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LECTURE 3:

Sensors (Part 1)

11 April 2015

OUTLINE

Displacement Sensors

Temperature Sensors

Electromagnetic radiation Sensors

Type of Sensors

A. Displacement Sensors:

resistance, inductance, capacitance, piezoelectric

B. Temperature Sensors:

Thermistors, thermocouples

Thermal and photon detectors

A. Displacement Measurements

Used to measure directly and indirectly the size,

shape, and position of the organs.

Displacement measurements can be made using

sensors designed to exhibit a resistive, inductive,

capacitive or piezoelectric change as a function of

changes in position.

1. Resistive sensors

Potentiometers

Measure linear and angular position

Resolution a function of the wire construction

Measure velocity and acceleration

2 to 500mm

5

1. Resistive sensors

Potentiometers

1. Resistive sensors

Strain gages

Devices designed to exhibit a change in resistance as a result of experiencing

strain to measure displacement in the order of nanometer.

For a simple wire:

L

A

(dimension).

The gage factor, G, is used to compare various strain-gage materials

R / R

/

G

1 2

L / L

L / L

D / D

Is Poissons ratio

for most metals =0.3

L / L

7

1. Resistive sensors

Strain gages

1. Resistive sensors

1. Resistive sensors

Wheatstone Bridge

vo is zero when the bridge is balanced- that is when

R1 / R2 R4 / R3

If all resistor has initial value R0 then if R1 and R3 increase by R, and R2 and

R4 decreases by R, then

R

v0

vi

R0

10

1. Resistive sensors

Unbounded strain gage:

on gage pair B and C is increased,

while that on gage pair A and D is

decreased.

Initially before any pressure R1 = R4

and R3 = R2

Wheatstone Bridge

B

11

R3

R4

Va Vi

Vb Vi

R1 R4

R2 R3

R3

R4

Vo Va Vb Vi

R2 R3 R1 R4

R4 ( R3 R2 ) R3 ( R1 R4 )

Vo Vi

( R2 R3 )( R1 R4 )

1. Resistive sensors

- Metallic wire, etched foil, vacuum-deposited film or semiconductor is cemented to

the strained surface

To

offset temperature use dummy gage wire that is exposed to temperature but

12

not to strain

1. Resistive sensors

13

14

1. Resistive sensors

1. Resistive sensors

Pressure strain gages sensor with

high sensitivity

sensor

15

1. Resistive sensors

Extensively used in Cardiovascular and respiratory dimensional and volume

determinations.

As the tube stretches, the diameter

decreases and the length increases,

causing the resistance to increase

b) venous-occlusion

plethysmography

c) arterial-pulse

plethysmography

Resistance = 0.02 - 2 /cm, linear within 1% for 10% of maximal extension

16

2. Inductive sensors

Faradays Law: a magnetic field passing through an electric circuit will create a

voltage

i

+

v

d

vN

dt

17

v2

v1

N1

N2

N1

v1

v2

N2

2. Inductive sensors

Faradays Law: a magnetic field passing through an electric circuit will create a

voltage

Self-inductance

L n G

Mutual inductance

Differential

transformer

di

v 18 L

dt

G = geometric form factor

= effective magnetic permeability of the medium

2. Inductive sensors

- full-scale displacement of 0.1 to 250 mm

- 0.5-2 mV for a displacement of 0.01mm

- sensitivity is much higher than that for strain gages

Disadvantage requires more complex signal processing

+

+

phase changes 180 , while the magnitude of vo

is proportional to the magnitude of x. (b) An

ordinary rectifier-demodulator cannot distinguish

between (a) and (b), so a phase-sensitive

19

demodulator

is required.

3. Capacitive sensors

Capacitive sensors

A

C 0 r

x

r = relative dielectric constant of the insulator

A = area of each plate

x = distance between plates

A (slide plates relative to each other), or

x.

20

3. Capacitive sensors

C

A

0 r 2

x

x

i

+

When the capacitor is stationary xo

+

the voltage v1=E.

A change in position

x = x1 -xo produces a voltage

vo = v1 E.

Vo ( j ) E / xo j

X 1 ( j )

j 1

Characteristics of capacitive sensors:

dvc

ic

dt

Dynamic ranges up to 300 m (reduced accuracy at higher displacements)

High21long term stability (<0.1 nm / 3 hours)

Bandwidth: 20 to 3 kHz

3. Capacitive sensors

Example:

For a 1 cm2 capacitance sensor, R is 100 M. Calculate x,

the plate spacing required to pass sound frequencies above

20 Hz.

Answer:

From the corner frequency, C =1/2fR=1/(220108)= 80 pF.

x can be calculated as follows:

12

22

A (8.854 10 )(110 )

x 0 r

C

80 10 12

x 1.11 10 5 m 1.11 m

4. Piezoelectric sensors

Certain materials generate a voltage when subjected to a mechanical

strain, or undergo a change in physical dimensions under an applied

voltage.

Uses of Piezoelectric

External (body surface) and internal (intracardiac)

phonocardiography

Detection of Korotkoff sounds in blood-pressure measurements

Provide an estimate of energy expenditure by measuring

acceleration due to human movement.

23

Vo

4. Piezoelectric sensors

q kf

k piezoelect ric constant, C/N

(typically pC/N, a material property)

k for Quartz = 2.3 pC/N

k for barium titanate = 140 pC/N

To find Vo, assume system acts like a capacitor (with infinite leak resistance):

q kf

kfx

Vo

C C 0 r A

Capacitor:

A

C 0 r

x

For piezoelectric sensor of 1-cm2 area and 1-mm thickness with an applied force

due to a 10-g weight, the output voltage v is

0.23 mV

for quartz crystal

24

14 mV

for barium titanate crystal.

4. Piezoelectric sensors

Piezoelectric polymeric films, such as polyvinylidence fluoride (PVDF). Used for uneven

25 and for microphone and loudspeakers.

surface

4. Piezoelectric sensors

View piezoelectric crystal as a charge generator:

q Kx

K proportionality constant

x deflection

Cs: sensor capacitance

Cc: cable capacitance

Ca: amplifier input capacitance

Ra: amplifier input resistance

Ra

26

4. Piezoelectric sensors

Convert charge generator to current generator:

q Kx

is ic iR

dq

dx

is

K

dt

dt

ic is i R

dx Vo

dVo

C

K

dt R

dt

Vo j K s j

X j j 1

= RC, time constant

27

Curre

nt

R

a

4. Piezoelectric sensors

q VC Kx

Kx

V0

C

The decay and undershoot can be minimized by increasing the time constant

=RC.

28

4. Piezoelectric sensors

Example:

A piezoelectric sensor has C = 500 pF. Sensor leakage

resistanse is 10 G. The amplifier input impedance is 5 M.

What is the low corner frequency? Current

C = 500 pF

Rleak = 10 G

Ra = 5 M

What is fc,low ?

1

1

f c,low

64 Hz

6

12

2RC 2 (5 10 )(500 10 )

If input impedance is increased 100 times:

1

(Ra = 500 M )

f c,low

29

Then

the fc,low :

2 (500 10 6 )(500 10 12 )

0.64 Hz

R

s

30

Vo j K s j

X j j 1

OUTLINE

Displacement Sensors

Temperature Sensors

Electromagnetic radiation Sensors

B. Temperature Measurement

The human body temperature is a good indicator of the health

and physiological performance of different parts of the human

body.

Temperature indicates:

Infection by measuring skin temperature

Arthritis by measuring temperature at the joint

Body temperature during surgery

Infant body temperature inside incubators

32

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Radiation and fiber-optic detectors

p-n junction semiconductor (2 mV/oC)

Thermocouple

T1

A

B

T2 T1

E = f(T1 T2)

dissimilar metals. Two independent effects cause this

phenomena:

1- Contact of two unlike metals and the junction temperature (Peltier)

2- Temperature gradients along each single conductor (Lord Kelvin)

E = f (T12 - T22)

33

Thermocouple

Advantages of Thermocouple

fast response (=1ms), small size (12 m diameter), ease of

fabrication and long-term stability

Disadvantages

Small output voltage, low sensitivity, need for a reference

temperature

34

Thermocouple

Empirical calibration data are usually curve-fitted with

a power series expansion that yield the Seebeck

voltage.

T1

A

B

T2 T1

E = f(T1 T2)

1 2

E aT bT ....

2

35

T: Temperature in Celsius

Reference junction is at 0 oC

Thermocouple Laws

1- Homogeneous Circuit law: A circuit composed of a

single homogeneous metal, one cannot maintain an

electric current by the application of heat alone. See

Fig. 2.12b (next slide)

2- Intermediate Metal Law: The net emf in a circuit

consisting of an interconnection of a number of unlike

metals, maintained at the same temperature, is zero.

See Fig. 2.12c (next slide)

- Second law makes it possible for lead wire connections

1

1

E23 E13 E12 a1T3 b1T3 a1T2 b1T2

2

2

36

T1

T2

T3

Thermocouple Laws

3- Successive or Intermediate Temperatures Law: See

Fig. 2.12d (next slide)

The third law makes it possible for calibration curves derived

for a given reference-junction temperature to be used to

determine the calibration curves for another reference

temperature.

1

1

E23 E13 E12 a1T3 b1T3 a1T2 b1T2

2

2

37

T1

T2

T3

38

Thermoelectric Sensitivity

E T

E aT

1

bT 2

2

dE

a bT

dT

T1

A

B

E = f(T1 T2)

coefficient, or thermoelectric sensitivity. Generally in

the range of 6.5 - 80 V/oC at 20 oC.

39

T2

Thermistors

whose resistance decreases as temperature increases.

Advantages

Small in size (0.5 mm in diameter)

Large sensitivity to temperature changes (-3 to -5% /oC)

Blood velocity

Temperature differences in the same organ

Excellent long-term stability characteristics (R=0.2%

/year)

Disadvantages

Nonlinear

Self heating

40

Limited range

Bridge Connection to measure voltage

R1

V

R3

vb

va

R2

Rt

41

Thermistors Resistance

[ (T0 T ) / TT0 ]

Rt R0e

1000

100

1 dRt

2

Rt dT

T

(% / K )

K (2500 to 5000 K)

To = standard reference temperature, K

To = 293.15 K = 20C = 68F

is a nonlinear function of temperature

10

at zero-power resistance of thermistor.

1

0.1

0.01

0.001

(a)

(a) Typical thermistor zero-power resistance

ratio-temperature characteristics for various materials.

42

Temperature, C

Voltage-Versus-Current

Characteristics

However, above specific current, current flow generates heat

that make the temperature of the thermistor above the ambient

temperature.

B

Voltage, V

100

Water

10

Air

1.0

0.1

0.10

1.0

10.0

100.0

Current, mA

(b)

water. The diagonal lines with a positive slope give linear resistance values and

show the degree of thermistor linearity at low currents. The intersection of the

thermistor curves and the diagonal lines with the negative slope give the device

power dissipation. Point A is the maximal current value for no appreciable self43

heat. Point B is the peak voltage. Point C is the maximal safe continuous current

in air.

+628775006229

hannyjberchmans@gmail.com

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