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# 14th Annual Harvard-MIT Mathematics Tournament

## Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

1. Let ABC be a triangle such that AB = 7, and let the angle bisector of BAC intersect line BC at
D. If there exist points E and F on sides AC and BC, respectively, such that lines AD and EF
are parallel and divide triangle ABC into three parts of equal area, determine the number of possible
integral values for BC.

14

## Note that such E, F exist if and only if

= 2.

(1)

([ ] denotes area.) Since AD is the angle bisector, and the ratio of areas of triangles with equal height
is the ratio of their bases,
AC
DC
=
=
.
AB
DB
Hence (1) is equivalent to AC = 2AB = 14. Then BC can be any length d such that the triangle
inequalities are satisfied:
d + 7 > 14
7 + 14 > d
Hence 7 < d < 21 and there are 13 possible integral values for BC.
2. Let a, b, and c be positive real numbers. Determine the largest total number of real roots that the
following three polynomials may have among them: ax2 + bx + c, bx2 + cx + a, and cx2 + ax + b.
Answer: 4 If all the polynomials had real roots, their discriminants would all be nonnegative: a2
4bc, b2 4ca, and c2 4ab. Multiplying these inequalities gives (abc)2 64(abc)2 , a contradiction.
Hence one of the quadratics has no real roots. The maximum of 4 real roots is attainable: for example,
the values (a, b, c) = (1, 5, 6) give 2, 3 as roots to x2 + 5x + 6 and 1, 51 as roots to 5x2 + 6x + 1.
Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

3. Let f : R R be a differentiable function such that f (0) = 0, f (1) = 1, and |f 0 (x)| 2 for all real
Z 1
numbers x. If a and b are real numbers such that the set of possible values of
f (x) dx is the open
0

## interval (a, b), determine b a.

3
4

Draw lines of slope 2 passing through (0, 0) and (1, 1). These form a parallelogram with

vertices (0, 0), (.75, 1.5), (1, 1), (.25, .5). By the mean value theorem, no point of (x, f (x)) lies outside
this parallelogram, but we can construct functions arbitrarily close to the top or the bottom of the
parallelogram while satisfying the condition of the problem. So (b a) is the area of this parallelogram,
which is 34 .
4. Josh takes a walk on a rectangular grid of n rows and 3 columns, starting from the bottom left corner.
At each step, he can either move one square to the right or simultaneously move one square to the left
and one square up. In how many ways can he reach the center square of the topmost row?
Answer: 2n1 Note that Josh must pass through the center square of each row. There are 2 ways
to get from the center square of row k to the center square of row k + 1. So there are 2n1 ways to get
to the center square of row n.
5. Let H be a regular hexagon of side length x. Call a hexagon in the same plane a distortion of H if
and only if it can be obtained from H by translating each vertex of H by a distance strictly less than
1. Determine the smallest value of x for which every distortion of H is necessarily convex.

A1

A6

A5

A2

A3

A4

Let H = A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 be the hexagon, and for all 1 i 6, let points A0i be considered such that
Ai A0i < 1. Let H 0 = A01 A02 A03 A04 A05 A06 , and consider all indices modulo 6. For any point P in the plane,
let D(P ) denote the unit disk {Q|P Q < 1} centered at P ; it follows that A0i D(Ai ).
Let X and X 0 be points on line A1 A6 , and let Y and Y 0 be points on line A3 A4 such that A1 X =
A1 X 0 = A3 Y = A3 Y 0 = 1 and X and X 0 lie on opposite sides of A1 and Y and Y 0 lie on opposite sides
of A3 . If X 0 and Y 0 lie on segments A1 A6 and A3 A4 , respectively, then segment A01 A03 lies between the
lines XY and X 0 Y 0 . Note that x2 is the distance from A2 to A1 A3 .

## Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

A1

A6

A5

A2

A3

A4

If x2 2, then C(A2 ) cannot intersect line XY , since the distance from XY to A1 A3 is 1 and the
distance from XY to A2 is at least 1. Therefore, A01 A03 separates A02 from the other 3 vertices of the
hexagon. By analogous reasoning applied to the other vertices, we may conclude that H 0 is convex.
If x2 < 2, then C(A2 ) intersects XY , so by choosing A01 = X and A03 = Y , we see that we may choose
A02 on the opposite side of XY , in which case H 0 will be concave. Hence the answer is 4, as desired.
6. Nathaniel and Obediah play a game in which they take turns rolling a fair six-sided die and keep a
running tally of the sum of the results of all rolls made. A player wins if, after he rolls, the number
on the running tally is a multiple of 7. Play continues until either player wins, or else indefinitely. If
Nathaniel goes first, determine the probability that he ends up winning.
5
For 1 k 6, let xk be the probability that the current player, say A, will win when
the number on the tally at the beginning of his turn is k modulo 7. The probability that the total
is l modulo 7 after his roll is 61 for each l 6 k (mod 7); in particular, there is a 16 chance he wins
immediately. The chance that A will win if he leaves l on the board after his turn is 1 xl . Hence for
1 k 6,
X
1
1
(1 xl ) + .
xk =
6
6
1l6, l6=k

P6

xk s
6

## Letting s = l=1 xl , this becomes xk =

+ 1 or 5x6k = 6s + 1. Hence x1 = = x6 , and 6xk = s
6
k
for every k. Plugging this in gives 11x
6 = 1, or xk = 11 .
Since Nathaniel cannot win on his first turn, he leaves Obediah with a number not divisible by 7.
6
5
Hence Obediahs chance of winning is 11
and Nathaniels chance of winning is 11
.
7. Let ABCDEF be a regular hexagon of area 1. Let M be the midpoint of DE. Let X be the
intersection of AC and BM , let Y be the intersection of BF and AM , and let Z be the intersection
of AC and BF . If [P ] denotes the area of polygon P for any polygon P in the plane, evaluate
[BXC] + [AY F ] + [ABZ] [M XZY ].

## Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

B
Z
Y

X
O

Let O be the center of the hexagon. The desired area is [ABCDEF ] [ACDM ] [BF EM ]. Note
that [ADM ] = [ADE]/2 = [ODE] = [ABC], where the last equation holds because sin 60 = sin 120 .
Thus, [ACDM ] = [ACD] + [ADM ] = [ACD] + [ABC] = [ABCD], but the area of ABCD is half the
area of the hexagon. Similarly, the area of [BF EM ] is half the area of the hexagon, so the answer is
zero.
8. Let f : [0, 1) R be a function that satisfies the following condition: if
x=

X
an
= .a1 a2 a3 . . .
10n
n=1

is the decimal expansion of x and there does not exist a positive integer k such that an = 9 for all
n k, then

X
an
f (x) =
.
2n
10
n=1

Determine f 0 13 .
P
Answer: 0 Note that 13 = n=1 103n .
Clearly f is an increasing function. Also for any integer n 1, we see from decimal expansions that
f ( 31 101n ) f ( 13 ) = 1012n .
1
Consider h such that 10n1 |h| < 10n . The two
1properties
of f outlined above show that |f ( 3 +
1
f ( +h)f ( 3 )
1
h) f ( 13 )| < 1012n . And from | h1 | 10n+1 , we get 3 h
. Taking n gives h 0
< 10n1

and f 0 ( 13 ) = limn

1
10n1

= 0.

9. Let ABCD be a square of side length 13. Let E and F be points on rays AB and AD, respectively,
so that the area of square ABCD equals the area of triangle AEF . If EF intersects BC at X and
BX = 6, determine DF .

13

## Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

F
x
Y

y
7
X

First Solution
Let Y be the point of intersection of lines EF and CD. Note that [ABCD] = [AEF ] implies that
[BEX] + [DY F ] = [CY X]. Since 4BEX 4CY X 4DY F , there exists some constant r such
that [BEX]
= r BX 2 , [Y DF ] = r
CX 2 , and [CY X] = r DF 2 . Hence BX 2 + DF 2 = CX 2 , so

DF = CX 2 BX 2 = 49 36 = 13.
Second Solution
Let x = DF and y = Y D. Since 4BXE 4CXY 4DF Y , we have
BE
CY
DY
y
=
=
= .
BX
CX
DF
x
Using BX = 6, XC = 7 and CY = 13 y we get BE =
13x
. Now [ABCD] = [AEF ] gives
for y gives y = x+7

6y
x

and

13y
7

## = xy . Solving this last equation



1
1
6y
169 = AE AF =
13 +
(13 + x) .
2
2
x
78y
169 = 6y + 13x +
x
6x
78
13 =
+x+
x+7
x+7
0 = x2 13.

Thus x = 13.
2011
Z 
ln x
10. Evaluate
dx.
x
1
d
n lnn1 x
(ln x)n =
.
dx
x
We calculate the definite integral using integration by parts:

2011!
20102012

x=1


x= Z
(ln x)n
(ln x)n
n(ln x)n1
dx
=

dx
2011
2010
2011
x
2010x
x=1 2010x
x=1

(ln x)n
x2010

## Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

n!
(ln x)n
dx =
x2011
2010n

x=1

It follows that

x=1

(ln x)n
dx =
x2011

x=1

x=1

n(ln x)n1
dx
2010x2011
1
n!
dx =
x2011
2010n+1

2011!
20102012 .

11. Let ABCDEF be a convex equilateral hexagon such that lines BC, AD, and EF are parallel. Let
H be the orthocenter of triangle ABD. If the smallest interior angle of the hexagon is 4 degrees,
determine the smallest angle of the triangle HAD in degrees.
A

C
D
D

Note that ABCD and DEF A are isosceles trapezoids, so BAD = CDA and F AD = EDA. In
order for the hexagon to be convex, the angles at B, C, E, and F have to be obtuse, so A = D = 4 .
Letting s be a side length of the hexagon, AD = AB cos BAD + BC + CD cos CDA = s(1 +
2 cos BAD), so BAD is uniquely determined by AD. Since the same equation holds for trapezoid
DEF A, it follows that BAD = F AD = CDA = EDA = 2 . Then BCD = 180 2 = 178 .
Since 4BCD is isosceles, CDB = 1 and BDA = 1 . (One may also note that BDA = 1 by
observing that equal lengths AB and BC must intercept equal arcs on the circumcircle of isosceles
trapezoid ABCD).
Let A0 , B 0 , and D0 be the feet of the perpendiculars from A, B, and D to BD, DA, and AB, respectively.
Angle chasing yields
AHD = AHB 0 + DHB 0 = (90 A0 AB 0 ) + (90 D0 DB 0 )
= BDA + BAD = 1 + 2 = 3
HAD = 90 AHB 0 = 89
HDA = 90 DHB 0 = 88
Hence the smallest angle in 4HAD is 3 .

## Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

It is faster, however, to draw the circumcircle of DEF A, and to note that since H is the orthocenter
of triangle ABD, B is the orthocenter of triangle HAD. Then since F is the reflection of B across
AD, quadrilateral HAF D is cyclic, so AHD = ADF + DAF = 1 + 2 = 3 , as desired.
12. Sarah and Hagar play a game of darts. Let O0 be a circle of radius 1. On the nth turn, the player
whose turn it is throws a dart and hits a point pn randomly selected from the points of On1 . The
player then draws the largest circle that is centered at pn and contained in On1 , and calls this circle
On . The player then colors every point that is inside On1 but not inside On her color. Sarah goes
first, and the two players alternate turns. Play continues indefinitely. If Sarahs color is red, and
Hagars color is blue, what is the expected value of the area of the set of points colored red?

6
7

Let f (r) be the average area colored red on a dartboard of radius r if Sarah plays first.

Then f (r) is proportional to r2 . Let f (r) = (x)r2 for some constant x. We want to find f (1) = x.
In the first throw, if Sarahs dart hits a point with distance r from the center of O0 , the radius of O1
will be 1r. The expected value of the area colored red will be ( (1r)2 )+((1r)2 f (1r)) =
f (1 r). The value of f (1) is the average value of f (1 r) over all points in O0 . Using polar
coordinates, we get
2
R R1

f (1) =

( f (1 r))rdrd

0 0
2
R R1

rdrd

0 0

R1
x =

## ( x(1 r)2 )rdr

R1

rdr

x
=
2

r xr(1 r)2 dr

1 2 1
= x( + )
2
2
2 3 4
x
x
=
2
2
12
Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

6
7

x =
.

13. Let ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral, and suppose that BC = CD = 2. Let I be the incenter of triangle
ABD. If AI = 2 as well, find the minimum value of the length of diagonal BD.

Answer: 2 3 Let T be the point where the incircle intersects AD, and let r be the inradius and R
be the circumradius of 4ABD. Since BC = CD = 2, C is on the midpoint of arc BD on the opposite
side of BD as A, and hence on the angle bisector of A. Thus A, I, and C are collinear. We have the
following formulas:
r
IM
=
sin IAM
sin A2
A
BC = 2R sin
2
BD = 2R sin A
AI =

The last two equations follow from the extended law of sines on 4ABC and 4ABD, respectively.
r
. However, it is well-known that R 2r with equality for an
Using AI = 2 = BC gives sin2 A2 = 2R
equilateral triangle (one way to see this is the identity 1+ Rr = cos A+cos B +cos D). Hence sin2 A2 41
and A2 30 . Then
!



A
A
A
3
=2 3
BD = 2R 2 sin cos
= BC 2 cos 2 2
2
2
2
2

## with equality when 4ABD is equilateral.

C
Remark: Similar but perhaps simpler computations can be made by noting that if AC intersects BD
at X, then AB/BX = AD/DX = 2, which follows from the exterior angle bisector theorem; if IA is
the A-excenter of triangle ABC, then AIA /XIA = 2 since it is well-known that C is the circumcenter
Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

14. Let f : [0, 1] [0, 1] be a continuous function such that f (f (x)) = 1 for all x [0, 1]. Determine the
Z 1
set of possible values of
f (x) dx.
0

( 34 , 1]

## Since the maximum value of f is 1,

R1
0

f (x)dx 1.

By our condition f (f (x)) = 1, f is 1 at any point within the range of f . Clearly, 1 is in the range of
f , so f (1) = 1. Now f (x) is continuous on a closed interval so it attains a minimum value c. Since c
is in the range of f , f (c) = 1.
R1
If c = 1, f (x) = 1 for all x and 0 f (x)dx = 1.
Now assume c < 1. By the intermediate value theorem, since f is continuous it attains all values
between c and 1. So for all x c, f (x) = 1. Therefore,
Z

f (x)dx + (1 c).

f (x)dx =
0

Rc
Since f (x) c, 0 f (x)dx > c2 , and the equality is strict because f is continuous and thus cannot be
c for all x < c and 1 at c. So
1

Z
0

Therefore

3
4

<

R1
0

1
3
3
f (x)dx > c2 + (1 c) = (c )2 + .
2
4
4

f (x)dx 1, and it is easy to show that every value in this interval can be reached.

15. Let f (x) = x2 r2 x + r3 for all real numbers x, where r2 and r3 are some real numbers. Define a
sequence {gn } for all nonnegative integers n by g0 = 0 and gn+1 = f (gn ). Assume that {gn } satisfies
the following three conditions: (i) g2i < g2i+1 and g2i+1 > g2i+2 for all 0 i 2011; (ii) there exists
a positive integer j such that gi+1 > gi for all i > j, and (iii) {gn } is unbounded. If A is the greatest
number such that A |r2 | for any function f satisfying these properties, find A.
Answer: 2 Consider the function f (x) x. By the constraints of the problem, f (x) x must be
negative for some x, namely, for x = g2i+1 , 0 i 2011. Since f (x) x is positive for x of large
absolute value, the graph of f (x) x crosses the x-axis twice and f (x) x has two real roots, say
a < b. Factoring gives f (x) x = (x a)(x b), or f (x) = (x a)(x b) + x.
Now, for x < a, f (x) > x > a, while for x > b, f (x) > x > b. Let c 6= b be the number such that
f (c) = f (b) = b. Note that b is not the vertex as f (a) = a < b, so by the symmetry of quadratics, c
r2
r2 +1
b+a
exists and b+c
is the vertex of
2 = 2 as the vertex of the parabola. By the same token, 2 =
2
f (x) x. Hence c = a 1. If f (x) > b then x < c or x > b. Consider the smallest j such that gj > b.
Then by the above observation, gj1 < c. (If gi b then f (gi ) gi b so by induction, gi+1 gi for
all i j. Hence j > 1; in fact j 4025.) Since gj1 = f (gj2 ), the minimum value of f is less than c.
The minimum value is the value of f evaluated at its vertex, b+a1
, so
2


b+a1
f
<c
2



b+a1
b+a1
b+a1
a
b +
<a1
2
2
2
1 (b a)2
ba+1
+
<0
4
2
3
(b a)2
ba
<

4
4
2
4 < (b a 1)2 .
Then either b a 1 < 2 or b a 1 > 2, but b > a, so the latter must hold and (b a)2 > 9.
Now, the discriminant of f (x) x equals (b a)2 (the square of the difference of the two roots) and
(r2 + 1)2 4r3 (from the coefficients), so (r2 + 1)2 > 9 + 4r3 . But r3 = g1 > g0 = 0 so |r2 | > 2.
Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

We claim that we can make |r2 | arbitrarily close to 2, so that the answer is 2. First
define Gi , i 0
as follows. Let N 2012 be an integer. For > 0 let h(x) = x2 2 , g (x) = x + 2 + and
G2N +1 = 2 + , and define Gi recursively by Gi = g (Gi+1 ), Gi+1 = h(Gi ). (These two equations
are consistent.) Note the following.
(i) G2i < G2i+1 and G2i+1 > G2i+2 for 0 i N 1. First

## note G2N = 4 + 2 > 4 + 2 + 2 = 2 . Let l be the negative solution to h(x) = x. Note

that 2 < G2N < l < 0 since h(G2N ) > 0 > G2N . Now g (x) is defined as long as x 2 ,
and it sends (2 , l) into (l, 0) and (l, 0) into (2 , l). It follows that the Gi , 0 i 2N
are well-defined; moreover, G2i < l and G2i+1 > l for 0 i N 1 by backwards induction on i,
so the desired inequalities follow. (ii) Gi is increasing for i 2N + 1. Indeed, if x 2 + , then
x2 x = x(x 1) > 2 + so h(x) > x. Hence 2 + = G2N +1 < G2N +2 < . (iii) Gi is unbounded.
This follows since h(x) x = x(x 2) 2 is increasing for x > 2 + , so Gi increases faster and
faster for i 2N + 1. Now define f (x) = h(x + G0 ) G0 = x2 + 2G0 x + G20 G0 2 . Note
Gi+1 = h(Gi ) while gi+1 = f (gi ) = h(gi + G0 ) G0 , so by induction gi = Gi G0 . Since {Gi }
i=0
satisfies (i), (ii), and (iii), so does gi .
We claim that we can make G0 arbitrarily close to 1 by choosing N large enough and small enough;
this will make r2 = 2G0 arbitrarily close to 2. Choosing N large corresponds to taking G0 to be a
larger iterate of 2 + under g (x). By continuity of this function with respect to x and , it suffices to
take = 0 and show that (letting g = g0 )
g (n) (2) = g( g (2) ) 1 as n .
| {z }
n

2,

## g(2 cos ) = 2 2 cos = 2 sin

 



= 2 cos

.
2
2
2

Hence by induction, g (n) (2 cos ) = 2 cos 2 4 + + (1)n 2n . Hence g (n) (2) = g (n1) (2 cos 0)
converges to 2 cos( 2 4 + ) = 2 cos( 3 ) = 1, as needed.
16. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral inscribed in the unit circle such that BAD is 30 degrees. Let m denote
the minimum value of CP + P Q + CQ, where P and Q may be any points lying along rays AB and
AD, respectively. Determine the maximum value of m.
G
A

Q
F
P

D
C

## Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

For a fixed quadrilateral ABCD as described, we first show that m, the minimum possible length of
CP + P Q + QC, equals the length of AC. Reflect B, C, and P across line AD to points E, F , and
R, respectively, and then reflect D and F across AE to points G and H, respectively. These two
reflections combine to give a 60 rotation around A, so triangle ACH is equilateral. It also follows
that RH is a 60 rotation of P C around A, so, in particular, these segments have the same length.
Because QR = QP by reflection,
CP + P Q + QC = CQ + QR + RH.
The latter is the length of a broken path CQRH from C to H, and by the shortest path is a straight
line principle, this total length is at least as long as CH = CA. (More directly, this follows from the
triangle inequality: (CQ+QR)+RH CR+RH CH). Therefore, the lower bound m AC indeed
holds. To see that this is actually an equality, note that choosing Q as the intersection of segment CH
with ray AD, and choosing P so that its reflection R is the intersection of CH with ray AE, aligns
path CQRH with segment CH, thus obtaining the desired minimum m = AC.
We may conclude that the largest possible value of m is the largest possible length of AC, namely 2:
the length of a diameter of the circle.
17. Let f : (0, 1) (0, 1) be a differentiable function with a continuous derivative such that for every
n
positive integer
n and odd positive integer a < 2n , there exists

 an odd positive integer b < 2 such
b
a
0 1
that f 2n = 2n . Determine the set of possible values of f 2 .

The key step is to notice that for such a function f , f 0 (x) 6= 0 for any x.

Assume, for sake of contradiction that there exists 0 < y < 1 such that f 0 (y) = 0. Since f 0 is
a continuous function, there is some small interval (c, d) containing y such that |f 0 (x)| 21 for all
x (c, d). Now there exists some n, a such that 2an , a+1
2n are both in the interval (c, d). From the
a
0
f ( a+1
)

f
(
)
b
b
2n
2n
definition,
= 2n ( n n ) = b0 b where b, b0 are integers; one is odd, and one is
a+1
a
2
2

n
n
2
2
even. So b0 b is an odd integer. Since f is differentiable, by the mean value theorem there exists a
point where f 0 = b0 b. But this point is in the interval (c, d), and |b0 b| > 12 . This contradicts the
assumption that |f 0 (x)| 12 for all x (c, d).
Since f 0 (x) 6= 0, and f 0 is a continuous function, f 0 is either always positive or always negative. So f is
either increasing or decreasing. f ( 21 ) = 21 always. If f is increasing, it follows that f ( 14 ) = 14 , f ( 34 ) = 34 ,
and we can show by induction that indeed f ( 2an ) = 2an for all integers a, n. Since numbers of this form
are dense in the interval (0, 1), and f is a continuous function, f (x) = x for all x.
It can be similarly shown that if f is decreasing f (x) = 1 x for all x. So the only possible values of
f 0 ( 21 ) are 1, 1.
Query: if the condition that the derivative is continuous were omitted, would the same result still
hold?
18. Collinear points A, B, and C are given in the Cartesian plane such that A = (a, 0) lies along the
x-axis, B lies along the line y = x, C lies along the line y = 2x, and AB/BC = 2. If D = (a, a), the
circumcircle of triangle ADC intersects y = x again at E, and ray AE intersects y = 2x at F , evaluate
AE/EF .

## Calculus & Geometry Individual Test

B
F
E
O
A

Let points O, P , and Q be located at (0, 0), (a, 2a), and (0, 2a), respectively. Note that BC/AB = 1/2
implies [OCD]/[OAD] = 1/2, so since [OP D] = [OAD], [OCD]/[OP D] = 1/2. It follows that
[OCD] = [OP D]. Hence OC = CP . We may conclude that triangles OCQ and P CA are congruent,
so C = (a/2, a).
It follows that ADC is right, so the circumcircle of triangle ADC is the midpoint of AC, which
is located at (3a/4, a/2). Let (3a/4, a/2) = H, and let E = (b, b). Then the power of the point
O with respect to the circumcircle of ADC is OD OE = 2ab, but it may also be computed as
OH 2 HA2 = 13a/16 5a/16 = a/2. It follows that b = a/4, so E = (a/4, a/4).
We may conclude that line AE is x + 3y = a, which intersects y = 2x at an x-coordinate of a/7.
Therefore, AE/EF = (a a/4)/(a/4 a/7) = (3a/4)/(3a/28) = 7.
Remark: The problem may be solved more quickly if one notes from the beginning that lines OA,
OD, OP , and OQ form a harmonic pencil because D is the midpoint of AP and lines OQ and AP are
parallel.

19. Let
F (x) =

1
,
(2 x x5 )2011

n=0

an
= c.
n nd

## positive real numbers (c, d) such that lim

( 6201112010! , 2010)

First notice that all the roots of 2 x x5 that are not 1 lie strictly

outside the unit circle. As such, we may write 2 x x5 as 2(1 x)(1 r1 x)(1 r2 x)(1 r3 x)(1 r4 x)
(1x)
b0
b1
b4
1
where |ri | < 1, and let (2xx
5 ) = (1x) + (1r x) +. . .+ (1r x) . We calculate b0 as limx1 (2xx5 ) =
1
4
limx1

(1)
(15x4 )

= 61 .

## Now raise the equation above to the 2011th power.

1
=
(2 x x5 )2011

1/6
b1
b4
+
+ ... +
(1 x) (1 r1 x)
(1 r4 x)

2011

Expand the right hand side using multinomial expansion and then apply partial fractions. The result
will be a sum of the terms (1 x)k and (1 ri x)k , where k 2011.
Since |ri | < 1, the power series of (1 ri x)k will have exponentially decaying coefficients, so we only

need to consider the (1 x)k terms. The coefficient of xn in the power series of (1 x)k is n+k1
k1 ,
which is a (k 1)th degree polynomial in variable n. So when we sum up all coefficients, only the
power series of (1 x)2011 will have impact on the leading term n2010 .
The coefficient of the (1 x)2011 term in the multinomial expansion is ( 16 )2011 . The coefficient of

1
the xn term in the power series of (1 x)2011 is n+2010
= 2010!
n2010 + . . .. Therefore, (c, d) =
2010
1
( 62011 2010! , 2010).
20. Let 1 and 2 be two circles that intersect at points A and B. Let line l be tangent to 1 at P and to
2 at Q so that A is closer to P Q than B. Let points R and S lie along rays P A and QA, respectively,
so that P Q = AR = AS and R and S are on opposite sides of A as P and Q. Let O be the circumcenter
of triangle ASR, and let C and D be the midpoints of major arcs AP and AQ, respectively. If AP Q
is 45 degrees and AQP is 30 degrees, determine COD in degrees.

P
A

R
T

B
S

C
D
T

## We use directed angles throughout the solution.

Let T denote the point such that T CD = 1/2AP Q and T DC = 1/2AQP . We claim that T is
the circumcenter of triangle SAR.

## Since CP = CA, QP = RA, and CP Q = CP A + AP Q = CP A + ACP = CAR, we have

4CP Q
= 4CAR. By spiral similarity, we have 4CP A 4CQR.
Let T 0 denote the reflection of T across CD. Since T CT 0 = AP Q = ACP , we have 4T CT 0
4ACP 4RCQ. Again, by spiral similarity centered at C, we have 4CT R 4CT 0 Q. But
CT = CT 0 , so 4CT R
= 4CT 0 Q and T R = T 0 Q. Similarly, 4DT T 0 4DAQ, and spiral similarity
centered at D shows that 4DT A
= 4DT 0 Q. Thus T A = T 0 Q = T R.
We similarly have T A = T 0 P = T S, so T is indeed the circumcenter. Therefore, we have COD =