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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level HISTORY 2171/02 Paper 2 October/November 2004 2 hours 15 minutes | Additional Materials: Answer BookleV/Paper READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST you have been given an Answer Booklet, follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet. Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. Write in dark blue or black pen on both sides of the paper. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs, or rough working. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid. Answer four questions. You must answer Question 1 and one other question from Section A, one question from Section B and one question from Section C. ‘At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. ‘The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. “This document consists of 5 printed pages and 3 blank pages. SP (SC) $629185 £239 UNIVERSITY of CAMBRIDGE ©UCLES 2004 International Examinations (Turn over 1 2 Section A History of Brunei 1800-1967 ‘Answer Question 1 and one other question from this section. Read the extracts and then answer the questions which follow. ~ (a) (b) (c) (a) (e) Increased Western Interest in Brunei Extract A: Early British and American interests. Among the examples of early western interest in Brunei are the activities of James Brooke in the 1840s and the signing of the Treaty of Friendship and Commerce with the USA in 1850. James Brooke visited Sarawak in 1839 and soon became involved in its problems. In 1846, he became the Raja with the right to rule Sarawak and appoint his own 5 ‘successors. He did much to develop British interests in Brunei. The USA was also becoming interested in Brunei. Joseph Balestier was the American representative who proposed a Treaty of Friendship and Commerce with Brunei in 1850 so that the US could develop trade in the area. The Sultan of Brunei willingly accepted the offer to make a Treaty. 10 Extract B: Oath of Amanat (1885). By 1885 Brunei was in considerable difficulties because of the activities both of Charles Brooke and of the British North Borneo Company: Both were extending their territories at the expense of Brunei. Charles Brooke had succeeded his uncle, James, as Raja of Sarawak and had used his position there as a starting point to expand his influence in Brunei. The formation 15 of the British North Borneo (Chartered) Company in, 1881 simply increased the threat to Brunei. So, in 1885 the Sultan made an agreement with his leading ministers and landholders. This ‘Amanat’ was an agreement not to cede or lease any remaining Brunei territories to foreign powers. 20 Name three groups of people who agreed ‘not to cede or lease any remaining Brunei territories to foreign powers’ in the Amanat of 1885. (Extract B, lines 19-20.) (3) How did James Brooke become ‘Raja with the right to rule Sarawak’ in 1846? (Extract A, line 5.) (4) Why did the Sultan of Brunei willingly accept the offer to make a Treaty of Friendship and ~ Commerce with the USA in 1850? (Extract A, lines 8-10.) [4] How was Charles Brooke able to ‘expand his influence’ in Brunei? (Extract B, line 15.) [6] Describe the events leading to the ‘formation of the British North Borneo (Chartered) Company in 1881’. (Extract B, lines 15-16.) 18} ©UCLES 2004 2171/02/0Mu04 2 3 Background to the History of Brunei from 1800. (a) (b) () (a) (e) Name three native peoples of Borneo who were classified as Hamba. 3] Why were rivers important to the people and government of Brunei? (4) What were the duties of Manteris in the hierarchy of traditional adminigtration in Brunei? [4] Describe the sources of income for the Sultan and royal family in the nigeteenth century. [6] Describe the trade of Brunei in the first part of the nineteenth century. (8) Nationalism and the Second World War in South East Asia. (a) (b) (c) (a) (e) Give three examples of the introduction of Japanese ideas and customs (Nipponisation) in Brunei during the war. 3] How did Brunei students from the Sultan Idris Teachers’ College in Perak (MPS!) help in the development of nationalistic feelings before the Japanese invasion? (4) In what ways did the Japanese occupation affect the development of national consciousness in Brunei? (4) Describe the activities of the British Military Administration after the war. (6) Explain the importance of Barisan Pemuda (BARIP) in raising nationalist feelings among the Malays of Brunei. (8) @UCLES 2004 2171100NUI04 Dod 4 Section B History of Malaya 1800-1963 Answer either Question 4 or Question 5. a 4 British-Siamese Relations with the Malay States. (a) Name three of the Unfederated Malay States. 13] (b) Why was Britain concerned about the Northern Malay States by 1900? [4] (c) Why did Siam want an agreement with Britain about the Malay Peninsula in 1909? [8] (d) Give details of the terms of the Treaty of Bangkok [6] (e) Give two differences between the powers of British Advisers in the Unfederated Malay States and those of Residents in the Federated Malay States. (4) 5 The Formation of Malaysia 1963 (a) Name three people who played an important part in the formation of Malaysia. (3) (b) Why did the government of Singapore support the Malaysia proposal? (4). (c) Describe the Malaysia Solidarity Consultative Committee and its work. 14] (d) Why and: with what results did Indonesia and the Philippines oppose the formation of Malaysia? {8} (e) What steps were taken to find out whether the people of Singapore, Sabah ‘and Sarawak supported the formation of Malaysia? (6) @UCLES 2004 2171/02/0NuI04 6 5 Section C History of Southeast Asia 1800-1950 Answer one question from this section. Indonesia: The Japanese Occupation, 1942-5. (a) Name three organisations set up by the Japanese to win the support of Indonesians. [3] {b) Why did Indonesians welcome the Japanese invaders in 1942? [4] (c) Describe the activities of Sutan’ Sjahrir and the underground opposition during. the occupation. [4] (a) How were the people of Indonesia affected by the Japanese occupation? [8] {e) What preparations were made for Indonesian independence during the Japanese occupation? [6] Thailand: King Rama IV (Mongkut), 1851-68. (a) Name three western countries with which Siam signed treaties in Mongkut’s reign. (3] (b) Describe Mongkut's education and his life before he became King. [4] (c)_ In what ways was Mongkut a tolerant ruler? (4) (a) How did Mongkut try to improve the government and communications in Siam? (6) {e) Describe the foreign policy of Mongkut. [8] The Philippines: Constitutional Reforms, 1902-46. (a) Name three American Governor-Generals in this period. {3] (b) Describe the American policy of Filipinization. (4 (c) Describe how the Philippines was to be governed under the Jones Act passed in 1916. [6] (a) What changes took place in US policy towards the Philippines between 1932 and 1934? [4] {e) Explain the importance of the Tydings-McDuffie Act for the Philippines. (8) @UCLES 2004 217 Vo210nWIOd