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Chapter 3

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

3.0 NOTATION
a'
ab

acr

Ac
As
A~
Asb

A 81
Au
Asy
A sbx
A sb_v

Asv
Asvx
A svy

b
b,
Cmin

d
d'

d,

Ee
Es
fy
f~

/cu
fyv
F
G
h
H

I
l

Compression face to point on surface of concrete where crack width is


calculated
Centre-to-centre distance b etween bars or groups of bars
Point on surface of concrete to nearest face of a bar
Gross area of concrete in a section
Arca of steel in tension
Area of steel in compression
Minimum area of reinforcement at bottom of slab
Minimum area of reinforcement at top of slab
Reinforcement in y-direction to resist M x about x-axis
Reinforcement in x-dircctio n to resist M y about Y-axis
Area of inclined shear reinforcement to resist Vx
Arca of inclined shear reinforcement to resist ~"
Area of vertical shear reinforcement
Area of vertical shear reinforcement to resist V x
Area of vertical shear reinforcement to resist ~v
Width of reinforced concrete section
Width of section at centroid of tensile steel
Minimum cover to tensile reinforcement
Effective depth of tensile reinforcement
Effective depth of compressive reii,:iforcement
Distance from tension face of concrete section to centre of tensile
reinforcement
Modulus of elasticity of concrete
Modulus of elasticity of steel
Characteristic yield strength of steel
Revised compressive stress in steel taking into account depth of neutral
axis
Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement used as links
Coefficient for calculation of cracked section moment of inertia
Shear modulus
Overall depth of slab
Shorter dimension of a rectangular panel of slab for use of yield-line
charts
Moment of inertia using b as unit width for slab
Clear span or span face-to-face of support
101

Reinforced Concrete

102

le
/0

m
Md
M,
My
M .ry

M.11
Mxh

My1
Mvb
M1-1N
MHP

MvN
Mvr

N.,
N,,
p
p'
p..
Pv
r
ru

R
Ru

S,
Sb.i
Shy

Sv.
Svy

T1

U,,
U0
v~

v,,
v..

v.v
vc..

Vey

Effective span
Centre-to-centre distance between supports
Longer dimension of a rectangular panel of slab for yield line
calculations
Modular ratio = Es/ Ee
Design bending moment per unit width of slab modified to account for
axial load
Moment per unit width about x-axis
Moment per unit width about y-axis
Torsional moment per unit width
Wood- Armer design moment for top reinforcement in y-direction
Wood - Armer design moment for bottom reinforcement in y-direction
Wood-Armer design moment for top reinforcement in x-direction
Wood - Armer design mome nt for bottom reinforcement in x-direction
Ultimate negative moment capacity of slab pe r unit width about an axis
parallel to H
Ultimate positive moment capacity of slab per unit width abou t an axis
parallel to H
Ultimate negative moment capacity of slab per unit width about an axis
parallel to L
Ultimate positive moment capacity of slab per unit width about an axis
parallel to L
Axial load per unit width of slab in x-dircction to be combined with M_v
Axial load per unit width of slab in y-direction to be combined with Mx
Percentage of tensile reinforcement
Pe rcentage of compressive reinforcement
Pe rcentage of tensile steel to resist M, about x-axis
Percentage of tensile steel to resist M v about y-axis
Loading per unit area used in yie ld-line a nalysis (kN/m2)
Ultimate loading per unit area
Restraint factor for computation of early the rma l cracking
Ultimate total load ori panel of slab
Spacing of vertical links
Spacing of inclined shear re inforcement to resist V.r per unit width
Spacing of inclined shear reinforcement to resist Vy per unit width
Spacing of vertical shear reinforcement to resist V.r per unit width
Spacing of vertical shear reinforcement to resist \f'.v per unit width
Differential temperature in a concrete pour for calculation of early thermal
cracking
Perimeter of concentrated load on slab at prescri bed multiples of effective
depth
Perimeter of concentrated load footprint on slab
Design concrete shear strength
Calculated punching shear stress at perimeter U,,
Calculated shear stress in concrete due to V.r
Calculated shear stress in concrete due to V:v
Design concrete shear stress to compare with V.r for bending about x-axis
Design concrete shear stress to compare with V:v for bending about y-axis

Design of Re.inforced Concrete Slabs 103


v1
Vx

V.v
Wmax

x
x
y

z
<
<

13

13b
Ym
Eh

Em
Er

s
~
Emh

Pcni

3.1

Calculated punching shear stress at perimeter U 1


Shear force per unit width for bending about x-axis
Shear force per unit width for bending about y-axis
Maximum crack width (mm)
Depth of neutral axis from compression face
Distance from edge in L-direction to start of a yield line
Distance from edge in H direction to start of a yield line
Depth of lever arm
Angle of inclination to horizontal of shear reinforcement
Coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete
Angle of inclination to horizontal of concrete strut in truss analogy
Ratio of redistributed moment over elastic analysis moment
Material factor
Calculated strain in concrete at depth h
Strain with stiffening effect corrected
Tensile strain in concrete due to temperature differential causing early
thermal cracking
Strain at centre of steel reinforcement
Strain at centre of compressive reinforcement
Strain at depth h corrected for stiffening effect
Calculated strain in concrete ignoring stiffening effect
Critical percentage of steel required to distribute early thermal cracking

ANALYSIS OF SLABS

3.1.1 Slabs: properties


3.1.1.1

Effective spans
Simply supported or encastre le = smaller of (1 + d) or 10

Continuous
Cantilever
where

le

= / + -2

/0 = centre-to-centre distance between supports


le = effective span
I = clear span or span to face of support
d = effective depth of tension reinforcement.

3.1.1.2 Moment of inertia


Metlwd 1 Gross concrete section only
See Section 2.1.3 - use Table 11.2 with b equal to unity.
Method 2 Uncraclred transformed concrete
See Section 2.1.3 - use Table 11.2 with b equal to unity and A $ and A ;

104

Reinforced Concrete
are for unit width. Convert As and A; into equivalent concrete areas
by multiplying by m = 5 / Ee. Moment of inertia increment due to
steel = mAs(x')2 where x' is the d istance of the steel from the centroidal
axis of the section. The shift of th e centroidal axis due to the presence of
reinforcing steel may be neglected.

Method 3 Average of gross concrete section and cracked section


1

where

= 0 .5 (...!_
bh 3 +
12
=
=
=
F=
I

b
h

Fbh 3 )

moment of inertia of rectangular concre te section


unit width of slab
overall depth of slab
factor - see F ig. 11 .1 for values of F

lOOAs

p= -

where

bd

As = area of tensile reinforcement per unit width of slab

tOOA;

p' = - -

bd

where

m
Note:

A~ =

area of compressive reinforcement per unit width of slab

= modular

Es
Ee

ratio = -

For slabs, b is taken equal to unity.


The preferred method is Method 3 for rectangular sections. Where reinforcement q uantities are not known, an assumption may be made of the percentage of reinforcement.

3. 1.1.3 Modulus of ela.sticity


See Section 2.1.4.
3.1.1.4 Shear modulus
Shear modulus G = 0.42Ec for concrete.
3 .1.1.5 Poisson's ratio
Poisson s ratio for concrete is 0.2
3. 1.1.6 Thermal strain
See Section 2.1.9.

3.1.2 Analysis of slabs


The objective is to fi nd the following internal forces by analysis:
(1) Moments

M.<> M.v and

);v

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 105


(2) Shears
(3) Wood-Arme r moments
(4) In-plane loads

Vx and ~v
Mxt, Mxb M yc
Nx and Ny

and Myb

Method 1
BS8110: Part 1: 1985, clauses 3.5.2 and 3.5.3, Table 3.15.111
Method 2
Yield-line method : non-linear - use Figs 3.18 to 3.33.
Method 3
Finite difference: linear elastic - Moody's table.191
Method 4
Finite element analysis: linear elastic - use general purpose computer
program or Figs 3.1 to 3.17.
Commentary

Method 1 is a non-conserva tive approach. If cracking has to be avoided,


an elastic method of analysis, i.e. finite element or finite difference, will be
more appropriate. For complicated loadings and complex layout of slab
panels and supporting arrangements, it is always recommended to use
finite c lement analysis. Finite element analysis will give Wood-Armer
design moments for top and bottom reinforcement in a pane l of slab.
Method 2 (yield-lines) may be successfully used for uniformly loaded slab
pane ls with different boundary conditions. Method 2 gives a better representation of inte rnal forces in a slab panel than Method 1.
Recommendati.ons

Use Method 2 or Method 3 generally. Use Method 4 (finite element


analysis) only where complicated loadings and geometry rende r the other
methods unusable. Use elastic analysis charts if boundary conditions and
loadings are appropriate.

3.1.3 Distribution of loads on beams

SK 3/1 Distribution of load on


beams (Method 2).

106

Reinforced Concrete
Method 1
BS8110: Part 1: 1985, clause 3.5.3.7.llJ
Metlwd 2
Triangular and trapezoidal distribution of uniform load.
Method 3
Finite difference - Moody's Table.191 Use the coefficients Rx and Ry to
calculate distribution of loads on the edge beams.
Method 4
Finite element analysis. Use the support reactions as loading on the beam.
Recommendations
Method 2 may be used for all applications. Method 3 and Method 4 may
be used when similar methods are used for the analysis of the slab panels.

3.1.4 Concentrated load on slab

n
SECTION THRQUGH SLAB

Concentrated load

,,
)

PLAN OF SLAB

SK 3/2 Effective width of slab to


be considered for spread of a
concentrated load on a simply
supported one-way slab.

Simply supported slabs spanning in one direction only the width B on each
side of load over which the load may be assumed to spread is given by:

- . . - - - -- - -

.. -

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 107

where x = distance of load--from support closest to load


I= effective span.
For slabs spanning in both directions published tables and charts should
be used to find bending moment and shear per unit width of slab. A
finite element model may be created to analyse a complicated loading
arrangement.

3.2 LOAD COMBINATIONS


3.2.1 General rules

See Section 2.2.1.

3.2.2 Rules of load combination for continuous one-way spanning slab


panels
See Section 2.2.2.
3.2.3 Redistribution of moments

See Section 2.2.3.

3.2.3.1 Two-way spanning slab panels


No redistribution is allowed when Method 1 or Method 2 of analysis in
Section 3.1.2 is followed. Redistribution of 10% may be allowed when
Method 3 or Method 4 is adopted. Note that reduction of support moments
means a corresponding increase in span moment.

3.2.4 Exceptional loads

See Section 2.2.4.

3.3 STEP-BY-STEP DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR SLABS


Step 1 Analysis
Carry out analysis (follow Section 3.1.2).
Note: One-way spanning slabs should be treated as beams of unit width and
Chapter 2 should be followed except for minimum shear reinforcement.
Step 2 Design forces
Draw panel of slab and indicate maximum design moments, shears and inplane loads, if any, per unit width of slab.
Step 3 Cover to reinforcemnt
Determine cover required to reinforcement as per Tables 11.6 and 11.7.
Find effective depth d , assuming reinforcement diameter. Use actual effective depth in each direction.

108

Reinforced Concrete

Step 4 Design of slab for flexure

SK 3/3 Section through slab


showing stress due to moment.

Find the following parameters for design moments in Step 2 per unit width
of slab.

Mtt
Note:

=M

N(~ - d

1)

for N

0.1/cubd

For N > 0.1/cubd, design as wall (see Chapter 8). Md may also be taken
equal to M where N s O. lfcubd and N may be ignored. (Sign convention:
N is +ve for compression.)

K --~2
fcubd

z=

d[0.5 + J(0.25 - 0~9)]

$;

0.95d

d - z

x=--

0.45

Md
0.87/yZ

A.= - - - - - .

K'

K'

= 0.156

= 0.402(~b

0.87fy

when redistribution does not exceed 10%


- 0.4) - 0.18(~b - 0.4) 2
when redistribution exceeds

10%
~b

= -M'

where

< 0.9

= mome nt after redis tribution

M' = moment before redistribution.

Note:

If K is greater than K', increase depth of slab and start from Step 1 unless
links are provided in the zone where stee l in compression is used. The
links are required to provide lateral restraint to bars in compression . Links
in slab should norma1ly be avoided.

When K > K',

z = d[ 0.5 +

J(

0.25 -

;~) J

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 109

SK 3/4 Section through doubly


reinforced slab.

d-z

x = - - s 0.5d

0.45

A'

= (K

- K')'
bd2
J cu

J;(d -

As =

d')

K'fcubd 2
N
,
+As - - 0.87/yZ
0.87/y

If d' Ix> 0.43x,


A

(K - K')fcubd2
f~(d - d')

= ---~--

= K''Jcu bd

0.87/yZ

Is, --

x ( 0.57x

Ey

N
+A'5 - - 0.87/y

d')

Y s

because steel strain ~

d')

x ( 0. 57x

Ey

= (~:)Es

where

Ey

corresponds to steel stress //Ym as in Section 1.4.2.

Note: Follow detailing rules in clause 3.5.3.5 of BS 8110: Part 1: 198Sl 11 if


analysis has been carried out using Table 3.15 of BS 8110. Design charts in
BS 8110: Part 3: 1985 may be used.

Step 5 Detailing
Convert areas of steel per unit width found in Step 4 to diameter and
spacing of bars.
Step 6 Check shear
y

SK 3/5 Plan of a panel of slab


showing direction of

reinforcement.

110 Reinforced Concrete


Find the following parameters at critical sections for shear.

b;v $
v
b; $

0.8

Vieu$ 5N/mm2

Vy=

0.8

Vieu$.5N/mm2

Vx

lOOAsx
Px=bd

Find
If

vex

and

Vx <vex

Vey

and

from Figs 11.2 to 11.5, depending on strength of concrete.

v_v <Vey

no shear reinforcement is required.

If Vex< Vx S (Vex+ 0.4) or Vcv < vv s ( Vcv + 0.4), nominal links are required

in the zone where. vx or

vy

is greater than

vex

or

Vey

respectively.

Find nominal links:

Asvy<Total area)

.__._ _,__~--'--1- Asvx'1otal area)


UNIT WIDTH

SK 3/6 Plan of unit area of slab


showing shear reinforcement by
links.

0.4bSvx
0.4bSvv
or A
>

0.87iy
svy - 0.87 fy

>--svx -

Note: Single vertical bars may be used instead of closed links provided proper
anchorage bond length is available.

If Vex< Vx < (vex + 0.4)


and Vey < Vy < (vc.v + 0.4)

nominal links in both directions are required.


Assume Svx = Svy = Sv,
0.8b Sv

Asv

= O.f!rl/y

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 111

(/')

(/')

(/')

UNIT WIDTH

=b

SK 317 Plan of unit area and


section showing shear
reinforcement by single verticaJ
bars.

Provide single vertical bars with proper anchorage over the whole zone at

a grid spacing of Sv.


If {Vex
or (vcy

+ 0.4) < Vx :5 0.8 V/cu :5 5 N/mm2


+ 0.4) < Vy S 0.8 Y/cu :5 5N/mm2

use links or bent-up bars.

(total area)

~per unit width

Asbyltot1l areal..f"per unit wi th


I

SK 3/8 Plan of slab showing


bent-up bars as shear
reinforcement.

SK 3/9 Section through slab showing bent-up


shear reinforcement.

when using links for Vx, or


when using links for Vy. or

112

Reinforced Concrete

A ,1u ;:::

bdS1u( Yx - VCl')
~~~~----'--'-~~....;.;....:~~~0.87/y(cos a+ sincxcotf3)(d - d')
when using bent-up bars for Vx or

Asbv;:::

bdSbv( Vv - Yev)

0.87/y(cosa + sin cxcot J3)(d - d')


when using bent-up bars for Vy

If (Vex + 0.4) < Vx S 0.8\!/cu :S 5 N/mm2


and (Vey + 0.4) < V_v S 0.8\!/cu :S 5 N/ mm 2

use bent-up bars in two orthogonal directions.

bdSbx(vx - Vex )
0.87fy (COSQ' + sin ll'cot B) (d - d')

A sbx;:::

and

bdSbv( Vv - Vev)

A sbv;:::

0.87/y (coscx

+ sin ll'cot B)

(d - d')

Note: A sbx and A sby are the areas of bent-up bar required per unit width of slab
equal to b.
Recommendation
Avoid using links or bent-up bars in slabs to resist shear. No shear
reinforcement should be used in slabs up to 200 mm thick .

SK 3/10 Lacing system of shear


reinforcement in slab.

A lacing system of shear reinforcement in slabs provided by bent-up


bars at 45 to the tensile reinforcement works well where shear reinforcement
and general increase of ductility are required . In this system , angles a and
~ may both be taken equal to 45. In the formula for calculating the area
of the bent-up bars, S1u and Sb_v may be limited to 1.5d.

Step 7 Check punching shear


Check punching shear stress.
Ymax :;: -

Uoo

where

U0

0.8

V/cu

5 N/mm 2

= 2(a + b) for rectangular load, o r


= perimeter of loaded area.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 113


-

uI

u2

c:- .,,,
"'
0

"'r:- .,,,
0

075 075 15d


d

.,,,

15d

'!'

:~:
"' .,,,

075 0-75
d

'!'

SK 3/11 Plan of slab around a


concentrated load showing
successive perimeters for punching
shear check.

where

.....
0

"'

..... 'tJ
0

= 2(a + b + 6d) for rectangular loaded area, or

U1

= perimeter at 1.5d from face of loaded area.


from Figs 11.2 to
ve = design concrete shear stress
V = concentrated load on slab

11.5.

SK 3/l2 Section through slab


showing effective depths.

Calculate p = 100 Aslbd under concentrated load to find

Ve.

Note: Take p as the average of Px and Py where Px = lOOAs.rlbdx and P.v =


lOOAs/bdyShear reinforcement in first failure wne
If v 1 s Ve, no shear reinforcement is required and no further checks are
necessary.

If

V1 S

1.6

.
A sv sm ex

Z:

If l.6vc <

( V1 - Ve) U1d
0.4U1d
0.87fy
;;::: 0.87 fy

V1

.
A sv

Ve,

SID ex Z:

Ve,

5(0.7v1 - ve) U1d 0.4U1d


0.87 fy
;;::: 0.87 f y

114 Reinforced Concrete


FACE OF LOAD

FAILU*: ZQt.E 1=l5d FAILURE ZQt.E 3=15d

RN'ORCEMENT
COMMON TO
80llf FAILURE
ZONE$ 2 ANO 3.

---+------1~-+----+--+--

SHEAR

REJNFOACEMENT
COMMON TO
90TH FALURE
ZONES I ANO 2 .

SK 3/13 Typical shear reinforcement for concentrated load on slab.

where Asv is summation of areas of all shear reinforcement in a failure


zone and o: is the angle between the shear reinforcement and the plane of
the slab. If vis greater than 2vc then redesign slab with increased thickness
or increased tensile steel OT a combination of these parameters. It has been
observed in tests that shear reinforcement in slabs does not work effectively
if v>2vc.
Shear reinforcement in second failure zone
V2

=U2d

where
If v2 s

=2

U2
Ve,

(a + b + 9d) for rectangular loaded area, or

= perimeter at 2.25d from face of loaded area.

no shear reinforcement is required and no further checks are

necessary.
If

V2 !5:

1.6

Asv smo:

Ve,

( V2 - Ve) U2d
0.87fy

0.4U2d

--0.87 fy

Similarly check successive failure zones 0.75d apart till v !5: Ve is satisfied.
Reinforcement to resist shear will be provided on at least two perimeters
within a failure zone. Spacing of shear reinforcement on the perimeter
should not exceed 1.5d.
Steps to bl! followed for the thtermination of punching shear rein/orcement in
slabs

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

115

(1) The first failure zone is from the face of the loaded area to the
perimeter l.5d away.
(2) The first perimeter of shear reinforcement should be placed at d/2
from the face of the loaded area.
(3) The second perimeter of shear reinforcement should be placed at
0.75d from the first perimeter of shear reinforcement.
(4) Asv is the sum of areas of all the legs of shear reinforcement in a
failure zone in the first and second perimeter.
(5) The second fai lure zone is 1.Sd wide and starts at 0.75d from the face
of the loaded area.
(6) The successive failure zones are 1.Sd wide and are 0.75d apart.
(7) The first perimeter reinforcement in the second failure zone is the
same as the second perimeter reinforcement in the first failure zone.
Step 8

Modificalion due to holes


<6d
OPENING

IN SLAB
"O
CD

SHEAR PEAMTER
FOP 0CklNG

SK 3/14 Modification of shear


perimeter due to presence of holes.

OF Pl.tlCHING

SHEAR

Carry out modification of U in Step 7 to allow for holes and proximity to


edge.
The perimeter under consideration, U, in Step 7 will be reduced.

Perimeter

u,

Perimeter U,




"'
r:- ~ .~








"O

T ical

07~ d

07Sd

Third perimeter of
shear reinforcement
Second perimeter of
shear reinforcement
First perimeter of
shear reinforcement

15d

SK 3/15 Plan of slab near a concentrated load showing distribution of shear


reinforcement.

116 Reinforced Concrete


Step 9 Minimum tension reinforcemi!nl
A s 2: 0.0013bh
in both directions
At end support of slabs where simple support has been assumed, provide
in the top of slab half the area of bottom steel at midspan or 0.0013bh,
whichever is greater.
Step JO

Torsional reinforcement
Special torsional reinforcement will be required at the corners of slab
panels when the method of analysis follows clause 3.5.3.4 of BS 81 IO:
Part 1: 1985. Follow clause 3.5.3.5 to determine the amount of torsional
reinforcement.

Step II

Check span/effective depth


Find lcfd, where le is the effective span in the shorter direction. Find basic
span/effective depth ratio from Table 11.3.
Find service stress, fs
where

~b =

M
M'

=(

(As rcqd)fy

: )
8l'b A,.

prov

MIM'

= moment after redistribution


= moment before redistribution.

Find M lbd2
Find modification factor for te nsion reinforcement from Chart 11.5 and
modification factor for compression reinforceme nt from Chart 11.4.
Find modified span/depth ratio by multiplying the basic span/depth ratio
with the modification factor for tensile reinforcement and compression
reinforcement, if used.
Check

fc/d <modified span/depth ratio.

Step 12 Curtailment of bars iri tension


Follow simplified detailing rules for slabs as in Fig. 3.34.
Step 13 Spacing of bars in tension
Clear spacing of bars should not exceed 3d or 750 mm.

Percentage of reinforcement,
100 A 5 /bd (%)
1 or over
0.75
0.5
0.3
less than 0.3

Maximum clear spacing of


bars in slabs (mm)

160
210
320
530
3d or 750, whichever is less

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 117

A s is the area required at the ultimate limit state. The clear spacings as
given above may be multiplied by ~b to account for redistribution of
moments. ~ is the ratio of moment after redistribution to moment before
redistribution. These clear spacings deem to satisfy 0.3 mm crack width at
serviceability limit state.
Step 14 Check early thermal cracking
Early thermal cracking should be checked for the following pour
configurations:

(1) Thin wall cast on massive base: R = 0.6 to 0.8 at base, R = 0.1to0.2 at
top.
(2) Massive pour cast on blinding: R = 0.1 to 0.2.
(3) Massive pour cast on existing mass concrete: R = 0.3 to 0.4 at base,
R = 0.1 to 0.2 at top.
(4) Suspended slabs: R = 0.2 to 0.4.
(5) Infill panels i.e. rigid restraint: R =0.8 to 1.0.
where R

= restraint factor

Typical values of T 1 for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete are:


Section thickness (mm) Steel formwork Plywood forrnwork Cast on ground
13C
22C
32C
42C

300
500
700
1000

25C
35C
42C
47C

l7C
28C
28C
28"C

These figures are based on average cement content of 350 kg/m3 .


Calculate:
Er

= 0.8 Ti 0: R

obtain o: (coefficient of thermal expansion) from Table 2.3 in Section


2.1.9.

..
SK 3/16 Section of slab for crack
width calculation.

Cm in

Wmax = _ __3a___;;cr.;._.,;
.' - - --

+ 2(Ocr

Cmin)

h - x
Assume x

= h/2

118 Reinforced Concrete


Note:

Wmax is greater than design crack width, which is normally taken equal
to 0.3mm, then suggest means for reducing T 1

If

Step 15 Check minimum reinforcement to distribuJe early thermal cracking


Peril =

0.0035

for Grade 460 steel reinforcement

For suspended slabs and walls,


bh
A c = -2

or 250b

As = 0.0035 A c

whichever is smaller

near each face in each direction of slab and wall

For ground slabs and foundation bases,


up to 300 mm thickness:
A. 1 = 0.00175bh

near top surface in each direction

from 300 mm to 500 mm thickness:


A st= 0.00175bh

Asb = 0.35b

near top surface in each direction


near bottom surface in each direction

over 500 mm thickness:


A st

= 0.875b

Asb= 0.35b

near top surface in each direction


near bottom surface in each direction

Step 16 Check fkxural crack widJh


ServiceabilUy limit stale
LC1 = l.ODL + l.OLL + 1.0EP + 1.0WP + l.OWL

Note: Omit loadings from LC7 which produce beneficial rather than adverse

effect.

b
:: unit width

SK 3/17 Section through slab for


the calculation of flexural crack
width.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 119

Wrnax

= l + 2(acr

min)

h-x
Emh

Note:

= Eh

b(h - x)2
3EsA s(d - x)

is the strain due to load combination LC7 at depth h from compression


face, b is the unit width of slab, and A s is the area of tensile steel per unit
width of slab.
h

For slab, b is taken equal to unit width.


Unit w idth
' (steel in compression zone
r unit w idth)

1
d'

_ _ ___ Neutral

h d

u..=is~--

SK 3/18 Section of slab with steel


in compression zone.

Es

m
x

= Ee
=

d{[

As

p
(mp

= bd
+

(m -

- (mp+ (m -

l)p') + 2(
l)p')}
2

(~)(1 - ;d)

ki

k3

= (m

fc

= kibd 2 + k3A~(d

Is

= mfc(~ -

- 1) ( 1 - : )
M

Es=

Is

Es

1)

A~

= bd

- d')

mp

+ (m -

l)(~)p)

r
I

120

Reinforced Concrete
b(h Ernh

Note:

= Eh

x)2

3EsAs(d - x)

In normal internal or external condition of exposure where the limitation


of crack widths to 0.3 mm is appropriate, Step 13 will deem to satisfy the
crack width criteria.

3.4 WORKED EXAMPLE


Exampk 3.1 Design of a twoway slab panel

80
v

--~~~~6_00_0 ~~-- ~
__

SK 3/19 Plan of a panel of slab


continuous on all sides.

Clear panel size is 6 m x 4 m


Thickness of slab= 150 mm
Imposed loading= 20 kN/ m 2
Finishes = 2 kN /m 2
Panel of slab continuous o n all four sides
Width of beam = 300 mm

Step 1 Analysis of slab panel


Effective span, le= /0
Lx = 4.3 m
Ly= 6.3 m
lxlly = 0.68

Elastic analysis
Read coefficients from F ig. 3.12:
lnxt
m y1

= 0.035

= 0.021

= 0.075
m.~2 = 0.060

m~2

C haracteristic dead load = 0.15 m x 25 kN/ m 3 x 1.4 + 2 x 1.4


=8.0kN/m 2

Design of Reinforced Concrete Sfabs 121


Characteristic imposed load= 1.6 x 20 =32 kN/m 2
n

= ultimate load on slab = 8

+ 32 = 40 kN/m2

Mx1 = mx1nli
= 0.035 x 40 x 4.32
= 25.9kNm/m
My1 = 0.021 x 40 x 4.3 2
= 15.5kNm/m
M~3 = 0.075

M;2

x 40 x 4.32

= - 55.5 kNm/m
= 0.060 x 40 x 4.32
=

- 44.4 kNm/m

Allowing for 10% redistribution of moments,


Design moments:
Mx1 = 31.4 kNm/m
Mv1 = 19.9kNm/m
M~3 = -50.0kNm/m
M.~2 = -40.0 kNm/m

SK 3/20 Plan of panel of slab


showing bending moments and
shears.

Note:

These moments do not take into account the Wood-Armer effect due to
the presence of Mxy and may be unconservative locally. In ultimate load
design local plastic hinge formation may be tolerated whe n there is a
possibility of redistribution of loads.
Analysis following BS 8110: Part 1: 198s1J
Coefficients from Table 3.15.

Interior panel l.vflx = 1.46

msx1

= 0.039

lnsy l

= 0.024

m~x3

m:.Z2

= 0.052

= 0.032

Mx1 = 28.8kNm/m
My1 = 17.8kNm/m
M~3 = 38.5 kNm/m
M; 2 = 23.7kNm/m

122

Reinforced Concrete
Note:

These moments are considerably less than the redistributed design moments
found from elastic analysis. Elastic analysis gives peak values, whereas the
BS 8110 coefficients tend to smear them across a long stretch of slab.
It is desirable and practical to use the elastic analysis results and allow
10% redistribution with a view to minimising the appearance of unsightly
cracks in the slab. This is a conservative approach.
Check by yield-lines analysis
Assume that the elastic analysis moments are ultimate capacity moments
in the panel of slab.
MvN = 50 kNm/m
Mvp = 31.4 kNm/m
M11N = 40kNm/m

MHP

19.9 kNm/m

(Vertical Negative)
(Vertical Positive)
(Horizontal Negative)
(Horizontal Positive)

Assume that the elastic analysis results will be the maximum plastic
moments in the panel of slab.
I

L (MvN

H MHN

+ Mvp)2 = 6.3 (50 + 31.4)i


+ MHP
4.3 40 + 19.9

= 1.70
Assume symmetrical yield-lines - see Table 3.2.
Refer to appropriate diagram from Figs 3.18 to 3.33.
Refer to Fig. 3.22 and find xi L
x
L
x

- = 0.35

= 0.35

x 6.3

= 2.20m

.
.
Umt resistance, r

= 5(MHN +2

MHP)

=5 x

59.9

2.22

from Table 3.2

= 61.9 kN/m2 >

40 kN/m 2

Alternatively,
r=

8(MVN

+ Mvp)(3L -

x)

H 2 (3L - 4x)

from Table 3.2

8(50 + 31.4)(3 x 6.3 - 2.2)


4.32(3 x 6.3 - 4 x 2.2)

= 58.23 kN/m2 > 40 kN/m2


Note:

The values of MvN. Mvr. MHN and Mup could be readjusted to arrive at r
as close to 40 kN/m 2 as possible.
Designed by the results of elastic analysis the slab panel has a large reserve
of strength because the failure loading is 58.23 kN/m2 against design ultimate
loading of 40 kN I m2 Similarly, designed by the results of the BS 8110

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 123


method of analysis, the panel of slab has a small reserve of strength
because the calculated collapse loading is 46.3 kN/m2
To check crack widths and deflection due to service load the BS 8110
coefficients may not be used. Always use the elastic analysis results.
Determinath>n of shear aJ supports

Use BS8110: Part 1: 1985, Table 3.16.1 11


Shear coefficients 0.44 and 0.33

V. = 0.44

x 40 x 4.3
= 75.7kN/m

~v

= 0.33 X 40
= 56.8 kN/m

4.3

Refer to Table 3.4.


By yield-line principle: assuming r = 40 kN/m2 ,
V _ 3 r H (1 - x!L)
x 2(3 - x/L)

3 x 40 x 4.3 x (1 - 0.35)
2(3 - 0.35)

= 63.3kN/m
3rx
3 x 40 X 2.2
V = -- =
= 52.8kN/m
.v

Step 2 Draw diagram of panel of slab

See diagram with moments and shears marked on the panel (in Step 1).
Step 3 Determination of cover

Assume diameter of main reinforcement = 12 mm


Maximum size of aggregate = 20 mm
Condition of exposure = mild
Grade of concrete = C40
Minimum cement content= 325 kg/m3
Maximum free water/cement ratio = 0.55
Fire resistance required = 1 hour
Nominal cover, as per Tables 11.6 and 11.7 = 20 mm
Effective depth, dx = 150 - 20 - 6 = 124 mm
Effective depth, dy = 150 - 20 - 12 - 6 = 112 mm

SK 3/21 Section through slab


showing effective depths.

124 Reinforced Concrete


Step 4

Design of slab
Over continuous long edge, M

50 x 10

= - -2 =
fcubdx

z = d[ 0.5 +
d-z

x = -0.45

40

1000

J(

0.25 -

1242

0~9) J

= 0.081
=

0.9d

lll.6mm

= 27.Smm

As= - - =
.
0.87/yZ
0.87

50 x 106
. = 1120mm2 Im
X 460 X 111.6

Over continuous short edge, M

40 x

= - -2 = .

= 0.9d = 100.8 mm

= 24.9mm

As

=50 kNm/m

fcubdy

40

1000

= 40 kNm/m

106
X

112

i.

= 0.08

= 992 mm 2/ m

Positive midspan m(Jment in short directWn

M = 31.4 kNm/m

= 0.051
z = 116.5mm
A 5 = 673 mm 2 / m
K

Positive midspan m(Jment in long direction

= 19.9kNm/m
K = 0.04
z = 0.95d = 106.4 mm
As = 467 mm2/ m
M

Step 5

Diameter and spacing of bars


Use:
Over long edge 12 dia. at 100 centre-to-centre (top)
Over short edge

12dia. at 100 centre-to-centre (top)

Short direction at midspan


(754mm 2 /m)

(1131 mm2 / m)
(1131 mm 2 /m)

12 dia. at 150 centre-to-ce ntre (bottom)

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 125


E

~-JI:!12 o_ioom~I
.._,

......

.: Ir-: 12
0

...[ '

!D

I]

, .....,

1so (8) I:
0

11 N
II N Cl>
Q,~ -- -r,::
Ci2o -,~9m - ~ !D
N

SK 3/22 Plan of panel of slab


showing design steel requirement.

Be om

Geom

Long direction at midspan 12dia. at 200 centre-to-centre (bottom)


(565mm 2 /m)

Step 6 Check shear stress

v
x

V,,.
bd,,.

75.7 x HP
1000 x 124

vv 56.8 x Hl3
v = - =
.v
bd_v
1000 x 112
Px

= O.SlN/mm2

_ lOOAu = 100 x 1131 = 0. 91%


bd,,.
1000 X 124
lOOAsv

100

= -bd.v- = 1000 x
.v

0.61 N/ mm2

1131
112

= 1.0%

From Fig. 11.5,


vex = 0.97N/rnm 2 > v.. = 0.61 N/mm 2

No shear reinforcement required.

Step 7 Check punching shear stress


Not required.

Step 8 Modificatron due to holes


Not required.

Step 9 Minimum tenswn reinforcement


As

= 0.0013bh
= 0.0013 x 1000
= 195 mm 2 /m

x 150
satisfied

Step JO Torswnal reinforcement


Not required.

126 Reinforced Concrete

Step 11 Check span/effective depth


3

lex = 4.3 X 10
dx
124

= 34.7
Basic span/effective depth ratio= 26

~b =

M'

from Table 11.3

31.4

Ii = 2s.9 = i.21

where M' = moment afte r redistributio n; M = moment before redistribution

f = ~ J.
"

(As
rcqd) (2-)
As
~b
prov

673

=-x460x-x-8
754
1.21

= 212N/mm2
M
bd 2

31.4 x 10 = 2.0
1000 x 1242

From Chart 11.5,


mod ification facto r = 1.33
Modified span/effective depth ratio= 26 x 1.33 = 34.58 < 34. 7
Code deflection limits have been exceeded slightly.
May be ignored.

Step 12 Curtailment of bars

$12@.cOOITI

~2@400CTll4200l

c>12@400lll (J600J

29400181

c>12@2oom 2200!

SK 3/23 Plan of panel of slab showing arrangement of reinforcement.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 127


45 x dia. of bars = 45 x 12 = 540 mm
0.15
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.30
0.20

lex=0.15 x 4.3 =64Smm


lex= 0.30 X 4.3 = 1290 mm
lex= 0.20 X 4.3 =8(:,() mm
Ley= 0.15 X 6.3 = 945 mm
Ley= 0.30 X 6.3 = 1890 mm
le_v = 0.20 X 6.3 = 1260 mm

Direction lx - top reinforcement


12dia. @ 100 c/c to 800mm from centre of beam (top)
12dia. @ 200 c/c to 1500mm from centre of beam (top)
Direction Ly - top reinforcement
12dia.@ 100 c/c to llOOmm from centre of beam (top)
12dia.@ 200 c/c to 2100mm from centre of beam (top)
Elsewhere use 12dia. @ 400 c/c (top) both directions (282mm 2)
Direction lx - bottom re.inforcement
12dia.@ 150 c/c up to 800mm from centre of beam (bottom)
12dia. @ 300 c/c over beam (bottom)
Direction ly - bottom reinforcement
12dia. @ 200 c/c up to 1200mm from centre of beam (bottom)
12dia. @ 400 c/c over beam (bottom)
Step I 3 Spacing of bars
Percentage of reinforcement in slab = 1%

Maximum clear spacing allowed = 160 mm


Actual spacing used= 100 mm

OK

Maximum spacing of bars in tension = 3d = 3 x 112 = 336 mm


Maximum spacing used for designed bars in tension= 200 mm

OK

Maximum spacing of nominal reinforcement to control early thermal


cracking =400 mm
Step 14 Check thermal cracking
For suspended slab, R =0.3 assumed

Ti
a

12C assumed for 150 mm thick slab

= 12 x

Er=

10-6 per degree C

0.8 Ti

= 0.8

Q'.

x 12 x 12 x 10-6 x 0.3

= 34.56

x 10-6

128 Reinforced Concrete


C111 ; 0

x
Ocr

=
=

20mm
32 mm

+ 12mm

(dia. of bar)
(direction l_.)

d/2 assumed
2

= '1/(200

+ 38

) -

112/2 = 56 mm (direction Ly)


6 = 197.6mm

3acr Er

Wmax = - - -(- --C


--)
l +2 Ocr min
(h - x)
3 x 197.6 x 34.56 x 10
=
2(197.6 - 32)
1
+ (150 - 56)

= 0.0045 mm

< 0.3 mm

OK

Step 15 Check minimum reinforcement to distribute cracking


bh
1000 x 150
A c= - =
= 75000mm2

A~ = 0.0035 Ac = 262.5 mm2 /m


A 5 provided
12 dia. @ 400 c/c (282 mm2 /m)

Step 16 Assessment of crack widJli in flexu.re


_!_00

"

I:

SK 3/24 Section through slab over


beam for crack width calculations.

Service load on slab = 25.75 kN/m2


By elastic analysis,
maximum bending moment over Jong support
= 0.075 x 25.75 x 4.32
= 35.7kNm/m
As

= 11 31 mm 2 /m A 5 /bd = 9'.12
= lOOOmm
d = 124mm

m = 10
A~

10- 3

= E/Ec

neglected

= d[((mp)2

+ 2 mp)! - mp)

= 43mm

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

z=d M
Asz

Is= Es

l<f>

35.1 x

= 1131 x

= Is =
.

43

3 = 124 - 3 = 109.7mm

129

. = 288N/mm2

lW.7

288

200 x 1<>3

1.44 x

eh= (hd -- xx) Es. = (150


124 -

43
)
43

io-3
X

1.44

b(h - x)
--'-----'-= 1.90 x
3 A .(d - x)

10- 3

10-3

= 1.90 X

10- 3

Emh

h -

1000(150 - 43)2

s s

3 x 200 x 103 x 1131 x (124 - 43)


= 1.69 x 10-3
Cmin
Ocr

W cr

= 20mm

= V{262

+ 5<>2) - 6 = 50 mm

3acr
l

+ 2{acr

Em

- Cmin)
(h - x)

= 0.16mm

< 0.3mm

OK

130 Reinforced Concrete


3.S FIGURES AND TABLES FOR CHAPTER 3

Edge conditions and loading diagrams

c~~

f..

.!.

L/2

L/2

-~

..

~ ~

1. .!.
L/2

L1 2

.t

~ot

. ~

~
I

.1 L12

L/ 2

~~
I

f
I

L/3

Tu

Ru

--

BMN
Li

ru

16M N
3L

Ru

12M N

- c-

ru

BMN
-L

Ru

r.,

Ru

-1

f 12

Elasto-plastic
resistance, rcr

-1

~
I

Elastic
resistance, re

f'2

L/3 I L13

R ..

Fig. 3.1 Elastic and elasto-plastic unit resistances for one-way elements.

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 131

Edge conditions and loading diagrams

t.

L/2

Support reactions, V,

.... )

Tu L

Ru

L/ 2

..t

~~~
- t

L. reaction

-5ruL
8

R. reaction

3ruL
-8

L. reaction

llRu
-16

R. reaction

~-

Ltz

tI~,...

.f

L12

::.Y,. ,,,...... I I

l
I

.~

--f

L/ 2

~ ......-yyy"'y r-i"l

1-

rr

f. .=.
Lf3

5Ru
16

ruL

L/2

.1
tp
.1

L/3 .: l 13.f

Ru
2

ruL

Ru

Ru

Fig. 3.2 Support shears for one-way elements (to be read in conjunction with
Fig. 3.1).

CM

Fig. 3.3 M oment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two adjacent
edges fixed and two edges free.1 8 1

-n,

10

07

OS

........... ~

03

OI

I n2 //n, I Ill t\.

OQ

OI

Ot:1'1

~
;

005

-00>

/ ''

'()02

v/'
J '
,
"

[7

c::::

'J

<>OOJ
0002

Vnv.... I

XO= yrH

);:;
.:::

10 7-0 SO ,.0 20

0 3

1n2_,..... . . .

0 2

I/

0 1

<:n

I"

005

I~

1-00'7 0 S 0'3 0 2

HIL

002

,,,
'flv ...j

02

V;

I'..._
0 1

I/ I

O<

OOS

002

001
10 70 S<>

lj

I
00>

><>

2 0

10 0.70 5 OJ 0 2

HIL

OI

vI -

T1

O>

//
I/ I

OS

..-""'

l/f -

/,

001

OI

"f\nv

111;-J Vri1

-0(17

v.,,........- ~-

f~

OI

<:n

0 2

/)

VJ

01

J'

'

0 3
-.,::;

'02

~[t:J

--

OS

00)

I/

OS

''
H = fl rH 2
XO= yrH

1-0
07

OS

v
};,

H :: flrH 2

07

tflHux

'

vI

-0001-- -

H = flrH 2

XO= yrH

10

IL...

c::::

I
-00 1
,_ LJ
.____
r.;I~
00<:17
11
flt....
"0005

.._.

~q;]

{]g

'(/

0)

/1~

OS

.;;,
...
c::::

Y:l
I/

07

;.;;::

f12

~
:;
0

g
Q.

Q
::i
I

~""'-

02

Fig. 3.5 M oment and deflection


coefficients for uniforml y loaded
two-way element with two adj acent
edges simply supported and two
edges free.IHI

Fig. 3.4 M oment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element wi th one edge
fixed , an adjacent edge simply
supported and two edges free.1 111

-' 7i

10 70 SO

I
H> 20

10 0'705 0 3 0 2

HIL

OI

(;

lO

07
OS
0.J

[g

<

I<>

n,

JV'
,'/ v Jr....

OI

..
..

02

/, !/

I:::

01

OOS

001
0007
OOOS

I/

/~

~i.--

,,:,.

..

'

I:::

..._, / n1I

''

I/I v

-02

01

~ 007

'()0)

r1.

004
-0001

'J

OOOI

1/

OOOI

/ I/

I
I

0 2

/ti

IJ1

y.... ...

= /JrH 2

XO= yrH
CM

I
I

<11

05

~ 007

..._ ........

oos
002

r/ti

Tj

\
\n1 I

(1)

'

V>

c'

....

(1)

~
g

001

0001

0005

I'

/J1 ~

01

""x

r.__'

'()2

v
'I'

');:

<:S

OJ

I
I

0..

Q
:I

'

!:;

.()()())

!/

0002

II

(1)

c;C/l

c;'

.()()(

CT

0001
10 7-o SO JoO 20

<>->

003

000)

0002

1Jb;J

OS

v-

I ' Yt

I//
I/ I/

-002

I/

'

0 7

.__

I I

005

/7

J J vi

r,;;-IJ

I
I

I
I

I I/

05

I/

o~

11 = nrlf
XO= yrfr

07

I/

V!J

00>

002

02

I I

{g

H>

'11

I/

,r11

I::: 007

cS

I I

IJ2 I //1J1

0')

7 \

//;

0)

'i=-

,,

OS

OS

,,..., ~ !"-....

.07

0'7

)v

M
IJrH 2
XO= yrH 4

Fig. 3.8 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two opposite
edges simply supported , one edge
fixed and one edge free.1 81

Fig. 3.7 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two opposite
edges fixed , one edge simply
supported a nd one edge freeY1l

Fig. 3.6 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with three edges
fixed and one edge free.l~I

0001

100'705

HI L

03 02

OI

10 7'0 S<>

) 0 20

'()001

100'7 05

HIL

0) 02

0-1

10 70 50

V>

J
O 20

1<> 0 7 OS

HIL

00 04

<>I

....

....

Fig. 3. t t M oment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two adjacent
edges simply supported. one edge
fixed and one edge free.l"I

Fig. 3.JO Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two edges
fixed. one edge simfilY supported
and one edge free. I I

Fig. 3.9 Moment and deftection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with three edges
simply supported and one edge
free.IHI

":;
O'
0

fl

c.

Q
::I

lo()
07
o~

O<J

"'

{]01
I
I
v

H = IJrH 2
XO = yrH 4

07

-;:_

001

OOS

01

oc
001
0001

0007

'

OOOS

000>

..

02

I/

Iv

IJ1

I
I rd

000)
0002

0002

lO 0-7 0-S

HIL

01 02

0-1

0001
K> 7-0 so

1'0 2o

I/ I

OOOS

J
0001
10 7-0 5'0 "O 2-0

1IJ2

../

"\

J J11

'--

-~

II

I II

OOJ

001

I '

005

OS

007

I/

003

,.

07

<:::

J
I

0)

ri

- r. // ' /

,I;

M = IJrH 2
XO:: YrH

01

002

0-:l

In, I

<la

Ol

O>

OS

11g
I

0'7

0-t

OS

'
1--f'"
I

OI

tO

100"7 0-S O> 02

HIL

10

1-0

07

07

OS

OS

0)

0'3

02

02

01

OI

007

07

OOS

OS

003

CO

002

02

0007

~
).:"

I'

H = IJrH 2
XO:: YrH~

LJ._/

IJ2 I

OI

007

OOS

000>

OQ)

0002

002

0001

001

0007

00005

0005

OOOOJ

000>

00002

0002

.OOOOI

0001

J
/

/1J1

IT

OJ

-02

01

005
00>

002

001

0007

vv

0005

0002

JJ

0002

I/

0001

0000'7
00005

000<

00002

.
10

OS

OC1

.07

v/

lj

00007

OI

{IQ

c:::"
001

0-1

71)

So Jo() 2'0

tO 0'705

HI L

0., 0-2

OOOOt
oI

n
..,
0
0

0- 1

/J

-OS
03

V/ . . I-.

01
'()(YI

J I

00$

002

.;

001

..
~
eS

~1

11

I
I

OOOC1I

C>OOOS

I
I

0001
00007

oooos

10 7-0 6'0

l'O 20

lO 0.7 0-6 o-3 0-2

HI L

0.J

002

C>2

1/ v
/1 V/-1\.

~
,:
~

OI

:-.....

03

0002

floH

i..._

0001

H
flrH1
XO" Y r H"

fJ

{J[TII

000002

000001

0001

07

0003

-0002 I

000?

10 7-0 6 0

I
>O 2 0

lO 0'7 OS 03 0'.I

HIL

..

tS
i!::

OOOt:ll

-.;::. ~

00005

H = OrH
XO= y r H"

JI!

001

000007

-oocn

000005

OOOS

000001

OOOJ

000002

0002

n,

~ 001

OOOJ

0001

OOOt:l1

l!J I

IJ
I

00002

OOOClll

'>'=

....

:x:i
(0

s
O'

0.
00001

000007

ooooos

J"

00000>

0 001
10 '1o0 6'0

(0

"'
''
00005

0002

fl1H I

/, '/ J

v,

o()C)I

- '

,......._ f l I
n, I I I

rh

OOS

ooos

"
/, r; J !'...

/, ~

Ofl7

0007
~

/// .......

00001

~~

01

'()OJ

n, I

I
/, ...

OOS

002

v
I/

01

00002

rn=

.001 >--

00)

000001
0 1

{{;g

Oii

0000)

00 1
-o:xY7

OI

OS

I//
'I

001

fl1v 'OOOS

I/ I

OOS

OOOlt

,, I

II

~ 001

-ooos

-n2

I
/

02

002

000003

OJ

>:: .;

- r.

.... ""'

Of

-00002

ooooos

()ol

00>

OOJ

00000 7

i{;:g

o.s

0000>

00001

H : flrH 2
XO :: y rH

OOll

01

000>

0001

0 5

OI

ooos

00 0 2

0 7

02

000?

OO>

001

'OOCll

ooo:i

C:>

00001

""-

n1H

1.0

. Ot:17

OJ

002

J J

'/1

i -ooos I

00002

/. '/ I I

Xf1

OOOOJ

~fllV/Yt

l!J ,/

003

Ot:ll

005

01

oq

''

Ol

..n, .rn2

11/ v
h
'// 1 1

'()l

c;;

,,

-07

Fig. 3. 14 Mo ment and deflection


coefficie nts for un iformly loaded
two-way element with three edges
fi xed and o ne edge simply
supported.1111

Fig. 3.13 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way e lement with two o pposite
edges fixed and two edges simply
supported.1111

Fig. 3.12 Moment and deflection


coefficie nts for un iformly loaded
two-way element with all edges
fixed.1 111

00()001

::s

(0

V>

;"

SO 20

10 <>7 0-S

HI L

0'3 0-2

0 1 000001

....

....
~

Fig. 3.16 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with two adjacent
edges fixed and 1wo edges simply
supported. IHI

Fig. 3.15 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with all edges
simpl y supported.IHI

lO

().I

1-0

07

07

07

05

05

06

0 3

03

0'3

02

0'2

0'2

,, -

0 1
07

j,

02
j

01

007

I I

005

003
002

If

>

~-

001
0007
COOS I

-07

005

05

003

-03

J )
I I r. I

001

01

007

005

H
XC

0003

COS

0002

002

0001

"001

00007

OO<:n

00005

0005

J
10 7'0 6'0

= fJrH4
= YrH

{101
J-()

2'0

l-0 0'7 05

HIL

L
0'3 02

.OQ

0003

J
I
I

>-::: IS

-0005

-00003

0003

ooooa

OOOQ

00001

0001

I
C>I

f1 2

II

i~ v/

'/ I

,,

v/".i ,...._

v;
I
I

002

0'2

-07

0005

-05

0003

03

0002

ct;

02

0001

~ ~.

00005

v
I

V77

001

().I

0007

000005

0005

000003

0003

000002

0002

000001

0001

.I

f11v

~~ ~ 007
-01

z. . .

005
003

' 002
001

0007

003

000007

fJa I ,

005

002

I
00 02

~ 007

,_w

00003

00001

VIV
01

-00002

\ \:

HIL

02

7i
i-

0005

'

V(JI H

0003
0002

0001

00007

)'j

00005

7i

fl1v

00003

II

00002

'/
ro

70 SO 30 2 0

10 0-7 <>S 0-3 02

HI L

<>1

00001

g
0

03

'l 7j

(1)

0.

05
~

;:i

07

f"I = fJrH 2
XO= rrH

10 07 0-5

1Jg

~
O'

:;

(')

I O

01

0007

00007

3-0 20

03

?!.

I I
5-0

003

I"

05

\f11H

10

005

\_~

r1

0'7

..!a= .

:;

I/ V/j

007

n, l
f12 l= .001

YI

;11,
H~l../, v

01

10

I
IA
J

-002

,v

'I

11 = fJrH
XO= r rH 4

007

0007

-0002
0001

II

o~

01

fJIH

I'-....

//.

03

--

fJr{

//

05

r1

1J[J]

-ti-

Fig. 3.17 Moment and deflection


coefficients for uniformly loaded
two-way element with three edges
simply supported and one edge
fixed.IHI

).;'

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 137


1-0

0-9
01
0-7

0-6

OS x/L
04
03
02
OI
o~

Mv1>

Jl/2

H lMwN Mw1>

Fig. 3.18 Location of yield Jines for two-way e lement with two adjacent edges
supported and two edges free (values of x).1111

O"-~~~-'-~~....___.~~-'-~-'---'~~~~-'-~--'~__..~..._~_._~_,

OI

o-6

OI

.,!.. [Mvw-+Mv1>]
H

1-0

112

M~

Fig. 3.19 Location of yield lines for two-way element with two adjacent edges
supported and two edges free (val ues of y).1 8 1

10

138 Reinforced Concrete

~M14111 .+ MHPff'2 ~lO

~. MH11> M111
lt1

.H[

f11 A

\@

C!.>1

,' ~ \ ~

L
lo()

0-1
07
Mvl'
-Mv11a

><I-' o5

...

o-.

['\. ~~ ~-000..._

M>CICJ!L

0.,

0~2~~""" ~~ s::-A-4-000
l o-iso~

02

MOO -

OI

....1oool
~ ~-;::~ ....... ~....
~ r---.:: ~~

-,

-;;:::i.._
~

oa

0- I

05

OI lO

10

20

90

to IOO

Fig. 3.20 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with th ree
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 =1.0).1111

10

Ot

0-1

07
06

yJH

,I

05
0'4

0-J

02
0-1
0
01

IO

Fig. 3.21 Location of symmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three edges
supported and one edge free (value of v).1 81

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 139

I .'l~IAS al 'tfH
0-5

~v

0 4

'

Y/H
02

OI

0-1

I V.tuts of x/L
05

I I\

%1

0-2

0.,

04

0-6

0-8

11 f
I' \
./
: v>---,,, ~
......

02

~~

10

0-1

Fig. 3.22 Location of symmetrical yield lines for


supported. IHI

tw~way

_!! ., hMHN> + M,rJ201


X1
M-+M..

10

element with four edges

r&-1 ~
(j)/

\Cl.

,I @ \ \
l

,..,,_

1-0

'

0 4

MvH.2

\ \\ \~
\ \ \ .\"\ ~ 1-000,h,
\ \ \ \'\ ~o~l
\. :'\,. '\..\ 0-~~J
t-1000

0 ..

0-7

o ..

4 000

'

'""

""'~" >--."'""-0
""~ '~'"

L~2s~"
0)$0-

loSOO ~~ '0 ::::~


~ ~ '...... ~ ~

0-2

0-1

0
C>I

0 5

O I 1-0

10

~-.;::

:::.;:;:;:::

50

IO IOO

Yag. 3.23 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X 1 =0. 1).1 81

140 Reinforced Concrete

MHP~t/2= O)

!!_.bMH'!S +
MHNI+ MHP

x,

tb-1

1' @ \~j
\
,'
\

,.

M\fp
Mv'!2

\' ~::_us

' \

/'
\.

\
'\.

"~o:,:;;,

'\.'Y< ~7-000

~
' f\. ""'"\. .""'\.

.~l

""'\." t-.."'-' \0 ~~\;-.

't'...~~ ~ :::::~
~ ~ .......
......... ~ ~

0'2

~...:::::

0-1

02

r:

MvP

H[!olH'!t+M..,.

~-......::::

'

~SO

20

80 IOO

2
]''

Fig. 3.24 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X 1 =0.3).1 8 1

J'2

X2. MHN1+MHP
X1
MHNI .. MHP

fl.

!!-,
: 05

Wt
I

'
\ ~
\

i'

L
1-0

Myp

08

Mv'!2

06

\. \ '\. l~~ .::_125

L,

500
~ >~ ~sot_
~oooL
'\,~""<
2-0001

""-"' ~""-~ ~~k


~ ~~

'"'"'"'

..... ~ ~
~ ::::---:: ........

01
0

C>I

OS

OI K>

:z

10

_;;:,-.....;

20

so

80100

Fig. 3.25 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for twoway element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X 1 =0.5).1 81

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 141

11. bMHl!J + Mttll~l/2=075

HD /

Mttttl + Mwp

X1

'
@ \
\

'

I.

0-9
O I

~
M-n.2

b
'\. I' \ :'\..'~ :f- o-1as0 250

<>6

I'\.
0 '4

x::-x

~iOOL
1-000

""'-"' ~~ ~ ....,
'-......""~
~~ ~
-O~I

4000 L

,...., .oOO]

A- er> I

~~ ~

<>I

O S

O I lO

20

IO

SO

IO IOO

Fig. J.26 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2/X1 =0.75).1111

!J.
Xo

~ r
HN3

MHP

M1tt11 M. .

f41 fl-

1 25

[ . D1

\~

@ \

\ ~

'

l
lo()

0 -9

MVP

MvH2

~~
" '' "'-.
"-:::: "'
~~ <()()()

0 ..
OJ

rOOO O..:iS:t ~~ ~~J-


000

..:::; ~./t I

~ ~ ......

OI

<>

........_~~

O S

OI lO

l [

Myp

10

.=------...
SO

IOIOO

1''2

H MHN1t MHPj

Fig. J.27 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 = 1-25).181

142

Reinforced Concrete

~:
X1

]',,

MHP
~M...,+
MHHr MHP

l S
.

HI

.!!; ~
:!>1
/

'.~
@ \

I'<>
0'9

0~

Myp

'5

MvH2
0

"

'"'-~ ~

0 )

2-000

-oooL.....,
""'~~ ~i:...
t::::::~~

0 '2
0

- 0-500
,........
... l-000

~'::>
0250

r--.:

,,..01

,....

r-.----~

so

0-1

aoioo

Fig. 3.28 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 = 1.5).1 81

r2

X2 a MHH3 +MHP
Xr M..c1 +MHP

:175
H

~!.>/

'

,' @ \

fO

0 9
Oa

0 7

0 6

><I-'

Myp
OS

MvH2

o~

L~-o~~ ~
-0~ ~ ~ ... F"1

04
0

'1'~ ~ ~ ~~

'

<XX>

0
0-1

0'2

os

o-e

10

MvP_l

---

i:-.

10

50

ao IOO

112

H~HH1Mlff3

Fig. 3.29 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2/X 1 = 1.75).181

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 143

~-~]"
X1 MtNM.., 20
2

[17/@ ~\_

fo()

O
Oa

'

Myp
1 .......

MvN2

- ---

, ,

2<>00

L~a~'~
- -o_,-ff'...:
.... ~ k;;;;;;t_

04

i:.::.:; "'~

~-- -c;~
~~ 1.r'

o~

01

J..[~N1H~-'J
MVI'

i--..

10

50

IO IOO

112

Fig. 3.30 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (X2 /X1 =2.0).1111

~~N1+MH~l/

~HN1M;r

"4t.a+M..

x
l

H[

rX-1
1@1

,,-&,,, ~

1Y

__L~

I+ MHN2+Mij1>

1-0

I/
>IX

0-4

0-1
01

--

./
i--

L---

Fig. 3.31 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with three
edges supported and one edge free (values of y ) .18 1

~o

144 Reinforced Concrete

M111<1+MHP
0-5

MHN2+MHP

*:__

MvNt+Myp

04

M-;V;:;:N;:::2=+Mv=::P:;=MvN1 :!._MVP
MvN21MvP

X1

1+

OoJ

02

Ol

0
01

0-~

0-3

0-4 0-S

0-7

1.0

56789IO

~ [JMvt<t + Myp+ ~PJ


J5 IM111<1. MHPI
Fig. 3.32 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with four
edges supported (values of X 1).1 8 1

0-7

y,
06

H
Y2

o5

o4

'*'l+MHP

MHH2+MH~

-c

Y11H

1~1+MHP
-+MHN2+MHP

Ol

0 2

OI

02

567&

Fig. 3.33 Location of unsymmetrical yield lines for two-way element with four
edges supported (values of Y1).1 8 1

10

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 145


0 .15,l

0.15 l

0.15,f
~454>

100"/.

Effective

Effective S

n I

Continuous Slab : Approximate equal spans

Si~ly ~orted

Slab

l.1z

TOOlo

I ~45

>

Cantilever Slab
Fig. 3.34 Simplified detailing rules for slabs.

146 Reinforced Concrete


Table 3.1 Graphical summary of two-way elements to be used in conjunction
with Figures 3.3 to 3.17

g {B :nCJ'
{g rd :1J81
{ILJI {lg 1Jd
:IJffi rm
{B f
Fig. 3.3

Fig. 3.4

Fig. 3.6

I.

.I

Fig. 3.7

Fig. 3.8

.t

Fig. 3.9

Fig. 3.5

Fig. 3.10 .

Fig. 3.11

Fig. 3.13

Fig. 3.14

Fig. 3.12

~DI

I.

{II

11

Fig. 3.15

Fig. 3.16

Legend: Edge conditions

r:

t=t
Free

E
Simple

Fig. 3.17

r://:-i
Fixed

Table 3.2 Ultimate unit resistance for two-way elements (symmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in conjunction with Figs 3.18 to 3.23).
Edge
conditions

Yield line locations

P-1

EJ

Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free

Limits

x :s L

y :s H

Ultimate unit resistance

+ MHP)

5(MHN

x2
5(MVN + Mvp)
y2

I(;:,;;:,J~

or
or

6L MVN

+ (5Mvp -

MVN)X

H 2 (3L - 2x)

6H MHN + (5MHP - MHN)Y


L 2(3H - 2y)

I. L I
AA

Three edges
supported and
one edge free

L
x :s 2

y :s H

HIL;;i~Jn
I

HI~~
L

5( MVN + Mvp)

y2

or
or

2MVN(3L - x)

+ 10 x Myp

H2(3L - 4x)
4(MHN + MHP)(6H - y)
L 2 {3H - 2y)

.I

Cl
G

VJ

.1

~
YI
~ =r

+ MHp)

<"
L
2

5(MHN + MHP)

S(MVN + Mvp)

y2

xs Four edges
supported

S(MHN

y s -

x2

or
or

8(MVN + Mvp)(3L - x)
H 2 (3L

- 4x)

O'

8(MHN + MHp)(3H - y )

Q.

L 2 (3H - 4y)

g
~
.,

0
en
;a"

"'
....
t'i

Table 3.3 Ultimate unit resistance for two-way elements (unsymmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in conjunction with Figs 3.18 to 3.33).

Edge conditions

Yield line locations

Limits

~
O'

Ultimate unit resistance

:;

Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free

EJ
L

0.

:,,;,,,:
{L:;'
,lhln
1.
.1
~

:$

or

(MHNt

or

t~t:3~TI
x

,rfi:tJ!ir
'.L - -=r
1

Y2

L
2

=:;;; -

:$

+ MHr){6H

- Y)

X2 (3H - 2Y)
5(MvN3 + Mvp)

or

or

5(MHNI + MHP)
S(MvNt + Mvp)

Yr
+ MHp)(6H - Y1 - Y2)

(MHNI
2

2X2)

(MHN2

+ M1ip)(6H

- Y)

(L - X) 2 (3H - 2Y)

y2

Y (3L - 2x. - 2X2)

H 2 (3L - 2X1

!!._

+ MHP)

X1
X2
(SMvp - MvN2)(X1 + X2) + 6MvN2L

2
X1

5(MHN3
or

+ Mvp)(6L - X, - X2)

(MVNt

+ MHpi)
2

L
2

Four edges
supported

::I

y :S H

S(MHNI

~ r :~}

fJ1

:S

Same as in Table 3.2

HI0i
l

Three edges
supported and
one edge free

....
&

X (3H - 2Y1 - 2Y2)

(MvN2
(H -

+ Mvp){6L - X 1
Y) 2

X2)

(3L - 2X, - 2X2)

5(MHN2 + MHp)
or
or
or

X2

S(MVN2 + Mvp)
y~

(MHN2
(L -

+ MHP)(6H
X) 2

- Y1 - Y2)

(3H - 2Y1

2Y2)

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

149

Table 3.4 Ultimate support shears for two-way elements (symmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in
conjunction with Table

3.2).

Edge conditions

Yield line locations

Limits Horizontal shear,

Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free

D
I

Three edges
supported and
one edge free

.I

fl ~
k:,,,:~I

HIQ)n
L

fl f1

Four edges
supported

tE:~ 11

y :s H

x :s -

.( y

(2 - ~)
(6 - ~)
3ruX
5

3ruL(2-~)
y :s H

L
x :s 2

HI~y::::r
::::r

3ruL

I-Li

1.

3ruX

x :s L

HJ]f7;;,:,j 3

VsH

2(6 - ~)
3ruX
5

3ruL(l- ~)
2 2(3 - ~)

H
:S -

Vertical shear, Vsv

3ruH(2- ~)

(6 - ~)
3ruy
5

3ruH(l - ~)
(3 - ~)
3ruy
5

3ruH( 1- ~)
2(3 - ~)
3ruy
5

Table 3.5 Ultimate support shears for two-way elements (unsymmetrical yield-lines) (to be used in conjunction with Table 3.3).
Edge
conditions

Yield line locations

limits

Horizontal shear, V,H

Vertical shear, V, v

0.

Same as in Table 3.4

Same as in Table 3.4

L
2
L
x s 2 2
Xi

Hr~~7~]n

S -

y s H

3xiru
5
3x2ru
5
3r.,x(2H - y)
6H - y
3r.,x (L - x)(2H - y)
6H -y

3ruH(2L - Xi 6L - Xi -

X2)

X2

3ruy
5

--

~EJ~n
x

t-'"-1

YI

[f!m::r
H
~_:::I

1.

y2

x, s 2
L
x s 2
2

H
2

y s I

H
Y2 s 2

(')

~
....
0

y s H

.1

t:,2,,::J
1.

x s L

HIL;';,;,J~
~

Four edges
supported

::0
0

1.

Three edges
supported and
one edge free

O'

i-!-i

Two adjacent
edges supported
and two edges
free

3r.,Xi
5
3r.,x2

3ruy(2L - Xi - X2)
6L - x, - X2
3ru(H - y)(2L - Xi - X2)

5
3r.,x (2H - y , - Y2)

6L - Xi - X2

6H - Yi - Y2
3ru(L - x)(2H - Yi - Y2)
6H - y, - Y2

3raYi
5
3ruY2
5