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CHAPTER 4 : RESULTS AND FINDINGS

4.1

Introduction

This chapter consists of the results and findings of the study based on the data collected from
respondents through questionnaires. The results will be generated using SPSS version 20 and are
based on Cronbachs Alpha Analysis, Frequency Analysis, Pearson Correlation Analysis,
Multiple Linear Regression Analysis and One-Way Anova Analysis.
4.2

Cronbachs Alpha Analysis

A pilot test was done by distributing the questionnaires to 20 respondents before the actual
research was conducted. This was to ensure that the questionnaires are reliable and consistent.
The reliability was analyzed using Cronbachs Alpha analysis since it is a common method used
to determine the reliability of the questionnaires. The alpha value range from 0 to 1 and indicates
that the higher the value, the higher the reliability among the variables. According to Hair,
Anderson, Tatham and Black (2010), the questions are considered reliable if the value of
Cronbach Alpha is above 0.70. The result of the reliability analysis for this study is as below.

Table 4.1 : Reliability test for all variables


Variables
Convenience
Price
Social Influence
Website Appearance & Features
Security Concern
Online Shopping

Cronbachs Alpha
0.727
0.771
0.716
0.846
0.846
0.835

Number of Items
6
5
5
5
5
6

Table 4.2: Reliability Statistics for each variable


Table 4.1 shows the results of the reliability test for all the variables in this study. This study has
one dependent variable that is online shopping and five independent variables that are
convenience, social influence, price, website appearance & features and security concern. Based
on table 4.1 the overall result shows the value of 0.900 which indicates that the overall questions
and variables are reliable and consistent.
Table 4.2 shows the results of the reliability test of each variable. The Cronbach Alpha value of
each variables show a value of more than 0.70, therefore is regarded as reliable. Among all the
variables, website appearance & features and security concern shows the highest value of 0.846
whereas social influence shows the lowest value of 0.716.
4.3

Frequency Analysis of Respondents Demographics

This section explains the demographic details of the respondents in this research.

4.3.1

Gender

Gender
Frequency Percent Valid

Male
55
36.7
Valid Female 95
63.3
Total
150
100.0
Table 4.3 : Gender of respondents

Percent
36.7
63.3
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
36.7
100.0

Table 4.3 provides the frequency of the respondents gender in this study. The results shows that
the frequency of female respondents are more compared to the frequency of male respondents,
showing the number of 95 female and 55 male out of the 150 respondents. As in the percentage
wise, 63.3% were female respondents and 36.7% were male respondents.
4.3.2

Age

Age
Frequency Percent Valid

19-32 50
33.3
33-50 50
33.3
Valid
51-65 50
33.3
Total 150
100.0
Table 4.4 : Age of respondents

Percent
33.3
33.3
33.3
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
33.3
66.7
100.0

Table 4.4 above represents the frequency of the respondents age in this study. The age groups
were divided into three groups which are 19 to 32, 33 to 50 and 51 to 65. The purpose of this
segregation of age groups is to distinguish between Gen X (33 to 50), Gen Y (19 to 32) and baby
boomers (51 to 65). The questionnaire was equally distributed to each group in order to obtain
equal frequency from the studies.
4.3.3

Race

Race

Frequency Percent Valid

Malay
32
21.3
Chinese 45
30.0
Valid Indian
62
41.3
Others 11
7.3
Total
150
100.0
Table 4.5 : Race of respondents

Percent
21.3
30.0
41.3
7.3
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
21.3
51.3
92.7
100.0

Table 4.5 illustrates the frequency of the respondents race in this study. The results shows that
21.3% of respondents were Malays, 30% were Chinese, 41.3% were Indians and the remaining
7.3% were other races. In the frequency form, out of the 150 respondents, 32 respondents were
Malays, 45 were Chinese, 62 were Indians and 11 were other races such as Bangladeshi, British
and Ibanas stated by the respondents in the questionnaire.

4.3.4

Marital Status

Marital Status
Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Single 56
37.3
37.3
Valid Married 94
62.7
62.7
Total
150
100.0
100.0
Table 4.6 : Marital Status of respondents

Cumulative
Percent
37.3
100.0

Table 4.6 above provides the frequency of the marital status of the respondents in this study. The
result shows that out of the150 respondents, 56 respondents were single and 94 respondents were
married. As in terms of percentage 37.3% respondents were single and the remaining 62.7%
were married.

4.3.5

Highest education level

Highest Education Level


Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent Cumulative


Percent

Secondary/High
15
10.0
School
26.7
Valid Foundation/Diploma 40
Undergraduate
72
48.0
Postgraduate
23
15.3
Total
150
100.0
Table 4.7 : Highest Education Level of respondents

10.0

10.0

26.7
48.0
15.3
100.0

36.7
84.7
100.0

Table 4.7 represents the frequency of the highest education level of the respondents in this study.
The results shows that highest education of most of the respondents who have participated in this
study were undergraduate studies that is of 48% followed by foundation/diploma that is of
26.7%, postgraduate that is of 15.3% and secondary/ high school that is of 10%.

4.3.6

Nationality

Nationality
Frequency

Malaysian
NonValid

Percent

Valid

Cumulative

143

95.3

Percent
95.3

Percent
95.3

4.7

4.7

100.0

Malaysian
Total
150
100.0
Table 4.8: Nationality of respondents

100.0

Table 4.8 provides the frequency of nationality of the respondents in this study. The results
95.3% of the respondents were Malaysians and 4.7% of the respondents were Non-Malaysian. As
in terms of the figures, out of the 150 respondents, 143 respondents were Malaysians while 7
respondents were Non-Malaysians.

4.3.7

Monthly Income

Monthly Income
Frequency

Percent

<=RM 2000
25
16.7
RM 2001-RM 4000 44
29.3
RM4001-RM6000 57
38.0
Valid
RM6001-RM8000 19
12.7
>RM8000
5
3.3
Total
150
100.0
Table 4.9 : Monthly Income of respondents

Valid

Cumulative

Percent
16.7
29.3
38.0
12.7
3.3
100.0

Percent
16.7
46.0
84.0
96.7
100.0

Table 4.9 above shows the frequency of monthly income of the respondents in this study. The
results shows that out of the 150 respondents, 38% have monthly income between RM4001 and
RM6000, followed by 29.3% having between RM 2001 and RM 4000, 16.7% having less than
RM 2000, 12.7% having RM 6001 and RM 8000 and 3.3% having more than RM 8000 of

monthly income. This detail is important as it reflects on the online buying power of the
respondents.

4.4

Frequency Analysis of Online Shopping Attributes of Respondents

This section details out the respondents extent of involvement in online shopping and use of
online shopping.
4.4.1

Frequency of Online Shopping in a month

Frequency
Frequency Percent

Valid

Percent
1-2 times 117
78.0
78.0
3-5 times 22
14.7
14.7
Valid 6-10 times 8
5.3
5.3
> 10 times 3
2.0
2.0
Total
150
100.0
100.0
Table 4.10 : Frequency of Online Shopping in a Month

Cumulative
Percent
78.0
92.7
98.0
100.0

Table 4.10 provides the respondents frequency of online shopping in a month. This detail is
crucial as it examines the respondents online buying behavior in terms of how often they shop
online. Based on the results, it shows that majority of the respondents shop online between 1 to 2
times in a month showing a percentage of 78% out of the 150 respondents. Followed by 14.7%
respondents shop between 3 to 5 times, 5.3% shop 6 to 10 times and the remaining 2% shop
more than 10 times in a month

4.4.2

Time spent online when purchasing a product or services

Time Spent
Frequency

Percent

Valid

Cumulative

Percent
Percent
<= 5 minutes
11
7.3
7.3
7.3
6-15 minutes
23
15.3
15.3
22.7
16-30 minutes 36
24.0
24.0
46.7
Valid
31-45 minutes 36
24.0
24.0
70.7
>45 minutes
44
29.3
29.3
100.0
Total
150
100.0
100.0
Table 4.11 : Time Spent Online when Purchasing a Product or Services

Table 4.11 indicates the frequency of the time spent online by respondents when purchasing a
product or services. The results shows that 29.3% out of the 150 respondents spend more than 45
minutes followed by 24% spends 16 to 30 minutes and 31 to 45 minutes respectively, 15.3%
spends 6 to 15 minutes and 7.3% spends 5 minutes and less when purchasing a product or
services online.

4.4.3

Online expenditure in a month

Online Expenditure

Frequency

Percent

Valid

Percent
<=RM50
29
19.3
19.3
RM51-RM100
44
29.3
29.3
RM101-RM200 35
23.3
23.3
Valid
RM201-RM300 22
14.7
14.7
>RM300
20
13.3
13.3
Total
150
100.0
100.0
Table 4.12 : Online Expenditure in a month

Cumulative
Percent
19.3
48.7
72.0
86.7
100.0

Table 4.12 provides the frequency of the respondents online expenditure in a month. The results
illustrates that 29.3% of respondents spend between RM 51 to RM100 in a month for online
shopping, followed by 23.3% spends between RM 101 to RM 200, 19.3% spends RM 50 or less,
14.7% spends between RM 201 to RM 300 and 13.3% spends more than RM 300 a month for
online shopping.

4.4.4

Payment Method used for Online Transaction

Payment Method Frequencies

payment
methoda

Responses
N
Percent
Credit Card
108
49.3%
Debit Card
24
11.0%
Online Transfer 47
21.5%
Virtual Payment 9
4.1%
Cash Transfer
30
13.7%

Percent of Cases
72.0%
16.0%
31.3%
6.0%
20.0%

Others
1
0.5%
0.7%
Total
219
100.0%
146.0%
a. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.
Table 4.13 : Payment Method used for Online Transactions

Table 4.13 illustrates the frequency of the payment method used by respondents for online
transactions. This question was a multiple choice question whereby respondents are allowed to
tick more than one choice of the payment method.
The results indicates that credit card is the most used payment method by the respondents in this
study showing a percentage of 72%, followed by online transfer that is 31.3%, cash transfer that
is 20%, debit cards that is 16%, virtual payment such as PayPal that is 6% and other payment
method which is 0.7% which was not indicated by the respondents in the questionnaire.
4.4.5

Preference of products or services in online shopping

Preference Frequencies
Responses
N
Percent

Prefer Buying
Onlinea

Apparels
Electronic goods /Software
Books/Magazines/Online News
Cinematickets/Online
movies/Concerts
Online Banking/Financial services
Airplane/Train/Bus tickets
Fast Food/Groceries
Others

Percent of

54
19
17

16.1%
5.7%
5.1%

Cases
36.0%
12.7%
11.3%

45

13.4%

30.0%

72
114
9
6
336

21.4%
33.9%
2.7%
1.8%
100.0%

48.0%
76.0%
6.0%
4.0%
224.0%

Total
a. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.
Table 4.14 : Preference of Products or Services in Online Shopping

Table 4.14 shows the frequency of the preference of products or services in online shopping. This
was also a multiple choice question whereby respondents may choose more than one option for
the products or services which they prefer buying in online shopping. The results shows that
airplane, train or bus tickets are the category of products which is mostly bought online by
respondents indicating a percentage of 76%. The second highest category is online banking or
financial services showing 48%. Followed by apparels which is 36%, cinema tickets, online
movies or concerts showing 30%, electronic goods or software which is 12.7%, books,
magazines or online news which is 11.3%, fast food or groceries which is at 6% and others
which is 4%. The other product categories as indicated by respondents are children toys and
online games.

4.5

Pearson Correlation Analysis

Model

Online
Shopping

Convenience

Pearson

.574**

Price

.442**

Social

Website

Influence

Appearance

.384**

Features
.415**

.632**

.000
150

.000
150

Correlation
Sig.(2- tailed) .000
.000
.000
N
150
150
150
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Security
& Concern

Table 4.15 : Pearson Correlation Analysis

Pearson Correlations Analysis was used to examine the relationship between the independent
variables and the dependent variables of the research by measuring the strength of the
relationship by looking at the correlation level and the significance level (Saunders, Lewis and
Thornhill, 2007). Table 4.15 illustrates that the independent variable convenience, social
influence, price, website appearance and features and security shows a significant positive
relationship with the dependent variable which is online shopping.

4.5.1

Correlation between convenience and online shopping among consumers of different

age groups
The convenience factor consists of six questions. The questions under the convenience factor
comprised of questions such as whether online shopping saves time, offers 24 hours access,
provides the comfort of home, convenient payment method, on time delivery and the preference
between traditional shopping and online shopping. The questions were designed to obtain
responses of the extent the respondents feel convenient in terms of online shopping.
Based on Table 4.15, it indicates that the correlation value (r) for the convenience variable is
0.574 at the significant level of 0.000. This shows that there is a significant strong positive
relationship between convenience and online shopping.
Therefore, the hypothesis of convenience having a significant relationship with online shopping
among consumers of different age group is accepted. This is also in supports of the research done
by Jarvenpaa and Todd (1997) and Burke (1998) that convenience is common driving factor for
consumers to shop online.
4.5.2

Correlations between price and online shopping among consumers of different age

groups
The price factor consists of five questions. The questions under the price factor deals with
questions such as whether the pricing of online shopping is relatively low, enables to look for the
best price before purchasing, enables to get best deals, enables to get price information quickly
and accurately and enable to make comparisons of price.

Based on the results on Table 4.15, the correlation value (r) for the price is 0.442 at the
significant level of 0.000. This shows that there is a significant weak positive relationship
between price and online shopping. Although the relationship is significant, however it is weak.
This indicates that price is not an attractive factor in influencing online shoppers of different age
cohorts in this research.
In this case, the hypothesis of price having a significant relationship with online shopping among
consumers of different age group is accepted. This is consistent with the findings of Gordon and
Bhowan (2005) that price is factor that influence customers of different age group to shop online.
4.5.3

Correlations between social influence and online shopping among consumers of

different age groups


The social influence factor comprised of five questions. The questionnaires under social
influence factor covers whether peers, family members, media, companies efforts and
government influences online shopping.
Table 4.15 provides that the correlation value (r) for the social influence variable is 0.384 at the
significant level of 0.000. This shows that there is a significant weak positive relationship
between social influence and online shopping. There still exists a significant relationship
however it is weak.
Therefore the results indicate that social influence is not an attractive factor influencing online
shoppers of different age cohorts in Klang Valley.

As such, with the support of research done by Hsu and Lu (2004); Venkatesh and Davis (2000),
the hypothesis of social influence having a significant relationship with online shopping among
consumers of different age group is accepted.
4.5.4

Correlations between website appearance & features and online shopping among

consumers of different age groups


The website appearance & features comprised of five questions. The questions under the website
appearance & features factors deals with issues such as ease of navigation, website layout,
website familiarity, quality of information on website and waiting time.
Table 4.15 provides that the correlation value (r) for the website appearance & features is 0.415
at the significant level of 0.000. This shows that there is a significant weak positive relationship
between website appearance & features and online shopping.
Therefore the results points out that website appearance & features is not an attractive factor
influencing online shoppers of different age cohorts in Klang Valley.
As such, with the support of the research done by Yoruk et al 2011; Kin and Lee 2002, the
hypothesis of website appearance & features having a significant relationship with online
shopping among consumers of different age group is accepted.
4.5.5

Correlations between security concern and online shopping among consumers of

different age groups


The security concern factor consists of five questions. The questions under the security concern
factor asked whether online shopping is safe, adequate security features, personal information is
secured, online payment method is safe and whether the website is trustworthy.

Based on the results on Table 4.15, the correlation value (r) for the security concern is 0.632 at
the significant level of 0.000. This shows that there is a significant strong positive relationship
between security concern and online shopping.
Besides that, among all the other independent variables, security concern is the strongest factor
that has relationship with online shopping. Based on this it can be concluded that the security
concern factor is the most attractive factor influencing online shoppers of different age cohorts in
Klang Valley.
As such, This is in support with Jarvenpaa et al 1999 that online shopping can attract many
customers given the security features are stale and consistent, therefore the hypothesis of security
concern having a significant relationship with online shopping among consumers of different age
group is accepted.
4.6

Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

4.6.1

Model Summary

Model Summary
Model R
R Square Adjusted

R Std. Error of

Square
the Estimate
1
.794
.631
.618
.23380
a. Predictors: (Constant), Security, Price, Social Influence,
a

Website, Convenience
Table 4.16 : Model Summary

Table 4.16 illustrates the model summary for this research. The R square is used to indicate the
strength of relationship between the five independent variables and the dependent variables of
this research (Saunders et. al., 2007). The regression of R square indicates that 63.1% of the
variation in the dependent variable can be explained by the five independent variables.
However, the reason underlying the remaining R square is unforeseen. The difference in the
results could be due to the scope of respondent.
4.6.2

ANOVAa

ANOVAa
Model

Sum

of df

Mean

Sig.

Squares
Square
Regression 13.444
5
2.689
49.188 .000b
1
Residual
7.871
144
.055
Total
21.315
149
a. Dependent Variable: Online Shopping
b. Predictors: (Constant), Security, Price, Social Influence, Website,
Convenience
Table 4.17 :ANOVA of this study

Table 4.17 illustrates the ANOVA for this research. The results shows the F-test value is 49.188
and a significant level of 0.000. This shows that there is a significant relationship between the
dependent variable and independent variables. Therefore, the hypotheses generated are accepted.
4.6.3

Coefficients

Coefficientsa
Model

Unstandardized

Standardized t

Coefficients

Coefficients

Sig.

(Constant)
Convenience
Price
Social

B
.707
.169
.182

Std. Error
.213
.048
.044

Beta

.091

.033

.213
.226

3.315
3.498
4.111

.001
.001
.000

.151

2.791

.006

3.446
7.377

.001
.000

Influence
Website
.117
.034
.187
Security
.260
.035
.432
a. Dependent Variable: Online Shopping
Table 4.18
Coefficient of Multiple Linear Regressions

Table 4.18 provides the results of Coefficient of Multiple Linear Regressions. The results
illustrates that the beta value under standardized coefficient are positive for all the variables.
Therefore, this indicates that the independent variables are positively coefficient to the dependent
variable. Besides that, all the independent variable also shows a significant relationship towards
the dependent variable. The details of each variable as shown on the coefficient table are
discussed as below.
Based on the table 4.18, convenience shows the t-statistic of 3.498 with significant level of 0.001
and Beta value of 0.213. This shows that there is a positive significant relationship between
convenience and online shopping. Therefore this proves that online shopping is influenced by
convenience by 21.3%. It can be predicted, for every unit increase in convenience will result in
increase in online shopping by 0.213 units. This can relate to the research done by Jarvenpaa and
Todd (1997) and Burke (1998) which states that convenience is a factor influencing online
shopping.
Table 4.18 provides that price indicates the t-statistic of 4.111 with significant level of 0.000 and
Beta value of 0.226. This shows that there is a positive significant relationship between price and
online shopping. Therefore this proves that online shopping is influenced by price by 22.6%. It

can be predicted, for every unit increase in price will result in increase in online shopping by
0.226 units. Therefore, this is supported by the literature review by Gordon and Bhowan (2005)
on price being a factor towards online shopping.
As shown in the table 4.18, social influence shows the t-statistics of 2.791 with significant level
of 0.006 and Beta value of 0.151. This shows that there is a positive significant relationship
between social influence and online shopping. Therefore this proves that online shopping is
influenced by social influence by 15.1%. It can be predicted, for every unit increase in social
influence will result in increase in online shopping by 0.151 units. This is results is consistent
with the findings of Engel et al 2001 that social influence plays important role influencing online
purchase behavior.
Based on Table 4.18, website appearance & features shows a t-statistics of 3.446 with significant
level of 0.001 and Beta value of 0.187. This shows that there is a positive significant relationship
between website appearance & features and online shopping. Therefore, this proves that online
shopping is influenced by website appearance & features by 18.7%. It can be predicted, for every
unit increase in website appearance & features will result in increase in online shopping by 0.187
units. This is in line with the research conducted by Yoruk et al (2011); Kin and Lee (2002) that
website appearance and features does influence online shopping.
Table 4.18 provides that security concern indicates the t-statistics of 7.377 with significant level
of 0.000 and Beta value of 0.432. This shows that there is a positive significant relationship
between security concern and online shopping. Therefore, this proves that online shopping is
influenced by security concern by 43.2%. It can be predicted, for every unit increase in security
concern will result in increase in online shopping by 0.432 units. In addition, based on the

figures, it can be seen that among all the other independent variable security concern is the
strongest factor that has relationship with online shopping. This is in support with Jarvenpaa et al
(1999) that security features is an important factor that attracts consumers to shop online.

4.7

One-Way Anova Analysis


ANOVA

Convenience

Price

Sumof

df

Mean

Sig.

Between Groups

squares
2.108

Square
1.054

4.856

.009

Within Groups

31.929

147

Total
Between Groups

34.037
1.973

149
2

.987

4.693

.011

Within Groups

30.902

147

.210

Total

32.876

149

.217

Social

Between Groups

2.586

Influence

Within Groups

55.787

147

.380

Website

Total
Between Groups

58.373
2.642

149
2

1.321

Appearance

Within Groups

52.372

147

.356

& Features
Security

Total
Between Groups

55.014
9.825

149
2

4.912

Concern

Within Groups

48.970

147

.333

Total

1.293

3.407

.036

3.707

.027

14.74

.000

58.795
149
Table 4.19 One-Way Anova for this study

Descriptives
N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Minimu

Maximu

Convenienc

19-32

50

3.9067

.49620

2.67

5.00

33-50

50

3.7000

.53026

1.33

4.67

51-65

50

3.6267

.35245

3.00

4.67

Total
19-32

150
50

3.7444
3.9280

.47795
.60035

1.33
2.60

5.00
5.00

33-50

50

4.2080

.34514

3.60

5.00

51-65

50

4.0480

.38874

3.20

5.00

Total

150

4.0613

.46973

2.60

5.00

Price

Social

19-32

50

3.3040

.73205

1.60

5.00

Influence

33-50

50

3.2840

.62216

1.00

4.40

51-65

50

3.5720

.46425

1.80

4.40

Website

Total
19-32

150
50

3.3867
3.6920

.62591
.55433

1.00
2.80

5.00
5.00

Appearance

33-50

50

3.9360

.67181

2.00

5.00

& Features

51-65

50

4.0000

.55696

2.80

5.00

Security

Total
19-32

150
50

3.8760
3.8160

.60763
.72150

2.00
2.20

5.00
5.00

Concern

33-50

50

3.7800

.51942

2.00

4.80

51-65

50

3.2560

.45721

2.00

4.00

Total
150
3.6173
.62817
2.00
5.00
Table 4.20 : Descriptive Statistics of One-Way Anova Analysis
One-way ANOVA was used to utilize to examine the relationship between factors influencing
online shopping among different age group. Based on Table 4.19, there is a significant between
convenience, price, social influence, website and security among different age group whereby the
P < 0.05 (Convenience = 0.009, Price = 0.011, Social Influence = 0.036, Website 0.027 and
Security = 0.000). To explain these further the mean plot for each factors of different age group
used below accordingly.
Based on the mean plots, the average response of each questions can be distinguish between the
3 age group accordingly. Although, there is a significant result for each factor, the average
response of each age group can be seen clearly in order to understand the pattern of online
shopping among Gen Y, Gen X and Baby Boomers.

Figure 4.1 : Mean Plot of Convenience Factor

Figure 4.1 illustrates the mean plot of convenience factor. In terms of convenience, both Gen X
and Gen Y recorded higher average of 3.7000 and 3.9067 followed by Baby Boomers 3.6267.
This can be concluded that all the 3 age group perceive convenience as an influencing factor in
online shopping decision since the overall mean 3.7444.

Figure 4.2 : Mean Plot of Price Factor

Figure 4.2 illustrates the mean plot of price factor. As for Price, this has recorded an above
average mean 4.0613 for all the 3 age group. Gen X and Baby Boomers have respectively agreed
that price is an influencing factor whereby the mean score for both the group shows 4.2080 (Gen
X) and 4.0480 (Baby Boomers). As for Gen Y, the mean score is strongly above average of
3.9280, this shows that although price is a convenient factor the mean rate is still slightly lower
compared to Gen X and Baby Boomers.

Figure 4.3 : Mean Plot of Social Influence Factor

Figure 4.3 provides the mean plot of social influence factor. Social influence factor have
recorded the lowest total mean of 3.4267 as compared to all the 5 factors. Although there is
significant in the earlier test, it can be seen the P value is 0.036 which near to 0.05. Among the 3
age group, Gen X have scored the lowest figure of 3.2840 as compared 3.3040 (Gen Y) and
3.5720 (Baby Boomer).

Figure 4.4 : Mean Plot of Website Appearance & Features Factor

Figure 4.4 provides the mean plot of website appearance & features factor. In terms of website
appearance & features, these factors have recorded the second highest mean as compared to all
the other factors. Baby Boomers have scored the highest mean of 4.000 and this followed by
3.936 (Gen X) and Gen Y (3.6920).

Figure 4.5 : Mean Plot of Security Concern Factor


Figure 4.5 provides the mean plot of security concern factor. As for security concern factor, the
average score for Gen Y is the highest (3.8160) whereby this followed by Gen X (3.7800) and
Baby Boomers (3.2560). The overall mean for security concern factor is 3.6173.

4.7.1

Analysis of One Way ANOVA results based on literature review

Based on the overall results using One-Way Anova, price is considered as the most influencing
factor among all the respondents. Between the 3 age group, Gen X have considered price as the
most influencing factor followed by Baby Boomers and Gen Y. The reason for Gen X to consider
price as an influencing factor is could be due to their exposure to online activity and ability to
compare price between both online and conventional shopping to obtain the best deals. Such
pattern can also be seen among baby boomers and both these age group feels price is the most

influencing factor.This is in support with the studies conducted by Mansori et al (2012) whereby
the middle age and older generation also compares the benefit of online shopping to conventional
shopping. As for Gen Y, the reason for recording slightly lower score could be due to less
sensitivity towards price. As younger generation tend to evaluate more in terms of the overall
cost and benefit analysis, they would tend to consider price as less likely factor in influencing
online shopping as compared to convenience. Based on the above results, Gen Y has the highest
mean score among the 3 age group. This could be due to Gen Y being more observant in terms of
the overall benefits of online shopping. For instance, an online shopper from Gen Y would
justify that the convenience of buying a product online at a slightly higher price may actually
save them from all hidden cost such as transportation and travelling cost which is not transparent
when buying the same product in conventional shopping. Based on the studies conducted by
Parment (2013) the above perception towards online shopping in terms of convenience by Gen Y
can be justified whereby the benefit of online shopping is not just viewed only in terms of price
but also other aspects such as convenience and security towards online shopping.

In terms of website appearance & features, the Baby Boomers consider this factor as the most
influencing as compared Gen X and Y. By scoring higher mean, this shows that the perception of
Baby Boomers towards website user friendliness, ease of navigation, familiarity, detail
comparison and waiting time being a crucial element in online shopping. This factor is also
seems important to Gen X as they scored slightly lesser mean. However, in terms of Gen Y the
mean score is lower as compared to the other age. This could be that Gen Y feels that basic
website appearance and features is sufficient in purchasing product online. Various studies can
relate to this finding, for instance in terms of Baby Boomers and Gen X scoring the highest mean

plot, this can be justified on their continuous learning and observation in terms of the usage
website and its features. As stated by Mansori et al (2012) this confirms that older generation
continue to perform online activity by understanding the benefits involved in it. As for the Gen Y,
by scoring the lower mean plot can justified on the level of familiarization of the website usage
through education and work exposure (Mansori et al, 2012). Being exposed to the benefits and
pattern of online through education and work can lead to their decision to consider website
appearance and features to be less significant factor towards online shopping .
Although website appearance and featruesseems less influencing to Gen Y, the emphasis in
terms of security concern level is higher in terms of the mean score generated. Based on the
results, Gen Y have scored the highest mean of 3.816 in terms of security concern factor as
compared to 3.78 (Gen X) and 3.256 (Baby Boomers). The younger generations are more
concern in terms of online security level as compared to Gen X and Baby Boomers. Again this
could be due to their awareness through education and work exposure in terms of online hacking,
fraud and etc which is prevalent in cyber world. As such this can be justified that younger
generation understand the usefulness and ensures factors such as security is in place for online
transaction (Parment, 2013).
Finally in terms of social influence, although the overall mean score of the 3 different age group
is lower compared to the other factors, Baby Boomers seems to have rated higher as compared to
other age group. This could be due to the influence of the younger generation such as their
children or younger siblings and even peers to encourage them to shop online. Besides, the
influence of media, companies and government also plays an important part in encouraging Baby
Boomers to shop online. For instance, in terms of the online buying behavior, we can see that
online purchase of airline tickets is the highest among all and online shoppers in baby boomers

category are among the frequent purchases that travel online. Therefore, this can also be justified
against literature whereby social influence has more positive effect toward older generation in
online shopping (Comber et al, 1997)
4.8

Chapter Summary

This chapter has outlined the results and findings of the research based on Cronbachs Alpha
Analysis, Frequency Analysis, Pearson Correlation Analysis, Multiple Linear Regression
Analysis, One-Way Anova Analysis. The overall results show that there is a positive relationship
between the dependent variable and independent variables in this research.

CHAPTER 5 :CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1

Introduction

This chapter will provide the overall findings and conclusions of this study. Besides, the
contribution of this study will also be stated as well as the limitations and recommendations for
future study.

5.2

Overall Findings and Conclusions

The objective of this research is to examine the factors influencing online shopping among
consumers of different age groups in Klang Valley.

The factors that were identified are

convenience, price, social influence, website appearance & features and security concern.
Based on the analysis using multiple tests, this shows that there is a significant relationship
between the independent variables and dependent variable. Table 5.1 concludes the hypotheses
of this study. The hypotheses were concluded from Pearson Correlation Analysis, Multiple
Linear Regression Analysis and One-Way Anova. Therefore based on the overall findings this
can be concluded that there is a relationship between the factors influencing online shopping
among different age groups Klang Valley. At the same time, the research also identifies the
reaction and behavior among different age group towards online shopping. This basically
provides a clearer perspective of each factor influencing the decision of online shopping among
different age group.

Hypotheses
Accepted/ Rejected
H1 1 : There is a significant relationship between Accepted
convenience and online shopping among consumers of
different age groups in Klang Valley.
H12 : There is a significant relationship between social Accepted
influences and online shopping among consumers of
different age groups in Klang Valley.
H13 : There is a significant relationship between price and Accepted
online shopping among consumers of different age groups
in Klang Valley.
H14 : There is a significant relationship between website Accepted
appearance & features and online shopping among
consumers of different age groups in Klang Valley.
H15 : There is a significant relationship between security Accepted
concern and online shopping among consumers of
different age groups in Klang Valley.

Table 5.1 : Hypotheses Conclusion of this research

5.3

Contribution of Study

The findings of this study contributes to the existing knowledge of marketing by identifying the
factors that influence online shopping among consumers of different age groups. Therefore this
study provides a better understanding on the area of online shopping and its influencing factors
which leads to the online purchase decision by consumers.
The understanding of consumers online shopping determinants also assist business to penetrate
into the online retail and capture the market share. The results of this study will enable business
to segment and target their consumers of different age groups and develop marketing strategies
to fit the needs of different age groups. The understanding of the factors influencing online
shopping and the perception of the factors among different age groups can assist online retailers
and marketers to target their marketing activities accordingly to the needs of different age groups
and develop appropriate strategies to convert potential consumers into actual buyers.
Furthermore, this study would also help business in the planning and designing of their websites
when trying to advertise for certain age groups. By identifying the factors influencing online
shopping that appeals to different age groups, this would serve as a guideline for business to
cater their online advertising message in their websites.
This study is also beneficial to future study and future researchers who wish to conduct a
research on the same area. This can serve as a guide and provide an insight into the online
shopping field. Besides, the limitations and suggestions in this study will also be beneficial to the
future researchers as they can improve and avoid the mistakes in the current study.

5.4

Limitations of Study and Recommendations for Future Study

There were several limitations and constraints in this research that needs to be noted for future
study. Firstly, there was limited time frame given to complete this research study. As such due to
the time constraint, the sample size used was limited. The sample size used in this study was only
150. This sample size is not sufficient to gain a reliable and accurate outcome. As such, the
suggestion for future research is that to use a larger sample size in order to get a more significant
and reliable results.
Secondly, as in terms of the sampling method, simple random sampling method was used due to
the time constraint. The future study could use a better form of sampling method to obtain a
more reliable and accurate results. In addition, data collection method was also limited as the
questionnaires only consisted of closed- ended questions as in multiple choices and likert-scale
questions. Therefore, suggestions are provided that future studies to explore into open-ended
questions and more extensive responses from the respondents to gain a better insight of the study
in order to obtain a better understanding of online shopping in Malaysia.
Another limitation of this study is that the data collected for this study is only based in Klang
Valley. Therefore, the results were not able to generalize to online shopping in Malaysia. As
such, more extensive study should be done in future research which incorporates wider
geographical area and which consists of other states in Malaysia.
Besides that, only five factors that influence online shopping was examined in this study, which
are convenience, social influence, price, website appearance & features and security concern.
Suggestion for future research is to explore into more in-depth factors and determinants that

influence consumers to shop online. This could provide better understanding of other factors that
significantly impact on consumers online shopping.
Another limitation in this study is that it was challenging to obtain sample age group between the
age group 51-65 (Baby Bomers) online shoppers. The reason being is that, this age group is not
active online shoppers and is still hesitant to shop online due to several reasons. Therefore,
extensive future study should be conducted on specifically this age group to gain a better
understanding of the issues that they face and to address to those issues.

5.5

Chapter Summary

This chapter highlighted the overall conclusion based on the findings of the study. Contributions
of this study were also identified as well as limitations of study and recommendations for future
study. The recommendations for future study were given in reference to the constraints in this
study.