3.0 NOTATION
a'
ab
acr
Ac
As
A~
Asb
A 81
Au
Asy
A sbx
A sb_v
Asv
Asvx
A svy
b
b,
Cmin
d
d'
d,
Ee
Es
fy
f~
/cu
fyv
F
G
h
H
I
l
Reinforced Concrete
102
le
/0
m
Md
M,
My
M .ry
M.11
Mxh
My1
Mvb
M1-1N
MHP
MvN
Mvr
N.,
N,,
p
p'
p..
Pv
r
ru
R
Ru
S,
Sb.i
Shy
Sv.
Svy
T1
U,,
U0
v~
v,,
v..
v.v
vc..
Vey
Effective span
Centre-to-centre distance between supports
Longer dimension of a rectangular panel of slab for yield line
calculations
Modular ratio = Es/ Ee
Design bending moment per unit width of slab modified to account for
axial load
Moment per unit width about x-axis
Moment per unit width about y-axis
Torsional moment per unit width
Wood- Armer design moment for top reinforcement in y-direction
Wood - Armer design moment for bottom reinforcement in y-direction
Wood-Armer design moment for top reinforcement in x-direction
Wood - Armer design mome nt for bottom reinforcement in x-direction
Ultimate negative moment capacity of slab pe r unit width about an axis
parallel to H
Ultimate positive moment capacity of slab per unit width abou t an axis
parallel to H
Ultimate negative moment capacity of slab per unit width about an axis
parallel to L
Ultimate positive moment capacity of slab per unit width about an axis
parallel to L
Axial load per unit width of slab in x-dircction to be combined with M_v
Axial load per unit width of slab in y-direction to be combined with Mx
Percentage of tensile reinforcement
Pe rcentage of compressive reinforcement
Pe rcentage of tensile steel to resist M, about x-axis
Percentage of tensile steel to resist M v about y-axis
Loading per unit area used in yie ld-line a nalysis (kN/m2)
Ultimate loading per unit area
Restraint factor for computation of early the rma l cracking
Ultimate total load ori panel of slab
Spacing of vertical links
Spacing of inclined shear re inforcement to resist V.r per unit width
Spacing of inclined shear reinforcement to resist Vy per unit width
Spacing of vertical shear reinforcement to resist V.r per unit width
Spacing of vertical shear reinforcement to resist \f'.v per unit width
Differential temperature in a concrete pour for calculation of early thermal
cracking
Perimeter of concentrated load on slab at prescri bed multiples of effective
depth
Perimeter of concentrated load footprint on slab
Design concrete shear strength
Calculated punching shear stress at perimeter U,,
Calculated shear stress in concrete due to V.r
Calculated shear stress in concrete due to V:v
Design concrete shear stress to compare with V.r for bending about x-axis
Design concrete shear stress to compare with V:v for bending about y-axis
V.v
Wmax
x
x
y
z
<
<
13
13b
Ym
Eh
Em
Er
s
~
Emh
Pcni
3.1
ANALYSIS OF SLABS
Effective spans
Simply supported or encastre le = smaller of (1 + d) or 10
Continuous
Cantilever
where
le
= / + -2
104
Reinforced Concrete
are for unit width. Convert As and A; into equivalent concrete areas
by multiplying by m = 5 / Ee. Moment of inertia increment due to
steel = mAs(x')2 where x' is the d istance of the steel from the centroidal
axis of the section. The shift of th e centroidal axis due to the presence of
reinforcing steel may be neglected.
where
= 0 .5 (...!_
bh 3 +
12
=
=
=
F=
I
b
h
Fbh 3 )
lOOAs
p= -
where
bd
tOOA;
p' = - -
bd
where
m
Note:
A~ =
= modular
Es
Ee
ratio = -
);v
Vx and ~v
Mxt, Mxb M yc
Nx and Ny
and Myb
Method 1
BS8110: Part 1: 1985, clauses 3.5.2 and 3.5.3, Table 3.15.111
Method 2
Yield-line method : non-linear - use Figs 3.18 to 3.33.
Method 3
Finite difference: linear elastic - Moody's table.191
Method 4
Finite element analysis: linear elastic - use general purpose computer
program or Figs 3.1 to 3.17.
Commentary
106
Reinforced Concrete
Method 1
BS8110: Part 1: 1985, clause 3.5.3.7.llJ
Metlwd 2
Triangular and trapezoidal distribution of uniform load.
Method 3
Finite difference - Moody's Table.191 Use the coefficients Rx and Ry to
calculate distribution of loads on the edge beams.
Method 4
Finite element analysis. Use the support reactions as loading on the beam.
Recommendations
Method 2 may be used for all applications. Method 3 and Method 4 may
be used when similar methods are used for the analysis of the slab panels.
n
SECTION THRQUGH SLAB
Concentrated load
,,
)
PLAN OF SLAB
Simply supported slabs spanning in one direction only the width B on each
side of load over which the load may be assumed to spread is given by:
- . . - - - -- - -
.. -
108
Reinforced Concrete
Find the following parameters for design moments in Step 2 per unit width
of slab.
Mtt
Note:
=M
N(~ - d
1)
for N
0.1/cubd
For N > 0.1/cubd, design as wall (see Chapter 8). Md may also be taken
equal to M where N s O. lfcubd and N may be ignored. (Sign convention:
N is +ve for compression.)
K --~2
fcubd
z=
$;
0.95d
d - z
x=--
0.45
Md
0.87/yZ
A.= - - - - - .
K'
K'
= 0.156
= 0.402(~b
0.87fy
10%
~b
= -M'
where
< 0.9
Note:
If K is greater than K', increase depth of slab and start from Step 1 unless
links are provided in the zone where stee l in compression is used. The
links are required to provide lateral restraint to bars in compression . Links
in slab should norma1ly be avoided.
z = d[ 0.5 +
J(
0.25 -
;~) J
d-z
x = - - s 0.5d
0.45
A'
= (K
- K')'
bd2
J cu
J;(d -
As =
d')
K'fcubd 2
N
,
+As - - 0.87/yZ
0.87/y
(K - K')fcubd2
f~(d - d')
= ---~--
= K''Jcu bd
0.87/yZ
Is, --
x ( 0.57x
Ey
N
+A'5 - - 0.87/y
d')
Y s
d')
x ( 0. 57x
Ey
= (~:)Es
where
Ey
Step 5 Detailing
Convert areas of steel per unit width found in Step 4 to diameter and
spacing of bars.
Step 6 Check shear
y
reinforcement.
b;v $
v
b; $
0.8
Vieu$ 5N/mm2
Vy=
0.8
Vieu$.5N/mm2
Vx
lOOAsx
Px=bd
Find
If
vex
and
Vx <vex
Vey
and
v_v <Vey
If Vex< Vx S (Vex+ 0.4) or Vcv < vv s ( Vcv + 0.4), nominal links are required
vy
is greater than
vex
or
Vey
respectively.
Asvy<Total area)
0.4bSvx
0.4bSvv
or A
>
0.87iy
svy - 0.87 fy
>--svx -
Note: Single vertical bars may be used instead of closed links provided proper
anchorage bond length is available.
Asv
= O.f!rl/y
(/')
(/')
(/')
UNIT WIDTH
=b
Provide single vertical bars with proper anchorage over the whole zone at
(total area)
112
Reinforced Concrete
A ,1u ;:::
bdS1u( Yx - VCl')
~~~~----'--'-~~....;.;....:~~~0.87/y(cos a+ sincxcotf3)(d - d')
when using bent-up bars for Vx or
Asbv;:::
bdSbv( Vv - Yev)
bdSbx(vx - Vex )
0.87fy (COSQ' + sin ll'cot B) (d - d')
A sbx;:::
and
bdSbv( Vv - Vev)
A sbv;:::
0.87/y (coscx
+ sin ll'cot B)
(d - d')
Note: A sbx and A sby are the areas of bent-up bar required per unit width of slab
equal to b.
Recommendation
Avoid using links or bent-up bars in slabs to resist shear. No shear
reinforcement should be used in slabs up to 200 mm thick .
Uoo
where
U0
0.8
V/cu
5 N/mm 2
uI
u2
c:- .,,,
"'
0
"'r:- .,,,
0
.,,,
15d
'!'
:~:
"' .,,,
075 0-75
d
'!'
where
.....
0
"'
..... 'tJ
0
U1
11.5.
Ve.
If
V1 S
1.6
.
A sv sm ex
Z:
If l.6vc <
( V1 - Ve) U1d
0.4U1d
0.87fy
;;::: 0.87 fy
V1
.
A sv
Ve,
SID ex Z:
Ve,
RN'ORCEMENT
COMMON TO
80llf FAILURE
ZONE$ 2 ANO 3.
---+------1~-+----+--+--
SHEAR
REJNFOACEMENT
COMMON TO
90TH FALURE
ZONES I ANO 2 .
=U2d
where
If v2 s
=2
U2
Ve,
necessary.
If
V2 !5:
1.6
Asv smo:
Ve,
( V2 - Ve) U2d
0.87fy
0.4U2d
--0.87 fy
Similarly check successive failure zones 0.75d apart till v !5: Ve is satisfied.
Reinforcement to resist shear will be provided on at least two perimeters
within a failure zone. Spacing of shear reinforcement on the perimeter
should not exceed 1.5d.
Steps to bl! followed for the thtermination of punching shear rein/orcement in
slabs
115
(1) The first failure zone is from the face of the loaded area to the
perimeter l.5d away.
(2) The first perimeter of shear reinforcement should be placed at d/2
from the face of the loaded area.
(3) The second perimeter of shear reinforcement should be placed at
0.75d from the first perimeter of shear reinforcement.
(4) Asv is the sum of areas of all the legs of shear reinforcement in a
failure zone in the first and second perimeter.
(5) The second fai lure zone is 1.Sd wide and starts at 0.75d from the face
of the loaded area.
(6) The successive failure zones are 1.Sd wide and are 0.75d apart.
(7) The first perimeter reinforcement in the second failure zone is the
same as the second perimeter reinforcement in the first failure zone.
Step 8
IN SLAB
"O
CD
SHEAR PEAMTER
FOP 0CklNG
OF Pl.tlCHING
SHEAR
Perimeter
u,
Perimeter U,
"'
r:- ~ .~
"O
T ical
07~ d
07Sd
Third perimeter of
shear reinforcement
Second perimeter of
shear reinforcement
First perimeter of
shear reinforcement
15d
Torsional reinforcement
Special torsional reinforcement will be required at the corners of slab
panels when the method of analysis follows clause 3.5.3.4 of BS 81 IO:
Part 1: 1985. Follow clause 3.5.3.5 to determine the amount of torsional
reinforcement.
Step II
~b =
M
M'
=(
(As rcqd)fy
: )
8l'b A,.
prov
MIM'
Find M lbd2
Find modification factor for te nsion reinforcement from Chart 11.5 and
modification factor for compression reinforceme nt from Chart 11.4.
Find modified span/depth ratio by multiplying the basic span/depth ratio
with the modification factor for tensile reinforcement and compression
reinforcement, if used.
Check
Percentage of reinforcement,
100 A 5 /bd (%)
1 or over
0.75
0.5
0.3
less than 0.3
160
210
320
530
3d or 750, whichever is less
A s is the area required at the ultimate limit state. The clear spacings as
given above may be multiplied by ~b to account for redistribution of
moments. ~ is the ratio of moment after redistribution to moment before
redistribution. These clear spacings deem to satisfy 0.3 mm crack width at
serviceability limit state.
Step 14 Check early thermal cracking
Early thermal cracking should be checked for the following pour
configurations:
(1) Thin wall cast on massive base: R = 0.6 to 0.8 at base, R = 0.1to0.2 at
top.
(2) Massive pour cast on blinding: R = 0.1 to 0.2.
(3) Massive pour cast on existing mass concrete: R = 0.3 to 0.4 at base,
R = 0.1 to 0.2 at top.
(4) Suspended slabs: R = 0.2 to 0.4.
(5) Infill panels i.e. rigid restraint: R =0.8 to 1.0.
where R
= restraint factor
300
500
700
1000
25C
35C
42C
47C
l7C
28C
28C
28"C
= 0.8 Ti 0: R
..
SK 3/16 Section of slab for crack
width calculation.
Cm in
Wmax = _ __3a___;;cr.;._.,;
.' - - --
+ 2(Ocr
Cmin)
h - x
Assume x
= h/2
Wmax is greater than design crack width, which is normally taken equal
to 0.3mm, then suggest means for reducing T 1
If
0.0035
or 250b
As = 0.0035 A c
whichever is smaller
Asb = 0.35b
= 0.875b
Asb= 0.35b
Note: Omit loadings from LC7 which produce beneficial rather than adverse
effect.
b
:: unit width
Wrnax
= l + 2(acr
min)
h-x
Emh
Note:
= Eh
b(h - x)2
3EsA s(d - x)
1
d'
_ _ ___ Neutral
h d
u..=is~--
Es
m
x
= Ee
=
d{[
As
p
(mp
= bd
+
(m -
- (mp+ (m -
l)p') + 2(
l)p')}
2
(~)(1 - ;d)
ki
k3
= (m
fc
= kibd 2 + k3A~(d
Is
= mfc(~ -
- 1) ( 1 - : )
M
Es=
Is
Es
1)
A~
= bd
- d')
mp
+ (m -
l)(~)p)
r
I
120
Reinforced Concrete
b(h Ernh
Note:
= Eh
x)2
3EsAs(d - x)
80
v
--~~~~6_00_0 ~~-- ~
__
Elastic analysis
Read coefficients from F ig. 3.12:
lnxt
m y1
= 0.035
= 0.021
= 0.075
m.~2 = 0.060
m~2
+ 32 = 40 kN/m2
Mx1 = mx1nli
= 0.035 x 40 x 4.32
= 25.9kNm/m
My1 = 0.021 x 40 x 4.3 2
= 15.5kNm/m
M~3 = 0.075
M;2
x 40 x 4.32
= - 55.5 kNm/m
= 0.060 x 40 x 4.32
=
- 44.4 kNm/m
Note:
These moments do not take into account the Wood-Armer effect due to
the presence of Mxy and may be unconservative locally. In ultimate load
design local plastic hinge formation may be tolerated whe n there is a
possibility of redistribution of loads.
Analysis following BS 8110: Part 1: 198s1J
Coefficients from Table 3.15.
msx1
= 0.039
lnsy l
= 0.024
m~x3
m:.Z2
= 0.052
= 0.032
Mx1 = 28.8kNm/m
My1 = 17.8kNm/m
M~3 = 38.5 kNm/m
M; 2 = 23.7kNm/m
122
Reinforced Concrete
Note:
These moments are considerably less than the redistributed design moments
found from elastic analysis. Elastic analysis gives peak values, whereas the
BS 8110 coefficients tend to smear them across a long stretch of slab.
It is desirable and practical to use the elastic analysis results and allow
10% redistribution with a view to minimising the appearance of unsightly
cracks in the slab. This is a conservative approach.
Check by yield-lines analysis
Assume that the elastic analysis moments are ultimate capacity moments
in the panel of slab.
MvN = 50 kNm/m
Mvp = 31.4 kNm/m
M11N = 40kNm/m
MHP
19.9 kNm/m
(Vertical Negative)
(Vertical Positive)
(Horizontal Negative)
(Horizontal Positive)
Assume that the elastic analysis results will be the maximum plastic
moments in the panel of slab.
I
L (MvN
H MHN
= 1.70
Assume symmetrical yield-lines - see Table 3.2.
Refer to appropriate diagram from Figs 3.18 to 3.33.
Refer to Fig. 3.22 and find xi L
x
L
x
- = 0.35
= 0.35
x 6.3
= 2.20m
.
.
Umt resistance, r
= 5(MHN +2
MHP)
=5 x
59.9
2.22
40 kN/m 2
Alternatively,
r=
8(MVN
+ Mvp)(3L -
x)
H 2 (3L - 4x)
The values of MvN. Mvr. MHN and Mup could be readjusted to arrive at r
as close to 40 kN/m 2 as possible.
Designed by the results of elastic analysis the slab panel has a large reserve
of strength because the failure loading is 58.23 kN/m2 against design ultimate
loading of 40 kN I m2 Similarly, designed by the results of the BS 8110
V. = 0.44
x 40 x 4.3
= 75.7kN/m
~v
= 0.33 X 40
= 56.8 kN/m
4.3
3 x 40 x 4.3 x (1 - 0.35)
2(3 - 0.35)
= 63.3kN/m
3rx
3 x 40 X 2.2
V = -- =
= 52.8kN/m
.v
See diagram with moments and shears marked on the panel (in Step 1).
Step 3 Determination of cover
Design of slab
Over continuous long edge, M
50 x 10
= - -2 =
fcubdx
z = d[ 0.5 +
d-z
x = -0.45
40
1000
J(
0.25 -
1242
0~9) J
= 0.081
=
0.9d
lll.6mm
= 27.Smm
As= - - =
.
0.87/yZ
0.87
50 x 106
. = 1120mm2 Im
X 460 X 111.6
40 x
= - -2 = .
= 0.9d = 100.8 mm
= 24.9mm
As
=50 kNm/m
fcubdy
40
1000
= 40 kNm/m
106
X
112
i.
= 0.08
= 992 mm 2/ m
M = 31.4 kNm/m
= 0.051
z = 116.5mm
A 5 = 673 mm 2 / m
K
= 19.9kNm/m
K = 0.04
z = 0.95d = 106.4 mm
As = 467 mm2/ m
M
Step 5
(1131 mm2 / m)
(1131 mm 2 /m)
~-JI:!12 o_ioom~I
.._,
......
.: Ir-: 12
0
...[ '
!D
I]
, .....,
1so (8) I:
0
11 N
II N Cl>
Q,~ -- -r,::
Ci2o -,~9m - ~ !D
N
Be om
Geom
v
x
V,,.
bd,,.
75.7 x HP
1000 x 124
vv 56.8 x Hl3
v = - =
.v
bd_v
1000 x 112
Px
= O.SlN/mm2
100
= -bd.v- = 1000 x
.v
0.61 N/ mm2
1131
112
= 1.0%
= 0.0013bh
= 0.0013 x 1000
= 195 mm 2 /m
x 150
satisfied
lex = 4.3 X 10
dx
124
= 34.7
Basic span/effective depth ratio= 26
~b =
M'
31.4
Ii = 2s.9 = i.21
f = ~ J.
"
(As
rcqd) (2-)
As
~b
prov
673
=-x460x-x-8
754
1.21
= 212N/mm2
M
bd 2
31.4 x 10 = 2.0
1000 x 1242
$12@.cOOITI
~2@400CTll4200l
c>12@400lll (J600J
29400181
c>12@2oom 2200!
OK
OK
Ti
a
= 12 x
Er=
0.8 Ti
= 0.8
Q'.
x 12 x 12 x 10-6 x 0.3
= 34.56
x 10-6
x
Ocr
=
=
20mm
32 mm
+ 12mm
(dia. of bar)
(direction l_.)
d/2 assumed
2
= '1/(200
+ 38
) -
3acr Er
= 0.0045 mm
< 0.3 mm
OK
"
I:
= 11 31 mm 2 /m A 5 /bd = 9'.12
= lOOOmm
d = 124mm
m = 10
A~
10- 3
= E/Ec
neglected
= d[((mp)2
+ 2 mp)! - mp)
= 43mm
z=d M
Asz
Is= Es
l<f>
35.1 x
= 1131 x
= Is =
.
43
3 = 124 - 3 = 109.7mm
129
. = 288N/mm2
lW.7
288
200 x 1<>3
1.44 x
43
)
43
io-3
X
1.44
b(h - x)
--'-----'-= 1.90 x
3 A .(d - x)
10- 3
10-3
= 1.90 X
10- 3
Emh
h -
1000(150 - 43)2
s s
W cr
= 20mm
= V{262
+ 5<>2) - 6 = 50 mm
3acr
l
+ 2{acr
Em
- Cmin)
(h - x)
= 0.16mm
< 0.3mm
OK
c~~
f..
.!.
L/2
L/2
-~
..
~ ~
1. .!.
L/2
L1 2
.t
~ot
. ~
~
I
.1 L12
L/ 2
~~
I
f
I
L/3
Tu
Ru
--
BMN
Li
ru
16M N
3L
Ru
12M N
- c-
ru
BMN
-L
Ru
r.,
Ru
-1
f 12
Elasto-plastic
resistance, rcr
-1
~
I
Elastic
resistance, re
f'2
L/3 I L13
R ..
Fig. 3.1 Elastic and elasto-plastic unit resistances for one-way elements.
t.
L/2
Support reactions, V,
.... )
Tu L
Ru
L/ 2
..t
~~~
- t
L. reaction
-5ruL
8
R. reaction
3ruL
-8
L. reaction
llRu
-16
R. reaction
~-
Ltz
tI~,...
.f
L12
::.Y,. ,,,...... I I
l
I
.~
--f
L/ 2
~ ......-yyy"'y r-i"l
1-
rr
f. .=.
Lf3
5Ru
16
ruL
L/2
.1
tp
.1
L/3 .: l 13.f
Ru
2
ruL
Ru
Ru
Fig. 3.2 Support shears for one-way elements (to be read in conjunction with
Fig. 3.1).
CM
-n,
10
07
OS
........... ~
03
OI
OQ
OI
Ot:1'1
~
;
005
-00>
/ ''
'()02
v/'
J '
,
"
[7
c::::
'J
<>OOJ
0002
Vnv.... I
XO= yrH
);:;
.:::
10 7-0 SO ,.0 20
0 3
1n2_,..... . . .
0 2
I/
0 1
<:n
I"
005
I~
1-00'7 0 S 0'3 0 2
HIL
002
,,,
'flv ...j
02
V;
I'..._
0 1
I/ I
O<
OOS
002
001
10 70 S<>
lj
I
00>
><>
2 0
10 0.70 5 OJ 0 2
HIL
OI
vI -
T1
O>
//
I/ I
OS
..-""'
l/f -
/,
001
OI
"f\nv
111;-J Vri1
-0(17
v.,,........- ~-
f~
OI
<:n
0 2
/)
VJ
01
J'
'
0 3
-.,::;
'02
~[t:J
--
OS
00)
I/
OS
''
H = fl rH 2
XO= yrH
1-0
07
OS
v
};,
H :: flrH 2
07
tflHux
'
vI
-0001-- -
H = flrH 2
XO= yrH
10
IL...
c::::
I
-00 1
,_ LJ
.____
r.;I~
00<:17
11
flt....
"0005
.._.
~q;]
{]g
'(/
0)
/1~
OS
.;;,
...
c::::
Y:l
I/
07
;.;;::
f12
~
:;
0
g
Q.
Q
::i
I
~""'-
02
-' 7i
10 70 SO
I
H> 20
10 0'705 0 3 0 2
HIL
OI
(;
lO
07
OS
0.J
[g
<
I<>
n,
JV'
,'/ v Jr....
OI
..
..
02
/, !/
I:::
01
OOS
001
0007
OOOS
I/
/~
~i.--
,,:,.
..
'
I:::
..._, / n1I
''
I/I v
-02
01
~ 007
'()0)
r1.
004
-0001
'J
OOOI
1/
OOOI
/ I/
I
I
0 2
/ti
IJ1
y.... ...
= /JrH 2
XO= yrH
CM
I
I
<11
05
~ 007
..._ ........
oos
002
r/ti
Tj
\
\n1 I
(1)
'
V>
c'
....
(1)
~
g
001
0001
0005
I'
/J1 ~
01
""x
r.__'
'()2
v
'I'
');:
<:S
OJ
I
I
0..
Q
:I
'
!:;
.()()())
!/
0002
II
(1)
c;C/l
c;'
.()()(
CT
0001
10 7-o SO JoO 20
<>->
003
000)
0002
1Jb;J
OS
v-
I ' Yt
I//
I/ I/
-002
I/
'
0 7
.__
I I
005
/7
J J vi
r,;;-IJ
I
I
I
I
I I/
05
I/
o~
11 = nrlf
XO= yrfr
07
I/
V!J
00>
002
02
I I
{g
H>
'11
I/
,r11
I::: 007
cS
I I
IJ2 I //1J1
0')
7 \
//;
0)
'i=-
,,
OS
OS
,,..., ~ !"-....
.07
0'7
)v
M
IJrH 2
XO= yrH 4
0001
100'705
HI L
03 02
OI
10 7'0 S<>
) 0 20
'()001
100'7 05
HIL
0) 02
0-1
10 70 50
V>
J
O 20
1<> 0 7 OS
HIL
00 04
<>I
....
....
":;
O'
0
fl
c.
Q
::I
lo()
07
o~
O<J
"'
{]01
I
I
v
H = IJrH 2
XO = yrH 4
07
-;:_
001
OOS
01
oc
001
0001
0007
'
OOOS
000>
..
02
I/
Iv
IJ1
I
I rd
000)
0002
0002
lO 0-7 0-S
HIL
01 02
0-1
0001
K> 7-0 so
1'0 2o
I/ I
OOOS
J
0001
10 7-0 5'0 "O 2-0
1IJ2
../
"\
J J11
'--
-~
II
I II
OOJ
001
I '
005
OS
007
I/
003
,.
07
<:::
J
I
0)
ri
- r. // ' /
,I;
M = IJrH 2
XO:: YrH
01
002
0-:l
In, I
<la
Ol
O>
OS
11g
I
0'7
0-t
OS
'
1--f'"
I
OI
tO
HIL
10
1-0
07
07
OS
OS
0)
0'3
02
02
01
OI
007
07
OOS
OS
003
CO
002
02
0007
~
).:"
I'
H = IJrH 2
XO:: YrH~
LJ._/
IJ2 I
OI
007
OOS
000>
OQ)
0002
002
0001
001
0007
00005
0005
OOOOJ
000>
00002
0002
.OOOOI
0001
J
/
/1J1
IT
OJ
-02
01
005
00>
002
001
0007
vv
0005
0002
JJ
0002
I/
0001
0000'7
00005
000<
00002
.
10
OS
OC1
.07
v/
lj
00007
OI
{IQ
c:::"
001
0-1
71)
So Jo() 2'0
tO 0'705
HI L
0., 0-2
OOOOt
oI
n
..,
0
0
0- 1
/J
-OS
03
V/ . . I-.
01
'()(YI
J I
00$
002
.;
001
..
~
eS
~1
11
I
I
OOOC1I
C>OOOS
I
I
0001
00007
oooos
10 7-0 6'0
l'O 20
HI L
0.J
002
C>2
1/ v
/1 V/-1\.
~
,:
~
OI
:-.....
03
0002
floH
i..._
0001
H
flrH1
XO" Y r H"
fJ
{J[TII
000002
000001
0001
07
0003
-0002 I
000?
10 7-0 6 0
I
>O 2 0
lO 0'7 OS 03 0'.I
HIL
..
tS
i!::
OOOt:ll
-.;::. ~
00005
H = OrH
XO= y r H"
JI!
001
000007
-oocn
000005
OOOS
000001
OOOJ
000002
0002
n,
~ 001
OOOJ
0001
OOOt:l1
l!J I
IJ
I
00002
OOOClll
'>'=
....
:x:i
(0
s
O'
0.
00001
000007
ooooos
J"
00000>
0 001
10 '1o0 6'0
(0
"'
''
00005
0002
fl1H I
/, '/ J
v,
o()C)I
- '
,......._ f l I
n, I I I
rh
OOS
ooos
"
/, r; J !'...
/, ~
Ofl7
0007
~
/// .......
00001
~~
01
'()OJ
n, I
I
/, ...
OOS
002
v
I/
01
00002
rn=
.001 >--
00)
000001
0 1
{{;g
Oii
0000)
00 1
-o:xY7
OI
OS
I//
'I
001
fl1v 'OOOS
I/ I
OOS
OOOlt
,, I
II
~ 001
-ooos
-n2
I
/
02
002
000003
OJ
>:: .;
- r.
.... ""'
Of
-00002
ooooos
()ol
00>
OOJ
00000 7
i{;:g
o.s
0000>
00001
H : flrH 2
XO :: y rH
OOll
01
000>
0001
0 5
OI
ooos
00 0 2
0 7
02
000?
OO>
001
'OOCll
ooo:i
C:>
00001
""-
n1H
1.0
. Ot:17
OJ
002
J J
'/1
i -ooos I
00002
/. '/ I I
Xf1
OOOOJ
~fllV/Yt
l!J ,/
003
Ot:ll
005
01
oq
''
Ol
..n, .rn2
11/ v
h
'// 1 1
'()l
c;;
,,
-07
00()001
::s
(0
V>
;"
SO 20
10 <>7 0-S
HI L
0'3 0-2
0 1 000001
....
....
~
lO
().I
1-0
07
07
07
05
05
06
0 3
03
0'3
02
0'2
0'2
,, -
0 1
07
j,
02
j
01
007
I I
005
003
002
If
>
~-
001
0007
COOS I
-07
005
05
003
-03
J )
I I r. I
001
01
007
005
H
XC
0003
COS
0002
002
0001
"001
00007
OO<:n
00005
0005
J
10 7'0 6'0
= fJrH4
= YrH
{101
J-()
2'0
l-0 0'7 05
HIL
L
0'3 02
.OQ
0003
J
I
I
>-::: IS
-0005
-00003
0003
ooooa
OOOQ
00001
0001
I
C>I
f1 2
II
i~ v/
'/ I
,,
v/".i ,...._
v;
I
I
002
0'2
-07
0005
-05
0003
03
0002
ct;
02
0001
~ ~.
00005
v
I
V77
001
().I
0007
000005
0005
000003
0003
000002
0002
000001
0001
.I
f11v
~~ ~ 007
-01
z. . .
005
003
' 002
001
0007
003
000007
fJa I ,
005
002
I
00 02
~ 007
,_w
00003
00001
VIV
01
-00002
\ \:
HIL
02
7i
i-
0005
'
V(JI H
0003
0002
0001
00007
)'j
00005
7i
fl1v
00003
II
00002
'/
ro
70 SO 30 2 0
HI L
<>1
00001
g
0
03
'l 7j
(1)
0.
05
~
;:i
07
f"I = fJrH 2
XO= rrH
10 07 0-5
1Jg
~
O'
:;
(')
I O
01
0007
00007
3-0 20
03
?!.
I I
5-0
003
I"
05
\f11H
10
005
\_~
r1
0'7
..!a= .
:;
I/ V/j
007
n, l
f12 l= .001
YI
;11,
H~l../, v
01
10
I
IA
J
-002
,v
'I
11 = fJrH
XO= r rH 4
007
0007
-0002
0001
II
o~
01
fJIH
I'-....
//.
03
--
fJr{
//
05
r1
1J[J]
-ti-
).;'
0-9
01
0-7
0-6
OS x/L
04
03
02
OI
o~
Mv1>
Jl/2
H lMwN Mw1>
Fig. 3.18 Location of yield Jines for two-way e lement with two adjacent edges
supported and two edges free (values of x).1111
O"-~~~-'-~~....___.~~-'-~-'---'~~~~-'-~--'~__..~..._~_._~_,
OI
o-6
OI
.,!.. [Mvw-+Mv1>]
H
1-0
112
M~
Fig. 3.19 Location of yield lines for two-way element with two adjacent edges
supported and two edges free (val ues of y).1 8 1
10
~. MH11> M111
lt1
.H[
f11 A
\@
C!.>1
,' ~ \ ~
L
lo()
0-1
07
Mvl'
-Mv11a
><I-' o5
...
o-.
['\. ~~ ~-000..._
M>CICJ!L
0.,
0~2~~""" ~~ s::-A-4-000
l o-iso~
02
MOO -
OI
....1oool
~ ~-;::~ ....... ~....
~ r---.:: ~~
-,
-;;:::i.._
~
oa
0- I
05
OI lO
10
20
90
to IOO
Fig. 3.20 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with th ree
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 =1.0).1111
10
Ot
0-1
07
06
yJH
,I
05
0'4
0-J
02
0-1
0
01
IO
Fig. 3.21 Location of symmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three edges
supported and one edge free (value of v).1 81
I .'l~IAS al 'tfH
0-5
~v
0 4
'
Y/H
02
OI
0-1
I V.tuts of x/L
05
I I\
%1
0-2
0.,
04
0-6
0-8
11 f
I' \
./
: v>---,,, ~
......
02
~~
10
0-1
tw~way
10
r&-1 ~
(j)/
\Cl.
,I @ \ \
l
,..,,_
1-0
'
0 4
MvH.2
\ \\ \~
\ \ \ .\"\ ~ 1-000,h,
\ \ \ \'\ ~o~l
\. :'\,. '\..\ 0-~~J
t-1000
0 ..
0-7
o ..
4 000
'
'""
""'~" >--."'""-0
""~ '~'"
L~2s~"
0)$0-
0-2
0-1
0
C>I
0 5
O I 1-0
10
~-.;::
:::.;:;:;:::
50
IO IOO
Yag. 3.23 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X 1 =0. 1).1 81
MHP~t/2= O)
!!_.bMH'!S +
MHNI+ MHP
x,
tb-1
1' @ \~j
\
,'
\
,.
M\fp
Mv'!2
\' ~::_us
' \
/'
\.
\
'\.
"~o:,:;;,
'\.'Y< ~7-000
~
' f\. ""'"\. .""'\.
.~l
't'...~~ ~ :::::~
~ ~ .......
......... ~ ~
0'2
~...:::::
0-1
02
r:
MvP
H[!olH'!t+M..,.
~-......::::
'
~SO
20
80 IOO
2
]''
Fig. 3.24 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X 1 =0.3).1 8 1
J'2
X2. MHN1+MHP
X1
MHNI .. MHP
fl.
!!-,
: 05
Wt
I
'
\ ~
\
i'
L
1-0
Myp
08
Mv'!2
06
L,
500
~ >~ ~sot_
~oooL
'\,~""<
2-0001
'"'"'"'
..... ~ ~
~ ::::---:: ........
01
0
C>I
OS
OI K>
:z
10
_;;:,-.....;
20
so
80100
Fig. 3.25 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for twoway element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X 1 =0.5).1 81
HD /
Mttttl + Mwp
X1
'
@ \
\
'
I.
0-9
O I
~
M-n.2
b
'\. I' \ :'\..'~ :f- o-1as0 250
<>6
I'\.
0 '4
x::-x
~iOOL
1-000
""'-"' ~~ ~ ....,
'-......""~
~~ ~
-O~I
4000 L
,...., .oOO]
A- er> I
~~ ~
<>I
O S
O I lO
20
IO
SO
IO IOO
Fig. J.26 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2/X1 =0.75).1111
!J.
Xo
~ r
HN3
MHP
M1tt11 M. .
f41 fl-
1 25
[ . D1
\~
@ \
\ ~
'
l
lo()
0 -9
MVP
MvH2
~~
" '' "'-.
"-:::: "'
~~ <()()()
0 ..
OJ
..:::; ~./t I
~ ~ ......
OI
<>
........_~~
O S
OI lO
l [
Myp
10
.=------...
SO
IOIOO
1''2
H MHN1t MHPj
Fig. J.27 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 = 1-25).181
142
Reinforced Concrete
~:
X1
]',,
MHP
~M...,+
MHHr MHP
l S
.
HI
.!!; ~
:!>1
/
'.~
@ \
I'<>
0'9
0~
Myp
'5
MvH2
0
"
'"'-~ ~
0 )
2-000
-oooL.....,
""'~~ ~i:...
t::::::~~
0 '2
0
- 0-500
,........
... l-000
~'::>
0250
r--.:
,,..01
,....
r-.----~
so
0-1
aoioo
Fig. 3.28 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 = 1.5).1 81
r2
X2 a MHH3 +MHP
Xr M..c1 +MHP
:175
H
~!.>/
'
,' @ \
fO
0 9
Oa
0 7
0 6
><I-'
Myp
OS
MvH2
o~
L~-o~~ ~
-0~ ~ ~ ... F"1
04
0
'1'~ ~ ~ ~~
'
<XX>
0
0-1
0'2
os
o-e
10
MvP_l
---
i:-.
10
50
ao IOO
112
H~HH1Mlff3
Fig. 3.29 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2/X 1 = 1.75).181
~-~]"
X1 MtNM.., 20
2
[17/@ ~\_
fo()
O
Oa
'
Myp
1 .......
MvN2
- ---
, ,
2<>00
L~a~'~
- -o_,-ff'...:
.... ~ k;;;;;;t_
04
i:.::.:; "'~
~-- -c;~
~~ 1.r'
o~
01
J..[~N1H~-'J
MVI'
i--..
10
50
IO IOO
112
Fig. 3.30 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 =2.0).1111
~~N1+MH~l/
~HN1M;r
"4t.a+M..
x
l
H[
rX-1
1@1
,,-&,,, ~
1Y
__L~
I+ MHN2+Mij1>
1-0
I/
>IX
0-4
0-1
01
--
./
i--
L---
Fig. 3.31 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (values of y ) .18 1
~o
M111<1+MHP
0-5
MHN2+MHP
*:__
MvNt+Myp
04
M-;V;:;:N;:::2=+Mv=::P:;=MvN1 :!._MVP
MvN21MvP
X1
1+
OoJ
02
Ol
0
01
0-~
0-3
0-4 0-S
0-7
1.0
56789IO
0-7
y,
06
H
Y2
o5
o4
'*'l+MHP
MHH2+MH~
-c
Y11H
1~1+MHP
-+MHN2+MHP
Ol
0 2
OI
02
567&
Fig. 3.33 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with four
edges supported (values of Y1).1 8 1
10
0.15 l
0.15,f
~454>
100"/.
Effective
Effective S
n I
Si~ly ~orted
Slab
l.1z
TOOlo
I ~45
>
Cantilever Slab
Fig. 3.34 Simplified detailing rules for slabs.
g {B :nCJ'
{g rd :1J81
{ILJI {lg 1Jd
:IJffi rm
{B f
Fig. 3.3
Fig. 3.4
Fig. 3.6
I.
.I
Fig. 3.7
Fig. 3.8
.t
Fig. 3.9
Fig. 3.5
Fig. 3.10 .
Fig. 3.11
Fig. 3.13
Fig. 3.14
Fig. 3.12
~DI
I.
{II
11
Fig. 3.15
Fig. 3.16
r:
t=t
Free
E
Simple
Fig. 3.17
r://:-i
Fixed
Table 3.2 Ultimate unit resistance for two-way elements (symmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in conjunction with Figs 3.18 to 3.23).
Edge
conditions
P-1
EJ
Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free
Limits
x :s L
y :s H
+ MHP)
5(MHN
x2
5(MVN + Mvp)
y2
I(;:,;;:,J~
or
or
6L MVN
+ (5Mvp -
MVN)X
H 2 (3L - 2x)
I. L I
AA
Three edges
supported and
one edge free
L
x :s 2
y :s H
HIL;;i~Jn
I
HI~~
L
5( MVN + Mvp)
y2
or
or
2MVN(3L - x)
+ 10 x Myp
H2(3L - 4x)
4(MHN + MHP)(6H - y)
L 2 {3H - 2y)
.I
Cl
G
VJ
.1
~
YI
~ =r
+ MHp)
<"
L
2
5(MHN + MHP)
S(MVN + Mvp)
y2
xs Four edges
supported
S(MHN
y s -
x2
or
or
8(MVN + Mvp)(3L - x)
H 2 (3L
- 4x)
O'
8(MHN + MHp)(3H - y )
Q.
L 2 (3H - 4y)
g
~
.,
0
en
;a"
"'
....
t'i
Table 3.3 Ultimate unit resistance for two-way elements (unsymmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in conjunction with Figs 3.18 to 3.33).
Edge conditions
Limits
~
O'
:;
Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free
EJ
L
0.
:,,;,,,:
{L:;'
,lhln
1.
.1
~
:$
or
(MHNt
or
t~t:3~TI
x
,rfi:tJ!ir
'.L - -=r
1
Y2
L
2
=:;;; -
:$
+ MHr){6H
- Y)
X2 (3H - 2Y)
5(MvN3 + Mvp)
or
or
5(MHNI + MHP)
S(MvNt + Mvp)
Yr
+ MHp)(6H - Y1 - Y2)
(MHNI
2
2X2)
(MHN2
+ M1ip)(6H
- Y)
(L - X) 2 (3H - 2Y)
y2
H 2 (3L - 2X1
!!._
+ MHP)
X1
X2
(SMvp - MvN2)(X1 + X2) + 6MvN2L
2
X1
5(MHN3
or
+ Mvp)(6L - X, - X2)
(MVNt
+ MHpi)
2
L
2
Four edges
supported
::I
y :S H
S(MHNI
~ r :~}
fJ1
:S
HI0i
l
Three edges
supported and
one edge free
....
&
(MvN2
(H -
+ Mvp){6L - X 1
Y) 2
X2)
5(MHN2 + MHp)
or
or
or
X2
S(MVN2 + Mvp)
y~
(MHN2
(L -
+ MHP)(6H
X) 2
- Y1 - Y2)
(3H - 2Y1
2Y2)
149
Table 3.4 Ultimate support shears for two-way elements (symmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in
conjunction with Table
3.2).
Edge conditions
Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free
D
I
Three edges
supported and
one edge free
.I
fl ~
k:,,,:~I
HIQ)n
L
fl f1
Four edges
supported
tE:~ 11
y :s H
x :s -
.( y
(2 - ~)
(6 - ~)
3ruX
5
3ruL(2-~)
y :s H
L
x :s 2
HI~y::::r
::::r
3ruL
I-Li
1.
3ruX
x :s L
HJ]f7;;,:,j 3
VsH
2(6 - ~)
3ruX
5
3ruL(l- ~)
2 2(3 - ~)
H
:S -
3ruH(2- ~)
(6 - ~)
3ruy
5
3ruH(l - ~)
(3 - ~)
3ruy
5
3ruH( 1- ~)
2(3 - ~)
3ruy
5
Table 3.5 Ultimate support shears for two-way elements (unsymmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in conjunction with Table 3.3).
Edge
conditions
limits
Vertical shear, V, v
0.
L
2
L
x s 2 2
Xi
Hr~~7~]n
S -
y s H
3xiru
5
3x2ru
5
3r.,x(2H - y)
6H - y
3r.,x (L - x)(2H - y)
6H -y
3ruH(2L - Xi 6L - Xi -
X2)
X2
3ruy
5
--
~EJ~n
x
t-'"-1
YI
[f!m::r
H
~_:::I
1.
y2
x, s 2
L
x s 2
2
H
2
y s I
H
Y2 s 2
(')
~
....
0
y s H
.1
t:,2,,::J
1.
x s L
HIL;';,;,J~
~
Four edges
supported
::0
0
1.
Three edges
supported and
one edge free
O'
i-!-i
Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free
3r.,Xi
5
3r.,x2
3ruy(2L - Xi - X2)
6L - x, - X2
3ru(H - y)(2L - Xi - X2)
5
3r.,x (2H - y , - Y2)
6L - Xi - X2
6H - Yi - Y2
3ru(L - x)(2H - Yi - Y2)
6H - y, - Y2
3raYi
5
3ruY2
5