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E. van Oort, J. E. Friedheim and B.

Toups

PROCEDIMIENTO TAPON DIESEL BENTONITA


1. ESTABLECER LA PROFUNDIDAD DE LA ZONA DE PERDIDA.
2. DETERMINAR LA INTENSIDAD DE LA PERDIDA, PARA SOLICITAR EL
MATERIAL CALCULADO DE DIESEL Y BENTONITA TOMANDO EN CUENTA
QUE 1 M3 DE DIESEL SE MEZCLA CON 20 SACOS DE BENTONITA.
3. BAJAR CON TP FRANCA HASTA LA PROFUNDIDAD DE PERDIDA O UNOS
METROS ARRIBA.
4. MANTENER EL ESPEJO DEL LODO EN EL ESPACIO ANULAR.
5. BOMBEAR 200 O 400 LITROS DE DIESEL.
6. BOMBEAR LA MEZCLA DIESEL BENTONITA.
7. BOMBEAR 200 O 400 LITROS DE DIESEL.
8. DESPLAZAR EL TAPON DIESEL BENTONITA CON LODO, HASTA QUE EL
PRIMER COLCHON DE DISEL ESTE EN LA BOCA DE LA TR.
9. CIERRE PREVENTORES.
10. CONTINUE DESPLAZANDO EL TAPON, PROCURANDO ANOTAR LA
PRESION DE INYECCIN INICIAL Y FINAL DE BOMBEO, TENGA EN
CUENTA LA PRESION DE RUPTURA DE LA FORMACIN.
11. UNA VEZ DESPLAZADO DE LA TUBERA EL TAPON DIESEL - BENTONITA
DEJE DE BOMBEAR LODO.
12. ABRA EL PREVENTOR Y LEVANTE LA TP HASTA LA ZAPATA LLENE EL
POZO Y CIERRE EL PREVENTOR POR LO MENOS 3 HORAS.
13. ABRA EL PREVENTOR Y CIRCULE CUANDO MENOS 2 HRS, ANTES DE
SACAR TOTALMENTE LA TUBERA PARA BAJAR CON BNA.
14. COMPLETE DE 10 12 HRS. EL TIEMPO DE REPOSO DEL TAPON.

Table 1 Drill Rig Performance Specification


Parameter
Maximum Capability
Stroke
6 ft
ROP

180 ft/hr

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E. van Oort, J. E. Friedheim and B. Toups

Weight on Bit (WOB)


Rotary Speed
Torque
Pumping Power

375,000 lb (low speed)


200,000 lb (high speed)
400 rpm (low speed)
1000 rpm (high speed)
10,000 ft/lb (low speed)
2,200 ft/lb (high speed)
1,600 hp

Table 2 Wellbore Simulator Performance Specification


Parameter
Maximum Capability
Overburden Stress
20,000 psi
13,000 psi
Confining Pressure

Wellbore Pressure
Pore Pressure
Bit Diameter Range
Fluid Temperature

10,000 psi
4,000 psi
6 1/8 12 in
150F

Table 3 COF for Two ROP Additives in a 9.4 lb/gal PHPA Mud

Base Mud
9.4 PPG
NaCl/PHP
A
0.164

Additive A
1%
0.165

Additive B

3%
0.153

1%
0.155

3%
0.027

Table 4 Additives and Results of TerraTek Testing on a 12.0 lb/gal NaCl/PHPA


Drilling Fluid

PA (Pierre 1A)
PB (Pierre 1B)
Additive A (PB)
Additive B (PA)
Additive C (PA)
Additive D (PB)
Additive E (PB)
Additive B (PB)

Weighted ROP
(ft/hr)
16.8
14.1
17.8
110.5
7.1
13.5
10.6
91.3

Bit Balling
(gm)
138
231
36
39
200
70
28
50

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E. van Oort, J. E. Friedheim and B. Toups

In-situ
Stress

Forces in
Cementation
Clay Platelet

Pore

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - -

Clay Platelet
Swelling
Pressure

Fig. 1a Ribbon-like strands of cuttings


generated by a PDC bit.

Pore Pressure

Fig. 2 The balance of forces inside a shale


buried at depth.
Water Film on
Cutter Surface

Mud
Pressure

Shale Cutting
Pore
Pressure

Clay Platelet
Water

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Inflow
Clay Platelet

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Mud
Pressure

Swelling
Pressure
Mud

Fig. 1b Strands of cuttings meshed together


to form an increasingly structure-less
bit-ball (material taken from balled
up PDC bit).

Dry Zone

PDC Cutter

Fig. 3 Disruption of the original


equilibrium state when a shale
is drilled.

Plastic Zone
Shale plastic & sticky

Bit balling zone


Shale too dry
to stick to bit.
No bit-balling

Hydration

Pressure

Liquid Zone
Shale too
dispersed to
stick to bit.
Washes off
the bit. No bit
balling

Hydration
De-hydration

De-hydration

Water Content (A.U.)

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E. van Oort, J. E. Friedheim and B. Toups

Fig. 4 Plastic behavior of clay soils as a function of water content.


Dry Zone

Plastic Zone
Shale plastic & sticky

Bit balling zone


Shale too dry
to stick to bit.
No bit-balling

Dry Zone

Liquid Zone
Shale too
dispersed to
stick to bit.
Washes off
the bit. No bit
balling

Hydration

Water Content (A.U.)

Fig. 5a Using dispersive muds to hydrate young,


reactive shallow shales to reduce bit balling. The
hydration takes them beyond the liquid limit into
the liquid zone.

Plastic Zone
Bit balling zone

Shale too dry


to stick to bit.
No bit-balling

Shale too
dispersed to
stick to bit.
Washes off
the bit. No bit
balling

Shale too dry


to stick to bit.
No bit-balling

Water Content (A.U.)

Shale plastic & sticky

Liquid Zone

Bit balling zone

Hydration

Dry Zone

Plastic Zone
Shale plastic & sticky

Fig. 5b Bit-balling of older, well-consolidated


shales can be exacerbated by hydrating them
using dispersive muds, taking them from the dry
zone into the plastic / balling zone.

Liquid Zone

Dry Zone

Plastic Zone

Liquid Zone

Shale plastic & sticky

Shale too
dispersed to
stick to bit.
Washes off
the bit. No bit
balling

Bit balling zone


Shale too dry
to stick to bit.
No bit-balling

Shale too
dispersed to
stick to bit.
Washes off
the bit. No bit
balling

De-hydration

De-hydration

Water Content (A.U.)

Fig. 5c Muds that osmotically dehydrate shales:


bit-balling of older, well-consolidated shales can
be reduced by dehydrating them, taking them
from the plastic/balling zone into the dry zone.

Water Content (A.U.)

Fig. 5d Muds that osmotically dehydrate shales:


bit-balling of young, shallow shales can be
exacerbated by dehydrating them, taking them
from the liquid zone into the plastic/balling
zone.

Fig. 6 Results of full-scale drilling tests for various mud types.


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E. van Oort, J. E. Friedheim and B. Toups

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E. van Oort, J. E. Friedheim and B. Toups

Fig. 7 Weighted average rate of penetration for ROP Enhancers tests

Fig. 8 Total balled material recovered in ROP Enhancers tests

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15.