

120

140

GRAPH SHOWING CONDUCTIVITY AGAINST STATION SEPARATION

1.8 INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION


QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
From the graph, we can quantitatively analyze specific positions that can
delineate specific anomalies.
NECK: At graph of 10m Spacing, and indicated neck shows where the
profile of the Vertcal Dipoles meet the profiles of the Horizontal.
The neck can delineate anomalies such as Fracture zones, Overburdens,
groundwater and weather anomaly.
CROSS-OVER ANOMALY: Position on the graph where the Vertical Dipole
profiles meets with the peak of the Horizontal Dipole. Such profile
delineates anomaly such as the conductive overburden.
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
From the graphs, there are anomalous conductivity we are interested in the
Vertical dipoles at each Transmitter and receiver orientation.
Intercoil Spacing
10
20
40
( 40 ) (20)
( 20 ) (10)

Vertical Dipoles
21
31
40

Z
Z
R( )
40
20

=R(

4031
3121

= 2 1 ---------------- (1)

= 0.9

adjusting the 0.9 value on our R(z) curve, we get z = 13m


( 40 ) (20)
Z
Z
R
R ( ) = 2 1 ------------------ (2)
40
20

( )

( 40Z )=R ( 1340 )=0.325

( 20Z )=R ( 1320 )=0.65

From equation 2

4031
0.530.3251

9
=36=
0.25

2 1

13
From the equation (20) = 1 + 2 1 R 20

( )

31= 1 + 36(0.325)
1 = 31 11 = 20

2 1 = 36mS/m
2 = 36 + 20
2 = 56mS/m
This result shows some consistent anomalous conductivity value for
vertical dipole mode for all the spacing. These signatures have a depth
range of 0-13m, which infer the thickness of the overburden layer. The
calculate conductivity range of the second layer was estimated to be
20mS/m-56mS/m.

PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED
1. Ground wasnt leveled and that factor affected our readings
2. We noticed that the longer the coil separation, the harder the accuracy of
results to be acquired.