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5th JUBILEE BALKAN MINING CONGRESS

BALKANMINE 2013
Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia

PROCEEDINGS

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5th JUBILEE

BALKAN MINING CONGRESS

PROCEEDINGS

18th-21st September 2013


Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia

5th BALKAN MINING CONGRESS

Macedonia, Ohrid, 2013

INTERNATIONAL BALKANMINE CONGRESS COORDINATION COMMITTEE


Msc. Sasho JOVCHEVSKI - Macedonia
Msc. Marjan HUDEJ - Slovenia
Prof. Dr. Slobodan VUJI - Serbia
Dr. Doru CIOCLEA - Romania
Dr. Miodrag GOMILANOVI - Montenegro
Grad. Eng. Emmanouel FROGOUDAKIS - Greece
Dr. Tzolo VOUTOV - Bulgaria
Grad. Eng. Tomo BENOVI - Bosnia and Herzegovina
Prof. Dr. Jani BAKALLBASHI - Albania
Prof. Dr. Tevfik GYAGLER - Turkey
BALKANMINE HONORARY COMMITTEE
Dejan BOSHKOVSKI, President
Jasna IVANOVA-DAVIDOVIC, Vice President
Zoran PANOV
Sonja LEPITKOVA
BALKANMINE CONGRESS ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Sasho JOVCHEVSKI - AD ELEM
Blagoj GJORGIEVSKI - AD ELEM
Ljupcho TRAJKOVSKI - ZRGIM
Pece MURTANOVSKI - AD ELEM
Trifun MILEVSKI - AD ELEM
Maja JOVANOVA - AD ELEM
Zivko KALEVSKI - AD ELEM
Blagoja MITREVSKI - AD ELEM
Stefan CHETELEV - AD ELEM
Nikolajcho NIKOLOV - Bucim Radovish
Zlatko ILIJOVSKI - GIM
Ljubisha KOSTADINOV - GEING
Andrej KEPESKI-USJE
Goran POPOVSKI - Mermeren kombinat PP
Dragan DIMITROVSKI - Ministry of economy
Kosta JOVANOV - Ministry of economy
Gjorgi SOTIROVSKI - Inspektorat
Radmila KARANAKOVA-STEFANOVSKA - UGD Shtip
Nikolina DONEVA - UGD Shtip
Zoran KOSTOVSKI - Marmo Bjanko PP
Mile STEFANOVSKI - Banjani
Goran STOJKOVSKI - Larin Mramor PP
Lazar PONEV - Masinokop-Kavadarci
Borce GOCEVSKI - Rudnik Sasa
Biljana CRVENKOVSKA-JOVANOSKA - Zletovo i Toranica
Gorgi DIMOV - UGD Shtip

O R G A N I Z A T I O N

BALKANMINE CONGRESS SCIENTIFIC REVIEWERS


Prof. Dr. Zoran PANOV
Prof. Dr. Zoran DESPODOV
Prof. Dr. Risto DAMBOV
Prof. Dr. Dejan MIRAKOVSKI
Prof. Dr. Boris KRSTEV
Prof. Dr. Blagoj GOLOMEOV
Prof. Dr. Mirjana GOLOMEOVA
Prof. Dr. Todor DELIPETROV
Prof. Dr. Milorad JOVANOVSKI
Doc. Dr. Nikolinka DONEVA
Doc. Dr. Goran TASEV
Doc. Dr. Milan MEDVED, Slovenia
Prof. Dr. Milivoj VULIC, Slovenia
Prof. Dr. Jakob LIKAR, Slovenia
Prof. Dr. Vladimir PAVLOVIC, Serbia
Prof. Dr. Vojin COKORILO, Serbia
Prof. Dr. Slobodan TRAJKOVIC, Serbia
Dr. Doru CIOCLEA, Romania
Dr. Miodrag GOMILANOVIC, Montenegro
Eng. Emmanouel FROGOUDAKIS, Greece
Dr. Tzolo VOUTOV, Bulgaria
Dr. Kremena DEDELYANOVA, Bulgaria
Grad. Eng. Tomo BENOVIC, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Prof. Dr. Jani BAKALLBASHI, Albania
Prof. Dr. Tevfik GOYAGLILER, Turkey
Grad. Eng. Mehmet TORUN, Turkey

www.balkanmine.mk
contact@balkanmine.mk
The authors names, surnames,
their titles and affiliations are written
as given by the authors.
Authors have all rights and responsibilities
for the published papers.
No part of this book may be reproduced,
copied, adjusted or changed in any form
or by any means without the permission
by the authors or the publisher.
Photos on the title-page:
Track-type loader excavator at work
- Dmitry Kalinovsky
Miner in a pit
- NTRES Reuters Srdjan Zivulovic

ISBN 978-608-65530-2-9

Preface

Dear Colleagues,
It is my pleasure to wish you a warm welcome in Ohrid, the host city of the fifth Balkan Congress of mining BALKANMINE 2013. It is a privilege that Republic of Macedonia was chosen to be the organizer of the first anniversary
of this eminent scientific event.
Regarding this year's congress, over 300 participants, experts in the field of mining from 14 countries will present
130 scientific papers representing the perspectives of mining in the wider region, and the application of the latest
technologies in the economic activity of crucial importance for the future of energy in the Balkans.
Welcome to Ohrid, I wish you a pleasant stay and a successful business.

Good Luck!

President of the BALKANMINE


Honorary Committee

Preface

Dear Colleagues,
During the past two years we worked with great pride and enthusiasm on the organization of the Fifth Balkan Congress of Mining in order to leave a mark in the history of the Balkan Mining.
We tried to include experts from the mining industry to elaborate 130 papers received from 14 countries and to
make the Fifth richest Jubilee Congress in terms of incoming papers.
At the same time, a lot of companies which are included in the area of mining in Macedonia and abroad decided to
present their products and services at the exhibition which is organized along with the Congress.
Macedonian pearl, Ohrid, is a place which could provide ideal conditions for working on the Congress and to welcome all the participants with its beautiful natural environment.
We are grateful to all board members, all participants and all companies which contributed to organizing of this
Congress and leaving a mark in ten years work of Balkan Committee and BALKANMINE.
We wish a lot of happiness, health and success to all participants and others involved in the operation of the mining
industry in our country and in the world.

Good Luck!

M.Sc. Sasho JOVCHEVSKI


Chairman of the International BALKANMINE
Congress Coordination Committee

MINE SURVEY ........................................................................................................................ 27


MINING AND SAFETY ............................................................................................................ 171
EXPLOITATION .................................................................................................................... 204
GEOPHYSICS IN MINING ..................................................................................................... 258
COMPUTER INTEGRATED SYSTEMS ........................................................................................ 290
ROCK MECHANICS, MASSIF CONTROL AND SLOPE STABILITY .................................................... 318
BALKAN MINERAL INDUSTRY................................................................................................. 415
SYSTEM ENGINEERING ......................................................................................................... 431
MANAGEMENT AND MINING ECONOMICS ................................................................................ 438
MINERAL PROCESSING ......................................................................................................... 521
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ............................................................................................ 572
RESTRUCTURING AND REENGINEERING .................................................................................. 659
LEGISLATION, NORMS AND EDUCATION ................................................................................. 672
EXPLOITATION OF SOLID MINERAL RESOURCES ...................................................................... 685
MINERAL RESOURCES AND MINE GEOLOGY ............................................................................ 740
HISTORY AND MINE EDUCATION ............................................................................................ 794

Slobodan VUJI, Marjan HUDEJ, Igor MILJANOVI


MULTI-VARIABLE ASSESSMENT OF RISK IN SELECTION OF LOCATION
AND THE WAY OF OPEN PIT MINES OPENING.................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Dr. Milan MEDVED, mag. Ludvik GOLOB
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF VELENJE MINING METHOD AND ITS GLOBAL USE ................................................................................................................... 7
Prof. Dr. Tzolo VOUTOV, Prof. Dr. Petar DASKALOV
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF BULGARIAN MINING INDUSTRY ............................................................................................................................................... 19

MINE SURVEY..................................................................................................................... 27
Aleksandar ERISILO, Nenad RADOSAVLJEVI, Marko PAVLOVI
EXAMINATION OF EXPLOSIVE AND FLAMMABLE PROPERTIES
OF COAL FROM THE IVOJNO DEPOSIT, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA......................................................................................................................................... 28
Milan PETROV, Ljubia ANDRI, ivko SEKULI, Zoran BARTULOVI,
Vladimir JOVANOVI, Branislav IVOEVI, Slavica MIHAJLOVI
ENERGY CONVERSION OF MINERAL MATERIALS EXPOSED MECHANICAL ACTIVATION ............................................................................................................. 32
Dimitar ANASTASOV , Atanas MARINSKI, Kiril KUTSAROV
MAIN DEPENDENCIES BETWEEN PILLARS PARAMETERS
WHEN MINING OF RESERVES FROM METASOMATIC DEPOSITS IN LUCKY INVEST jsC ................................................................................................................. 38
Doru CIOCLEA, Ion TOTH, Ion GHERGHE, Cristian TOMESCU, Vlad Mihai PSCULESCU
ANALYSIS OF AN UNDERGROUND EXPLOSION EFFECTS UPON THE VENTILATION NETWORKS ............................................................................................... 44
Metin OZDOGAN
DRAG ENERGY CONSUMPTION PERCENTAGE (DECP) CONCEPT
AS A TOOL FOR COMPARISON OF DIGGING DIFFICULTY (DD) AT DRAGLINE STRIPPING PANELS .............................................................................................. 51
Miodrag ARSI, Sran BONJAK, Vencislav GRABULOV, Meri BURZI, Zoran SAVI
RELIABILITY FOR WELDED STRUCTURES OF BUCKET WHEEL EXCAVATORS
BASED ON THE COMPARISON OF OPERATIONAL AND CRITICAL STRESSES ................................................................................................................................ 57
Ivana JOVANOVI, Igor MILJANOVI, Vladan MILOEVI, Dejan TODOROVI, Ljubia ANDRI, Zoran BARTULOVI
INFLUENCE OF SIPX AND AP5500 COLLECTORS
ON THE RECOVERY OF COPPER AND PRECIOUS METALS FROM ORE DEPOSIT TENKA-3 .......................................................................................................... 64
Svetomir MAKSIMOVI, Igor MILJANOVI, Ivana IVOJINOVI MILJANOVI, Milena JOSIPOVI PEJOVI, Aleksandar PETROVSKI
DETERMINING INDIRECT DEPENDENCY OF PRODUCTION SEGMENTS
WITHIN THERMAL POWER PLANT OPEN PIT MINES KOSTOLAC BY MULTISECTORAL MODELS .............................................................................................. 68
Neboja MAKSIMOVI, Sran KNEEVI, Simeun MARIJANAC
CONCEPTUAL SOLUTIONS OF THE MAIN MINING PROJECT OF THE OPEN PIT MINE
UGLJEVIK ISTOK, MINE AND THERMAL PLANT UGLJEVIK REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA ......................................................................................................................... 74
Nenad RADOSAVLJEVI, Aleksandar ERISILO, Zlatko PETROVI
EXAMINATION OF GAS-BEARING QUALITIES OF COAL AND ACCESSORY
ROCKS IN THE IVOJNO BASIN, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ....................................................................................................................................................... 82
Nenad RADOSAVLJEVI, Aleksandar ERISILO, Milinko RADOSAVLJEVI
METHANE INFLUENCE ON COAL DUST EXPLOSIVITY FROM THE MARIOVO DEPOSIT .............................................................................................................. 88
Nenad POPOVI
NEW PERSPECTIVE OPEN PIT MINES IN KOLUBARA LIGNITE BASIN IN SERBIA ............................................................................................................................ 91
Joe PEZDI, Ana R. MEDVED, Edi BURI, Antonija LESAR, Janja ULA SKORNEK,
Lucija PETRINJAK, Tine PEZDI, Robert MORAVEC, Gaper TAVAR, Simon ZAVEK
IMPROVEMENTS IN HIGH PRESSURE SORPTION INVESTIGATIONS OF COAL:
CASE STUDY OF THE VELENJE LIGNITE ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 98
Drago POTONIK, Janez ROER, Milivoj VULI
MONITORING AND PREDICTING SURFACE MOVEMENTS IN THE VELENJE COAL MINE AREA ...................................................................................................105

IX

5th BALKAN MINING CONGRESS


Macedonia, Ohrid, 2013

PROCEEDINGS - CONTENTS

Vujadin ALEKSIC, Srdjan BULATOVIC, Ljubica MILOVIC


NDT IN FUNCTION PREVENTION OF LOSS INTEGRITY OF STRUCTURES LARGE DIMENSIONS ................................................................................................. 112
Naim BAFTIU

STORAGE AND PARAMETERS FRESH GRACE RECLAMATION POWER PLANTS KOSOVO .......................................................................................................... 119
Prof. Stoyan CHRISTOV, dipl. eng. Delcho NIKOLOV
STRATEGY AND TACTICS AT DESIGNING AND EXPLOITATION OF DEEP OPENCAST MINES .................................................................................................... 128
Stojance MIJALKOVSKI, Zoran DESPODOV, Dejan MIRAKOVSKI, Marija HADZI-NIKOLOVA, Nikolinka DONEVA, Borce GOCEVSKI
MINING METHOD SELECTION FOR DEEPER PARTS OF SVINJA REKA ORE DEPOSIT - SASA MINE ..................................................................................... 133
Snezana VUKOVIC, Nenad VUSOVIC, Dejan PETROVIC, Andja SPASIC, Radoje PANTOVIC
THERMOVISION MONITORING OF THE PRODUCTION PROCESS IN FIRE PREVENTION ............................................................................................................. 137
Vladan KASIC, Zivko SEKULIC, Slavica MIHAJLOVIC, Vladimir JOVANOVIC, Radule TOSOVIC
ANALYSIS OF UP-TO-DATE RESEARCH OF GOLD-BEARING ALLUVIUM DEPOSITS
FROM THE RIVER PEK-EAST SERBIA ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 143
Violeta OLAKOVI, Vladan ANOVI
CHOICE OF OBJECTS FOR PROTECTION OF FLYING ASH AND BOTTOM ASH DEPOSITS FROM WATER ................................................................................ 148
ivko SEKULI, Vladimir JOVANOVI, Slavica MIHAJLOVI, Vladan KAI, Dragan RADULOVI, Branislav IVOEVI
TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF VALORIZATION OF CALCIUM CARBONATE
RAW MATERIAL FROM KRALJEVA GORA DEPOSIT ..................................................................................................................................................................... 154
Risto DAMBOV, Todor DELIPETROV, Marjan DELIPETROV, Ilija DAMBOV
ANALYSIS OF THE OBTAINED STATISTICAL MEASUREMENT VALUES OF SEISMICAL BLASTING TREMORS ........................................................................... 158
Saa MITI, Dragan MILOJEVI, Nenad MAKAR, Jovica NIKOLI
UNDERGROUND PIT EXPLORATION IN THE RAJIEVA GORA NEAR BRUS, REPUBLIC OF SERBIA ........................................................................................ 165

MINING AND SAFETY ....................................................................................................... 171


Branko LEKOVI, Vesna KAROVI MARII, Duan DANILOVI
DRILLING FLUIDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY ........................................................................................................................................................................ 172
Ion TOTH, Constantin LUPU, Doru CIOCLEA, Cristian TOMESCU, Ion GHERGHE
INCREASING THE SAFETY LEVEL IN HARD COAL EXPLOITATION THROUGH INNOVATIVE RESEARCH ................................................................................... 177
Marija KUZMANOVI, Aleksandar MILUTINOVI, Mirko VUJOEVI, Biljana PANI
EVALUATION OF THE EXTERNAL RISKS IN THE COAL MINING COMPANY KOSTOLAC, SERBIA................................................................................................ 182
Slobodan TRAJKOVI, Suzana LUTOVAC, Marina RAVILI, Nikolinka DONEVA
ASSESSMENT OF BLAST EFFECT OPEN PIT ,,RANCI OF SHOCK WAVES
ON CONSTRUCTED FACILITIES AND ENVIRONMENT .................................................................................................................................................................... 189
Dejan MIRAKOVSKI, Marija HADZI-NIKOLOVA, Nikolinka DONEVA, Stojance MIJALKOVSKI, Gorgi VEZENKOVSKI
MINERS` EXPOSURE TO GASEOUS CONTAMINATES CURRENT SITUATION AND LEGISLATION ............................................................................................... 200

EXPLOITATION................................................................................................................. 204
Simon ZAVEK, Sergej JAMNIKAR, Jerneja LAZAR, Ludvik GOLOB
CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES AT PREMOGOVNIK VELENJE ........................................................................................................................................................ 205
MSc Trajche BOSHEVSKI, Prof. D-r Risto R. DAMBOV
USAGE OF EMULSION EXPLOSIVES ON SURFACE MINE ZELENIKOVEC - SKOPJE .................................................................................................................. 211
Diana TASHEVA, Zdravko ILIEV
ANALYSIS OF OSCILLATIONS IN THE SLEWABLE SUPERSTRUCTURE
OF THE Sch Rs 1200M BUCKET WHEEL EXCAVATOR .................................................................................................................................................................... 216
Dr. Stefan HINTERHOLZER
THE WORLDS LARGEST COMPACT BUCKET WHEEL EXCAVATOR BY SANDVIK ........................................................................................................................ 223
Shaip LATIFI, Ahmet TMAVA, Ibush JONUZI
PHENOMENON OF STONE THROWING IN OPEN CAST MINING AND QUARRIES ........................................................................................................................ 228
Ivana SIMOVI, Neboja KOSTOVI, Mirko SAVI, Dijana VLAJI
FGD GYPSUM TRANSPORT AND DISPOSAL ALTERNATIVES AT SERBIAN THERMAL POWER PLANTS ..................................................................................... 232
Misad BEI, Rua ELIKOVI
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF MINING MECHANIZATION DELAYS
IN SURFACE MINE DEPARTMENT OF BLACK COAL MINE BANOVICI ............................................................................................................................................ 237
Duan IMEK, mag. Ludvik GOLOB, mag. Bojan LAJLAR
SHAFT SINKING AT VELENJE COAL MINE ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 245
Maan TRIFUNOVI, Momilo MOMILOVI, Milan PAVLOVI
EXCAVATION OF OVERBURDEN IN THE WATERED WORKING AREA
ABOVE THE ROOF OF COAL IN EASTERN PART OF OPEN PIT DRMNO .................................................................................................................................... 251

5th BALKAN MINING CONGRESS


Macedonia, Ohrid, 2013

PROCEEDINGS - CONTENTS

GEOPHYSICS IN MINING .................................................................................................. 258


Blagica DONEVA, Marjan DELIPETREV, Todor DELIPETROV, Zoran PANOV
USING SEISMIC METHODS FOR DEFINING OPTIMAL PARAMETERS FOR BLASTING ...................................................................................................................259
Marjan DELIPETREV, Sanja POSTOLOVA, Blagica DONEVA, Gorgi DIMOV, Todor DELIPETROV
APPLYING GEOMAGNETIC RESEARCH METHOD IN ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS OF GOLD ...................................................................................................................262
Zoran PANOV, Risto POPOVSKI, Radmila KARANAKOVA STEFANOVSKA
APPLICATION OF GEOELECTRICAL RESEARCH IN WORKING ENVIRONMENT
FOR SLOPE STABILITY IN SURFACE MINES ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................................................................................267
Munever ERGI, Hamid HUSI, Rasim KOVAEVI, Amira JALMANOVI, Elvedina NUMANOVI
RESPONSE OF STRUCTURES TO SEISMIC EFFECTS OF BLASTING
IN THE VICINITY OF SURFACE MINING RMU BANOVICI ..............................................................................................................................................................270
Vladimir MANEVSKI, Todor DELIPETROV, Blagica DONEVA, Marjan DELIPETROV, Gorgi DIMOV
GEO-ELECTRICAL MODELS BASED ON DATA GAINED FROM THE COAL MINE SUVODOL ......................................................................................................279
Todor DELIPETROV, Krsto Blazev, Blagica DONEVA, Marjan DELIPETREV, Gorgi DIMOV
APPLICATION OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS IN EXPLORATION
AND EXPLOITATION OF MINERAL RAW MATERIALS ......................................................................................................................................................................284

COMPUTER INTEGRATED SYSTEMS ................................................................................ 290


Aleksandar KRSTEV, Boris KRSTEV, Blagoj GOLOMEOV, Mirjana GOLOMEOVA, Afrodita ZENDELSKA, Zivko GOCEV, Jordan ZIVANOVIK
THE KINETIC MODELING FROM DOMESTIC ORES USING SOFTWARE TOOLS .............................................................................................................................291
T. PENZOV, H. NONCHEV, I. LALOV
MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMIZATION
OF ORE-GRINDING PROCESS IN SEMIAUTOGENOUS MILL ...........................................................................................................................................................294
V. F. SKOROKHODOV, M. S. KHOKHULYA, A. S. OPALEV, V. V. BIRUKOV, R. M. NIKITIN
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS AS THE RESEARCH TOOL FOR MINERALS SEPARATION PROCESSES ...........................................................................299
Elena GELOVA, Aleksandar KRSTEV, Jordan ZIVANOVIK, Aleksandra STOJANOVA
THE CONVEX PROGRAMMING .........................................................................................................................................................................................................305
Yordanka ANASTASOVA, Nikolay YANEV, Kantcho IVANOV
APPLICATIONS OF MS PROJECT FOR CREATION AND MANAGEMENT SCHEDULES OF MINING ACTIVITIES ...........................................................................310

ROCK MECHANICS, MASSIF CONTROL AND SLOPE STABILITY ...................................... 318


Prof. Georgi MIHAYLOV, Assoc. Proc. Georgi TRAPOV, Mariana TRIFONOVA
ANALYSIS OF STATE OF STRESS AND DEFORMATION OF THE MASSIF
TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION PROBABILISTIC NATURE OF MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS ..............................................................................................319
MSC, Ing. Ylli KOTEMELO, dr. Edmond GOSKOLLI, Ing. Arjo LULE
THE FALL OF THE EMBANKMENT IN BEJAR GEOLOGICAL PHENOMENA ANALYSIS (Case Study) .............................................................................................327
Gorgi DIMOV, Blagica DONEVA, Marjan DELIPETROV, Todor DELIPETROV
CORRELATION BETWEEN SEISMIC VELOCITIES AND GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF CARBONATE DEPOSITS .................................................................334
Dragan M. MILOEVI, eljko PRATALO, Simeun MARIJANAC, Zoran MILANOVI

FUNCTIONAL REHABILITATION OF THE DISRUPTED NORTHERN SLOPE


OF THE OPEN PIT MINE IRIKOVAC IN THE COAL BASIN OF KOSTOLAC, REPUBLIC OF SERBIA ..............................................................................................338
Huseyin ANKARA, Mehmet AKSOY, Suheyla YEREL, Yasar KESER, Zeynep CICEKCI
DETERMINATION OF SLAKE DURABILITY INDEX ON SATURATED SPHERICAL SAMPLES ..........................................................................................................346
KOZYREV A. A., SEMENOVA I.E., RYBIN V.V., AVETISYAN I.M.
RESULTS OF RESEARCH OF STRESS STRAIN STATE WITHIN DEEP OPEN PITS UNDER TECTONIC STRESSES ........................................................................351
A. A. KOZYREV, V. V. RYBIN, K. N. KONSTANTINOV
FIELD-SCALE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE STRESS FIELD
AND THE EXCAVATION DAMAGED ZONE EXTENT, THE KOLA PENINSULA, RUSSIA ..................................................................................................................359
Sladjana KRSTIC, Vesna LJUBOJEV, Milenko LJUBOJEV, Dusan TASIC, Ivana JOVANOVIC
GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE DAM 2 FLOTATION TAILINGS VELIKI KRIVELJ (SERBIA)............................................................................................366
Vladimir VUTOV, Ventsislav IVANOV
METHODOLOGY FOR GEOMECHANICAL LOGISTICS OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
OF A TRANSPORT TUNNEL AT ELATZITE COOPER MINE, BULGARIA .......................................................................................................................................371
Ljupcho DIMITRIEVSKI, Darko ILIEVSKI, Ljubisha KOSTADINOV, Ljube IVANOVSKI, Dragan MILENKOVSKI
GEOMECHANICAL STABILITY MONITORING IN THE REK BITOLA MINES......................................................................................................................................378
Slavica MIHAJLOVI, Duica VUINI, ivko SEKULI, Vladimir JOVANOVI, Dragan RADULOVI
PHYSICAL-CHEMISTRY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MODIFIED LIMESTONE ............................................................................................................................386

XI

5th BALKAN MINING CONGRESS


Macedonia, Ohrid, 2013

PROCEEDINGS - CONTENTS

Ing. Petr TOMEK


SLIDING PARTS WEAR INFLUENCE TO DRIVE UNIT LOADING OF LONGWALL SHEARERS......................................................................................................... 392
Ljupce KULAKOV, Zoran GJORGIEVSKI, Zlatko ILIJOVSKI
WORKING AND FINAL SLOPES STABILITY ANALYSIS IN SURFACE EXCAVATION MINE R'ZANOVO .......................................................................................... 397
Vladimir JOVANOVI, ivko SEKULI, Branislav IVOEVI, Slavica MIHAJLOVI, Milan PETROV, Dragan RADULOVI, Vladan KAI
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LIMESTONE BRIQUETTES WITH BENTONITE FOR CALCIFICATION OF ACID SOIL ................................................................. 404
Sair KAHRAMAN, M. Suat DELIBALTA, Ramazan COMAKLI
EVALUATING THE NOISE FROM BLOCK CUTTING MACHINES
USING THE PHYSICO-MECHANICAL ROCK PROPERTIES .............................................................................................................................................................. 409

BALKAN MINERAL INDUSTRY .......................................................................................... 415


Dragan S. RADULOVI, Slavica R. MIHAJLOVI, Vladimir D. JOVANOVI, Duica R. VUINI
POSSIBILITY OF USING LIMESTONE FROM VOLUJICA- ULCINJ DEPOSIT
AS FILLER IN VARIOUS INDUSTRY BRANCHES .............................................................................................................................................................................. 416
Ass.prof. eljko VUKELI, Marijan KRALJI, Ass.prof. Evgen DERVARI
LENDAVA - THE FIRST GEOTHERMAL CITY IN SLOVENIA ............................................................................................................................................................. 422

SYSTEM ENGINEERING .................................................................................................... 431


Bozica SANDIC, Jelena MILOSEVIC, Radmilo GLISIC
GREEN ENERGY FROM THE NIKOLA TESLA THERMAL POWER PLANTS
IN OBRENOVAC (Cooling Water System Hydropower Plant) ......................................................................................................................................................... 432

MANAGEMENT AND MINING ECONOMICS ...................................................................... 438


Milena POPOVI, Marija KUZMANOVI, Mirko VUJOEVI, Aleksandar MILUTINOVI
MINIMIZATION OF BUSINESS RISKS IN MINING COMPANIES
THROUGH LOADERS-TRUCK EQUIPMENT SELECTION ................................................................................................................................................................. 439
Eng. Lachezar TSOTSORKOV PhD, Eng. Delcho NIKOLOV, Eng. Michail MICHAILOV
CYCLIC FLOW CONVEYOR SYSTEMS - PRESENT AND FUTURE
AT THE ASSAREL MINE OPERATIONS, ASSAREL-MEDET SC - BULGARIA .................................................................................................................................... 445
Prof. Dushan NIKOLOVSKI Ph.D.
METHODOLOGY FOR INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN ACTIVE MINES ............................................................................................................................................... 453
Dr. Ari ARTINYAN, Luben DIMOV
ON-LINE ASH-ANALYZERS AND SCALES IN OPEN COAL MINES - Coal Quality Management System ...................................................................................... 457
Daniela MLADENOVSKA, Ana M. LAZAREVSKA
DETERMINING RELEVANT ATTRIBUTES AND CORRESPONDING INDICATORS
IN A DECISION MAKING CONCEPT FOR SITE-SELECTION OF COAL FIRED THERMAL POWER PLANTS ................................................................................... 464
Ahmet BYTYI, Edmond GOSKOLLI, Idaver HISEINI, Nexhmi KRASNIQI
COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN LIMESTONE DEPOSIT, REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO .............................................................................................................................. 470
Marko BABOVIC, M.Sc., Branislav BABIC, B.B.A.
TECHNICAL-ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF THE EXECUTED GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS
FOR THE NIKOLA TESLA B UNIT 3 AND SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT CONSTRUCTION IN OBRENOVAC .............................................................................. 476
Sneana KIRIN, Aleksandar SEDMAK, Tamara SEDMAK, Vesna DAMNJANOVI
MODERN MINING INDUSTRY MANAGEMENT - SYNERGY OF QUALITY AND RISK BASED APPROACH ...................................................................................... 482
Svetomir MAKSIMOVI, Igor MILJANOVI
PHASES AND FIRST RESULTS OF SHAREHOLDING AND PRIVATISATION
IN PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES OF THE COAL INDUSTRY - EXPERIENCES OF OTHER COUNTRIES ......................................................................................... 490
Krastu DERMENDJIEV, George STOYANCHEV
THE MINING INDUSTRY FUTURE ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 496
Zoran PANOV, Radmila KARANAKOVA STEFANOVSKA, Risto POPOVSKI, Kirco MINOV, Blagica DONEVA
ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSPORT DISTANCES
IN DEFINING THE EXPLOITATION COSTS OF DEPTH OPEN PITS OF METALS ............................................................................................................................ 501
Prof. As. Dr. Skender LIPO, Dr. Arben BAKIU
MANAGEMENTS OF MINING RECOVERY......................................................................................................................................................................................... 507
Prof Dr Shyqri KELMENDI, Fehmi AZEMI, Qazim JASHARI, Faton KELMENDI
IMPORTANT ECONOMICAL INDICATORS OF MODERN MINING PRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 513

XII

5th BALKAN MINING CONGRESS


Macedonia, Ohrid, 2013

PROCEEDINGS - CONTENTS

MINERAL PROCESSING.................................................................................................... 521


Boris KRSTEV, Aleksandar KRSTEV, Mirjana GOLOMEOVA, Zivko GOCEV
THE PRESENTATION OF LEACHING AND BIO-LEACHING FROM DIFFERENT ORES USING SIMPLEX EVOP ..............................................................................522
Boris KRSTEV, Aleksandar KRSTEV, Mirjana GOLOMEOVA, Afrodita ZENDELSKA, Zivko GOCEV
THE OPTIMIZATION AND MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
- THE PRECONDITION FOR INCREASING OF RECOVERIES FROM DOMESTIC MINES ..................................................................................................................527
Milena DANOVSKA, Mirjana GOLOMEOVA, Dejan KARANFILOV, Afrodita ZENDELSKA
TREATMENT OF Fe(III) IONS FROM LEACHING SOLUTIONS WITH NEUTRALISATION AND PRECIPITATION .............................................................................533
Dragan S. RADULOVI, Velimir ANTANASKOVI, Slavica R. MIHAJLOVI, Branislav IVOEVI, Vladimir JOVANOVI
CONCEPT OF SECONDARY AND TERTIARY CRUSHING PLANT FOR PROCESSING LIMESTONE
AND PRODUCTION OF ROCK AGREGATES FROM SUVO DO JOINT-STOCK COMPANY - JELEN DO DEPOSITS .....................................................................539
Ivana JOVANOVI, Srana MAGDALINOVI, Daniela UROEVI, Igor MILJANOVI, Sanja BUGARINOVI, Dragan MILANOVI
POSSIBILITY OF BARITE CONCENTRATION FROM POLYMETALIC SULPHIDE-BARITE ORE
USING GRAVITY AND FLOTATION CONCENTRATION METHODS ..................................................................................................................................................545
Miomir MIKI, Daniel KRANOVI, Milenko LJUBOJEV, Radmilo RAJKOVI
AUSCULTATION OF FLOTATION TAILINGS VELIKI KRIVELJ
WITH EMPHASIS ON THE CURRENT STATE OF KRIVELJS RIVER COLLECTOR, SERBIA .............................................................................................................551
Shyqri KELMENDI, Halil QELA, Bajram MUSTAFA
MINING PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATES AND BASE METALS IN THE REGION .......................................................................................................................558
Violeta STEFANOVA, Vojo MIRCOVSKI, Violeta STOJANOVA, Gose PETROV, Zoran PANOV
GOLD GRAIN MORPHOLOGY AND COMPOSITION IN SOME LOCALITY IN R. MACEDONIA .........................................................................................................566

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING .................................................................................... 572


Angelica DRGHICI, Gheorghe GHEIE, Lorand TOTH, Marius KOVACS, Cosmin ILIE
IMPACT OF THE WORKFLOW FROM QUARRYS
ON THE SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY - SC CUPRUMIN S.A. ABRUD ..................................................................................................................573
Neboja ATANACKOVI, Veselin DRAGII, Vladimir IVANOVI, Jana STOJKOVI, Marina UK, Petar PAPI
ARSENIC IN MINE WATERS FROM ABANDONED BASE-METAL AND GOLD MINING SITES IN SERBIA ........................................................................................581
Orce SPASOVSKI, Daniel SPASOVSKI
HEAVY AND TOXIC METALS AND NUTRIENTS IN SEPARATE PLACES
IN THE RIVER BREGALNICA (EASTERN MACEDONIA) .....................................................................................................................................................................586
Dragoljub UROSEVIC, Branimir ANDELIC, Uros UROSEVIC, Rasa DJUROVIC
CONTRIBUTION TO CONSTRUCTION, REMEDIATION AND RECULTIVATION
OF SECONDARY MINING AND ENERGY FACILITIES IN ORDER TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..........................................................................................590
Dragan DRAOVI, Pavle STJEPANOVI, Klara KONC-JANKOVI, Jasmina NEGROJEVI
THE SEMI-INDUSTRIAL TEST OF THE EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM
FOR RESEARCH OF THE FLYING ASH AND BOTTOM ASH HYDRO-TRANSPORT .........................................................................................................................597
Dijana VLAJI, Mirko SAVI, Ivana SIMOVI, Lazar ANELI, eljko PRATALO
CONCEPTUAL SOLUTION FOR THE PERMANENT CLOSURE
OF FLY AND BOTTOM ASH DISPOSAL SITE AT TPP KOSTLAC A AND B .......................................................................................................................................600
Daniel KRANOVI, Zoran VADUVESKOVI, Nenad VUOVI, Miomir MIKI, Miodrag IKI
CONCEPTUAL SOLUTION OF DISPOSAL THE OPEN PIT WASTE ROCK AND DEWATERING SYSTEM
IN A FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN EXPLOITATION THE COPPER DEPOSITS
KRAKU BUGARESKU - CEMENTACIJA AND CEROVO SERBIA ..................................................................................................................................................608
Msc Aleksandar LAZAROV
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACCORDING BEST AVAILABLE
TECHNIQUES FROM IMPACT AT TAILING DAM TORANICA ............................................................................................................................................................611
Orce SPASOVSKI, Daniel SPASOVSKI
GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF TAILING DUMP
FROM POLYMETALLIC Pb - Zn DEPOSIT ZLETOVO (REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA) ........................................................................................................................615
Ion GHERGHE, Doru CIOCLEA, Constantin LUPU, Corneliu BOANT, Florin RDOI, Vlad Mihai PSCULESCU
GENERAL VENTILATION FANS USED FOR THE AERATION OF HARD COAL MINES IN JIU VALLEY COAL FIELD .......................................................................622
Milinko RADOSAVLJEVI, Sinia STOJKOVI, Mihajlo GIGOV
PROBLEMS OF STUDY PREPARATIONS ON EVALUATION OF INFLUENCES
ON THE ENVIRONMENT FROM THE LEGAL REGULATIONS PERSPECTIVE...................................................................................................................................629
Grozdana NEI, Miodrag IKI, Saa STOJADINOVI, Sneana VUKOVI, Nenad VUOVI, Radoje PANTOVI
SPECIFICITIES OF OPEN PIT TAMNAVA - WEST FIELD REMEDIATION ..........................................................................................................................................634
Afrodita ZENDELSKA, Mirjana GOLOMEOVA, Boris KRSTEV, Blagoj GOLOMEOV, Aleksandar KRSTEV
THE IMPACT OF THE TAILING DAM OF THE SASA MINE ON SOILS IN THE KOCANI VALLEY ......................................................................................................639

XIII

5th BALKAN MINING CONGRESS


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PROCEEDINGS - CONTENTS

eljko PRATALO, Simeun MARIJANAC, Dragan M. MILOEVI, Branka JOVANOVI


TECHNICAL RECLAMATION OF THE FLYING ASH AND BOTTOM ASH DEPOT IN THE COAL BASIN KOSTOLAC ...................................................................... 646
Tena SIJAKOVA-IVANOVA, Zoran PANOV, Vojo MIRCOVSKI
OPPORTUNITIES FOR UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH FROM THERMAL POWER PLANT, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA.. 653

RESTRUCTURING AND REENGINEERING ........................................................................ 659


Gafur MUKA, Thoma KORINI, Vasil JORGJI, Ramiz BALLA
A CRITICAL REVIEW OF PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED
WITH THE REACTIVATION OF ABANDONED AREAS OF BULQIZA CHROME MINE ...................................................................................................................... 660
Marko RANZINGER, Marjan HUDEJ
REENGINEERING OF OLD RAILWAY TUNNELS LEEKI,
JURGOVSKI AND KRIIKI ON THE MAIN RAILWAY LJUBLJANA-KOPER ...................................................................................................................................... 666

LEGISLATION, NORMS AND EDUCATION ........................................................................ 672


Msc. Jorgaq THANAS, Eng. Bardhyl SHUSHKU
MINING WASTES IN ALBANIA - LEGISLATIVE FRAME AND THEIR STATE ..................................................................................................................................... 673
Nevzat KAVAKLI Ph.D., Sadi CIVELEKOLU, Serdar ULHA M.Sc., kr AFAK M.Sc.
FEATURES OF TURKISH MINING LAW AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION .............................................................................................................................................. 680

EXPLOITATION OF SOLID MINERAL RESOURCES ........................................................... 685


Prof. d-r Risto DAMBOV, Goran STOJKOSKI, Dimitar HRISTOV, Nikola RZANIKOSKI
TECHNO-ECONOMICAL ANALYSES OF THE METHODS FOR PRODUCING OF DIMENSION STONE BLOCKS............................................................................ 686
Goran BLAZESKI, Vladimir DILEVSKI
AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR THE WELL DRAINAGE SYSTEM AT COAL MINE
UNDERLYING SEAM SUVODOL, MINING POWER COMPLEX BITOLA ......................................................................................................................................... 694
anka JOVANOVI, Miodrag PRIBIEVI, eljko PRATALO, Simeun MARIJANAC
LIMESTONE EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGY OF LIEBHERR R 984 C EXCAVATOR AT THE SURFACE MINE MUTALJ.................................................................... 702
Dragica STOJILJKOVIC, Snezana KOMATINA-PETROVIC, Biserka DIMISKOVSKA, Jelena STETIC, Jelena NINIC-TODOROVIC
ARRANGEMENT OF SURFACE EXCAVATIONS OF NON-METAL MINERAL RAW MATERIAL ........................................................................................................ 706
Roman ROER, Marjan HUDEJ, Marko RANZINGER
EXPLOITATION OF SOLID MINERAL RESOURCES IN PAKA QUARRY ........................................................................................................................................... 710
Wolfgang SCHROTH
HIGH UNDERGROUND COAL PRODUCTION,
BY MEANS OF POWERFUL AND HIGH PERFORMANCE SHEARER LOADERS .............................................................................................................................. 715
Nikolinka DONEVA, Marija HADZI-NIKOLOVA, Dejan MIRAKOVSKI, Stojane MIJALKOVSKI
CONSTRUCTION OF HORIZONTAL MINING FACILITIES THROUGH SCHIST`S MASSIVE ............................................................................................................. 721
Pece MURTANOVSKI, m-r Bojan LAJLAR, m-r Janez MAYER, pegel BOO, Marijan LENART
NEW UNDERGROUND COAL MINE MARIOVO ............................................................................................................................................................................. 726
Zoran ILIC, Rajko STOJAKOVIC, Zvonko BELACEVIC
MINING BASIN KOLUBARA - A VARIANT OF THE OPENING OF THE NEW OPEN PIT MINE ......................................................................................................... 731
Zoran DESPODOV, Dejan MIRAKOVSKI, Stojance MIJALKOVSKI, Adjiski VANCHO, Borce GOCEVSKI
OPPORTUNITIES FOR REPAIRING THE UNLOADING BUNKER ON SHAFT GOLEMA REKA - SASA MINE ................ 735

MINERAL RESOURCES AND MINE GEOLOGY .................................................................. 740


Miodrag BANJEEVI, Duncan LARGE
THE TIMOK COPPER-GOLD PROJECT
- GEOLOGY AND MINERALIZATION (TIMOK MAGMATIC COMPLEX - EASTERN SERBIA) ............................................................................................................. 741
Vojislav MRDJA
CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE METALLOGENY IN ORE FIELD KOSMAJ-BABE ................................................................................................. 743
Msc Rade STANKOVSKI
GEOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS AT TORANICA DEPOSIT ................................................................................................................................................................ 745
Krsto BLAZEV, Blagica DONEVA, Marjan DELIPETREV, Gorgi DIMOV
QUARTZ RAW MATERIALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA .................................................................................................................................................... 751
Violeta STOJANOVA, Goe PETROV, Violeta STEFANOVA, Blazo BOEV
GEOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DIATOMACEOUS EARTH
FROM THE DEPOSIT VESHJE NEAR NEGOTINO - R. MACEDONIA ................................................................................................................................................ 754

XIV

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PROCEEDINGS - CONTENTS

Msc Zlatko ILIJOVSKI, Stojan MIHAILOVSKI, Dragan NASEVSKI, Ljupce PETREVSKI, Blagoj GJORGIEVSKI, Mirjana TRPCEVSKI
DRAINAGE WELLS CONSTRUCTION AS PART OF S.E.M. SUVODOL, REK BITOLA .......................................................................................................................759
Laste IVANOVSKI, Zlatko ILIOVSKI, Elizabeta RALEVA
RESULTS FROM THE MOST RECENT GEOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS OF THE COAL MINE MARIOVO ...........................................................................................766
Elizabeta RALEVA, Zlatko ILIJOVSKI, Laste IVANOVSKI, Trifun MILEVSKI
RESULTS FROM NEWEST GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF COAL DEPOSIT ZIVOJNO ........................................................................................................772
Rudolf TOMANEC, Predrag LAZI, Radmila GAINA, Sanja BAJI
ORE MICROSCOPY ANALYSIS METHODS IN MINERAL CONCENTRATION PROCESSES..............................................................................................................779
Vojo MIRCOVSKI, Violeta STEFANOVA, Tena SIJAKOVA-IVANOVA, Gorgi DIMOV, Vasko MIRCOVSKI
UTILIZING GABBRO OF SITES PANTELEJ AS CONSTRUCTION-TECHNICAL STONE....................................................................................................................786

HISTORY AND MINE EDUCATION .................................................................................... 794


Jovica NIKOLI, Nenad MAKAR, Dragan MILOJEVI, Saa MITI
CONCEPT OF THE MINING MUSEUM IN KOSTOLAC, REPUBLIC OF SERBIA ................................................................................................................................795
Valentina MANEVSKA, Roze ARSOVSKA
REFORMING THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM - BUILDING QUALITY WORKFORCE ...........................................................................................................................802

XV

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XIV

5th BALKAN MINING CONGRESS


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PROCEEDINGS

MULTI-VARIABLE ASSESSMENT OF RISK IN SELECTION


OF LOCATION AND THE WAY OF OPEN PIT MINES OPENING
ABSTRACT
Slobodan VUJI1
Marjan HUDEJ2
Igor MILJANOVI3

Mining Institute,
Belgrade, Serbia
slobodan.vujic@ribeograd.ac.rs
2
RGP, Velenje, Slovenia
marjan.hudej@rlv.si
3
University of Belgrade, Faculty
of Mining and Geology, Serbia
imiljan@rgf.bg.ac.rs

The paper is focused on the problem of selecting the most suitable location
and the way of opening the open pit mines, based on the multicriteria risk
assessment. In the introductory section, a presentation of demands regarding the problem of location selection and the way of opening the open pit
mines is given, as well as the risks inherited and generated by the structure,
mutual relationship and spatial and temporal variations of the influential
factors such as geological, hydrogeological, hydrological, geotechnical,
technical, technological, communication, ecological, urbanism, businesseconomics, market, investment and other factors.
The idiosyncrasy in decision making process regarding the selection of location and the way of opening the open pit mines in the design phase reflects
in the presence of uncertainty in defining the causal-consequential relations
and changes of influential factors. In this ambience, the condition of securing the adequate and efficient decision making regarding the location and
the way of opening the open pit mine is to provide a reliable, multicriteria
assessment of the uncertainty and risk for each of the possible alternative
solutions. Accordingly, the paper continues with commented review of
mathematical models potentially applicable in solving mining engineering
designers tasks of this class.
The example of the coal open pit mine Coal series floor layer at the Mining
and Energy Combine Bitola, with seven possible ways of opening the open
pit mine, served as a presentation tool for the purpose of displaying the benefits of the multicriteria Promethee model in risk assessment of selection of
the most suitable opening variant. Discussed, in the conclusions, are the advantages and shortages of the multicriteria analysis, and it is concluded that,
in seeking the most suitable solution, the overall analysis is necessary, together with structuring all of the influential factors.
Keywords
Opencast Mining, Open Pit Mine, Opening Cut,
Risk Assessment, Multi-Variable Analysis

1. INTRODUCTION
Selecting the location and the way of open pit mine opening is not a simple task in Mine design, since the analysis
should embrace a number of factors, limitations and conditions such as geological, hydrogeological, hydrological,
geotechnical, technical, technological, communicational, ecological, urban, business-economy related, market related, investment related, etc. In the practice of design, the easier solution for the problem is usually found after
the simplification by taking only the most significant factors into account. This approach bears two important deficiencies: one is related with the high risk of an error in selecting the most important conditions, limitations and
influential elements, i.e. the high risk of an error in selection of factors (which one is more important and which one
is less important?). The second deficiency is related to the threats to the process of selecting the most favourable
alternative due to the over-simplified image of the real problem [3, 5].
Therefore, the problem of designing the opening cuts at open pit mines is placing before the decision maker - the
design engineer - the high demanding task at the very beginning of the process, i.e. to take into account simultaneous goals when selecting the location and the way of opening. The complexity and the phenomenology of the prob-

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lem single out the conclusion that operations research with its multicriteria decision-making (MDM) methods as a
mathematical-modelling tool, suitable for solving this type of tasks can aid in solving it. The MDM methods branch,
in an accelerated development since the 70s consists of methods such as ELECTRE, PROMETHEE, AHP, etc. It is
common for these methods that analysis starts from the comparison of possible alternative solutions in pairs by
providing the criteria values for each pair, and the level of importance for each criterion for the decision maker. It is
typical for the MDM problems in general that some of their criteria are partially or fully conflicted [3, 4]. This means
that MDM problems are loosely structured, and that the final solution cannot be reached without the active assistance from the decision maker (the designing engineer).
The following are the basic principles of the PROMETHEE II method. The method was applied in solving the task of
selecting the location and the way of opening the Underlying coal series Open pit mine of the coal deposit Suvodol, a part of the Mining and Energy Combine Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. This solution served as an explanatory example, presented in the third section of the paper.

2. PROMETHEE METHOD PRINCIPLES


The PROMETHE method (Preference Ranking Organization METHods for Enrichment Evaluation) is a multicriteria
optimisation method for alternatives ranking. There are four alternatives of the method: the PROMETHEE I give the
partial, PROMETHEE II complete, PROMETHEE III the interval, while PROMETHEE IV presents an extension of the
PROMETHEE III for the continuous sets. Due to the limited paper space and the fact that the PROMETHEE methods
are well-described in numerous operations research books, we will present here only the mathematical-modelling
foundation of the PROMETHEE II method, applied in solving the task of selecting the location and the way of opening the Underlying coal series coal Open pit mine, shown in the following section.
Table 1. PROMETHE method function preferences
Criterion
Simple

Quasi

Preference function

0, if d 0
P(a, b)
1, if d 0
0, if d q
P(a, b)
1, if d q
0,

Linear preference

if d 0

Criterion
Level

Preference function

0,

if d 0

P(a, b) 1/2, if q d p
1
if d 0

Linear preference for the indifference area

Gaussian

P(a, b) d/p, if q d p
1
if d 0

if d 0
0,

P(a, b) (d - q)/(p - q), if q d p

1
if d 0
if d 0
0,
P(a, b)
2
2
1 - exp(d /2 ), if d 0

The PROMETHEE method introduces the preference function P(a,b) for alternatives a and b, valued by the criteria
functions f. The alternative a is better than the alternative b, according to the criterion f if f(a) > f(b), and the preference function is defined as [5]:
if f(a) f(b)
0,
P(a,b)
P(f(a) f(b)), if f(a) f(b)

Within the method, six types of preference function, shown in Table 1. In a shorter form, we introduce d = f(a) - f(b).
For the purpose of multicriteria analysis, the PROMETHEE method introduces preference flows
J

Positive flow: (a )
(a j , am )
j
j
m 1

Negative flow: (a ) J
(am , a j )
j
j
m 1

As a measure of the multicriteria ranking, the PROMETHEE II method introduces the net flow
j (a j ) j (a j ) j (a j ); j 1, , J

,
where: number of alternatives, = 1,,
The alternative is better in a multicriteria sense from k if j k.

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3. AN EXAMPLE OF MULTICRITERIA SELECTION OF OPEN PIT MINE OPENING LOCATION


The example that follows is aimed to illustrate the process of multicriteria selection of the location and the way of
opening the open pit mines. Focus of attention is the actual mining structure with an outstanding problem of the
selection of location and the way of opening. This is the open pit mine Underlying coal series of the Mining and
Energy Combine Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. The peculiarity of problem is that open pit mine Underlying coal
series is opened within the contour of the existing coal open pit mine Suvodol, which is being closed. The new
open pit mine is aimed for excavation of the deeper coal layers that could not be excavated with previous operations [1,2].
The properties of the underlying portion of the deposit are as follows: two coal layers developed in a synclinal depression, at the depth of more than 200 m, complex composition and deposit tectonics, division of coal layers,
presence of underground waters, and difficult geomechanical conditions. Apart from these features, the following
conditions and limitations have the immediate influence:
Manner in which the coal layers are embedded, and the paleo-relief of the underlying coal series;
Waste disposal location in the northern area of the Underlying coal series deposit;
Position of the existing external waste disposal locations for the waste from the opening cut and the outline
of the Underlying coal series open pit mine;
Position of the industrial water accumulation above the north-east boundary of the open pit mine;
Landslides on the slope to the northeast of the open pit mine contour;
Position of the mining operations front at the existing open pit mine Suvodol and the concept of gradual
closure of operations at this open pit mine;
Inevitability of the parallel operations of the existing open pit mine Suvodol and the open pit mine Underlying coal series for seven years;
Connecting the coal transport systems for the open pit mines Suvodol and Underlying coal series;
Synchronisation of cessation of involving the equipment at the Suvodol open pit mine with the continuing
involvement of the equipment at the open pit mine Underlying coal series.
The analysis shows that, in general, two possible ways of opening the open pit mine Underlying coal series exist.
One is the combination of the external and the internal opening cut, while the other is the combination of the external, the internal opening cut and the notch. Several opening alternatives were analysed. The alternatives from
the north, northeast and the west side of the open pit mine were disregarded as the non-favourable due to great
depth of the deposit in these areas, high risks due to extremely unfavourable geomechanical conditions, position of
the northern deposition place and the high running overburden coefficient. The analysis shows that opening the
underlying coal series from within the zone of current mining operations at the existing open pit mine Suvodol is
not feasible. However, the opening from the central eastern, south-eastern and south-western side is feasible, and
seven alternatives of opening the Underlying coal series were defined [1, 2].
The alternatives were processed at the same feasibility level in order to complete the side-by-side multicriteria
analysis and the selection of the most favourable option. Figure 1 shows the situation map with the boundary of
the exploitation extent of the Underlying coal series, position of the considered alternatives of the opening cuts
and the condition of operations at the Suvodol open pit mine.
The parallel multicriteria analysis of the opening alternatives [OC1, OC2, , OC7] for the open pit mine was completed with the PROMETHEE II method. The following factors were taken as the criteria: [1, 2]:
3
K1[min] - Quantity of material to be excavated in the opening cut (m );

K2[min] - Quantity of the pre-production overburden (m3);

K3[max] - Rate of reaching the designed coal production capacity;

K4[min] - Length of transport in the phase of opening and the beginning of open pit mine operation;

K5[max] - Geomechanical conditions (slope stability) in the opening cut operational environment;

K6[max] - Position of the opening cut with respect to the external disposal location.

The table 2 shows quantified values or verbal assessments for each of the seven criteria serving as the input in the
mathematical model PROMETHEE II. Based on the parameters presented in table 2, and the topology of tasks, an
initial matrix (table 3) of the multicriteria analysis in selecting the most favourable alternative of the Underlying

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coal series open pit mine was created with the PROMETHEE II method. Table 4 presents the evaluation flow of the
mathematical-modelling processing, and table 5 the matrix of the analysed alternatives ranking.
Table 2. Criterion values and estimations

Criterion

Opening cut alternative


OC1

OC2

OC3

OC4

OC5

OC6

OC7

K1 (m )

23,812,920

17,637,256

11,430,706

19,596,956

20,986,200

13,411,056

17,723,860

K2 (m3)

7,635,300

4,309,506

8,509,506

4,309,506

4,244,700

4,309,506

13,610,300

3.0

3.0

1.3

3.0

3.0

3.0

1.3

12,764

9,192

7,312

6,989

7,545

8,247

8,997

K5

Favourable

Favourable

Favourable

Favourable

Favourable

Favourable

Favourable

K6

Favourable

Favourable

Favourable

Favourable

Less favourable

Less favourable

Less favourable

K3 (10 t)
K4 (m)

Table 3. Initial matrix

Criteria
K1

K2

K3

K4

K5

K6

min

min

max

min

max

max

0.85

0.75

0.65

0.60

23,812,920

7,635,300

3.00

12,764

Min/Max:
Type:
Weight:
Opening
cut alternative

OC1
OC2

17,637,256

4,309,506

3.00

9,192

OC3

11,430,706

8,509,506

1.30

7,319

OC4

19,596,956

4,309,506

3.00

6,989

OC5

20,986,200

4,244,700

3.00

7,545

mp

OC6

13,411,056

4,309,506

3.00

8,247

OC7

17,723,860

13,610,300

1.30

8,997

mp

Phi+

Phi-

Phi

Table 4. Evaluation flow

Opening cut
alternative

K1

K2

K3

K4

K5

K6

min

min

max

min

max

max

OC1

23,812,920

7,635,300

3.00

12,764

0.13

0.53

-0.40

OC2

17,637,256

4,309,506

3.00

9,192

0.33

0.27

0.07

OC3

11,430,706

8,509,506

1.30

7,319

0.38

0.38

-0.00

OC4

19,596,956

4,309,506

3.00

6,989

0.39

0.21

0.19

OC5

20,986,200

4,244,700

3.00

7,545

0.37

0.36

0.01

OC6

13,411,056

4,309,506

3.00

8,247

0.42

0.18

0.24

OC7

17,723,860

13,610,300

1.30

8,997

0.36

0.46

-0.09

Table 5. PROMETHEE ranking

Phi+

Rank

Phi-

Rank

Phi

Rank

OC1

0.134

7.0

0.533

7.0

-0.399

7.0

OC2

0.339

6.0

0.266

3.0

0.065

3.0

OC3

0.367

3.0

0.378

5.0

-0.002

5.0

OC4

0.392

2.0

0.206

2.0

0.186

2.0

OC5

0.368

4.0

0.361

4.0

0.007

4.0

OC6

0.418

1.0

0.180

1.0

0.237

1.0

OC7

0.361

5.0

0.455

6.0

-0.095

6.0

Opening cut
alternative

Table 5 shows that the lowest rank holds the alternative OC1 with the ranking coefficient of [0.399]. The highest rank holds the OC6 alternative
with the ranking coefficient of [0.237]. Ranging
from OC1 to OC6 are: OC7 [-0.095], OC3 [-0.002],
OC5 [0.007], OC2 [0.065] and OC4 [0.186].
The common feature of opening cut alternatives
OC2, OC3, OC4 and OC6 is location of opening in
the southeast section of the open pit mine, and
the only slight difference, by construction ele5th BALKAN MINING CONGRESS
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ments of the opening cut. According to the PROMETHEE II method, the multicriteria analysis is positioning these
alternatives with ranks 1 through 4, which is expected, and at the same time distinguishes the OC6 alternative, with
significant advantages over alternatives OC2, OC3 and OC4. This notion is focusing the attention to the high sensitivity of the PROMETHEE II method, as a very important feature for the parallel multicriteria analysis and minimisation of risk from the wrongful assessments and conclusions. In this case, without the assistance of the multicriteria
analysis, the designer would have a difficult task to objectively rank and determine advantage of one of the four
alternatives.
Figure 1. Positions of considered alternatives for opening the Underlying coal series open pit mine

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4. CONCLUSION
The paper presents an example of the multicriteria selection of the opening location for the Underlying coal series at the coal deposit Suvodol of the Mining and Energy Combine Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Our experience shows that any other open pit mine could have been taken as an example, and that it would not diverge the
assessment that multicriteria analysis is an efficient mathematical-modelling tool in design, decision-making and
solving other numerous optimisation problems in mining. The assumption to the successful approach in solving
problems focused in this paper and all the other similar problems as well is the right selection and quantification of
the starting parameters and the set-up of an adequate initial model. Basic difficulties in mathematical modelling
and solving the multicriteria problems are a consequence of the fact that some of the criteria are opposed to each
other. This means that multicriteria problems are generally loosely structured, and that the final solution cannot be
defined without the active participation of the decision maker.

REFERENCES

[1]

Vuji, S., et al. Main Mining Project of Opening and exploitation of coal from the underlying coal series Suvodol Mine, General
Concept of Opening, Development and exploitation, Book I, Rudproekt Skopje, 2008, (252 p.), (in Macedonian)

[2]

Vuji S., et al., Main Mining Project of Opening and coal exploitation of the coal from the underlying coal series Suvodol Mine,
Technical Project of the Opening Cut, Book II/1, Rudproekt Skopje, Macedonia, 2009, (135 p.), (in Macedonian)

[3]

Vujosevic M, Operative Management quantitative methods, Society of Operations researchers of Yugoslavia, Belgrade, 1997,
(262. p.), (in Serbian).

[4]

Nikoli I., Borovi S., Multicriteria optimisation, Centre of the Army of Yugoslavia Military Schools, 1996, (378 p.), (in Serbian)

[5]

Opricovi S., Multicriteria optimisation in civil construction, Civil Engineering Faculty, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 1998,
(202 p.), (in Serbian).

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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
OF VELENJE MINING METHOD AND ITS GLOBAL USE

ABSTRACT
Dr. Milan MEDVED1
mag. Ludvik GOLOB2

Premogovnik Velenje d. d., Velenje,


Slovenia
1
milan.medved@rlv.si
2
ludvik.golob@rlv.si

The Velenje Coal Mine (VCM) is company with more than 137-year tradition
of lignite mining, solid in the present time and energetically directed towards future. Highly technological developed mining equipment, qualified
employers who manage it putt Velenje Coal Mine in group of the most modern coalmines in the world.
The entire process is based on the consideration of natural characteristics,
provision of adequate safety and the prediction of impacts on the environment. The Velenje mining method, which is being performed by caving the
hanging wall layers is used in one of the thickest lignite seams in the world.
The first beginnings of longwall faces appeared in 1947, while an extensive
introduction of longwall faces began in 1952.
The basic approach of mining using the Velenje mining method (VMM) is that
we extend the coal extraction area also above the protected area at the face
(the tunnel part protected by hydraulic support system). This includes exploitation of natural forces for breaking and crushing the seam. The Velenje mining method is an internationally protected patent that has been proven to
be the most effective method for extracting thick coal seams.
Velenje Coal Mine continues to develop and tries to improve the mining
method. Namely, in 2008 Velenje Coal Mine started mining in the 210-m long
face. This was done for the first time in the history of Velenje Coal Mine, and
the face was also successfully mined. This was performed with the use of
modern mining equipment, especially the new hydraulic support system and
advanced chain conveyor.
In future, the concept of developing the pits of Velenje Coal Mine will be
based on a lower number of faces (in average two), which will, however, be
wider (more than 200 m). Thus, the economic effects for 4 million tons of
annual production may be considerable. It will not be necessary to build as
many roadways and auxiliary facilities, less surveillance will be required, etc.
Such a concept of coal mining must be adequately scientifically studied,
professionally planned and executed using the state-of-the-art technology.
In scope of development strategy number of employees in Velenje Coal Mine
is reducing were number of employees in affiliate companies is increasing.
This will assure working places in future than coalmining will stop.
The paper discusses the existing business cooperation as well as the Velenje
Coal Mine Group transfer of know-how to the companies (mines) from east
south European countries. Recently Velenje Coal Mine is also working more
globally. Establishment of international joint venture company in Asiapacific region happened where some projects are already going on. Beside
that Velenje Coal Mine is cooperating in many research projects which are
oriented in to clean coal technologies. Namely development of modern high
efficiency coal-fired power plants and alternative coal use is future.
Keywords
Coal Mining, Mining Methods, Mining Equipment, Mining Engineering,
Business Cooperation, Research, Clean Coal Technologies

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1. PRESENTATION OF VELENJE COAL MINE


Velenje Coal Mine (VCM) is a technologically highly-developed company were basic activity is coal extraction. It is an
affiliated company of Holding of Slovenian Power Plants (HSE). It is renowned for its outstanding sense of social
responsibility from the viewpoint of solving environmental issues, as well as the ensuring of sustainable development and preservation of jobs for life of aleka valley and broader region. With its more than 137-year tradition of
coal mining (domestic lignite), it is strongly integrated in the Slovenian energy industry. The annual output of Velenje Coal Mine is approximately 4 million tons of lignite coal, which is almost entirely used by the otanj Thermal
Power Plant (TE) for the production of electricity and heat. At the current rate of extraction and with substitute
TE 600 MW unit 6, which has been building, the reserves of Velenje lignite are sufficient till year 2054 (till end of
power plant TE operation) (Termoelektrarna otanj, 2013).
Figure 1. Ground plan view of Velenje Coal Mine objects

Coalmining as a process of underground


coal extraction is often regarded as an
environment-unfriendly process. Since
the economic and social benefits of its
results are significant, environment is
being sacrificed in many areas containing
the reserves of this important energy
resource. Not so long ago, aleka valley
was environmentally ruined and scarred
due to mining and energy industry. When
the company realized that this cannot go
on any longer, it started to remedy the
environment with systematic work and
investments by the TE and VCM. The
remediation of environment has taken
place, and still takes place, without any
special legislation and budgetary funds.
All environmental expenses are already
included in the price of coal.
Since the Velenje Coal Mine strives towards the coalmining in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, it has considerably reduced the unfriendly attitude to the environment. With numerous projects and activities, the company wants to restore a pleasant image of the environment that will be attractive to visitors, tourists
and guests. The company also constantly monitors the environmental impact and promptly eliminates the negative
impact on the environment. It systematically builds the relations with local community which represents one of the
key public target groups. Today, aleka valley no longer shows an image of mining landscape, it is increasingly becoming worthy of modern man and life. This can be noticed when taking walks on cycling and walking trails along
the landscaped shores of the lake, in the sports and cultural facilities built with the assistance of Velenje Coal Mine,
in various possibilities for involvement of employees in the company, the possibilities for education and employment of children, the activities of Sports Society and Retirees Club operating within the Velenje Coal Mine.
The development work at Velenje Coal Mine is taking place in several fields:
Health and safety at work.
Construction of mine facilities, coal extraction and transportation.
Ecology of working environment.
Optimization and automation of coal transportation, transportation and logistics.
Mine drilling.
Energy-efficient company.
Clean coal technologies (CCT).
The largest development projects include the construction of a new production shaft NOP II., the modernization of
work in the construction of roadways, optimization of face line an increase of the overall dimensions of faces and
an energy-efficient company. Investments in to production process modernization and new development projects

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are VCM long-term task. That is why they in past few years intensify preparation of projects for EU and Slovenia cofinancing calls.
Through project Development center energy (Slo. Razvojni center energija), which is co-founded by Slovenian
ministry of economy and ERDF - European Regional Development Fund, VCM research and development work covers three areas: Fixation of CO2 on power plant fly ash, underground coal gasification (UCG) and eco-wind turbines.
They were also successful at projects which are co-founded from Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS). Projects
which are currently performing are COGASOUT (prediction and combating of gas outbursts, draining and degasification of lignite etc.), LOWCARB (optimization of ventilation, water pumping and energy use) and OPTI-MINE (use of
novel information and communication technologies for higher underground mine safety and efficiency). This year
project M-SMARTGRID, which will develop and implement new approach involving mine smart grid system, will
start. VCM is partner in project. We are also part of 7th framework program ongoing project: GHG2E Use of coal
mining gases and its conversion to energy.
At Velenje Coal Mine, the care for employees starts with the provision of adequate conditions for work and continues with the development of technology, work procedures, protective equipment as well as the health and safety at
work as one of the companys strategic objectives. The companies within the Velenje Coal Mine Group support the
development of programs for efficient use of energy and environment-friendly technologies.
Coal seam in the aleka valley basin
The wide area geographically known as the aleka valley can be classified geologically as a tectonic depression
that had been sinking between the otanj, Velenje and Smrekovec faults. The valley was shaped to its current dimensions by sinking and simultaneous accretion of sediments, part of the mass locked in it being the coal seam.
The coal called lignite is relatively young. The origin of Velenje lignite dates back to the period of late Tertiary, early
Pliocene, which took place 2.5 million years ago. The process of lignite mining is accompanied by intensive drainage
of water bearing layers. In the hanging wall above the coal seam, the Pliocene sands are drained, while the drainage
of Triassic substratum and Lithotamnion limestone is conducted in the footwall. Currently, 0.7 m3 of water is
drained per one tonne of extracted coal in order to provide for a safe and undisturbed operation of the Coal Mine.
Figure 2. Longitudinal section of the coal seam and the sequence of extraction

The coal seam under the aleka valley stretches 8.3 km long and up to 2.5 km wide, at a depth between 200 m and
500 m. Its average thickness is 60 m, with maximum values reaching up to 170 m. Velenje Coal Mine gathers these
data by drilling exploration drill holes. There are already more than 620 drill holes, which translate as 210 km of
geological data.
The deposit is closest to the surface on the edges and deepest in the middle. From the geomechanical point of
view, the strength and rigidity of the lignite layer is much higher than the materials in the hanging wall and in the
footwall of the deposit. This fact is important, both for planning excavations as well as for designing the most suitable excavation method, which needs to be adapted to the natural geological and geomechanical conditions. Also,
the caving-in of the materials in the adjacent hanging wall is different from the subsiding hanging-wall layers lying
above, where clay and silt layers are first plastically reshaped, while the layers situated higher up are bent and subsided to the surface, where large depression lakes have been formed as a consequence of the mining activities.

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2. DEVELOPMENT OF VELENJE MINING METHOD AND EQUIPMENT


Velenje mining method
One of the thickest coal seams in the world has spurred the development of innovative mining methods. Velenje
Coal Mine had strived to develop a mining method that would exploit the great thickness of the seam in order to
achieve the highest rate of extraction possible. It is also necessary to take into account that in the beginning of the
development of mining methods the work was performed manually, the explosive use was expensive and the workforce was cheap.
Figure 3. Mining panel and mining direction

The entire longwall excavation process is based on the


consideration of natural characteristics, provision of
adequate safety and the prediction of impacts on the
environment. The basic approach of mining using the
Velenje mining method is that we extend the coal extraction area also above the protected area at the face.
This includes exploitation of natural forces for breaking
and crushing the seam. With the use of modern mining
equipment, especially the hydraulic support system and
advanced chain conveyors, the concept of developing
the pits of Velenje Coal Mine will be based on a lower
number of wider longwall faces.

Figure 4. Excavation scheme of semi mechanized VMM in use 1950 1988

According to Velenje mining method a coal face is divided in the footline section and the hanging wall section. The footline section is 4 to 5
m high and secured by the hydraulic support system which allows mechanized exploitation by using excavation machines - shearer loaders and
the conveyance of coal by using efficient chain conveyers. The hanging
wall section, measuring 5 to 17 m in height, is exposed to dynamic stress
conditions which cause the crumbling of the coal layer; the crushed coal
is then poured onto the conveyor and promptly transported to the surface (Velenje Coal Mine presentation brochure, 2012).

Figure 5. Excavation scheme of VMM in use


till 1991 (left) and state of art excavation
scheme of VMM (right)

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The allowed face height at the longwall depends on the thickness of clay insulating layers in the hanging wall, which
protect the face from the inrush of running sand and water. Following the criteria of Safe mining below water
bearing strata at Velenje Coal Mine (RLV RP-36/95 LM, 1995) the allowed working height is calculated according to
preliminary stated variants.
The layer of clay and coal which break in the gob and in loose up the excavated, depending on the depth and the
speed of face retreat. The greatest height of caving-in occurs close behind the face. The working height is determined by the analytical working of mass volume of the caved material, and is confirmed by in situ researches.
Today, the Velenje Mining Method is renowned in the world and referenced in many scientific and technical publications. It is also an internationally protected patent that has been proven to be the most effective method for
extracting thick coal seams.
VMM had strived to highest productivity regarding VCM thick coal seam and natural characteristics. Todays VMM is
also result of intense equipment development were significant part was done by VCM engineers in cooperation with
international equipment producers. In next chapters we represent longwall faces and roof supports development.
Longwall faces excavation process development
In the past years, the development of faces was mainly focused on the coal extraction from lower and upper section, since only highly-efficient and capable faces can ensure the maintenance of competitive ability of coal from
aleka valley. In 2003, mining started in the north wing of Preloge pit (G area), where mining is, due to thin insulation layers, limited to lower face heights and he coal extraction only from lower section.
The mining according to the horizontal concentration system is considerably more expensive, since up to three
times more facilities have to be built for the same amount of extraction. That is why the development has been
oriented in the optimization of mining with coal cutting only. This, above all, demanded the modifications of mining equipment and the optimization of technological process for faces with lengths of more than 200 m. The first
level of the north wing of Preloge pit was mined using four faces with lengths around 140 m. The mining of the first
face (G2/B) with length of 210 m started in 2008, while the third level will be mined using two faces with lengths up
to 220 m.
With the placement of the 210 m face, it was, already on the second level, necessary to build 1,600 m less level
roadways. Thus, the level of roadway construction was reduced from 3.85 m/1000 t to 2.89 m/1000 t of extracted
coal. Less required roadways also means a possibility to optimize the preparation sites (Kolenc, 2007).
With mining works, the coal seam was first opened in the eastern section, closer to the present-day city of Velenje.
The currently active section of the Velenje Coal Mine is situated in the southeast part of aleka valley, closer to
the town of otanj.
Figure 6. Development of mining at Velenje Coal Mine

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Currently, the pit of Velenje Coal Mine is opened by five mine shafts and two dipping drifts. With the development
of mining equipment, faces have become increasingly more capable. That is evident from the following tables and
image.
Table 1. Performance measures of mining development at Velenje Coal Mine

YEAR

1970

1980

1985

1990

2000

2010

2011

2012

26.9

12.9

12.3

8.4

2.7

1.89

2.06

1.99

1,326

895.9

1,063

717.6

302.3

322.7

273.1

276.3

0.94

1.14

1.19

1.33

3.53

3.74

3.64

3.79

3,461

4,702

5,106

4,210

3,743

4,011

4,066

3,976

37,182

44,174

47,894

41,283

37,932

44,671

45,005

42,385

Average number of faces per day


Average length of face line (m)
Average daily progress (m)
Total excavated tonnage (000 ton)
Total excavated energy (TJ)

In last years, the annual production stabilized at 4 million tones, which has been achieved with three active faces in
average. Mining has been taking place in three areas, by gradual completion of mining at an individual face. This
was followed by the disassembly and overhaul of equipment, which was then relocated to the newly-prepared face.
In addition, due to the dynamic impacts of mining, certain mine facilities for the new face had to be constructed
after the completion of mining at an individual area.
The increase of capabilities of mining equipment has enabled the increase of face lengths and achieved daily progress. Today, the length of faces is from 140 to 230 m, while the daily progress is between 4 and 9 m. The average
daily production at such a face is between 6,000 and 15,000 t/day. The productivity is from 43 to 60 t/m/day. The
lower table presents the values of daily production, daily progress of faces and other for individual faces which
were operating in 2010, 2011 and 2012.
Table 2. Mine faces production datas for year 2010

Faces

k. -120/B

Number of workdays
Average daily production in 2010 [t/day]
Average daily progress in 2010 [m/day]
Maximum daily production [t/day]

k. -50/B

G2/C

88

202

117

8,338

9,989

8,056

3.63

2.85

5.60

13,019

13,813

10,192

5.3

4.7

8.6

Maximum daily progress [m/day]


Table 3. Mine faces production datas for year 2011

Faces 2011
Number of workdays
Average daily production in 2011 [t/day]
Average daily progress in 2011 [m/day]
Maximum daily production [t/day]
Maximum daily progress [m/day]

k. -130/C

k. -50/C

G2/C

k. -5/A

G3/B

185,33

169

21

78,67

41

7,283

9,791

3,854

7,675

4,932

3.52

3,51

2,51

3,21

6,11

12,860

12,657

7,185

11,640

7,298

5.8

5,25

4,9

4,65

8,5

Table 4. Mine faces production datas for year 2012

Faces 2012
Number of workdays
Average daily production in 2012 [t/day]
Average daily progress in 2012 [m/day]
Maximum daily production [t/day]
Maximum daily progress [m/day]

k. -5/A

G3/B

k. -65/A

k. -130/B

k. -65/F

G3/C

81

110.67

152

126.33

40

4,525

6,517

8,936

9,201

3,743

4,053

2.76

4.67

2.42

5.38

3.45

4.08

10,351

10,450

12,610

11,009

5,347

6,731

6.6

8.6

4.8

6.4

5.4

6.8

In 2010, mine face k.-50/B was operating for more than one year were more than two million tons of coal was extracted. This was the highest production from one mine face ever in VCM history.
With the mining at Face G2/C, VCM started realizing the project of simultaneous mining of coal at two faces only,
which was set out in 2009. The project does not concern the coal mining only, but also all the projects of coal ex-

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traction rationalization and the plans for future years for all support services, which are planning the mining. For
example, they mined at Face k.120/B in the south wing of Preloge pit and Face k.50/B in Pesje pit in 2009 and
2010. At this two faces, mining were up to the heights of 15 meters. Both faces yielded exceptionally good results
in average 18,500 tons of coal per day. In May 2010, VCM completed mining at Face k.120/B and without any interruption, started mining at Face G2/C. The length and placement of faces in the north wing of Preloge pit are limited with overall dimensions of the seam, which will, in the next level, enable the face lengths of up to 250 meters.
Mining at such a length is enabled by the state-of-the-art mining equipment that was already installed at Face G2/C
and represents a result of numerous improvements suggested by the users of equipment and other experts at the
company. It includes the use of modern mining equipment, especially the new hydraulic support system and advanced chain conveyor.
Other modern mine face is mine face k.-50/C which operation started in November 2010. This mine face was completely equipped with latest state-of-the-art hydraulic roof supports and represents one of the major VCM
achievements. In first six months new equipment performed successfully where higher productivity at assured safeth
ty was achieved. On date, 4 of April 2011, on mine face k.-130/A, biggest historical coal production in one single
shift of 5,830 ton and exploitation efficiency rate of 239 ton/man shift was achieved.
The weakness of coal extraction at two faces only is in the standstills. Namely, if one face ceases to operate, this
means a 50-percent loss of production. From this viewpoint, it is very important that the faces and mine facilities
are well-prepared, that the highly-capable equipment at the faces operates without faults, as well as that everyone,
who can contribute, provide for an undisturbed operation. Simultaneous mining at two faces throughout the entire
year means great progress towards the understanding of rationalization and economic viability of mining the Velenje lignite. With the mining concept, VCM resolved the peak loads of main coal transports from the pit and the
lack of workers at faces, as well as reduced the openness of the pit with the required facilities for one face. In addition, the time of consolidating the area, where the mining had taken place beforehand, has been extended. Namely,
VCM intervene in the area alternately and with a delay, which has positive impacts on the improvement of stability
of mine facilities and the mining process. In addition, they need one third less mining equipment, for which they
can, throughout the entire year, plan the installation and construction as well as time scheduled overhauls. We also
have enough time for a quality assembly and disassembly. The facilities may be built without any rush and with
quality. In addition, the required number of maintenance personnel and mining services was reduced. And, what is
most important with two faces, the costs of coal extraction were also lower, which is of key importance for the
realization of Development Plan or the reduction of price of end product electricity generated from VCM coal
(Rudar, May 2010).
Technical and technological parameters of the Velenje Mining Method
By using the Velenje mining method, coal excavation can be fully mechanized; certain phases can even be automated. If natural factors of crumbling of coal in the hanging wall section are successfully integrated, the method
provides a base for high productivity. Parameters and average results of exploitation using the Velenje mining
method are:
face length: more than 200 m
face height: 5 -17 m
face advance: up to 9 m/day
daily production from one face: more than 16,000 t/day
longwall face productivity: up to 70 t/m/day
longwall face efficiency: up to 160 t/working day
annual production: 4 million ton/year (max. 5.1 million ton in the year 1985).
Some best production results of VCM are:
th
33,000 ton - Largest daily production from coal faces (11 September 1997)
23 sections/day - The highest number of sections dismantled in one day from one coal face (23th June 2005)
16,800 ton - Largest daily production from one coal face/sublevel method (28th July 2005)
8.6 m - Highest daily advance with shearer cutting method (31st May 2010)
10,192 ton - Largest daily production from one coal face, advanced with shearer cutting method (06th July
2010)
2,320,514 ton - Record production from one coal face (the face operated for 236 days).

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5,830 ton Record coal production from one mine face in one single shift and best exploitation efficiency
rate of 239 ton/man (4th April 2011).

Hydraulic roof support system and mine longwall faces


The Velenje mining method was developed on classical coal faces equipped with friction legs and iron beams. Low
performance, strenuous physical work and high production costs required an accelerated development of mining
equipment and technology. At the beginning of the 1970s, Velenje Coal Mine began an intensive development of
the equipment for mechanized work at longwall faces. A number of hydraulic support systems were tested. Initially,
load-carrying hydraulic support systems were mainly tested. Due to their properties, the results were not very satisfactory.
Therefore a big part of VMM development lays on roof supports system which development has been oriented in
the direction of mechanization of faces for coal extraction from the lower and upper excavation section the ceiling section.
A true revolution in the support system development was represented by the hydraulic support system with a conveyor sitting on a base, lemniscate-guided shield, an option of total control (prevention) of caving-in in the foot-line
section and electro-hydraulic control system.
Figure 7. Development of hydraulic roof support system

For these purposes, VCM tested different hydraulic roof support systems. The faces were up to 60 m long and up to
10 m high. In addition, two mining chain conveyor were used (one for lower excavation section and one for ceiling
section), as well as a shearer with lateral loading. The hydraulic support system had an open hydraulic system with
the use of emulsion.
The mining technology consisted of the following: extraction in the lower excavation section by blasting and loading of coal on the lower conveyor using the shearer, as well as coal extraction from the ceiling section of the face
by gradual blasting (entry in the unsupported ceiling section) and pouring on the ceiling conveyor. The equipment
had several deficiencies: instability of the hydraulic support system, impossibility of gripping the face wall, poor
covering of ceiling surface, poor working conditions due to the open hydraulic system and high consumption of
emulsion. In addition, lengths of faces were short.
The hydraulic support system was soon replaced by a self-advancing hydraulic support system. The equipment of
faces with such a hydraulic support system included the use of a conveyor in the lower excavation section, a shearer and ceiling conveyors. The faces were 100 m long. The technology of extraction consisted of the following: extraction of coal in the lower excavation section by cutting and loading on the lower section conveyor using the
shearer, as well as the extraction of coal from the ceiling section of the face by gradual blasting (entry in the unsupported ceiling section) and pouring on the ceiling conveyor. With the use of such equipment, VCM achieved
higher efficiency, reduction of costs due to lower consumption of emulsion and higher stability of the hydraulic
support system.
In year 1977 VCM construct hydraulic support system in Slovenian factory with cooperation of English company.
Different types of these hydraulic support systems were used and upgrading for more than 15 years. However, the
equipment still had a few deficiencies. The hydraulic support system was not sufficiently stable and did not enable
the gripping of face wall. There were also frequent defects on joints and the shifting element as well as on the sys-

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tem for the adjustment of frames. Ceiling surface was poorly covered by ceiling joists, while the capacity of ceiling
conveyors was low (Medved, Peovnik, 1999).
Coal exploitation from upper excavation area is know and used method also in some other world coalmines. Our
VMM is unique in point that coal is excavated in front of mine face at hanging wall. Some world mines have chain
conveyers behind roof supports on which coal is poured through flap. Such mining method is used in China, Australia and in Poland. VCM also used such method in past.
Last development was hydraulic shield roof support were chain conveyer is on support base and with lemniscat
shield leading and electro-hydraulic management. At roof support development VCM always stare to stability, caring capacity, safety against coal crushing and maximum processes mechanization. Specialty of VCM section regarding mining method from upper excavation area is that main telescopic hydraulic legs connect shield and base and
not canopy and base (Rudar, September 2010).
Figure 8. Scheme of VCM state-of-the-art hydraulic support system (section)

In year 2010 VCM purchased new modified and improved hydraulic roof supports. Its development was result of
close cooperation and engineering work of VCM and equipment supplier Bucyrus Europe Gmbh experts. Main goal
at roof support development was to achieve bigger carrying. All suggested improvements which came as from production, design and maintenance departments were analyzed and considered at development. Special attention
was devoted also to equipment mounting and un-mounting process in mine which is often very demanding due to
limited space and harsh conditions in mine. New generation of roof supports is heavier and more robust and is
made of very quality materials and completely designed for VMM use. Because of larger clear surfaces air flow
through mine face is improved. That gives us better working conditions at mine faces.
Beside roof supports high pressure emulsion pumping station which supplies hydraulic emulsion for roof supports
powering was also subject of development. VCM installed automatic one way pressure filter which is made of two
filter sets equipped with manometers and pressure control. Filter is capable of self-cleaning without closing power
supply pressure line.

3. VELENJE COAL MINE GLOBAL BUSINESS COOPERATION


In addition to its basic activity of coal extraction, the Velenje Coal Mine Group, which consists of HTZ Velenje, RGP,
PV Invest and Gost, has also developed many other programmes and products, through which the entire group is
expanding its business operation. Thus, they realise their long-term strategy of reducing their dependence from
coal and develop new programmes and innovative business activities, which are increasingly more market-oriented
and provide jobs outside the coal extraction business.
Velenje Coal Mine projects and prospects in Europe
Velenje Coal Mine has recognised great possibilities for the penetration of Slovenian mining know-how in the area
of Southeast Europe. Due to the constantly increasing needs for electricity, coal will also in the future represent an
important element in the supply of electrical power. This is also the case in Southeast Europe, where practically all
the countries are trying to modernise the existing Coal Mines, while some of them are also considering the opening
of new mine fields.

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Thus, Velenje Coal Mine is making great progress in concluding business deals in the region of Southeast Europe,
where the company has, after the successful completion of Mramor project in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH),
also established good business relations on Macedonian energy market, while the possibilities for new business
deals are again opening in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and in Serbia. Mentioned project Maramor in BiH
was worth almost 4 million EUR and represents first such modernised undergrund mine in country that gived all
previous records. Additionaly we are discussing about bussiness cooperation with mine Kakanj, where subject is
equipment sell and building of mine objects.
Velenje Coal Mine has signed a contract with Macedonian Power Plants (ELEM) for the design of the main mining
project for the opening of Marijevo Coal Mine near Prilep in Macedonia. Till today Velenje Coal Mine completed
technical documentation and prepared everything necessary for the start of production in the above-mentioned
Coal Mine. The documentation included the technological characteristics as well as the design of required equipment, ventilation, transportation, power supply, impacts on the environment and local community, etc. Another
project in Macedonia was for the mine ivojno where our experts cooperate at techno economic survey.
Turks came to us with offer to cooperate at mines modernization on base of biggest world mining equipment producers initiative and advice. We are cooperating at modernization of coal mines in Soma region. In 2012 and 2013
we shipped 80 pieces of used and completely renewed hydraulic roof supports to the Turkish Coal mine Soma
Komur. At the moment they are discussing about some more equipment sale.
This is not the only field were we cooperate with European coalmines. In 2012 we rent our road header machine,
GPK-PV to Slovakian coalmine Hornonitrianske Bane Prievidza. They were very satisfied they bought machine when
rent period was expired. Devices, equipment, and tools, which are part of the machine for the construction of mine
facilities, are licensed for use in underground mines endangered by methane and/or hazardous coal dust. High quality hydraulic and electrical equipment made by European manufacturers is installed on the machine, which allows
low maintenance costs. Machine has standard equipment which fully meets the requirements of ATEX standards for
the equipment group I and category M2, has small mass and small specific pressure on the floor and can make cor2
ridors of various shapes from 7,5 to 22 m in stone or coal.
Of course at all these projects here is not only VCM unselfish mining help but mostly sale of know-how and services.
This is going to be also our future strategy and vision at prospecting on foreign markets.
Velenje Coal Mine projects and prospects in Asia-Pacific region
Beside project in South East Europe, VCM is lately oriented even more globally. In 2010 VCM started cooperation
with Indian company Fairwood Welbeck Natural Resources (FWNR).
In scope of Slovenian government delegation which was on state visit in India 14th June 2011, VCM signed agreement in Delhi with Fairwood Company about joint cooperation and acting on Indian market. At agreement signing
also Slovenian Prime Minister Borut Pahor was present.
In April 2012 we established together with partners joint venture Company in Singapore. Through it VCM would
cover different project in Asia-Pacific region.
VCM is preparing to cooperate in one of the worlds biggest underground coalmines modernization in India. India is
currently among the top three fastest growing economies of the world. As a natural corollary India's energy needs
too are fast expanding with its increased industrialization and capacity addition in Power generation. This is where
'Coal' steps in. In India yearly production of coal is cca 557 million tons and also India has one of the largest known
world coal reserves. Last year they additionally imported more than 80 million tons of coal. At same time they already face deficit of electricity supply (Ministry of Coal, Government of India, 2013). That is why they set very ambitious plan. They will practically double installed electricity power capacities till year 2020 from which 60% will be
coal fired power plants. Majority of them will use domestic coal. They already seek international help for technology development and modernization of mines. In next 20 years they plan to modernize existing coalmines and to
build some new coal mines were they already recognizes that more coal will have to be produced from underground coal mines.
Foreign partners recognized VMM as one of the most productive and environmentally friendly method for thick coal
layers exploitation. This recognition additionally represents approval of VCM engineering knowledge and knowhow. Cooperation in all international projects will be big opportunity for domestic knowledge promotion as for
VCM and for country Slovenia.

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4. CONCLUSIONS
Velenje Coal Mine is a technologically highly-developed company, strongly integrated in the Slovenian energy industry and environment with its more than 137-year tradition of lignite mining. One of the thickest lignite seams in
the world has spurred the development of innovative mining methods. The first beginnings of longwall faces appeared in 1947, while an extensive introduction of longwall faces began in 1952. The basic approach of mining using the Velenje mining method (VMM) is that we extend the coal extraction area also above the protected area at
the face. By continuous research this method has undergone various technological improvements. With the purpose of optimizing the face line, the Velenje Mining Method is still being developed and improved in the technological and organizational sense, namely by increasing the production at a single face, the efficiency of seam, safety of
employees, humanization of labor and economy.
Huge steps were done in development of longwall faces equipment were hydraulic roof supports (sections) played
major role. A number of different hydraulic supports were tested were focus was on the coal extraction from lower
and upper excavation area. In year 2010 we started to use newly developed hydraulic roof supports which are heavier, robust, made of quality materials, have bigger carrying and are completely designed for VMM use. Despite fact
that also some other world coal mines are excavating coal from upper excavating area VMM is unique in point that
coal is excavated in front of mine face at hanging wall. Namely production results measured on specific mine face
area are in world top class. Big contribution to that has VCM know-how in VMM and state-of-the art roof support.
VMM is an internationally protected patent that has been proven to be the most effective method for extracting
thick coal seams. In 2007, Velenje Coal Mine received a special reward from the Slovenian Chamber of Engineers for
the innovative approach to engineering. Today, the method is producing enviable results, placing the coalmine in
the global forefront of underground coalmining.
VCM is trying to find the optimal overall dimensions of faces (length, height, width) with regard to the mining area.
This is the reason that they decided to include only two faces in the production at the same time. In 2008, they successfully start to mine the longest face in the history of Velenje Coal Mine - 210 meters.
Other development projects of Velenje Coal Mine are conducted in the area of clean coal technologies (CCT), information technologies and information system, in the field of safety and health at work, energy efficiency etc. In
the field of CCT, we have studied the degasification of lignite (CBM), the capture, transportation and storage of CO2
(CCS) and underground gasification of coal (UCG).
Looking globally world coal consumption is still growing despite global economic crisis. Global trends show that
coal prices will rise. In that point domestic coal production and electricity production are guaranty for security of
supply, electricity prices and economic stability. In addition to basic activity of coal extraction VCM business group
is performing many activities and projects at European and global markets. They are making great progress in the
area of Southeast Europe with offering complete mine management, design, engineering and operational services
with a strong emphasis on safety and enhanced productivity. VCM successfuly completed project of coalmine
Mramor in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and also established good business relations on Macedonian energy
market, while the possibilities for new business deals are again opening in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and
in Serbia. Turks came to VCM with offer to cooperate at coal mines modernization on base of biggest world mining
equipment producers initiative and advice.
Beside projects in South East Europe VCM is lately oriented even more globally. In 2010 they started their cooperation with Indian company Fairwood Welbeck Natural Resources (FWNR). They established joint venture company
which will cover different project in Asia-Pacific region, where biggest focus is on India.
Foreign partners recognized VMM as one of the most productive and environmental friendly method for thick coal
layers exploitation. This recognition additionally represents approval of VCM engineering knowledge, know-how
and modern approach to work. It has to remain like that, since this is indispensable if they want to compete on the
international market ruled by harsh competitive conditions that we can best adapt by trying to work as good as
possible.

REFERENCES

[1]

Golob, Ludvik; Kolenc, Marjan; Kodri, Toma: Dolg odkop tudi v Velenju (Long face in Velenje as well). Velenje: Velenje Coal
Mine, 2007.

[2]

Index mundi, http://www.indexmundi.com, 2013.

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[3]

Kolenc, Marjan: Odkop doline 220 m je postal realnost tudi v Velenju, Posvetovanje rudarskih in geotehnolokih strokovnjakov
ob 40. Skoku ez koo (220-m face a reality in Velenje as well, Consultation of mining and geotechnical experts upon the 40th
Jump over the Skin event), Ljubljana, 2007.

[4]

Medved, Milan et al.: Premog in njegova vloga v EU ter na podroju JV Evrope. Prihodnost energije. Ljubljana: Planet GV, 2008.

[5]

Medved, Milan et al.: Strategic aspects of electricity power supply in central and south - eastern Europe - The role of coal and
coal technologies evaluation. RMZ - Materials and Geoenvironment, Vol. 55, No. 2, DD. 277-295. 2008.

[6]

Medved, Milan: Premog - pomemben energent tudi v prihodnosti. Energetika bo risala prihodnost gospodarstev. En.konferenca,
Energetika, marec 2008.

[7]

Medved, Milan; Golob, Ludvik: Sustainable development of Velenje mining method and its global use. International Conference:
progressive technologies of exploration, extraction and beneficiation of mineral deposits, and enviroment protection
Demnovska dolina, Slovakia. November 2012.

[8]

Medved, Milan; Golob, Ludvik: Sustainable development of Velenje mining method and safety & technology information system.
nd
22 World mining congress, Istanbul, Turkey. September 2011.

[9]

Medved, Milan; Peovnik, Ivan: Razvoj tehnologije odkopavanja in odkopnega podporja na Premogovniku Velenje v obdobju od
leta 1875 do leta 1999 (Development of mining technology and mining support at Velenje Coal Mine from 1875 to 1999). Velenje: Velenje Coal Mine, 1999.

[10]

Ministry of Coal. Government of India. http://www.coal.nic.in/welcome.html. 2013

[11]

Premogovnik Velenje. www.rlv.si, 2013.

[12]

RLV RP-36/95 LM: Velenjska odkopna metoda (Velenje mining method). Velenje: Velenje Coal Mine, 1996.

[13]

Rudar. Internal newspaper of Premogovnik Velenje. May 2010.

[14]

Rudar. Internal newspaper of Premogovnik Velenje. November 2010.

[15]

Rudar. Internal newspaper of Premogovnik Velenje. September 2010.

[16]

Seher, Anton et al.: 100 let rudnika lignita Velenje (100 years of lignite mine in Velenje). Velenje: REK, 1975.

[17]

Seher, Anton: Zgodovina Premogovnika Velenje (History of Velenje Coal Mine), Volume 1 and 2. Velenje: Velenje Coal Mine, 1995.

[18]

Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 BP. www.bp.com/statisticalreview. 2013.

[19]

Termoelektrarna otanj. http://www.te-sostanj.si/si/. 2013.

[20]

Velenje Coal Mine presentation brochure: ut za prihodnost (The feeling for the future). Velenje: Velenje Coal Mine, 2007.

[21]

Velenje Coal Mine presentation brochure: The Velenje mining method. 2012.

[22]

Velenje Coal Mine: Razvojni nart Premogovnika Velenje za obdobje 20092018 (The 2009-2018 development plan of Velenje
Coal Mine). Velenje: Velenje Coal Mine, 2009.

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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
OF BULGARIAN MINING INDUSTRY
ABSTRACT
Prof. Dr. Tzolo VOUTOV
Prof. Dr. Petar DASKALOV

Scientific and Technical Union


of Mining, Geology and Metallurgy,
Sofia, Bulgaria
mdgm@fnts-bg.org

There are 658 registered deposits with 40.5 billion tons of mineral reserves,
constituting the mineral and raw material resource base of Bulgaria.
For the year 2012 Bulgarian mining industry has produced: energy raw materials - 33.5 mln. tons, metal ores - 30.7 mln. tons, industrial minerals - 10.2
mln. tons, building materials - 23.6 mln. tons. The average annual production
for the period 2000 - 2012 amounts to 89.1 mln. tons or 12.1 tons/person
and 803 tons/sq.km. of the territory of Bulgaria.
Bulgarian mining production disposes of mineral reserves (at annual capacity
of 100 mln. tons) in the coal mining sector - for the coming 66 years; the ore
mining sector is provided for the next 17 years; extraction of industrial raw
materials is guaranteed within a period of 193 years and building materials within 125 years time.
According to the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria, all mineral deposits are exclusive public property. The legal framework for managing the Bulgarian mining industry mainly includes: 145 laws; ordinances, regulations and
instructions; methodologies and guidelines, standards and norms related to
mining production and geological surveys; strategies, concepts, national
programmes, European directives and world-wide criteria.
Numerous people are involved in the Bulgarian mining industry: 25-30 thousand production workmen; 120 - 130 thousand employees participating in
mining production; the mining sector contributes 4-5% of the countrys
Gross Domestic Product; the total value of annual mining production
amounts to 2.8 - 3.0 billion Bulgarian levs.
Bulgaria is a mining country and it has been a member of the World Mining
Congress (since 1965), of the European Association of Mining Industries
(since 1991) and of the Association of Mining Experts in the Balkan region BALKANMINE (since 2004).
Keywords
Mineral Reserves, Mining Production, Sustainable Development

1. INTRODUCTION
According to the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria dated 1991, Art. 18: All underground natural resources,
beaches, republican roads, as well as waters, forests and parks of national significance, natural and archaeological
reserves specified as such by law are exclusive public property.
The terms and procedure under which the state grants concessions and licenses for prospecting and exploration of
mineral resources are regulated by law. They are managed and controlled for the benefit of the Bulgarian citizens
and society.
As a member of the European Union, Bulgaria strictly complies with the European directives for development of
mining industry at the beginning of the XXI century, namely:
1. Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament on the management of waste from extractive industries.
2. Directive 94/22/EC of the European Parliament on the conditions for granting and using authorisations for the
prospection, exploration and production of hydrocarbons.

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3. Development of European mining industry for non-energy purposes (2008). Opinion of the European Economic
and Social Committee.
4. Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament on the storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations.
5. Directive 2008/1/EC concerning integrated pollution prevention and control over the environmental contamination caused by industrial sources.
6. Madrid Raw Materials Declaration 2010 on the future demand for minerals in Europe.
7. EC Guidance on undertaking new nonenergy extractive activities in accordance with Natura 2000 requirements
(2010).
8. Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe (European Commission, 2011) for enhancing Europes sustainable development by 2050.
9. Competitiveness of the mining industry by creating a significant contribution to meet the demand of natural
resources and the needs of the national economy and society.
10. Raw Materials Initiative launched by the EU Strategy 2020 for annual planning over the next five years aiming to
foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources.
11. European strategic objectives for sustainable development of mining industry by ensuring balanced economic,
social and environmentally responsible approach to the exploration, extraction and processing of mineral resources.
12. Updating and making amendments in the legislative regulations such as the Territory Structure Act, State
Property Act, Municipal Property Act, Waters Act, Waste Management Act, Recultivation of technogenic damaged
terrains, Forestry Act and Law on Protection of Agricultural Lands, etc.
13. Preparation of a national sustainable development strategy for the Bulgarian mining industry by 2030 (ready
project 2013).

2. BULGARIA IS A MINING COUNTRY


According to the classification of the World Mining Congress, the Bulgarian mining industry disposes of mineral
reserves and production of:
. Ores of ferrous, non-ferrous and precious metals: iron, chromium, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, tantalum,
titanium, tungsten, vanadium, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, copper, gallium, germanium, lead, tellurium, zinc, gold,
silver, platinum.
B. Industrial mineral resources: asbestos, barite, bentonite, feldspar, fluorite, graphite, gypsum, kaolin, magnesite,
perlite, phosphate, clays, potash, zeolite, salt, talcum, vermiculite, dolomite, refractory earth, kieselguhr, chalk,
ochre.
C. Energy mineral resources: coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, uranium, anthracite, peat, oil shales, shale gas.
D. Building materials: limestone, marl, clays, quartz, marble, trass, sands, gravel, breccia, conglomerate, granite,
syenite, gabbro, travertine, monzonite, gneiss, basalt, andesite, amphibolite, shales, rhyolite.
E. Natural stone-lining materials: for production of blocks, curbs, tiles, paving stones, marbled flooring, rock flour,
Venetian mosaics, souvenirs.
F. Geothermal waters: available at a depth of 500 m. to 3500 m. throughout an area of approximately 50 thousand
sq.km., temperature range from 40C to 120C, flow rate of 15-20 cub.m/s., recoverable energy - up to 2000 MWt.
The Bulgarian geological data base has registered 658 mineral deposits, containing 40.5 billion tons of reserves. For
the purposes of mining production, 350 mines and quarries are being exploited on the territory of 209 deposits
comprising 25.6 billion tons of mineral reserves.
The annual mining production in Bulgaria for the year 2012 includes: energy raw materials and solid fuels - 33.5
mln. tons, metalliferous ores - 30.7 mln. tons, industrial minerals - 10.2 mln. tons, building and natural stone-lining
materials - 23.6 mln. tons or average annual output of 98.0 mln. tons.

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Table 1. Production of mineral resources under conditions of market economy, sustainable development and world recession, mln.tons

No.

Mineral
resources

Products

Year
1990

1.

Solid fuels

Coal, lignite, anthracite,


schists, peat, uranium

32.5

27.1

24.7

28.7

27.28

29.5

37.26

33.50

2.

Metalliferous
ores

Copper, lead, zinc, gold,


silver, manganese, iron,
molybdenum

18.6

24.7

26.5

29.4

28.70

29.2

30.46

30.75

3.

Industrial
minerals

Kaolin, clays, bentonite,


gypsum, limestone, barite,
quartz, salt, perlite,
zeolite, etc.

7.2

7.5

8.9

8.8

6.64

9.0

9.98

10.18

4.

Building
materials

Limestone, marl, clays,


marble, trass, granite,
sand, gravel, etc.

15.0

19.4

27.1

38.9

23.59

21.3

25.16

23.30

5.

Natural stonelining materials

Limestone, marble,
breccias, granite, gabbro,
rhyolite, basalt, tuffs,
travertine, gneiss, etc.

0.21

0.31

0.28

0.40

0.365

0.28

0.283

0.314

73.5

79.0

87.5

106.2

86.58

89.30

103.16

98.04

Total

Year
2000

Year
2005

Year
2008

Year
2009

Year
2010

Year
2011

Year
2012*

*Industrial production of these minerals has been ceased: placer gold, anthracite, peat, uranium, iron, tungsten, baryte, chalk, dolomite, quartz,
tuffs, travertine, basalt.

The mineral deposits which are included in the National Balance of Reserves and Resources at the Bulgarian
National Geofund are as follows: 79 energy mineral deposits containing 3.0 billion tons of reserves; 200
metalliferous ore-fields with 654 mln. tons of reserves; 80 quarries for industrial raw materials containing 31 billion
tons of reserves, 300 deposits for building materials with 5.3 billion tons of reserves.
Bulgarian mining production, at a capacity of 100 mln. tons/year, is provided for 66 years in coal mining industry; in
ore mining sector it has resources for the next 17 years; production of industrial raw materials is guaranteed for the
next 193 years, and of building materials - for the coming 125 years.

3. MINERAL POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA


In accordance with the national sustainable development strategy in the mining sector and in compliance with the
Bulgarian mining laws, 194 prospecting and exploration licences as well as 483 extraction concessions were
granted by the end of 2012 (Table 2).
Table 2. Licenses and concessions for the Bulgarian mining industry by the end of 2012

No.

Natural mineral resources in Bulgaria

Prospecting and exploration licenses, pcs.

Extraction concessions, pcs.

1.

Metalliferous mineral resources

24

21
20

2.

Solid fuels

3.

Industrial mineral resources

37

71

4.

Building materials

52

298

5.

Natural stone-lining materials

61

57

6.

Oil and gas

12

15

7.

Mining waste materials

Total

194

483

Licenses and permits. In accordance with the Concessions Act and Rules on Its Implementation (after 2006), during
the period from 2000 to 2012 more than 1,000 licenses were issued for prospecting and exploration of mineral
resources, including 75 permits for ore fields, 22 permits for coal fields, 99 permits for non-metallic deposits, 30
exploration permits for oil and natural gas; 513 permits for building materials, 249 permits for natural stone-lining
materials; 15 permits for technogenic (mining waste) deposits.

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Concessions. In compliance with the Concessions Act and Rules on Its Implementation, 283 concessions were issued
during the period 2000 - 2012, including 17 extraction concessions for metalliferous ores; 19 concessions for solid
fuels; 53 concessions for industrial minerals; 11 concessions for extraction of oil and natural gas; 150 - for building
materials; 32 for stone-lining materials; 1 concession for development of technogenic (mining waste) deposits.
231 concessions (or 81.6%) out of totally 283 have been granted for opencast extraction.
The revenues collected from prospecting and exploration licenses and extraction concessions for the mining
industry in Bulgaria for the year 2012 totalled up to 185.78 mln. Bulgarian levs, including 34.55 mln. Bulgarian levs
that were given for municipal budgets.
In the year 2012, 164 inspections were performed to check the implementation of the Concessions Act within the
operating licenses and granted concessions. On the basis of 402 presented reports, 17 statements for established
violations were drawn up and 14 penal decisions were issued. As a result of that, fines and property sanctions
amounting to 950 thousand Bulgarian levs were imposed.

4. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULGARIAN MINING INDUSTRY


The development of Bulgarian mining industry during the period 2000 - 2012 goes through the following stages
(Figure 1):
Period from 2000 to 2008 production growth from 79 mln. tons 106 mln. tons;
Period from 2008 to 2010 recession from 106 mln. tons to 86 mln. tons;
Period from 2010 to 2012 growth in mining output from 86 mln. tons to 103 mln. tons.
Average annual production - 89.06 mln. tons
The recession and respective decline in mining production is mainly due to reduced annual production of building
materials from 39 mln. tons to 23 mln. tons.
Figure 1. Sustainable development of the Bulgarian mining industry during the period 2000-2013 and the recession after the year 2008

The production share of mineral raw materials in the Bulgarian mining industry during the period 2000-2012 is as
follows:
1. Solid fuels - 24 37 mln.tons
2. Metalliferous mineral resources 24 30 mln.tons
3. Industrial minerals 8 10 mln.tons
4. Building materials 20 39 mln.tons
5. Natural stone-lining materials 0.3 0.4 mln.tons
6. Liquid fuels, natural gas 25 thousand tons and 300 mln.cub.m.
The main positions held in the Bulgarian mining production (Figure 2) are those of coal mining sector - 34% and ore
mining sector - 31%. They provide annually 2.3 billion Bulgarian levs or 82% of the total mining output.

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Bulgaria annually imports mineral resources to the amount of 30-35 billion USD and it exports mineral raw
materials amounting to 25-30 billion USD.
Figure 2. Participation share of mineral raw materials in the Bulgarian mining production for the year 2012

REFERENCES
Ministry of Economy, Energy and Tourism, Ministry of Environment and Waters, Bulgarian Chamber of Mining and Geology, University of Mining
and Geology St. Ivan Rilski, Scientific and Technical Union of Mining, Geology and Metallurgy, Minstroy Holding, Geotechmin OOD, EvrotestControl AD.

1. Ellatzite-Med AD is a private joint-stock company dealing with extraction and processing of copper and goldcontaining ores. It has been operating Ellatzite open-pit mine located on the territory of the copper porphyry
deposit Ellatzite. The main ore-forming minerals are: chalcopyrite, pyrite, bornite, molybdenite and quartz, from
which copper, gold, silver, molybdenum and other by-products are extracted. The company comprises two main
production units an open-pit mine complex near the town of Etropole and a flotation plant near the village of
Mirkovo.

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2. Assarel-Medet JSC Mining and Processing Complex is a leading Bulgarian company for opencast mining and
processing of copper ores. Assarel mine strips out the deposit by driving a spiral trench, 25 m. wide and at a
gradient of 5-8. The designed output capacity of the mine is 14 mln. tons, while the actual production and
processing amounts to around 13 mln. tons/year. The cyclic-flow technology for transportation of overburden has a
capacity of 5,000 tons/hour. In 2012, more than 30 million Bulgarian levs were invested for modernization of
technological equipment, 5.3 million Bulgarian levs were contributed to the corporate environmental programme
and 3.3 million Bulgarian levs were funded in the sphere of occupational safety.

3. Mini Maritsa Iztok EAD has been exploiting the largest lignite coal basin in Bulgaria. The mine complex operates
three open-pit mines throughout an area 240 sq.km. and produces more than 30 mln. tons/year to supply the needs
of three thermal power plants. They provide 40% of the countrys electricity. The existing coal reserves exceed 2
billion tons. For the year 2015 the production programme has foreseen to achieve mining output of more than 32
mln. tons of coal and over 103 mln. tons of overburden.

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4. Chelopech Mining EAD. Chelopech mine has been operating the gold-copper-pyrite deposit Chelopech. The
orefield has been opened up by 4 vertical shafts and an inclined spiral working. While cutting out the orebodies,
sublevel caving is mainly applied as well as chamber-and-pillar mining with subsequent filling - hydraulic stowing
and paste-hardening fill with flotation tailings. The main components of the extracted ore mass are: copper, gold,
silver, selenium, tellurium and arsenic. Besides these main metals, some other elements are also found in the
produced concentrates: antimony, bismuth, indium, gallium, thallium, germanium, cadmium, cobalt, palladium,
platinum, molybdenum, vanadium. Chelopech deposit is unique. The mine produces more than 1.5 mln. tons/year
with designed output capacity of 2-3 mln. tons.

5. University of Mining and Geology St. Ivan Rilski


It was established 60 years ago as the Bulgarian Mining University. It consists of four faculties: Mining-Technological
Faculty, Mining-Electromechanical Faculty, Faculty of Geological Exploration and Department of Humanities. The
University of Mining and Geology is renowned for its highly qualified professional staff who have made significant
contributions to the mining science and practice. In 2013 the university obtained institutional accreditation with
assessment rating of 8.72. More than 21,000 mining and geological specialists from Bulgaria and 40 countries in
Europe, Asia, Africa and America have graduated from the University of Mining and Geology.

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6. Geotechmin OOD
Geotechmin OOD was established in 1990. The first company activities included rendering engineering and
consulting services for mining industry. Since then the company has gradually expanded its scope of activities in
other industrial sectors and today it successfully operates in the following spheres: mining industry, construction,
infrastructure, environment, real estate and investment projects, trade and vocational training. GEOTECHMIN
Group consists of 21 companies with more than 4,200 employees. Extensive experience in project implementation
under conditions of ongoing production, considerable human and technical resources, good reputation and
partnerships with many companies, financial stability these are among the main company advantages.

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MINE SURVEY

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EXAMINATION OF EXPLOSIVE AND


FLAMMABLE PROPERTIES OF COAL FROM THE
IVOJNO DEPOSIT, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

ABSTRACT
Aleksandar ERISILO1
Nenad RADOSAVLJEVI2
Marko PAVLOVI3
Mining institute, Belgrade, Serbia
1
aleksandar.djerisilo@ribeograd.ac.rs
2
nenad.radosavljevic@ribeograd.ac.rs
3
marko.pavlovic@ribeograd.ac.rs

The dust created during the mining of coal poses a safety problem during
operations in a mine. The dust is created in all phases of operations, from
excavation, loading, transport and processing to the utilization of coal. It
poses a permanent self-inflammation, burning and explosion hazard. This
paper presents results of the tests on the flammable and explosive
properties of the coal dust originated from the ivojno deposit, Republic of
Macedonia.

Keywords
Coal, Coal Dust, Explosive Properties, Flammability, ivojno

1. INTRODUCTION
The explosion of coal dust is defined as rapid combustion of the dust/air mixture within a limited or partially
limited space, where heat is generated faster than it is being dissipated. This occurs with great amounts of heat
being released, a rapid increase in volume, and development of great pressure. The conditions under which this
quality is expressed are dependent on the explosive qualities, particle size and quantity of coal dust. The most
unfavorable circumstance is if the burning dust has explosive qualities, which in cases of incorrect fire suppression
can create a dust cloud which, in right dust-air concentrations, explodes. These cases are usually followed by not
just material damages but human casualties as well.

2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research was conducted according to the following methodologies:
Quality of accumulated dust
- Moisture content according to SRPS B.H8.311:1984
- Ash contents according to SRPS 8.3/0 B.H8.312:1984
- Contents of volatile substances according to IEC 61241-2-1: 1994 (item 5)
Determination of disperse contents through sieve analysis, dry sifting with sieves with numbers from 0.025
to 0.071 by fractions
Determining coal dust explosiveness according to IEC 61241-2-1: 1994 (item 4)
Self-ignition capability of coal dust using the "Olpinski" method DM-004.
Sample treatment
Coal from the "ivojno" basin was extracted through deep mining. 33 coal samples were delivered to the mining
institute of Belgrade for examination of explosive and combustion qualities. Upon arrival to the institute, all of the
samples were dried at room temperature until the moisture levels were equal in all samples. After the drying
process the samples were crushed using a jaw crusher, and after, a vibrating mill upon which the samples were
turned to dust.
Each dust sample was sifted through a sieve of 71m. Coal dust samples were treated using sieve analysis, with
sieve diameters of 63m, 40m and 32m, to determine their median value, which for these examinations amounts
to 183 m.

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3. EXAMINATION RESULTS
Determining the natural self-ignition index
Determining the self-ignition qualities of coal was conducted using the Olpinski method. The Olpinski method is
based on the rate of temperature change of coal at the moment of adiabatic oxidation according to Mayers. The
measurement of heat alteration rates in coal (dTdt-1) min-1 is conducted in an increased temperature - the
boiling point of quinoline (232 ). Coal self ignition values are displayed in table 1.
Table 1. Coal self-ignition index values from drill holes

Sample code

Moisture
Wu(%)

Ash
Aw (%)

Volatiles
Vw (%)

EZ 22/11(B 45/34)

11,01

69,22

14,72

31

34

EZ 24/11(B 69/28)

18,52

14,69

38,58

137

168

EZ 25/11 (B 49/34)

16,82

16,70

39,68

150

163

EZ 26/11 (B 47/28)

17,79

19,72

36,22

154

187

EZ 27/11 (B 47/28)

13,07

44,35

25,97

127

146

EZ 28/11 (B 41/34)

16,00

15,45

40,07

115

137

EZ 29/11 (B 41/34)

9,64

58,71

19,88

127

140

EZ 30/11 (B 61/30)

11,31

49,48

24,91

40

45

SIa
(C/min)

Sib
(C/min)

Ignition temperature of coal dust in dust-air mixture


The method of determining the ignition temperatures of samples in the coal dust - air mixtures according to the
Godbert - Greenwald method was used to determine the degree of flammable qualities. This type of testing is
considered today to be the standard for determining the ignition temperature of coal dust. The principle of the
testing consists of determining the lowest temperature at which first signs of ignition appear, i.e. at what
temperature the danger of dust ignition exists. The experiment is conducted by dispersing 0.25 g - 1 g of dust in an
air current, after which the resulting mixture is conducted through a homogenous, clearly defined temperature
zone. Through varying the temperature of the device the ignition temperature of the coal dust is determined, as
displayed in table 2.
Table 2. Ignition temperatures of dust clouds by samples

Sample code

Does not ignite


t (oC)

Ignition temperature
t (oC)

EZ 22/11(B 45/34)

640

650

EZ 24/11(B 69/28)

470

480

EZ 25/11 (B 49/34)

470

480

EZ 26/11 (B 47/28)

440

450

EZ 27/11 (B 47/28)

510

520

EZ 28/11 (B 41/34)

480

490

EZ 29/11 (B 41/34)

530

540

EZ 30/11 (B 61/30)

540

550

Smoldering temperature of coal dust


In layers thicker than 5mm coal dust acts as a heat insulator because it prevents heat conduction which is being
developed due to operation of devices and installation on which it has accumulated. Poor heat conduction
increases the temperature on the surface of devices which leads to oxidation and appearance of a molten core in
the accumulated layer. When a molten core is formed the process of combustion is slowly taking place in the
accumulated dust layer, and crosses into open flame when it comes into contact with other flammable substances.
Smoldering of coal dust cannot be seen in daylight or artificial light until the ember temperature crosses over
500 . The lowest values in which the dust begins to ember are displayed in table 3.

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Table 3. Smoldering temperatures


Sample code

Smoldering temperature Tt(C)


220

230

240

250

260

270

280

290

300

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

3'57"

Time until a smoldering core appears(min,sec)


EZ 22/11
(B 45/34)

No
Smoldering

No
smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

EZ 24/11
(B 69/28)
66.20-70.50

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

7'30"

EZ 25/11
(B 49/34)
105.90-110.00

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

5'43"

EZ 26/11
(B 47/28)
58.90-63.00

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

5'05"

EZ 27/11
(B 47/28)
63.00-67.50

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

EZ 28/11
(B 41/34)
37.00-42.00

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

7'25"

EZ 29/11
(B 41/34)
42.00-45.45

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

9'00"

EZ 30/11
(B 61/30)
46.90-50.00

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

No
Smoldering

9'30"

4'15"

Examination of explosive characteristics


Examination was conducted according to the rulebook of SRPS B.Z1.065 from 1990 in an explosive chamber with a
volume of 40 l. The chamber contains an electric lighter and a vortex jet, through which a mixture of dust and air is
injected. After the mixture is injected, the electric lighter is activated and releases 5 KJ through combustion. The
dust saturation within the testing area of the chamber is within the range of 50 g/m3 to 1500 g/m3. Reading of the
explosion parameters is conducted with electronic devices.
Figure 1 displays the curve of explosive overpressure, which is used to discern the explosion parameters.

Figure 1. Curve of the explosion overpressure

curve of pressure increase within a steel chamber (the curve of explosion overpressure)
the value of explosive maximum overpressure Pmax (bar)
duration of the explosion (millisecond)
time required to achieve maximum overpressure increment dt (millisecond)

Explosiveness examination of all of the samples is displayed in table 4.

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Table 4. Display of explosive qualities of coal sorted according to drill holes

Drill site

Average particle size


(m)

EZ 22/11(B 45/34)

22

EZ 24/11(B 69/28)

21

EZ 25/11 (B 49/34)

20

EZ 26/11 (B 47/28)

19

EZ 27/11 (B 47/28)

18

EZ 28/11 (B 41/34)

22

EZ 29/11 (B 41/34)

18

EZ 30/11 (B 61/30)

20

Highest value of
explosive qualities Ek
(bar/s)

Maximum explosion
pressure Pmax(bar)

3,505

1,366

151

208,809

8,235

144

201,094

8,160

156

199,767

8,449

337

117,896

6,985

169

200,506

7,847

41,065

4,873

6,130

2,216

Lower explosiveness
limit Cmin (g/m3)

4. ANALYSIS OF THE EXAMINATION RESULTS


Examination of explosive qualities of coal dust from the site "ivojno" - Macedonia showed the following results:
Out of 33 test samples, 25 displayed explosive qualities
Maximum explosion pressure is Pmax = 8,501 bar
Lower limit for coal sample explosiveness is Cmin = 144 g/m3
The highest value of the explosive quality is Ek = 226,599 bar/s

5. CONCLUSION
According to the laboratory test results, the coal from the "ivojno" - Macedonia site, has shown explosive qualities,
with the lower explosiveness limit being 144 g/m3. The airborne coal dust can be ignited at temperatures of 390
and smoulders at the temperatures of 230 . Based on the conducted tests on the coal samples it can be
concluded that the coal from the "ivojno" basin belongs to the group of highly flammable and explosive coals.

REFERENCES
[1]

N. Radosavljevi, A. erisilo: Report on gas-bearing capacity for the coal at the ivojno deposit, 2012 (in Macedonian)

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ENERGY CONVERSION OF MINERAL MATERIALS


EXPOSED MECHANICAL ACTIVATION

ABSTRACT
1

Milan PETROV
Ljubia ANDRI
ivko SEKULI
Zoran BARTULOVI
Vladimir JOVANOVI
Branislav IVOEVI
Slavica MIHAJLOVI

Institute for Technology of Nuclear


and Other Mineral Raw Materials,
Belgrade, Serbia
1
m.petrov@itnms.ac.rs

Most of the reactions and processes are getting more rapidly at higher
temperatures. Temperature dependence of the chemical reaction progress
at best approximates Arrhenius law. The reaction rate may also depend on
the concentration of reactants. We note that the Arrhenius equation (1) in
the exponent has the following units: activation energy (Ea), the molar gas
constant (R) and temperature (T).
k Ae

Ea
RT

Equation 1

The activation energy is actually required specific energy of chemical


reactions, and through the Arrhenius equation also the measure of progress
the chemical reactions. By the analysis of equation 1, we can see that the
following statement is true activation energy and temperature are inversely
proportional units. In the work are made the experiments of
mechanochemical treatment of minerals with a polar organic reagents. On
that way in the ball mill is made its lining. In the above experiments it was
observed that there is a temperature dependence of the progress
mechanochemical reaction or coating process. The idea that made us the
law that applies to chemical changes applied to the adsorption changes that
are essentially physical nature araise when we noticed that there is
connection between the temperature and time of coating mineral materia.
Specifically, we found that with increasing temperature the mineral on ma
decreases the time required to carry grain paneling. As a measure of
progress mechanochemical reaction we used a modified Arrhenius equation.
Adopted activation energy in mechanochemical treatment is complete
impregnation mixture of mineral grains.

Keywords
Activation Energy, Mechanochemical Treatment,
Coating Temperature, Mineral Materia

1. INSTRUCTIONS
In this, paper, the results obtained by investigation coating of precipitated calcium carbonate grain mixture (the
average granulation equal 5 m) by stearic acid are presented. Coated product consisting of hydrophobic grains of
micronic dimensions is widely applicable in production of some chemical, rubber and pharmaceutical products. The
aim of this investigation was to perform of mineral grains coating in cylindric ball mill. Dependence of the coating
process rate constant (k) on temperature was followed. The temperature dependence of reactions involving
chemical changes is best described by the Arrhenius Law [1]. Reaction rate also depends on concetration of
reactants, presence of catalysts and granulation of solid substances. As can be seen, exponent of the Arrhenius
equation (1) involves the values such as activation energy (Ea), molar gas constant (R) and temperature (T), relating
to the specific chemical reaction,
Ea

k A e RT

(1)

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The idea to use the law applying to chemical changes for adsorptive changes (essentially physical in its nature) was
born when the relationship between temperature and time of mineral grain mixture coating in ball mill was
noticed. It was noticed that time required for coating of mineral grain mixture decreases with increase of
temperature. In equation (2) adjusted to coating process, mechanical reaction in ball mill should be considered
similar to chemical reaction described by the Arrhenius equation. Besides, in the Arrhenius equation adjusted to
coating process, it is necessary to consider molar gas constant (R) as specific heat capacity, cPsr. According to the
table of specific heats for solid bodies, the value of cPsr at 500C, cPsr=0.21 kcal/kp0. i.e. in the correspondinf unit
system, cPsr=0.05 kJ/kgK. The Arrhenius equation adjusted to coating process has the following form:

k Ae
where

EA
cPsr T

EA
A
cPsr
T

(2)

is activation energy of coating process


is preexponential factorArrhenius constant
is the mean specific heat for chalk at 500C (0.05 kJkg-1K-1, the literature data)
is temperature

Figure 1. Distribution of molecules with the lowest activation energy, at two temperatures

Activation energy of coating of mineral grain mixture in ball mill was also followeed by the grain counter
determined, providing the data about net energy consuption of the mill, according to experimental, models 1 and
2. Activation energy of the coating process (U) was equal to specific energy brought by the device, U, and change
of absolute potentials, S, specified at defined temperature T. In this way a part of energy accumulated in the
mineral grain mixture ana manifestea as a change of internal specific energy, U can be calculaten according to
the following expression:

U W T S

(3)

Experimentally determined internal energy (U) is activation energy of the coating process (EA):

U E A
2.

(4)

THERMOKINETICS OF CHEMICAL CHANGES: THEORETICAL ASPECT

The reason why chemical reactions temperature dependence is quite simple. The fact that two components have
come to a mutual contact is not sufficient for their chemical reaction: theis contact should also have enough
energy for their disintegration and building of new bonds. This law is applicable to the gaseous phase; not only that
two molecules should collide, but they should collide at such energy that atomic rearrangement is made possible.
The key for understanding the Arrhenius Law is Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular moving rates.
In Fig.1. the main information about the law of thermokinetics appling to the chemical changes are shown. With
the temperature increase, the ratio of the particles with high moving rates i.e. high kinetic energies increases. In
fig.1., the molecules whose kinetic energy equals at least Ea correspond to shaded surface. It is obvious that a their
number is higher if the temperature is higher.

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Matematical representation of the temperature dependence is given by the following expression:


Ea

moleculs whose energy equals at least Ea, at the temperature T

e RT

Adjusted equation (2) enables one to discribe mechanism of coating in ball mill by the laws applying to
thermokinetics of chemical changes (Eq.1) [2].
Since coating rate is proportional to the first degree of A (Eq.2) it means that rate equation is equation of the
pseudo first order. Coating rate can be expressed as follows:

Goating rate 1(since the concentracion is constant )


elapsed time

3. MATERIALS
For investigation of thermokinetics of coating process the following materials were used: precipitated calcium
carbonate, granulated calcium carbonate, talcum, zeolite, and sodium carbonate. As coating substance, stearic
acid was used. In this paper, the results on precipitated calcium carbonate coating are presented.

4. METHODS
Thermokinetics of mineral grains coating was investigated in cylindric ball mill with 19 l balls. For heat transfer
onto the mill body, working elements and mineral powder, electric dryer was used.
The rate of power consumption by the mill engine was measured by the Philips digital counter. The data about net
power required for movement of the grain mixture in order to perform its coating were obtained by establishing
two experimental models:
model 1 for measuring the power required to run cylindric mill charged with mineral powder and grinding
bodies;
model 2 for measuring the power required to run cylindric mill charged with mineral powder and grinding
bodies only.
Measurement of the coating degree was based on a simple method of submerging hydrophobic grains mixture in
water. The mixture of hydrophobic grains is considered coated if, after on our in water, with ocassional stirring, no
more then 2% is dissolved. Reaction rate constant was measured on the basis of time, required to attain defined
degree of coating in mill. The rate coefficient is reciprocal to the time required for full adsorption of stearic acid on
the grain surface during coating. Dimension of rate constant of mechanical coating is (s-1). It was possible to
determine the rate constant in described way due to the fact that concentration, i.e. bulk mass as its equivalent for
mineral grain mixture, was more less constant throughout the whole experiment [3].
Figure 2. Layout of the ball mill used for coating experiments

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5. RESULTS
It should be emphasized here that coating reaction can not proceed without mechanical energy of the ball mill. As
alredy said, the majority of reactinos proceed faster at higher temperatures. Reaction rate constant (k) is usually
expressed by equation (2), in practice, it is measured after the end of the coating process is reached.
Therefore, Eq.2 adjusted to mechanical coating in logarithmic form is:
E
ln k ln A A
c Psr
(5)
In the coordinate system (l/T, lnk), Eq.5 is represented by the straight line-therefore, we shall try to present our
experimental results in the same way. Measuring of the reaction rate constant was carried out at the temperatures
of 290, 323 and 363K. Obtained results relating temperature dependence of the mineral grains coating are given in
Tab.1, [4, 5]. Coating times were 90, 60 and 18 min.
which means that the (k) values were: 1/5400s= 0.000185; 1/3600s=0.000277; 1/2160s=0.000463.
Table 1. The values of the reaction rate coefficients measured for mineral grains coating

Temperature

290

323

363

Reaction rate coefficient, k(s-1)

0.000185

0.000277

0.000463

Dependence of the rate constant on temperature is given in both tabular and graphic form, in order to notice its

A
Psr . According to the
straght line form, as shown in Fig.2. The slope of experimentally obtained line is
values read from this graph, the value of the slope is 1321,34. On semilogarithmic diagram, a linear equation is
represented, with its free member, lnA. The value of preexponential factor of adjusted Arrhenius equation, is A=58s1
.

Figure 3. Depandence of the rate constant on temperature

7.67786 8.59415
1321.34
0.00275 0.00345

(6)

E
A Slope
c
Psr
In this case, activation energy is

(7)

Slope

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EA = slopecPsr = 1321,340.05 = 66,07 kJ/kg

(8)

By connecting experimentally obtained points in in the cordinate system (1/T, lnk), a straight line is obtained.
Physical characterization performed by grain counter
Generally speaking, minerals of the same weight and the same type should behave in the field of active forces in a
similar way. Automatic grain counter is a device with continuous flow of the two-phase system consisting of liquid
electrolyte and solid substance in the form of mineral grain mass transport. In automatic grain counter in case of
monomineral raw material is weight controlled. In accordance with its operating principle, automatic grain counter
should separate in the pump force field the grains of the same mass, if their diameter, volume, specific surface and
passing frequency through the measuring probe are the same. However, in certain materials, if some mechanical
change (such as adsorption) occurres, no identical values of the changing parameters (diameter, volume, specific
surface area, frequency or measurement would be obtained. In such situation, at least two measurings tests should
be performed. The data obtained by such measuring are presented in Tab.2.
Table 2. Physical characterization of grains performed automatic grain counter

Energy condition of
mineral grain mixture

Average grain
diameter, d50 (m)

Grain volume,
V (m3x106)

Specific surface
area, SSA (m2g-1)

Number of
grains, N

Measurement
time, t (s)

Unactivated mixture

4.197

7.843

0.285

95264

25.54

Activated (coated) mixture

4.676

10.240

0.263

106499

25.22

According to the data presented in Tab.2, the difference in the value of the specific surfaces, i.e. potentials, is
about 32%.
Coating and energies
As can be noticed from the above calculations, enough data required for determination of the activation energy,
EA, was available-therefore, it was not necessary to measure this energy some other way. Yet, during coating of the
mineral grain mixture, net power consumption was also measured in accordance with experimental models 1 and 2.
Obtained results on power consuption and calculation of energy spent on coating in ball mill (W) are given in
Tab.3. In the energy balance brought heat energy (S) used for heating of the given mass of mineral grains is very
significant. This data was obtained from the literature, in accordance with the following expression:
S cP1 cP 2 , were cP1 and cP 2 are specific heat capacitiees chalk at 363K and 273K, respectively.
Table 3. Net power (measured in accordance with experimental models) and coating energies

Measured
power

Expression used for


calculation of specific
energy

Coating time, t
(s) at T=290K

Coating time, t
(s) at T=323K

Coating time, t
(s) at T=363K

Experimental model 1

250

5400

3600

2160

Experimental model 2

220

5400

3600

2160

Weight of the mineral


grains in mill M (kg)

Work or energy of
coating in mill, W (kJkg)

W=Pt/M

54

36

21.60

The data about heat energy brought to the mineral grain mixture, obtained from different sources, are presented in
Tab.4. In the same table, specific energies obtained by adjusted equation (2) and energies obtained experimentally
in accordance with expression U W T S , are presented.
Table 4. The values of specific energies given by the phases of mineral grain mixture coating
Time,
t (s)

Energy recorded by mineral grains,


originating from ball work
W/kJkg-1

Activation energy
calculated according to
adjusted Eq.3
EAkJkg-1

5400

54

66.07

3600

36

36

Specific heat brought


between 273 and 363K
S/kJkg-1

Experimentally determined
internal energy U/kJkg-1

0.005

55.36

0.005

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2160

21.6

0.005

23.41

It should be emphasized here that the results about energy consumption can be checked in grain mixture
characterization by automatic grain counter.
Analysis of results
Experiment was conceived in the way enabling that specific energies, whose effects are recorded on grain
mixture, i.e. specific work spent on mixing mineral grains in ball mill and specific work spent on heating mineral
grain mixture are registered. It was experimentally confirmed that mechanical reaction of the stearic acid
adsorption does not proceed in the absence of katalytic influence of mill balls.
Specific energy provided by balls, spent on coating (W) was measured by electric counter (experimental models 1
and 2) in different time points. Brought specific heat (ST) is calculated by a specific heat capacity ( cP2 cP1 S ,
characteristic for the given temperature) and temperature.

6. CONCLUSION
It can be concluded that adjusted equation (3) is physically sensible and can be used to calculate time necessary for
coating in a ball mill. It is also worth noticing that specific coating energies are lower if the temperature is higher.
In fact, activation energy is reduced due to katalytic influence of temperature.

REFERENCES

[1]

Atkins P.W., Clugston M.J., Principles of Physical Chemistry, Lincoln Colege, Oxford, (1982).

[2]

Anciferov M.S. Spravocnik masinostroitels, Masgiz, Moskva (1963).

[3]

Heinicke G., "Tribochemistry", Academie - Verlag, Berlin, (1984).

[4]

ivko Sekuli, Milan Petrov, Deana ivanovi: Mechanical activation of various cements, International Journal of Mineral
Processing, Vol.74, (2004.), pp 355-363.

[5]

Petrov M. et. al.:Development of technical-technological solution for fillers coating (in Serbian), ITNMS, Belgrade, 1993.

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MAIN DEPENDENCIES BETWEEN PILLARS PARAMETERS


WHEN MINING OF RESERVES FROM METASOMATIC DEPOSITS
IN LUCKY INVEST jsC

ABSTRACT
Dimitar ANASTASOV1
Atanas MARINSKI 2
Kiril KUTSAROV3

University of Mining and Geology


St. Ivan Rilski, Sofia, Bulgaria,
danast@mgu.bg
2
Lucky Invest JSC, Lucky, Bulgaria,
atanas.marinski@abv.bg
3
University of Mining and Geology
St. Ivan Rilski, Sofia, Bulgaria,
kbkutsarov@gmail.com

Metasomatic ore mineralizations are significant part of the metal-rich


reserves for mining of lead and zinc ores in Lucky Invest JSC. So far the
company has developed 12 metasomatic ore bodies with different sizes of
the chambers and the pillars. The aggregate contents of lead and zinc in
them are in the range of 15% to 25%, and silver content in the mined ore
ranges from 150 to 200 g/t.
In this article are examined dependencies and regression models are built of
the pillars area and the areas supported by them. The mathematical
relationships between the supported areas and the hydraulic radii of the
pillars are analyzed.
The summarized dependency between the pillars parameter and the
coefficient of stress concentration is approximated.
The significantly higher values of the ore allowed the company to make
investments into modernization of production, as it has purchased mobile
diesel equipment, including electro-hydraulic carriages, front-end loader and
underground dump trucks from midrange class.
The examined mathematical models allow to be optimized the sizes of the
chambers and the pillars in room-pillar system of exploitation in order to
achieve optimal usage of the mobile diesel equipment during the mining of
the reserves of layer-shaped metasomatic ore mineralizations.

Keywords
Coefficient Of Stress Concentration, Metasomatic Ore, Pillars, Regression Models

1. INTRODUCTION
The main mining of lead and zinc ores at Lucky Invest JSC is done from the veins of Djurkovo and Druzhba deposits
where the width of the ore veins is 2 5 m. Simultaneously with the mining, the mineralizations in the marble
layers (metasomatic deposits) which have high content of lead and zinc (from 15% to 25% aggregate content) are
interrupted.
The mining of reserves from the metasomatic ore bodies is done via room-and-pillar system of exploitation with
different parameters of the pillars and chambers.
The use of heavy duty equipment drill carriages, front-end loaders and underground dump trucks requires study of
the parameters of pillars and chambers, which ensure the free movement of mobile equipment.
The article studies the parameters of two typical representatives of metasomatic ore bodies - No 46 horizon 1034
from Druzhba mine and No 26 27 horizon 572 from Djurkovo mine.

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2. METHODOLOGY OF THE TESTS


The main situations of the geomechanical indicators are analyzed and studied area of the pillar

Sa

, hydraulic
S

radius HR [1], coefficient of the stress concentration k [2], pillar perimeter P, area supported by the pillar p .
The coefficient k itself represents an aggregate of parameters included in the equation of the hypothesis TurnerShevyakov [3], i.e.:
0 ,15h

press 1,15

Sa
a

Sp
0 ,001.n .y .H .k cos 2 v . sin 2

Where:

press

(1)

- ultimate strength of material from the pillar, MPa;

h height of the pillar, m;


a width of the pillar, m; at h 1 3 k 1,15 0,15h ; at other values k h - according to Cern;
f
f
a

n coefficient of the reserve strength of the pillar, n = 2 3 with protecting the chamber during the mining works; n
= 3 5 when the chamber is protected for indefinite long period of time;
y density of the top rocks, kN/m3;
H depth of exploitation, m;
k coefficient considering the ratio between the width of the undermined area B and the depth of exploitation H,
m;
When B 0,8 1
H

k 1,0 ; when

k 0,5 0,6 .

k 0,7 ; when in the ore field there are weak layers, then

B
0,8 1
H

B
0,7
H

k - coefficient considering the angle of dip of the deposit,


k cos 2 . sin 2 , with - angle of dip in
degrees and - coefficient, considering the lateral rock pressure.
The relations between the parameters of pillars and chambers and the applications of the rock mass classifications
Q, RQD, RMR, MRMR [4, 5], for which additional measurements and tests are necessary, can be both studied on this
basis.

3. RESULTS FROM THE TESTS


The main part of the tests is related to defining and fixing the parameters of chambers and pillars of the mining
layers. In our case we study 2 metasomatic ore bodies.
A typical example for exploitation of metosomatic deposit is No 46 of horizon 1034 at Druzhba mine. The data is
shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Metasomatic deposit 46 horizon 1034 Druzhba mine

No

Pillars area,

Sp ,

m2

Supported area from


one pillar,

S a . , m2;

1.

64=24

10x8=80

2.

8x2=16

3.

3x3=9

4.

4x4=16

5.

5x8=40

6.

3x8=24

8x10=80

7.

4x2=8

5x6=30

8.

6x2=12

5x9=45

Coefficient of stress
concentration,
k =

Pillars perimeter,
P, m

Sp
Sa

Hydraulic Radius,
HR

Sp
P

,m

80/24=3,33

20

24/20=1,2

6x8=80

48/6=3,0

20

16/20=0,8

6x7=42

42/9=4,66

11

9/11=0,82

7x8=56

56/16=3,5

16

16/16=1,0

11x9=99

99/40=2,48

38

40/38=1,05

80/24=3,33

23

24/23=1,04

30/8=3,75

12

8/12=0,66

45/12=3,75

16

12/16=0,75

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9.

4x2=8

8x6=48

48/8=6,0

11

8/11=0,73

10.

10x4=40

8x13=104

104/40=2,6

28

40/28=1,43

11.

10x3=30

14x7=98

98/30=3,27

16

30/16=1,88

12.

12x8=96

12x18=216

216/96=2,25

41

96/41=2,34

13.

11x3=33

14x8=112

112/33=3,39

26

33/26=1,27

14.

(8x4)/2=16

15x7=105

105/16=6,56

20

16/20=0,8

15.

5x3=15

10x5=50

50/15=3,33

16

15/16=0,94

16.

5,4x3,6=19,4

8x6=48

48/19,4=2,47

18

19,4/16=1,07

17.

4x4=16

7x7=49

49/16=3,06

16

16/16=1,0

18.

4,2x4=16,8

3x7=21

21/16,8=1,25

15,4

16,8/15,4=1,09

19.

3x3=15

8x5=40

40/15=2,66

15

15/15=1,0

20.

11,4x5=57

14x7=98

98/57=1,72

32

32/57=0,56

21.

6x5=30

8x8=64

64/30=2,13

21

30/21=1,43

22.

6x5=30

8x9=72

72/30=2,4

25

30/25=1,20

On the basis of the data in Table 1 regression models which show the relationship between the different
geomechanical indicators are constructed.
Figure 1 shows the dependency between the pillars area S p and the area supported by one pillar S a .
The pillars area varies from 9,0 m2 to 96 m2 with an average value of 25,96 m2.
The area supported by one pillar changes from 30 m2 and reaches up to 216 m2, with an average value of 72,95 m2.
There is strong relation between the two parameters which is proven by the value of the correlation coefficient
r 0,897 .
Figure 1. Dependency between the pillars area S p and the area supported by
the pillar

Sa ; metasomatic deposit 46, horizon 1034, Druzhba mine

Another important dependency is that between the hydraulic radius and the area supported by one pillar (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. Dependency between the hydraulic radius HR and the area supported
by one pillar

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The hydraulic radius varies from 0,66 to 2,34 with an average value of 1,09.
The existing strong relation between the two parameters is confirmed by the calculated correlation coefficient
r 0,705 .
Figure 3 shows the dependency between the coefficient of stress concentration and the pillars perimeter.

Figure 3. Dependency between the coefficient of stress concentration and the


pillars perimeter, metasomatic deposit 46, horizon 1034, Druzhba mine

This coefficient has values from 1,25 to 6,56, with an average value of 3,22.
The pillars perimeter varies from 11 m to 41 m with an average value of 20,74 m.
Because of the high dispersion of data, the correlation coefficient is r 0,385 , which shows that there is a
weak relation between the two parameters.
Another typical example is metasomatic deposit No 26 and 27 horizon 572 west 2 at Djurkovo mine. The data about
the pillars is shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Metasomatic deposit 26 and 27 horizon 572 Djurkovo mine

No

Pillars area,
2
Sp, m

Supported area,
2
Sa , m ;

Coefficient of stress
concentration,
k

1.

4x5=20

2.

4x4=16

3.

4x5=20

4.

6x5=30

5.
6.
7.
8.

8x10=80

Pillars perimeter,
P, m

Sp
Sa

Hydraulic Radius,
HR

Sp
P

,m

80/20=4,0

18

20/18=1,1

9x10=90

90/16=5,6

16

16/16=1,0

10x12=120

120/20=6,0

16

20/16=1,2

10x12=120

120/30=4,0

20

30/20=1,5

2x4=8

8x10=80

80/8=10,0

16

8,0/16=0,5

5x6=30

9x10=90

90/30=3,0

24

30/24=1,25

9x3=27

11x15=165

165/27=6,11

22

27/22=1,23

6x3=18

9x11=99

99/18=5,5

18

18/18=1,0

9.

7x5=35

14x14=196

196/35=5,6

22

35/22=1,54

10.

5x5=25

12x12=144

144/25=5,8

21

25/11=1,19

11.

6x3=18

6x9=54

54/18=3,0

14

18/14=1,29

12.

4x6=24

12x6=96

96/24=4,0

18

24/18=1,33
16/19=0,84

13.

8x2=16

14x6=84

84/16=5,3

19

14.

6x6=36

16x12=192

192/36=5,33

20

36/20=1,8

15.

6x6=30

14x12=168

168/30=5,6

22

30/22=1,36

16.

9x4=36

12x8=96

96/36=2,67

26

36/26=1,38

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Figure 4 shows the dependency between the pillars area S p and the area supported by one pillar

Sa .

Figure 4. Dependency between the pillars area S and the area supported by
p
the pillar S a ; metasomatic deposit 26 and 27, horizon 572, Djurkovo mine

The data about the pillars area show a change from 8 m2 to 36 m2 with an average value of 24,31 m2.
The supported area varies from 54 m2 to 192 m2 with an average value of 117,12 m2.
The dependency is of the type S a 3,45S p 33,28 with correlation coefficient r 0,65 , which confirms the strong
relation between the two parameters.
The study of the change in the area supported by one pillar which depends on the change of the hydraulic radius of
the pillars is especially important (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Dependency between the hydraulic radius HR and the area supported
by the pillar S a ; metasomatic deposit 26 and 27, horizon 572, Djurkovo mine

The hydraulic radius varies from 0,5 to 1,8 with an average value of 1,14.
The calculated correlation coefficient is r 0,727 , which shows the strong relation between the two studied
parameters,
The approximated function is of the type S a 63,9 HR 44,3 .
The summarized dependency between the coefficients of stress concentration and the pillars perimeter is shown
on Figure 6. Further down follows the data from the metasomatic deposits in Djurkovo mine:
etasomatic deposit 27;
Metasomatic deposit 4;
Metasomatic deposit 26 and 27.

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Figure 6. Summarised dependency between the pillars perimeter (P) and the
coefficient of stress concentration.

The approximated function is of the type P 56,19 6,5k .


The stability of relation is shown by the value of correlation
coefficient which is r 0,61 .

4. CONCLUSION
On the basis of the existing information and the tests made the following conclusions can be drawn:
1. The approximated functions allow design of different parameters of the chambers and pillars in certain
parts of the concession area.
2. When the pillars area is given, the size of the area supported by it can be defined.
3. When the hydraulic radius of the pillar is given, we obtain the acceptable supported area.
4. When the coefficient of stress concentration is calculated, the pillars perimeter can be defined.

REFERENCES

[1]

Anastasov, D., A. Marinski, K. Kutsharov, Z. Eftimov, Some Aspect for Volumetric Cores of Tension and Hydraulic Radiuses of
Pillars in Metasomatic Deposits, Proceedings of Third National Scientific and Technical Conference with International
Participation, ISSN 1314-7056, Devin, Bulgaria, 2012, pp. 126-131.

[2]

Stefanov, D., Back Analysis of Large-Scale Destruction of Pillars and Graphical Method for Determining the Pillar Stability,
Proceeding of the IV-th International Geomechanics Conference Theory and Practice of Geomechanics for Effectiveness the
Mining Production and the Construction, ISBN 978-954-92219-8-5, Varna, Bulgaria, 2010, pp. 541-550.

[3]

Lomonosov, G. G., Production processes of underground exploitation of ore deposits, ISBN 978-5-98672-258-0, Moscow, 2011

[4]

Bieniawski, Z.T., Engineering Classification of Jointed Rock Masses, Trans South African Institute Civil Engineering, 15, 1973

[5]

Barton, N.R., R. Lien, I. Lunde, Engineering Classification of Tunnel Supports, Rock Mechanics, 6, 4, 1974

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ANALYSIS OF AN UNDERGROUND EXPLOSION EFFECTS


UPON THE VENTILATION NETWORKS

ABSTRACT
Doru CIOCLEA1
Ion TOTH2
Ion GHERGHE3
Cristian TOMESCU4
Vlad Mihai PSCULESCU5

INCD INSEMEX, Petrosani, Romania


1
doru.cioclea@insemex.ro
2
ion.toth@insemex.ro
3
ion.gherghe@insemex.ro
4
cristian.tomescu@insemex.ro
5
vlad.pasculescu@insemex.ro

Ventilation networks are complex opening, preparation and exploitation


works which are extended horizontally and vertically, having a cumulative
length of tens of kilometers.
When an explosion type phenomena occurs, there is formed on one hand the
dynamic wave which develops an overpressure of 1-8 bar in case of methane
and 1-11 bar in case of coal dust, and on the other hand the flame front
which generates temperatures over 2500C.
Due to high pressure generated by explosion in underground mine workings,
there occur high forces which action upon all obstacles encountered on the
propagation direction of the dynamic wave.
These forces exceed by far the resistance breaking to compression, shearing
strength, the tensile strength, resistance to buckling or torsion specific to
materials encountered on the dynamic wave propagation direction.
Therefore, in case of an underground explosion occurrence major
disturbances of the ventilation network occur which are generated by:
partial destruction of regulator doors; partial destruction of insulation doors;
complete destruction of regulator doors; complete destruction of insulation
doors; destruction of insulation constructions; cavings which occur on the
mine workings adjacent to the epicenter of the explosion.

Keywords
Dynamic Effects, Explosion, Network, Ventilation

1. GENERALITIES
Underground hard coal exploitation involves the performance of a complex of opening, preparation and
exploitation workings in order to extract and transport to the surface the useful mineral substance and in order to
achieve the ventilation which may reach lengths of tens of kilometers.
During the carbonization in anaerobic conditions process, there have been formed accompanying gases like
gaseous hydrocarbons, of which the most important one is represented by methane CH4.
During the execution of mine workings, respectively during coal exploitation, accompanying gases enter the
atmosphere of mine workings. At the same time, following the oxidation of coal process there occur toxic and
asphyxiating gases la carbon oxide CO or carbon dioxide CO2, which also enter the atmosphere of mine workings.
In addition, during the rock movement process, there are formed coal particles of various dimensions. The heaviest
ones are deposited gravitationally in the formation area or over the alignment of the transport systems, and the
easiest ones are transported by the air currents over high distances.
Through the time and space overlay of certain conditions there may occur various phenomena with devastating
effects, like the explosions.
The main measure for preventing explosions is the achievement of a proper ventilation which shall dilute the
explosive gases.
The ventilation of mine workings aims to reach the following three main objectives:
To ensure the oxygen concentration required by the staff operating underground;

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To dilute explosive and/or toxic gases which may occur in the network of mine workings;
To exhaust the heat resulted from the human activity respectively the geo-thermal gradient released in the
mine workings network.
The explosion type event occurring underground produces a dynamic shockwave which is radially propagated on
the path of the mine workings both towards the main ventilation station and of the mine workings for fresh air
entrance. On the path of the dynamic shockwave occur severe perturbations in the ventilation network, generated
by the compression of air from before it. An explosion occurred underground generates effects both at the level of
the underground mine workings structure and at the level of the main ventilation station.

2. UNDERGROUND EXPLOSIONS
At the level of the underground mine workings [1;2], depending on the flammable substance, there may occur the
following types of explosions: methane, coal respectively methane and coal dust explosions.
Methane explosions: Methane gas in mixture with oxygen from the air forms systems which in certain conditions
are able to generate spontaneous reactions with release of large energy quantities, according to Equation 1:
(1)

CH 4 2O 2 CO 2 2H 2 O 799,634 Kj/mol

The explosion of the methane-air mixture takes place if the gas concentration ranges between the lower and higher
explosivity limits, namely between 4, 5 15 % vol.
The increase of the explosive mixture temperature, of the mixtures pressure and of the ignition energy may
enlarge the explosivity range.
The ignition temperature of methane-air explosive mixture ranges between 650C-750 C.
The stoichiometric concentration for the methane-air explosive mixture is 9, 46 % vol.
The pressure developed by the explosion of the methane-air mixture ranges between 1 and 8 bar.
Following the initiation of the explosive mixture, the current caused by the thermal expansion of the gas due to the
tubular shape of the mine workings reaches very high velocities and produces a wrinkling of the combustion wave
surface. By returning, this generates an even higher turbulence and a more pronounced wrinkling of the surface of
the combustion wave, leading to its acceleration.
Coal dust explosions: In underground mine workings, coal dust and air generate dispersed atmospheres. The
ignition and explosion mechanism of the coal dust air mixture is developed as follows: under the action of an
effective ignition source upon the explosive mixture, the coal dust particles in suspension are heated up, which
leads to the release of gases like hydrogen, methane, other hydrocarbons, carbon oxide, carbon acid and water
vapours. The combustible gases resulting from the heating of the particles, form along with the air explosive
mixtures which are ignited and heat up the next layer of coal dust-air mixture, generating another flammable gases
release. The phenomenon is self-sustained, developing accelerated and continuing until the depletion of the coal
dust-air mixture.
3
3
The minimum explosive concentration ranges between 5gr/m and 50gr/m and is influenced by the petrographic
components of coal. Coal from Jiu Valley coal field has a minimum explosive concentration of 40gr/m3.
The temperature of the flame generated by the explosion of coal dust-air mixtures can reach values ranging
between 2500 K and 2800 K.
Pressure developed by the explosion of the coal dust-air mixture ranges between 1 and 11 bars.
The explosion propagation velocity of the coal dust-air mixture in stoichiometric proportions can reach values up
to 1000 m/s.
Methane and coal dust explosions: In underground hard coal mining, there occur simultaneously methane and coal
dust. When an explosion occurs, it involves the participation both of methane and of coal dust. In these cases, the
intensity and effects of explosions are amplified. Due to the participation of the elements, there may occur
successive explosions of high extent and with devastating effects.

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3. UNDERGROUND EXPLOSIONS EFFECTS


The high temperature of the flame generated by the explosion and by the burning gases brings changes to the
structure and composition of exposed materials.
Usually, in underground there are used the following materials: wood, wires of the electrical detonators, rubber
from conveyor belts or flexible cables, textiles, PVC materials, wool, paper, etc.
Explosion type events generate the following types of effects upon the materials exposed to the shockwave:
dynamic, thermal and chemical effects.
Dynamic effects: Dynamic waves produced by methane and coal dust explosions generate mechanical deformation
and destructive effects over all propagation paths. The dynamic effects are proportional with the explosion
pressure, which at its turn depends mainly on the concentration of the explosive mixture, on the explosive mixture
type, respectively on the type of the ignition source and its activation energy value. Also, the presence of the
explosive support depending on the shape, dimensions and concentration of the combustible substance, highly
influences the intensity and extent of the explosion type event.
Mine workings are sustained in metal, wood, concrete bricks or rammed concrete. The lagging is made of metal or
wood. Also, over the path of mine workings there are placed or deposited the following: metallic transport
machinery, transport machinery with rubber belts, transport wagons, metallic support pillars, wood support pillars,
ventilation constructions, electrical cables, electrical equipment. The main element effect exposed to the
destructive effect of explosions is represented by the human factor.
As the dynamic wave moves with subsonic or supersonic speed, it develops dynamic pressures between 1 and 1 atm.
which action upon all obstacles encountered on the propagation paths [6].
Thermal effects: In case of a methane or coal dust explosion occurrence, besides the dynamic wave there is also
formed the flame front which may develop temperatures of minimum 2000 2300 K and up to 2800 K. The contact
time between the explosion flame and the obstacles encountered on the propagation direction is generally
comprised between 0, 1 s and 0, 6 s.
Additionally, high temperature burning gases migrate with high velocities over the propagation directions.
Due to high temperatures, any obstacle encountered over the propagation directions undergoes thermal effects.
Depending on the explosion intensity and on the contact time there may be distinguished thermal effects classified
into minor and major ones, over several intensity degrees.
Chemical effects: In case of methane and coal dust explosions there occur some chemical effects resulting in ashes
depositing over various surfaces, crusts and coke pearls, water condensations and gaseous products resulting from
the burning.
Ash is formed through the thermal dissociation of methane, respectively through the burning of coal dust. In the
laboratory, there has been observed that methane dissociation occurs at concentrations between 9 10 % vol., but
the resulting hydrogen quantities generated by burning reactions of methane up to 15 % vol. are much reduced.
Coke crusts are formed only in case of explosions which involve coal dust, where the oxygen quantity is insufficient
for burning the entire dust quantity, and the heat favors the coking of unburned dust.
In coal dust explosions, coke granules are generated in all cases, namely under the minimum explosive
concentration, at the minimum explosive concentration and beyond it.
Coke pearls are formed over solid surfaces, both on the propagation direction of the explosion, as well as on the
opposite part. The difference between them is that the ones deposited over the propagation direction are much
smaller and rounder.
The presence of a high percentage of coked granules indicates their formation nearby the ignition place.

4. UNDERGROUND EXPLOSIONS EFFECTS UPON THE VENTILATION NETWORKS


Underground explosion type phenomena occur with high probability in blind workings and with low probability in
long walls, and in other mine workings the probability of occurrence is very low.
When an explosion type phenomena occurs, there is formed on one hand the dynamic wave which develops an
overpressure of 1-8 bar in case of methane and 1-11 bar in case of coal dust, and on the other hand the flame front
which generates temperatures over 2500 C.

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The dynamic wave produces the piston effect over the air volume circulated in the ventilation network under the
depression generated by fans from within the main ventilation stations. The depression developed by general
ventilation fans ranges between 1000 and 2000 Pa, 0, 01 0, 02 bar. The pressure developed by the explosion is two
or three times higher than the depression developed by the main ventilation fan therefore easily beating it.
The flame front generates a high quantity of burning gases having an extremely high temperature, which leads to
their rapid expansion. The expansion of hot gases takes place during less than a second, after that takes place the
phenomenon of burning gases contraction due to their fast cooling in contact with the walls of the mine workings.
Depending on the volume and concentration of the explosive mixture, there may take place distensions up to 10
times higher than the initial volume in case in which coal dusts also participates.
Over the entire length of the mine workings where the gas distensions occur, the workers subject to the event are
exposed, beside the dynamic effect, to high temperatures and high concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases,
respectively to the drastic decrease of oxygen concentrations, atmosphere which is incompatible with life.
Due to these aspects, a violent perturbation of the air flowing regime in the ventilation network occurs, as follows:
Upstream the explosion occurrence location, there occurs an air compression resulting in the decrease of
the circulation velocity down to 0 m/s, after which the circulation direction is inversed. From this moment
on the air circulation velocity increases fast and results in air exhausting in the form of a powerful blast, on
the vertical shafts which normally supply fresh air. In the next stage takes place the reestablishment of the
air circulation direction, both under the effect of burning gases contraction and due to the disappearance of
the dynamic effect generated by the explosion and the entering into normal operation of the fan from
within the main ventilation station.
Downstream the explosion occurrence location, there occurs an air compression resulting in in a fast
increase of the air circulation velocity which is exhausted in the form of powerful blasts on the ventilation
shafts or risings. In the next phase takes place a decrease of the air circulation velocity and even a reversal
of its circulation direction, generated by the burning gases contraction effect. After the disappearance of
the dynamic wave and of the burning gases contraction effect, the circulation direction is re-established due
to the entering in normal operation of the main ventilation fan.
Due to high pressure generated by explosion in underground mine workings, there occur high forces which action
upon all obstacles encountered on the propagation direction of the dynamic wave.
These forces exceed by far the resistance breaking to compression, shearing strength, tensile strength, resistance
to buckling or torsion specific to materials encountered on the dynamic wave propagation direction.
The least resistant obstacles encountered by the dynamic wave are ventilation constructions regulator doors,
insulation doors, insulation dams.
Therefore, in case of an underground explosion occurrence major disturbances of the ventilation network occur
which are generated by: partial destruction of regulator doors; partial destruction of insulation doors; complete
destruction of regulator doors; complete destruction of insulation doors; destruction of insulation constructions;
cavings which occur on the mine workings adjacent to the epicentre of the explosion. [3;7;8;9;11]
Due to these situations, the following effects can occur:
Maintaining the air flowing direction with the
- decrease of air flow on some branches;
- increase if air flow on some branches;
reversal of air flowing on some branches;
intensification of existent spontaneous combustion phenomena:
occurrence of new spontaneous combustions;
increase of carbon oxide concentrations (up to 2-3% vol.);
decrease of oxygen content (up to 3-7 % vol.).
In order to highlight the changes produced in the ventilation network after the occurrence of an explosion, there
has been chosen the ventilation network of Vulcan mining unit presented in Figure 1 and Figure 2, this network
being modeled using the 3D CANVENT software [10].

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Figiure 1. Vulcan mining unit ventilation network

Figiure 2. Characteristic curve of the fan

Using the ventilation network of Vulcan mining unit, there has been achieved a simulation of the effects of an
explosions in case the phenomenon occurs at the level if the undermined coal bed no. 1-4, layer no. 3, block VIII
[4;5].
For the simulation of the updated ventilation network of Vulcan mining unit, there have been introduced 204
nodes, of which 6 are new, respectively 256 branches, of which 7 are new branches. Following the explosion type
phenomena simulation, in Figure 3 and 4 there are presented the changes which occur in the undermined coal bed
no. 1-4, layer 3, block VIII, changes which occurred being the following:
Total destruction of 8 ventilation constructions;
Partial destruction or opening of ventilation constructions due to the reversal of the ventilation following
the explosion: 6 ventilation constructions;
Reversal of air flow over 12 mine workings, respectively ventilation circuits.
In comparison with the previous situation, the following effects have resulted:
Air flow over the fresh air supply circuit at the level of horizon 360, has decreased by 33,19 %.
Air flow at the level of the undermined coal bed no. 2, layer 3, bl. VI has increased by 21, 57 %.
Air flow over the inclined ventilation plane no 360-315, has drastically decreased by 66,38 %.
Air flow at the level of the undermined coal bed no.1, layer 3, bl. VII, has decreased by 66, 66%.
Air flow at the level of the coal face no.1, layer 3, bl. VIII, has drastically decreased by 80, 36 %.
Air flow at the level of coal face no. 1-4, layer 3, bl. VIII, has drastically decreased by 89,78 %.

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Over the exhaust circuit of return air related to coal face no.2, layer 3, block VI, at the level of horizon 480,
air flow has decreased by 36,89 %.
Over the exhaust circuit of return air related to coal face no.1 W, layer 3, block VII, at the level of horizon
360, air flow has decreased by 46,13 %.
Over the exhaust circuit of return air related to coal face no.1, layer 3, block VIII, air flow has decreased by
30,26 %.
Over the exhaust circuit of return air related to coal face no.1-4, layer 3, block VIII, air flow has decreased by
50,77 %.
Over the coast gallery from elevation 657, the air flow has fulminating increased by 940,47 %.
At the level of the main ventilation station, air flow has increased by 15,035 %.

Figure 3. Effects of the explosion upon the ventilation network

The most dangerous aspects from the occupational health and safety point of view are represented by the reversal
of air currents over certain branches and ventilation circuits, as well as by the drastic decrease of air flows
circulated at the level of coal faces. These aspects lead on one hand to the increase of toxic and/or asphyxiating
gases concentrations where the reversal of air currents takes place, and on the other hand to the increase of
explosive gases where the drastic decrease of air flows takes place.

Figure 4. Characteristic curve of the fan after the event

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5. CONCLUSIONS

During the coal hoisting process, large quantities of flammable gases and coal dust are released, which in
proper conditions may lead to the occurrence of explosion type phenomena.
With regard to the flammable substance, in mine workings may occur methane, coal dust and methane-coal
dust explosions.
Explosion type phenomena produce dynamic, thermal and chemical effects upon the materials exposed to
the dynamic shockwave.
Major disturbances of the ventilation network occur after the occurrence of an explosion.
Following the simulation of the explosion type phenomena occurred at the level of the undermined coal bed
no. 1-4, layer 3, bl. VIII, the ventilation network suffered severe changes.
In comparison with the previous situation, there has resulted a variation of air flows at the level of the
ventilation network ranging between 15% and 90%.

REFERENCES

[1]

Bana F.: Study on the explosion mechanism of flammable atmosphere constituted of methane and/or coal dust in mixture with
air, in order to establish the characteristic effects, (in Romanian), C.C.S.M. Study, Petrosani, Romania, 1985

[2]

Bardocz V.: Establishing the characteristic effects of mining faults generated by the ignition or explosion of a flammable
environment, in order to reproduce the conditions in which it occurred, (in Romanian), S.C.S.M. Study, Petrosani, Romania, 1973

[3]

Baltaretu R., Teodorescu C.: Ventilation and occupational safety in mines, (in Romanian), Didactical and Pedagogical Publishing
House, Bucharest, Romania, 1971

[4]

Cioclea D.: Solving the ventilation network based on pressure measurements, on aerodynamic resistances over the workplaces,
in order to put into operation the new ventilation station VOD 2,1 from shaft no. 10 V Valea Arsului, (in Romanian), INSEMEX
study, Petrosani, Romania, 2006

[5]

Gherghe I.: Streamlining the ventilation networks of Jiu Valley mines in the case of their restructuring following the closure of
inactive areas, (in Romanian), INSEMEX Study, Petrosani, Romania, 2004

[6]

Hindoreanu E.: Establishing the characteristic effects of mining faults generated by the ignition or explosion of a flammable
environment, in order to reproduce the conditions in which it occurred, (in Romanian), S.C.S.M Study, Petrosani, Romania, 1972

[7]

Matei I., Moraru R., a.s.o.: Environmental engineering and underground ventilation, Didactical and Pedagogical Publishing
House, Bucharest, Romania, 2000

[8]

Patterson A.M.: The Mine Ventilation Practitioners Data Book, M.V.S. of South Africa, 1992

[9]

Teodorescu C., Gontean Z., Neag I.: Mining ventilation, (in Romanian), Didactical and Pedagogical Publishing House, Bucharest,
Romania, 1980

[10]

CANMET: Mining and Minerals Sciences Laboratories Underground Mine Environment and Ventilation User manual Software
3D CANVENT 2K

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DRAG ENERGY CONSUMPTION PERCENTAGE (DECP) CONCEPT AS A TOOL FOR


COMPARISON OF DIGGING DIFFICULTY (DD) AT DRAGLINE STRIPPING PANELS
ABSTRACT
Metin OZDOGAN

Ideal Machinery and Consultancy Ltd.,


Ankara, Turkey
dr.mozdogan@gmail.com

Drag Energy Consumption Percentage (DECP) concept for stripping draglines


is a new concept proposed by the author. Full work cycle of walking draglines
(WD) consist of dragging-in, hoisting, swinging, dumping, swinging back and
lowering segments. This comparison criterion proposed is independent of
size, model and make of the equipment (equipment specifications). It is
inclusive of digging effort of WD in other words breakout and bucket fill
segments. Therefore, it can be used as a measure of the digging difficulty
encountered by the draglines operating at different surface mine sites. The
criterion indicates the diggability of the overburden in question and/or
indicates the degree of blasting performance (how well the overburden
formation is loosened), in addition to the other concepts proposed as
specific drag-in energy (SDIE) and specific bucket fill energy (SBFE). The
paper discusses percentages (DECP) measured at five different mine sites
and WDs and compares DECP with the diggability difficulty observed and
with the powder factors being used; and proposes a diggability classification
for WDs foperating at lignite measure rocks being stripped based on the
findings of the survey. It's accordance with other classification criteria
proposed for WD benches of the survey is also discussed. Prime mover and
DC motor specifications and operational specification s of the WDs are also
given. Brief rock properties of the benches are also cited. Energy
consumption is measured by a laboratory type monitor from the control
frames of control cabinets of the equipment. The draglines are equipped
with control cabinets that house a series of control frames for each DC
motor. Proper test points on each control frame provide a clean plus minus
15 VDC signal for both armature voltage and current.

Keywords
Drag Energy Consumption Percentage, Equipment Diggability Classification,
Specific Drag-In Energy, Specific Bucket Fill Energy, Walking Draglines

1. INTRODUCTION
Digging difficulty encountered by an electrical earthmoving equipment can be observed by monitoring the level of
energy consumed during digging. The higher the energy consumed, the harder the rock material being excavated. If
the benches are blasted ones, it indicates degree of rock material looseness, in other words performance of drill
geometry and blasting practices applied.
Most of the up-to-date walking draglines and electric mining shovels are equipped with devices which monitor
various performance parameters of the equipment operating. Some of these parameters are energy consumption,
cycle time, swing angle, payload, production etc. Having an energy consumption meter on board of an electrical
excavating equipment means that digging effort being spent is continuously trailed.
In the survey, four mine sites and five walking draglines (WD) were surveyed. Mine sites, equipment models and
make, bucket sizes, and some technical and operational specifications are as follows: At Tuncbilek site a P&H736
with 15 m3 bucket (WD15TB) and a M7820 with 31 m3 bucket (WD31TB), at Yenikoy site a P&H752 with 25 m3 bucket
(WD25YK), at Eskihisar site a M8050 with 50 m3 bucket (WD50ES), and finally at Seyitomer site a M8050 with 54 m3
bucket (WD54SY) were the equipment surveyed. All the dragline benches surveyed were lignite measure marl
formations and blasted prior to dragline stripping. Dragline bucket capacities varied from 15 m3 to 54 m3. Three of

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them were commissioned, one unit of P&H 752 and two units of M8050s in 1987, whereas P&H 736 and M7820 were
commissioned in 1971 and 1977 respectively.
Some power related technical specifications of the draglines surveyed are as follows: P&H736 (WD15TB) ; M-G set
power, 1500 HP, drag motor power, 1300 HP, hoist motor power, 1300 HP, swing motor power, 750 HP, equipment
sturdiness ratio, 65 tonne/ m3. P&H752 (WD25YK) ; M-G set power, 3000 HP, drag motor power, 2600 HP, equipment
sturdiness ratio, tonne/ m3. M7820 (WD31TB) ; M-G set power, 3000 HP, drag motor power, 2600 HP, hoist motor
power, 2600 HP, swing motor power, 1500 HP, equipment sturdiness ratio, 56 tonne/ m3. M8050 (WD50ES) ; M-G set
power, 5000 HP, drag motor power, 4180 HP, hoist motor power, 4180 HP, swing motor power, 2560 HP, equipment
sturdiness ratio, 54 tonne/ m3. M8050 (WD54SY) ; M-G set power, 6000 HP, drag motor power, 5200 HP, hoist motor
power, 5200 HP, swing motor power, 3200 HP, equipment sturdiness ratio, 62 tonne/ m3.
Some operational specifications of the equipment surveyed are as follows: P&H736 (WD15TB) ; operating weight,
1000 tonne, max allowable load, 42 tonne, MUF factor, 918 m x m3, normalized MUF factor, 0,92 m x m3/tonne, K
factor, 2520 tonne x m. P&H752 (WD25YK) ; operating weight, 2000 tonne, max allowable load, 79 tonne, MUF
factor, 2056 m x m3, normalized MUF factor, 1,03 m x m3/tonne, K factor, 6636 tonne x m. M7820 (WD31TB) ;
operating weight, 1700 Tonne, max allowable load, 86 tonne, MUF factor, 2142 m x m3, normalized MUF factor,
1,26 m x m3/tonne, K factor, 6020 tonne x m. M8050 (WD50ES) ; operating weight, 2700 tonne, max allowable load,
131 tonne, MUF factor, 4376 m x m3, normalized MUF factor, 1,62 m x m3/tonne, K factor, 11528 tonne x m. M8050
(WD54SY) ; operating weight, 2900 tonne, max allowable load, 137 tonne, MUF factor, 4498 m x m3, normalized
MUF factor, 1,55 m x m3/tonne, K factor, 11508 tonne x m.
All the benches consisted of fresh coal measure sedimentary marls of Neogene age located at various locations of
Aegean Turkey which may be classified as weak and very weak rocks [2]. Rock parameters and powder factors of the
benches were as follows: Bench for equipment WD15TB; fresh marl, unit weight, UW, 23 kN/m3 , uniaxial
compressive strength, UCS, 46 Mpa, Brasilian tensile strength, BTS, 8 Mpa, powder factor, PF, 0,17 kg/m3 . Bench for
equipment WD25YK; fresh marl, unit weight, UW, 20 kN/m3 , uniaxial compressive strength, UCS, 18 Mpa, Brasilian
tensile strength, BTS, 1 Mpa, powder factor, PF, 0,10 kg/m3 . Bench for equipment WD31TB; fresh marl, unit weight,
UW, 22 kN/m3 , uniaxial compressive strength, UCS, 31 Mpa, Brasilian tensile strength, BTS, 3 Mpa, powder factor,
PF, 0,14 kg/m3 . Bench for equipment WD50ES; fresh marl, unit weight, UW, 18 kN/m3 , uniaxial compressive
strength, UCS, 4 Mpa, Brasilian tensile strength, BTS, 1 Mpa, powder factor, PF, 0,09 kg/m3 . Bench for equipment
WD54SY; fresh marl, unit weight, UW, 19 kN/m3 , uniaxial compressive strength, UCS, 13 Mpa, Brasilian tensile
strength, BTS, 2 Mpa, powder factor, PF, 0,11 kg/m3 [3]
If it is a single walking dragline operating at a site, it is comparatively easier to trail the digging effort being spent; a
number of parameters such as full cycle energy, kWh, full cycle energy per second, kWh/s, drag energy, kWh, even
the cycle time and/or drag-in time, s, excavating rate, m3/s, may be used. However, if multiple draglines operating
at the same site and/or multiple mine sites, the evaluation and comparison of the digging efforts of equipment
becomes more complex. Then, energy consumption per cycle has to be compensated for the bucket size, kWh/m3,
which is called specific energy consumption; furthermore, it has to be normalized for the cycle time, kWh/ m3/s [6].

2. ENERGY CONSUMPTION MEASURING TECHNIQUE USED


Unfortunately none of the draglines surveyed had an on-board performance monitor. Therefore, a laboratory type
monitor was used as data acquisition device. In order to monitor excavating energy consumption of electrical
surface mining equipment voltage and current feedback signal readings of each relevant D.C. motors has to be
monitored and recorded while digging according to the electrical walking dragline manufacturers. The voltage and
current signals reflect the interaction of the equipment with the earth being excavated best. According to the
original equipment manufacturers, armature voltage reading of a D.C. motor is synonymous to speed; and armature
current reading is synonymous to force (torque) [1]. This is how the electrical mining equipment manufacturers
draw digging performance curves of their equipment. As a matter of fact the equipment service engineers take
periodical records from these points in order to check the functions of each motion motor for adjusting,
maintaining and servicing of the draglines. The commercially available dragline monitors make use of the same
principle of sensing voltage and current signals of each motion motor of the equipment.
The walking draglines monitored are equipped with control cabinets that house a series of control frames for each
work-motion motors, in other words drag, hoist, swing and walk motors. Proper test points on each control frame
provide a clean  15 VDC signal for both armature voltage and current [4].
In the measurements a digital 16 channel digital instrumentation were used in monitoring energy consumption
(performance) of their equipment at the control cabinets of the draglines. D.C. Motors' power and energy

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calculation procedure and fomulae are as follows briefly: using recorded armature current and voltage signals
versus time, average values of real current and voltage are calculated calculating and/or measuring the areas under
the current and voltage signal curves and making use of the stall test and signal specifications of each motor given
by original equipment manufacturers. Once the armature feedback current (Iafb), Amperes, and armature feedback
voltage (Vafb), Volts, are known power (P) consumption of DC motor can be calculated which is the multiplication of
these two parameters unit being Watts, dividing it by 1K (one thousand), kW is obtained. As mentioned above time,
(t), seconds, is also recorded together with armature feedback signals. Power figure is multiplied by time parameter
and divided by 3600 seconds and the figure obtained is energy E unit being, kiloWatthours, kWh.
The software of the monitoring device may calculate power of DC motor at any instantaneous time by multiplying
the instantaneous armature current and armature voltage values. Energy consumption of a DC motor within a time
interval may be calculated by integrating the power according to time for that time interval ie starting time to
ending time. By the sum of these instantaneous energy consumption figures in the time interval in question the
total energy consumption of DC motor is obtained [5] .

3. RESULTS AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMPERATIVE BENCH DIGGING EFFORT OF MULTIPLE


DRAGLINES OPERATING AT MULTIPLE SITES
The results of the five equipment surveyed are as follows: For equipment WD15TB : Cycle time, CT, 67,633,74 s,
Energy consumption per cycle, ECPC, 10,160,07 kWh, drag motor energy consumption per cycle, DMEC, 5,250,52
kWh, full cycle specific energy, SE, 0,660,04 kWh/m3, drag motor specific energy, DMSE, 0,340,03 kWh/m3. For
equipment WD25YK : Cycle time, CT, 61,9712,35 s, energy consumption per cycle, ECPC, 21,435,50 kWh, drag
motor energy consumption per cycle, DMEC, 10,482,81 kWh, full cycle specific energy, SE, 0,870,2 kWh/m3, drag
motor specific energy, DMSE, 0,430,12 kWh/m3. Table 1. depicts bucket fill related energy consumption figures of
bucket fill time (BFT), bucket fill energy (BFE), speciific buclket fill energy (SBFE), drag-in energy (DIE), specific dragin energy (SDIE), and Drag energy consumption percent (DECP). The results cited are inclusive of normal bench
digging only and excludes digging mode cases like key-cut, chopping etc.
Table 1. Bucket Fill related energy consumption figures of the draglines surveyed

WD
Bucket Size & Site

BFT
s

BFE
kWh

SBFE
kWh/m3

DIE
kWh

SDIE
kWh/m3

DECP
%

WD15TB

15,64
4,34

2,86
1,17

0,19
0,08

2,38
0,77

0,15
0,05

51,48
1,82

WD25YK

14,13
7,95

3,96
2,51

0,16
0,10

3,11
1,84

0,13
0,08

49,19
2,93

WD31TB

19,88
6,55

5,85
1,35

0,19
0,04

4,97
1,08

0,16
0,04

47,83
5,93

WD50ES

9,64
1,75

4,49
1,17

0,09
0,02

2,62
0,63

0,05
0,01

40,60
2,48

WD54SY

16,41
0,20

6,86
2,16

0,13
0,04

4,57
2,71

0,09
0,05

46,67
1,92

Source: (Ozdogan 2002)

For equipment WD31TB : Cycle time, CT, 76,2110,14 s, energy consumption per cycle, ECPC, 22,274,65 kWh, drag
motor energy consumption per cycle, DMEC, 10,501,71 kWh, full cycle specific energy, SE, 0,730,15 kWh/m3, drag
motor specific energy, DMSE, 0,340,06 kWh/m3. For equipment WD50ES : Cycle time, CT, 55,8110,80 s, energy
consumption per cycle, ECPC, 23,011,51 kWh, drag motor energy consumption per cycle, DMEC, 9,350,73 kWh,
full cycle specific energy, SE, 0,460,03 kWh/m3, drag motor specific energy, DMSE, 0,190,02 kWh/m3. For
equipment WD54SY : Cycle time, CT, 64,502,12 s, energy consumption per cycle, ECPC, 34,032,15 kWh, drag
motor energy consumption per cycle time, DMEC, 15,940,30 kWh, full cycle time specific energy, SE, 0,460,03
kWh/m3, drag motor specific energy, DMSE, 0,300,01 kWh/m3.
As it is seen in Table 1., bucket fill energy (BFE) is slightly higher than that of drag-in energy (DIE). Drag-in energy
consumption which represents breakout segment of excavation comprises of 0,740,01 of the bucket fill energy
consumption per full equipment cycle. The reason for this discrepancy is that bucket filling action inherits a slight

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hoisting motion as the bucket is dragged-in upwards ie the vertical component of the motion and lifting the bucket
rigging at the final stages of bucket fill motion in order to prevent spilling of the filled material in the bucket, and a
tiny swinging movement of bucket from the vertical plane. Drag-in energy consumption (DIE) corresponds to
0.360,09 of drag motor energy consumption (DMEC) per equipment cycle. Whereas, bucket fill energy
consumption represents 0,480,01 of drag motor energy consumption (DMEC) per full cycle energy consumption of
walking draglines.
Please note that bucket fill involves some small incremental hoisting and swinging motions in addition to the major
drag-in motion; for example in a monitored series of 11 consecutive cycles drag-in energy consumption forms
87,204,60 % of the total bucket fill energy whereas hoist energy consumption percent, in bucket filling, of total
BFE is 12,704.60 % and swinging of bucket during dragging is almost negligible the value being 0,100,10 % in
bucket fill energy consumption [3].
Table 2. WD digging effort criteria proposed for normal bench digging at lignite measure rocks

WD
Drag-in Effort Interval

DECP
Criterion
%

SDIE
Criterion
3
kWh/m

SBFE
Criterion
3
kWh/m

Bench Mass Looseness


(BML) Observed

Easy Digging Effort

< 42

< 0,08

< 0,10

Very loose
WD50ES matches

Easy to Medium Digging Effort

42- 46

0,08-0,012

0,10-0,13

Pretty loose
WD54SY matches

Medium Digging Effort

47- 51

0,13-0,17

0,14-0,19

Moderately loose
WD31TB & WD15TB match

Medium to Hard Digging Effort

> 51

> 0,17

> 0,19

WD Matching to
Criterion

Moderate to poorly
loose
WD25YK & WD15TB match (DECP)

Drag energy related equipment digging ease comparison criteria given above are based on the measurements
taken, field observations and evaluations made by the author. If the details of the digging phase such as drag-in,
bucket fill are measured and distinguished, specific drag-in and bucket fill energies seems to be representing the
digging ease encountered of the dragline bench much better according to the author. However, drag energy
consumption percent seems to match the bench excavation conditions of the walking draglines well enough, too.
Because of the fact that, drag motor specific energy corresponds to 0.470.04 of full cycle specific energy, see
Table 1. Specific bucket fill energy (SBFE) represents 0.480.01 of drag motor specific energy (DMSE).
Table 2. depicts digging difficulty criteria proposed for the walking draglines surveyed which are based on drag
energy percent, specific drag-in energy and bucket fill energy concepts. Equipment digging effort intervals and
bench mass looseness observed and equipment matching to the proposed criterion.
Table 3. Digging effort sequence of surveyed WDs from easier to harder at normal bench digging

WD
Bucket Size & Site

DECP
(%)

Drag-in Effort Observed

UW
kN/m3

UCS
MPa

PF
kN/m3

WD50ES

40,60 2,48

Easy to Medium (closer to easy)

18

0,9

WD31TB

47,83 5,93

Medium

22

31

1,4

WD54SY

46,67 1,92

Medium

19

13

1,1

WD15TB

51,48 1,82

Medium to Hard

23

46

1,7

WD25YK

49,19 2,93

Medium to Hard

20

18

Source: (Ozdogan, 2002 modified)

Table 3. shows the walking draglines in sequence from easier to harder digging conditions based on DECP and
depicts some rock and PF figures of the marl benches.

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4. DISCUSSIONS
In order to trace effort spend in digging the bench, monitoring to drag motor is sufficient. 0.480.01 of the drag
motor's energy is consumed in breaking out of the material and filling the bucket; the balance of drag energy is
used in keeping the bucket in balance during hoisting, swinging, dumping motions in other words keeping the drag
rope tight. If DECP concept is utilized, EC of the full cycle, EC of drag, hoist and swing motors to be monitored. If
drag-in and/or bucket fill EC concepts are used hoist and swing motors do not have to be kept track of; monitoring
drag-in segment merely will be sufficient.
If the aim is to determine comparative equipment digging effort at the bench, one does not have to use the
parameter of full cycle equipment specific energy, kW/m3, and/or cycle time compensated parameter full cycle
equipment specific energy, kW/m3/s. Drag motor energy consumption parameters like bucket fill energy and
specific bucket fill energy, and bucket drag-in energy and specific drag-in energy are better be preferred.
Naturally, the proposed criteria and equipment digging effort classifications have to be improved with further
observations from other walking draglines operating at other coal mining sites. However, the proposed criteria and
walking dragline digging effort classifications seem to be in concordance with the observations. Eventhough, such
classifications are based on measurements, it reflects the personal experience and comprehension of the
researcher. Another research worker may have a slightly different criterion and a classification proposed. However,
the main aim of the concepts cited are to give an idea on comparative walking dragline digging effort facts and
figures of multiple equipment operating at multiple mine sites.
Comparing the energy consumption figures of multiple draglines is extremely difficult. The parameters have to be
compensated for multiple bucket sizes and multiple cycle times in order to have meaningful comparisons and
evaluations. Thus, the effect of varying bucket sizes, geometry, specifications, cycle times, motor powers etc. are
minimized to a certain degree.
Since drag-in represent the breakout force in dragline operation, the author believes that drag motor's energy
consumption parameters to be used in evaluating the digging effort being spent at the bench. Drag-in energy per
dig cycle, kWh, bucket fill energy per cycle, kWh, total drag motor consumption per cycle, kWh, parameters
3
compensated for bucket volume and cyle time are specific drag-in energy, kWh/m , specific bucket fill energy,
3
3
kWh/m , Time compensated specific drag-in energy, kWh/ m /s.
Equipment digging effort concepts proposed which are based on drag motor energy consumption parameters at
the stage of breaking out (drag-in) and bucket fill phases serve the purpose.

5. CONCLUSIONS
As far as walking draglines are concerned digging action in other words breakout force is represented by drag-in
motion of the bucket. Therefore, drag motor's energy consumption during full work cycle embraces digging. That is
why drag motor and its' energy consumption deserve attention in trailing the digging ease and hardship
encountered at the digging bench. This is inclusive of drag-in and bucket fill segments, as well. The reason why the
author proposes drag energy consumption percentage (DECP) concept is that the parameter is independent of
equipment size, configuration and bench geometry. The digging difficulty encountered of multiple draglines and
sites may be judged since it represents breakout effort of the equipment. The other drag energy related specific
drag-in energy (SDIE) and specific bucket fill energy (SBFE) concepts proposed seem to be in conformity with DECP
concept and representing the observed digging ease conditions even better.
However, the proposed walking dragline bench digging effort sequences (class) should only be considered merely as
a clue (guide) because of the fact that they include personal observations, experience and interpretation of the
author. On the other hand, having a more reliable classification more data is needed from other coal fields. The
author is confident that the mining operators of stripping mines having equipment equipped with onboard
performance monitors have abundant long term monitored data and results, but not shared in the literature due to
commercial concerns.

REFERENCES

[1]

Klink D.: Personal communications, 2012, P&H Mining Equipment UK ltd., Wigan, England

[2]

Ozdogan M.: Determination of elastic constants of rock and classification of intact and in-situ rock (in Turkish), Madencilik, June
1985, Vol.24, No.2, Ankara, Turkey

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[3]

Ozdogan M.: Interactive Energy Consumption Parameters of Walking Draglines at Turkish Coal mines, PhD. Dissertation, 2002,
METU, Ankara, Turkey

[4]

Ozdogan M., Ozgenoglu, A.: Payload estimation of a walking dragline-a case study, 3 Balkan Mining Congress, BALKANMINE
2009, zmir, Turkey, pp. 171-175.

[5]

Ozdogan M.: Variation of digging energy and digging rate with bench dig depth for walking draglines- A case study (in Turkish),
Madencilik, December 2010, Vol.49, No.4, pp.27-36, Ankara, Turkey

[6]

Young R.P., Hill J.J.: Seismic characterisation of rock masses before and after blasting, 26 U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics,
Rapid City, U.S.A., 1985, pp 1151-1158.

rd

th

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RELIABILITY FOR WELDED STRUCTURES OF BUCKET


WHEEL EXCAVATORS BASED ON THE COMPARISON
OF OPERATIONAL AND CRITICAL STRESSES

ABSTRACT
Miodrag ARSI1
Sran BONJAK2
Vencislav GRABULOV3
Meri BURZI4
Zoran SAVI5

Institute for materials testing,


Belgrade, Serbia,
miodrag.arsi@institutims.rs
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Belgrade, Serbia,
sbosnjak@mas.bg.ac.rs
3
Institute for materials testing,
Belgrade, Serbia,
vencislav.grabulov@institutims.rs
4
Innovation center of the faculty of
mechanical engineering, Belgrade,
Serbia, mburzic@mas.bg.ac.rs
5
Institute for materials testing,
Belgrade, Serbia,
zoran.savi@institutims.rs

Bucket wheel excavator consists of a number of elements and assemblies, as


well as relations between them and their characteristics structured in a way
that ensures performing of predicted actions during operation and carrying
out of necessary functions in time and conditions of exploitation.
Behaviour of the bucket wheel excavator under real conditions of
exploitation can not be predicted by engineering methods during the design
phase, employing of methods of probability theory is necessary as well.
Taking that into account, reliability of mechanical components is a
probability that the system will successfully perform its work function within
the allowable deviation range, projected service period and given conditions
of exploitation.
Therefore, only tests performed on structures of the bucket wheel excavator
in operating conditions and databases enable the complete assessment of
their state. Thats how the necessary data for the comparison of quality and
assessment of machines and structures, for the assessment of spatial
operation of certain components and elements regarding the load-carrying
capacity, as well as for the defining of joint operation of drive devices and
structures.
Development of reliability concept is fundamentally based on the
comparison of certain values which characterise functions of work capacity.
System reliability assessment is based on time parameters, operational state
- system operationally capable or state of failure - system operationally
incapable, as well as on the reliability assessment based on comparison of
operating and critical stresses.
This paper contains the probabilistic reliability calculation for supporting
welded structures of the bucket wheel, based on parameters of Weibull law
of distribution of random variable values of operational and critical stresses,
determined by tensometric measurement of deformations on the bucket
wheel excavator under exploitational conditions. The bucket wheel
excavator, type SchRs 650/5x2, has been produced by Thyssen Krupp,
Germany.

Keywords
Bucket-Wheel Excavator, Welded Structure,
Experimental Tests, Weibull Distribution, Reliability

1. INTRODUCTION
Premature damaging and fractures of components, assemblies and structures of bucket wheel excavators on
excavation sites often occur, which is being explained by inadequate designing, properties of material and welded
joints and oversights in component production technology [1,2]. Examples of fractures that occurred on bucket
wheel excavators have been recorded on practically every excavation site in Europe. Performed fracture and failure
analyses showed that the bucket wheel and bucket wheel boom are the most endangered structural groups on

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bucket wheel excavators [3,4]. It should be noted that, aside from direct damage caused by damage and fractures, a
disturbance in the production of electricity could cause significant indirect damage.
Behaviour of bucket wheel excavators in real conditions of exploitation and their reliability can not be solely
predicted by engineering methods, but the probability theory methods have to be employed as well [5,6,7,8,9],
because during the operation all components of the bucket wheel excavators are subjected to variable amplitude
loading stochastic loads, which are being caused by work conditions, own low-frequency oscillations and
simultaneous effect of a large number of technological, metallurgical and structural factors [2,4]. Taking into
account all of the above mentioned, it can be concluded that only tests performed on structures of the bucket
wheel excavator enable the accurate assessment of their condition and reliability and obtainment of necessary
data for the quality comparison and assessment of machines and structures, as well as assessment of the spatial
operation of particular components and elements regarding the load-carrying capacity and assessment of
cooperation of drive devices and structures [1,2,3,4,8].
This paper presents the results of experimental tests performed in order to determine the stress state of supporting
welded structures of the bucket wheel. According to the statistics, bucket wheel excavator is being used
approximately 5.000 hours per year, with the average stress frequency of its components fpr = 1,67/s (as a double
stress amplitude).
Basic technical and technological properties of the excavator Sch Rs 650/5 x 24, which operates at the largest
Kosovo excavation site Dobro Selo near Obilic, presented in figure 1, are as follows:
- theoretical capacity of the bucket wheel excavator
- volume of buckets, taking into account the empty space
- maximum depth of the cut
- maximum height of the cut
- bucket wheel drive power [2x450 kW]
- diameter of the bucket wheel
- number of buckets
- number of bucket shakeouts
- specific excavation resistance per bucket knife length
- overall coefficient of drive utilization
- velocity of cutting

Qt = 4212 [m3/h]
Wbuc = 650 [l]
L = 5 [m]
H = 24 [m]
N = 900 [kW]
Db = 10.2 [m]
z = 21
-1
ns = 36 [min ]
kL = 109.6 [kN/m]
= 0.935
vc = 2.78 [m/s]

Figure 1. Bucket wheel excav ator Sch Rs 650/5 x 24

Assessment of reliability of supporting welded structures of the bucket wheel depends on the assessment of welded
joints of various shapes and dimensions, due to their heterogeneous structure (base metal, heat affected zone, weld
metal), figure 2. The stress concentration occurs at riveted and welded structures, not only due to the change of
the geometrical shape of the structure, but also due to flaws in welded joints that occur during the fabrication and
cracks that occur in welded joints and base material during the service of the bucket wheel excavator, figure 3.

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Figure 2. Supporting structure of the bucket wheel boom

Figure 3. Examples of cracks in critical areas of base material and welded joints

2. THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS
Reliability of mechanical components, assemblies and subsystems is a probability that the bucket wheel excavator
as a system will successfuly perform its work function within the limits of allowable deviations and projected
exploitation period. Development of reliability concept is based on comparison of specific values that characterize
the operational capability functions [8,9].
There are two main approaches for the system reliability assessment:
Reliability assessment based on time parameters

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- operational state - system operationally capable,


- state of failure - system operationally incapable.
Reliability assessment based on comparison of operating and critical stresses.
The reliability assessment of welded structures of the bucket wheel excavator based on the comparison of
operating and critical stresses is presented in this paper.
Reliability Assessment Based On Comparison of Operating and Critical Stresses
When it comes to supporting structures of the bucket wheel excavator, their reliability primarily relies on
probability of correct operation under predicted conditions and service life. Factor of safety (S), which represents
the ratio between allowable stress (all) or reliability (R) and nominal stress (), is being used as a proof of reliability:
S = all / = R /

(1)

This is the usual deterministic method, which utilizes fixed values for the factor of safety and other influential
values, figure 4a. It is impossible to fully eliminate the failures, but the significant reduction is possible if adequate
stress distribution functions are taken into account, or to put it differently if the probabilistic calculation is utilized,
figure 4b. In that case the factor of safety should no longer be discussed, but only the probability that the reliability
is R > , or R > 0.

a) deterministic model

b) probabilistic model

Figure 4. Schematic appearance of the deterministic and probabilistic model of reliability calculation

Reliability, or failure probability of supporting structures of the bucket wheel excavator, in terms of probability
depends on:
spectrum of operating stress distribution during the service life under specific operating conditions,
values of fatigue strength, dispersion failure probability for adequate stress states,
experimentally determined values of operating strength, under specific operating conditions and
probabilities of failure,
values of dispersion of operating stresses and probability of occurrence of critical stresses under predicted
operating conditions.
All of the above mentioned elements are needed in order to determine the reliability (probability of failure), if
highest operating stresses are larger than the lowest critical stress in any part of their spectrum. Overlapping of
these stresses could occur, not only due to unpredictable operating conditions and incorrect bucket wheel
excavator manipulation, and is being used as an initial assumption when it comes to calculation of strength of
responsible components of supporting structures, taking into account that requests for easier structural solutions
are a priority.

3. EXPERIMENTAL TESTS
Reliability of supporting welded structures, based on the comparison of operating and critical stresses, could be
predicted only with support of experimental tensometric measurements of deformations in various environments,
through the use of probability theory methods.

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Measurement of Deformations and Determination of Operating Stresses


Taking into account the static calculation and the theoretical analyses carried out for the elements of supporting
structures of the bucket wheel boom, as well as knowledge regarding the most common locations where cracks and
fractures occur, three zones with four measurement locations each were selected. Measurement zones are located
in the area of welded joints, and therefore test results could be used for the analysis of behaviour of welded joints
subjected to variable loading. In this paper only the results of stresses calculated on the basis of measured
deformations and probabilistic calculation of reliability for the supporting structure of the bucket wheel in zone 3
are presented, due to the fact that measurement results showed that highest stresses occur in that zone, figure 1.
It was concluded that, taking into account the character of loading and principle of action of strain gauges and
measurement equipment, it would be best to use the equipment which structure is presented in figure 5 for testing.

Figure 5. Appearance of the structure of measurement equipment and its connection with strain gauges

During the testing the four-channel magnetic tape recorder HP-3964-A was used, set to record and reproduce the
taken record under the dynamic conditions of service. Visual monitoring of the deformation state during the
testing was performed, in order to prevent the overstepping of standardized values. It was carried out through the
use of one-channel oscilloscope. For the drawing of records suitable for analysis the graphic tape recorder was used
that can amplificate the signal in the range from 1 [V] do 500 [V] and stretch the signal in the range from 1 [cm/h]
do 60 [cm/min], which enables the obtainment of records suitable for analysis and presentation.

Testing Methodology and Selection of Measurement Locations


Service conditions for a bucket wheel excavator are various and depend on a large number of deterministic and
random parameters. In order to determine true stress state, or to put it differently changing through time at the
welded structure of the bucket wheel excavator, the measurements of deformation in various environments barren
soil and coal were performed.
Tensometric deformation measurements were performed at the supporting welded structure of the bucket wheel
through the use of strain gauges (HBM XY31). Thanks to the properties of the measuring equipment, deformation
measurements were carried out through multiple repetitions of operating regimes.

4. PROBABILISTIC CALCULATION OF RELIABILITY


Overlapping of distribution functions of highest operating stresses and critical stresses in zone 3 at the supporting
structure of the bucket wheel boom, according to table 1, is shown in figure 7.
Table 7. Parameters of Weibull distribution of stress for the supporting welded structure


f ( r ) o


exp o ;


f ( cr ) cr


exp cr

Stress state of the supporting welded structure [MPa]

Front of the bucket wheel boom

d - test

During the movement of the bucket wheel excavator

41

3.6

36.9

0.089<0.102

During the excavation of loose rock mass

65

3.6

58.5

0.122<0.127

During the excavation of hard rock mass, full cut

81

3.7

73.1

0.076<0.114

112

7.0

106.7

0.092<0.109

Parameters of Weibull distribution

During the excavation of petrified rock mass

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Figure 6. Overlapping of critical and operating stresses for given distribution functions

Relative frequency of operating stresses in figure 7 is presented in the continuous form of the probability density
function f(p), while critical stress is presented in the form of the probability density function f(cp). Failure
probability or reliability of the critical welded joint (Rwj) is being obtained from the following equation:

Rwj 1 e y e


cr cr y cr
o o


cr o
o o

*
dx y cr cr

cr cr

cr

(5)

where: f(o) probability density of operating stresses


f(cr) probability density of critical stresses
Rwj reliability of the welded joint

cr scale parameter
cr shape parameter
cr location parameter
By inserting the experimentally determined parameters of two-parameter Weibull distribution for the critical crosssection (table 7), the following probability density functions for operating and critical stresses are being obtained:

3, 7 o
f ( o )
81 81
f ( cr )

3,7 1

7, 0 cr
112 112


o
81

3,7

(6)
7,0 1


cr
112

7 ,0

(7)

reliability

Rwj 1 e
0

112 1
x 7 ,0

81

3,7


dx y cr
cr
,

cr

(8)

By calculating the integral (8) using the method of numerical integration, it was obtained that reliability of the
critical welded joint is Rwj = 1 0,3704 = 0.6296. On the basis of long term failure analyses and indicators of
endangerment of critical welded joint at the supporting structure of the bucket wheel, determined reliability for
one of responsible welded joints could be considered real.

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Taking the principle that all magnitudes for which the reliability (failure probability) is being determined have their
own probability of occurrence as a starting point, it can be concluded that reliability should be looked upon in
specific areas of overlapping for various probabilities of highest operating stresses and critical stresses. That is the
way to get a clearer picture of certain influences on reliability in wide areas of their value, which could in this case
be presented by a Gaussian probability density function (normal distribution), with the normal distribution factor of
2.9, as shown in figure 7. General form of normal distribution is represented by equation (9). Determined probability
density function for the failure probability of the supporting welded structure of the bucket wheel, with normal
distribution parameters, is represented by equation (10).

1
f ( )
e
D 2


2D

(9)

where is the mean value of stress, while D is the dispersion of mean value.
f ()

1
11.8 2

1 91.4

2 11.8

(10)

5. CONCLUSION
On the basis of long term failure analyses and indicators of endangerment of critical welded joint at the supporting
structure of the bucket wheel, determined reliability for supporting welded structure of the bucket wheel could be
considered real.
For the evaluation of service life of supporting welded structures, taking into account the reliability based on the
comparison of operating and critical stresses, it is necessary to define the spectra of variable stresses in various
conditions of exploitation of the bucket wheel excavator for measured deformations and calculated stresses.

6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work is a contribution to the Project TR 35006, funded by the Ministry of education, science and technological
development of Serbia.

REFERENCES

[1]

Miodrag A., Stojan S., Vujadin A. : Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Cumulative Fatigue Damage of Welded Structure,
Proceedings of the Conference Fatigue Damage, Seville, 2003, pp. 143-147.

[2]

Miodrag A., Vujadin A., Zoran A. : The analysis of supporting structure of planetary gear box satelite, Proceedings of the 16th
European Conference of Fracture of Nano and Engineering Materials and Structures, Alexandroupolis, Greece, 2006, Files on the CD
(The paper is 8 pages long).

[3]

Sran B., Miodrag A., Nenad Z., Marko R., Milorad P.: Bucket wheel excavator: Integrity assessment of the bucket wheel boom tierod welded joint, Engineering Failure Analysis, 2011, Vol.18, pp. 212-222.

[4]

Miodrag A., Sran B., Nenad Z., Aleksandar S., Neboja. G. : Bucket wheel failure caused by residual stresses in welded joints,
Engineering Failure Analysis, 2011, Vol.18, pp.700-712.

[5]

Limnios N., Oprisan G.: Semi-Markov Processes and Reliability, Statistics for Industry and Technology, A Birkhuser book, 2001.

[6]

Gottvald J., Krsa J., Helebrant F., Fries F., Kraus V.: FT-TA4/018 Modern Trends in Incre-FT-TA4/018 Modern Trends in Increasing
Equipment Reliability for the Open-Cast Mining of Utility Minerals, Part 6b.: In-Situ Verification of Methods and a Proposal for Their
Application-Draft Methodology for Measuring. Research Report, 2009.

[7]

Ljubia P., Milorad P.: Implementation Methodology for Risk Minimization into Maintenance Process of Produc-tion System at Coal
Mines, Report of Contract No. 4617, DQM Research Center-Kolubara Metal, Prijevor-Vreoci, Serbia, 2009, pp. 468.

[8]

Miodrag A., Mladen M., Alesandar V., Marko R., Zoran R.: Reliability of Critical Welded Joints in Responsible Support Structures of
Bucket Wheel Excavator, XIX International Conference on Material handling, constructions and logistics -MHCL 09, Belgrade,
Serbia, 2009, pp. 133-138.

[9]

Miodrag A., Sran B., Marko R., Zoran O., Zoran S. : Reliability Assessment of the Gearbox of the Bucket-Wheel Excavator
th
Excavation Subsystem Based on Failure Analysis, Papers Book of the 4 Balkan Mining Congress, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2011, pp.
103-111.

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INFLUENCE OF SIPX AND AP5500 COLLECTORS


ON THE RECOVERY OF COPPER AND PRECIOUS METALS
FROM ORE DEPOSIT TENKA-3

ABSTRACT
Ivana JOVANOVI1
Igor MILJANOVI2
Vladan MILOEVI3
Dejan TODOROVI3
Ljubia ANDRI3
Zoran BARTULOVI3

Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor,


Serbia, ivajo7@gmail.com
2
University of Belgrade, Faculty of
Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia
3
Institute for Technology of Nuclear
and other Mineral Raw Materials,
Belgrade, Serbia

The Tenka deposits (which include Tenka 1, Tenka 2, and Tenka 3 deposits,
located in eastern Serbia) belong to polymetallic deposits and besides the
copper they contain lead and zinc minerals in a certain content. From this
perspective, defining optimal ore processing conditions (due to complex ore
characteristics) and obtaining commercial product with satisfactory
technological properties, represents complex task and requires serious
research and examinations.
This paper presents a part of technological investigations performed to
determine the possibility of copper and precious metals valorization from
the ore deposit Tenka 3, using a flotation concentration method. During the
experimental procedure, ethoxycarbonyl thiourea based collector (AERO
5500 promoter) and sodium isopropyl xanthate were used, while the pH
value of flotation pulp varied from 9.9 to 11.6. The results shown that this
combination of reagents affects relatively low recovery of copper and
precious metals (regardless to pH value of pulp).

Keywords
Flotation, Copper, Precious Metals, Recovery

1. INTRODUCTION
Polymetallic deposit Tenka is located in the northern part of the "Severni revir" of porphyric copper deposite
"Majdanpek". Analysis has shown that the deposit Tenka consists from several ore bodies, different in shape from
ore veins and pipes with clearly distinguished steep decline to lenticular and isometric ore bodies. Such
morphological diversity of ore bodies is a consequence of the character and contacts of andesites and limestones,
as well as multiphase intrusions and complex tectonic movements. Generally speaking, three ore bodies can be
isolated: Tenka 1 (north ore body), Tenka 2 (south ore body), and Tenka 3 which is located in the eastern part of the
productive zone [1]. In terms of mineral composition, ore body Tenka 3 is agglomerate composed of massive pyrite
bodies (pyrite content is 60-90%), magnetite ore bodies in skarns and copper vein-impregnated mineralization in
andesites [1,2]. The subject of this work is related to the valorization possibilities of useful components (copper and
precious metals) from the complex raw material originated from the ore body Tenka 3. It is important that this
sample has high content of pyrite besides the relatively high content of useful components. Structural and textural
properties, clay content, mineralogical composition, degree of intergrowth of useful and gangue minerals are
similar in the tested sample as in the ore body Tenka 3 [3,4].

2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Raw materials
The initial material used in this study was formed as a composite sample prepared of three components from
different locations of deposit Tenka 3 (locations 1, 2, and 3). Chemical composition of the composite sample is
shown in Table 1.

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Table 1. Chemical composition of the composite sample from the Tenka 3 deposit

Sample
name

Pb, %

Zn, %

Cu, %

Cusulph, %

Cuox, %]

S, %

Au, g/t

Ag, g/t

Composite
1-3

0.073

0.016

0.473

0.453

0.021

21.853

0.520

5.567

Qualitative mineralogical analysis was performed by the polarizing microscope with reflected light in the air. These
tests showed that the sample contained the following major minerals: pyrite, chalcopyrite, limonite, quartz,
silicates and carbonates. Figure 1 presents galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite grains, while Figure 2 shows
aggregate of carbonates with bornite inclusions.

Figure 1. Grains of chalcopyrite, galena


and sphalerite from ore deposit Tenka 3

Figure 2. Aggregate of carbonates with bornite inclusions

For the purposes of the flotation concentration tests, it was necessary to grind raw material to a suitable fineness
(60% -0,074mm). Particle size composition of the grinded sample is shown in the Figure 3.

100
90
80
70
M, %

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

100

Size distribution curve

200

300

400

Cumulative oversize dist.curve

500

600

700

800

Size, m

Figure 3. Grain-size distribution of the grinded sample

Test procedure
Laboratory testing of copper minerals flotation concentration is carried out according to the following conditions:
pulp density in grinding processes was 70% of solid phase in all experiments

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grinding fineness was 60% -0.074 mm (grain size that achieves an optimal degree of useful minerals release,
according to the mineralogical analysis)
pulp density in flotation processes was 30% of solid phase in all experiments
pH values of pulp in flotation process were 9.9, 10.5, 11.1 and 11.6 (from the first to the fourth experiment,
respectively)
Sodium isopropyl xanthate and AERO 5500 Promoter (ethoxycarbonyl thiourea based reagent) were applied
as the collectors. Mass ratio of these collectors was NaIPX : AP5500 = 60 : 40. Overall consumption of the
collectors was 50 g/t in all experiments. The collector dose is based on the content of sulphide minerals
including very high content of pyrite(over 30%) in the ore.
AEROFROTH 76A was used as a frother in all experiments, with the dosage recommended by the
manufacturer.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Technological results of the examination and material balances of the experiments are shown in the Tables 2, 3, 4,
and 5.
Table 2. Experiment 1 - Technological results of the examination

Product

M, %

Cu, %

S, %

Au, g/t

Ag, g/t

RCu, %

RS, %

RAu, %

RAg, %

F*

100.00

0.47

21.8

0.520

5.567

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

RCCu

10.25

3.08

26.2

1.926

10.569

67.17

12.32

37.96

19.46

SCCu

2.96

0.31

16.0

1.778

16.043

1.95

2.17

10.12

8.53

86.79

0.17

21.5

0.311

4.619

30.88

85.51

51.92

72.01

Table 3. Experiment 2 - Technological results of the examination

Product

M, %

Cu, %

S, %

Au, g/t

Ag, g/t

RCu, %

RS, %

RAu, %

RAg, %

100.00

0.47

21.8

0.520

5.567

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

RCCu

10.40

2.96

24.9

1.811

11.979

65.50

11.88

36.22

22.38

SCCu

1.84

0.98

41.3

2.758

28.622

3.84

3.49

9.76

9.46

87.76

0.16

21.0

0.319

4.324

30.66

84.63

54.02

68.16

Table 4. Experiment 3 - Technological results of the examination

Product

M, %

Cu, %

S, %

Au, g/t

Ag, g/t

RCu, %

RS, %

RAu, %

RAg, %

100.00

0.47

21.8

0.520

5.567

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

RCCu

9.40

3.34

24.4

2.125

9.790

66.80

10.52

38.41

16.53

SCCu

3.29

0.34

23.0

1.293

7.039

2.38

3.47

8.18

4.16

87.31

0.17

21.5

0.318

5.056

30.82

86.01

53.41

79.31

Table 5. Experiment 4 - Technological results of the examination

Product

M, %

Cu, %

S, %

Au, g/t

Ag, g/t

RCu, %

RS, %

RAu, %

RAg, %

100.00

0.47

21.8

0.520

5.567

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

RCCu

7.31

4.22

29.4

2.620

9.100

65.63

9.86

36.83

11.95

SCCu

1.81

0.44

32.6

3.150

6.400

1.69

2.71

10.96

2.08

90.88

0.17

21.0

0.299

5.266

32.68

87.43

52.21

85.97

*F feed, RCCu rough copper concentrate, SCCu scavenger copper concentrate, T - tailings

Metal recovery in the rough copper concentrate is shown in the Figure 4, while Figure 5 shows metal content in the
rough copper concentrate.

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Figure 4. Metal recovery in the


rough copper concentrate

Figure 5. Metal content in the


rough copper concentrate

As it can be seen from the Tables 2-5, the highest recovery of copper (67.17 %) in the rough concentrate was
achieved in the first experiment. Otherwise, the highest recoveries of gold (38.41 %) and silver (22.38 %) were
obtained in the third and the second experiment, respectively.
The highest copper and gold contents in the rough concentrate (4.22 % and 2.620 g/t, respectively) were achieved
in the fourth experiment (Table 5), while the highest content of silver (11,979 g/t) was achieved in the second
experiment (Table 3).
Generally, it can be concluded that the best technological results were obtained in the fourth experiment, where
the pH value of the flotation pulp was 11.6.
As it can be seen from the Figure 5, copper and gold contents in the rough copper concentrate slightly increase and
silver content decreases with the increasing pH value of the flotation pulp.
Dependence of the copper and gold recoveries in the rough copper concentrate on pH value of the flotation pulp is
not clearly observed. Silver recovery decreases with the increasing pH value of the pulp (Figure 3).
Generally, it can be concluded that obtained recoveries of Cu, Au and Ag are quite a low (under 70%, 40% and 30%
respectivelly). Therefore, this combination of reagents is not suitable for application in the flotation processing of
this ore.

4. CONCLUSION
These testing has shown that combination of the collectors SIPX and AERO 5500 Promoter is not suitable for
flotation concentration of copper as well as precious metals from ore body Tenka 3. This is especially related with
low copper recovery (under 70%) in the rough flotation concentrate. Individual application of this reagents gave
better results than their combination [3].

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
These investigations were conducted under the Project 33007: Implementation of sophisticated technical,
technological and ecological solutions in the existing production systems of Copper Mines Bor and Copper Mine
Majdanpek, funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.

REFERENCES

[1]

S.Vuji, M.Gruji, D.Salati, S.Radivojevi and R.Jelenkovi: Rudnik bakra Majdanpek, razvoj, stanje, budunost, Rudarskogeoloki fakultet, Beograd, 2005, p.167 (In Serbian)

[2]

I Jovanovi, D. Todorovi, Lj. Andri: The effect of different collectors on recovery of copper and precious metals of the ore
body Tenka 3 (Uticaj razliitih kolektora na iskorienje bakra i plemenitih metala rudnog tela Tenka 3), Rudarski radovi 3/2012,
2012, pp. 223-234

[3]

V.Miloevi et al.: Izvetaj Istraivanja za izbor optimalnih parametara tehnolokog procesa za dobijanje najpovoljnijeg
iskorienja i kvaliteta koncentrata bakra iz uzorka Tenka 3 Severni revir, arhiva ITNMS, Beograd, 2011, p.63 (In Serbian)

[4]

S.Miloevi: Flotacijska koncentracija Teorijske osnove flotiranja, Tehniki fakultet u Boru, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Bor, 1992,
p.211 (In Serbian)

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DETERMINING INDIRECT DEPENDENCY OF PRODUCTION SEGMENTS


WITHIN THERMAL POWER PLANT OPEN PIT
MINES KOSTOLAC BY MULTISECTORAL MODELS

ABSTRACT
Svetomir MAKSIMOVI1
Igor MILJANOVI2
Ivana IVOJINOVI MILJANOVI1
Milena JOSIPOVI PEJOVI2
Aleksandar PETROVSKI2

Electric Power Industry of Serbia, Belgrade,


Serbia, svetomir.maksimovic@eps.rs
2
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and
Geology, Belgrade, Serbia, imiljan@rgf.bg.ac.rs

Application of multisectoral models in our country as well as worldwide has so far been mostly related with the macroeconomic
systems, i.e. the business system of a country. Multisectoral models
were mostly used in economy, only to some extent in the mining
industry, without much interest of engineering staff.
The area of multisectoral models utilization in business public
enterprises and business companies has not sufficiently been
explored. Results obtained following the example of Kolubara, TENT
and Kostolac show the potential of a realistic review of mutually
extremely complex production-related direct and indirect
dependencies and influences within commercial entities.

Keywords
Multisectoral Models, Electric Power Industry, Company, Coal Sector

1. INTRODUCTION
In many countries worldwide, multisectoral analyses are used for keeping national and regional economies. The
economy structure of the national coal industry can be treated similar to the national economy. Each sector needs
input of goods and services in the form of work force, repro-material. In order to be useful for the system, each
sector has to increase the value of accepted input. The sum of added values of all sectors in the coal industry is
called GNP (Gross National Product), an important parameter for describing coal industry economy [1,2].
Multisectoral analysis is still not present enough in the mining engineering and has still not been applied in the
mining industry. Today, in the times of restructuring mining industry in Serbia, there are prominent requests for
increasing coal and electric power production, within strict ecological, social, urban, technological, market and
other limitations and requests. Researches that have been conducted by the School of Mining and Geological
Engineering, Department for Application of Computers and Systemic Engineering, under mentorship of Prof Dr
Slobodan Vujic, show that multisectoral analysis can be an efficient tool in management, especially in management
of large, complex economic systems [4,5,6].
In this connection, starting from methodological basics of multisectoral analysis of production systems, within coal
industry of Serbia, numerous questions arise, such as forming of multisectoral production system matrices, defining
their resulting information contents and analytical potential, determination of possibilities and ways of their actual
use in the production system, etc [3, 7].
Researches have been conducted upon examples of companies for production of coal and thermo-electric power,
Business Association (BA) Electric Power industry of Serbia. The results of these researches show that multisectoral
analysis provides numerous significant pieces of information on: direct and mutual production connectivity of
entities in the system, mutual dependency of the system and the environment, that is, information on natural and
intensity of systematic dependency on the environment, establishment and division of production tasks per entity,
their value structure, scope and spending structure, level of influence of their changes to the system production,
cost structure, prices of realized production, etc.

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2. MULTISECTORAL MODELS
Multisectoral models based on application of multisectoral analysis serve for discovering one of the possible
solutions in the area of production, export exchange, allocation and final spending, and especially, for
implementation of the current economic policy.
Usefulness of multisectoral tables is seen in the following:
a) Improvement of harmonization of mutual relations between economic sectors in production, allocation,
exchange and spending (through implementation of changes in use and increase of existing capacities,
with or without inclusion of the technological process);
b) Establishment of direct and indirect productive dependency of local economic sectors and needs for its
change;
c) Determining the level of import dependency of the local economy on the global economic system and
possibility of substitution of expert by local production;
d) Acquiring quantitative basis for examining effects of application of multisectoral relations on each sample
separately (prices, customs, taxes, contributions, devaluation, inflation, etc.);
e) Presenting the status and possibilities of application of economic position of economic sectors in
accumulation;
f) Finding elements for directing the pace of economic development and improving production structure, by
making an optimal allocation of production resources;
g) Improvement of production of macroeconomic models for establishing optimal economic development,
using the Operational Research method.
Multisectoral analysis has been pronounced the most important revelation in the 20th-century economy and it is
attributed to the Nobel Prize winner, American Economist born in Russia, Wassily Leontief [2,3].

3. MULTISECTORAL TABLES (INPUT-OUTPUT TABLES) OF THERMO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT,


KOSTOLAC
Sector connectivity in BA TE-KO Kostolac is shown in Figure 1 [8].

Figure 1. Schematic presentation of interconnectivity of the production system TE-KO Kostolac. OPM Drmno Open pit mine Drmno, OPM
Cirikovac Open pit mine Cirikovac.

The basic input-output table BA TE-KO Kostolac is given in the continuation of the text.

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Table 1. The basic input-output table BA TE-KO Kostolac (for 2007), (10 RSD)

Segment

OPM
Drmno

OPM
Cirikovac

TE-A

TE-B

Total

Fin. spend.

TOTAL

OPM Drmno

2.500

568.400

4.753.500

5.324.400

537.780

5.862.180

OPM Cirikovac

640

704.800

705.440

527.300*

1.232.740

TE-A

47.300

37.100

84.400

2.115.700

2.200.100

TE-B

153.100

102.000

255.100

9.140.980

9.396.080

12.321.760

18.691.100

Total

155.600

47.940

1.310.300

4.855.500

6.369.340

Total mat. costs (TMC)

2.145.000

265.550

1.470.550

5.161.900

9.043.000

Amortization (AM)

1.221.100

105.940

125.000

2.132.300

3.584.340

Net earnings (NE)

613.800

387.600

275.000

266.180

1.542.580

Product. surplus (PS)

1.882.280

473.650

329.550

1.835.700

4.521.180

Domest. prod. (DP)

3.717.180

967.190

729.550

4.234.180

9.648.100

Production (P)

5.862.180

1.232.740

2.200.100

9.396.080

18.691.100

Reduction of res. (Z)

Import by origin (I)

Avail. funds (AF)

5.862.180

1.232.740

2.200.100

9.396.080

18.691.100

4. FORMS OF MULTISECTORAL DEPENDENCY


According to table 1, technical coefficients or production norms have been calculated, and they present direct
production dependency between each pair of production segments in execution of their activities in BA TE-KO
Kostolac.
According to the direction of action in the reproduction process, it can have the characteristics of direct and
indirect dependency.
The value of economic sector production in a company during a given period can be established by using the matrix
[I - A]-1. This particular matrix shows, apart from the direct the indirect dependency between economic sectors
during a reproduction process. The matrix [I - A]-1 represents an inverse matrix that consists of a singular matrix
with the mark (I) and technical coefficient matrix (A). Further on, this matrix can be presented as the following
equation:

I - A-1 I A As
s2

Where s denotes the exponent of a degree [9,10].


The elements of the matrix [I - A]-1 include the value of the production of an economic sector i, that has to be
realized in order to avail functioning of a reproductive process, and to provide the production unit of the economic
sector j for the final spending. Its elements are interpreted only per column [11].

5. ESTABLISHING INDIRECT DEPENDENCY ON THE EXAMPLE OF PRODUCTIVE SEGMENTS BA TE-KO


KOSTOLAC FOR THE PLANNED PRODUCTION IN 2007
Establishing indirect dependency can relate to productive or import dependency. In the given example, it relates to
the productive dependency.
The matrix of coefficients that show indirect connection between segments and that confirm multiphase
functioning of a reproductive process has the following form:
0,01357 0,00100 0,01165 0,01310

A
s2

0
0,01248 0,00965 0
0
0,00163 0,01314 0
0,00088 0
0,00700 0,01414

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Table 2. TE-KO Kostolac, matrix [I - A]

Segment

OPM Drmno

OPM Cirikovac

TE-A

TE-B

Total

-1

Segment
OPM Drmno

OPM Cirikovac

TE-A

TE-B

DIR

1.00043

0.25835

0.50590

IND

0.01357

0.01000

0.01165

0.01310

1.01400

0.01000

0.27000

0.51900

DIR

1.00052

0.32035

IND

0.01248

0.00965

1.01300

0.33000

DIR

0.03837

1.01686

IND

0.00163

0.01314

0.04000

1.03000

DIR

0.02612

1.01086

IND

0.00088

0.00700

0.01414

0.02700

0.00700

1.02500

DIR

1.02655

1.03889

1.59556

1.51676

IND

0.01445

0.02411

0.04144

0.02724

1.04100

1.06300

1.63700

1.54400

Incessant functioning of a reproductive process that is provided by, for instance, OPM Drmno, to produce the
production unit (of coal) in the value of 100 (RSD), requires, in the form of indirect production dependency, to
additionally produce in OPM Drmno another 1.36 (RSD) and in TE-B another 0.09 (RSD) see table 2. If not, the
multiphase reproductive process could not function. For the TE-A segment, additional conditioned production in
the form of indirect productive dependency would have to be done: OPM Drmno for 1.17 (RSD), OPM Cirikovac
for 0.97 (RSD), TE-A for 1.31 (RSD) and segment TE-B for 0.7 (RSD).
The segment structure shown in Table 3 points towards a relative significance of direct and indirect productive
dependency of segments.
Thus, for instance, the segment producing coal in OPM Drmno is directly dependent on the supply of electric
energy from TE-B for 96.74 (%), and slightly depends with 3.26 (%) on functioning of the reproductive flow from TEB.
Segment for production of electric power TE-B directly depends on delivery of coal from OPM Drmno with 97.48
(%), and somewhat depends, with 2.52 (%), on functioning of the reproductive process based on production of coal
in the segment Drmno.
Table 4 contains data on direct and indirect productive dependency between the given processing segment and the
given production segment, reduced to the unit of final spending. In order to have, for example, segment for coal
production OPM Drmno provide production for satisfying needs of the final spending, it would have to provide,
immediately from the producer, in this case from the producer of electric power TE-B, electric power for 2.51(%)
and its own coal for 96.10 (%), which makes total dependency of 98.61 (%). This is not possible to realize if the
reproductive system would not have production at the level of 1.39 (%) of the value of the used coal and electric
power in the segment for production of coal OPM Drmno.

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Table 3. TE-KO Kostolac, segment structure

Segment

OPM Drmno

OPM Cirikovac

TE-A

TE-B

Total

Table 4. Structure of matrix [I - A]

OPM Cirikovac

TE-A

TE-B

Total

OPM Cirikovac

TE-A

TE-B

DIR

98.66

95.69

97.48

IND

1.34

100.00

4.31

2.52

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

DIR

98.77

97.08

IND

1.23

2.92

100.00

100.00

DIR

95.93

98.72

IND

4.07

1.28

100.00

100.00

0
98.62

DIR

96.74

IND

3.26

100.00

1.38

100.00

100.00

100.00

DIR

98.61

97.73

97.47

98.24

IND

1.39

2.27

2.53

1.76

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

-1

Segment

OPM Drmno

Segment
OPM Drmno

Segment
OPM Drmno

OPM Cirikovac

TE-A

TE-B
32.77

DIR

96.10

15.78

IND

1.31

0.94

0.71

0.85

97.41

0.94

16.49

33.62

DIR

94.12

19.57

IND

1.17

0.59

95.29

20.16

DIR

3.61

62.12

IND

0.16

0.80

3.77

62.92

DIR

2.51

65.47

IND

0.08

0.43

0.91

2.59

0.43

66.38
98.24

DIR

98.61

97.73

97.47

IND

1.39

2.27

2.53

1.76

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

6. CONCLUSION
The area of application of the multisectoral analysis in companies has not been well researched. The results
obtained by application of some models of multisectoral analysis on the example of production companies in the
Electric Power Company of Serbia point to the possibility of a more realistic analysis of mutual, very complex
dependencies and influences within companies. Apart from this, the conducted researches in production
companies within Electric Power Company of Serbia point to the following: one should continue with future
researches and application of these models in economic companies; these models represent a significant
improvement of existing methodologies of analysis and planning that now exist in economic companies; further
development and application of these models in economic companies should be based primarily on dynamic
multisectoral models.

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REFERENCES

[1]

Stanojevi R., (2001), Optimization macroeconomy models, Velarta, Belgrade, (512 p.), (in Serbian).

[2]

Stanojevi R., (2004), Dynamical programming, Institute of Economy, Belgrade (958 p.), (in Serbian).

[3]

Vuji S., I. Miljanovi, S.Maksimovic, A.Milutinovic, T.Benovic, M.Hudej, B.Dimitrijevic, V.Cebasek and G.Gajic, Optimal dynamic
management of exploitation life of the mining machinery: models with undefined interval, Jornla of Mining Science, Springer
New York, DOI: 10.1007/s10913-01-0053-2, Volume 46, Number 4, 2010, (425-430).

[4]

Vuji S., MAP: A method of multiattributive prognostication of mineral resources, Yugoslav journal of operations research, YU
th
ISSN 0354-0243, Volume 11, Number 2, 2001. (211-220); 29 International Symposium on Application of Computers and
Operations Research in the Mineral Industry, APCOM 2001, Section 2: Exploration, China University of Mining and Technology
(CUMT), Bejing, China.

[5]

Vuji S., Miljanovi I., Maksimovi S., et al., (2010), Optimal dynamic management of exploitation life of the mining machinery
with undefined interval, Journal of Mining Science, Vol. 46, No. 4. 2010.

[6]

Popovi S., Nei V., Petrovi J., (1977), Application of input-output analysis in a complex business organization for the example
of Kolubara, SYM-OP-IS 77, Herceg Novi, (pp. 439-460), (in Serbian).

[7]

Maksimovi S. (2009), Application of intersectoral analysis in business association of the Electric Power Industry of Serbia
thermoenergetic sector, Elektroprivreda Vol.1, Beograd, (pp. 85-92), (in Serbian).

[8]

Maksimovi S., Milanovi Z., Miljanovi I., Boevski S., Hudej M., Benovi T., (2009), Application of Input-Output Analysis in
rd
Corporate Enerprises of EPIS Thermal Power Sector, 3 Balkan Mining Congress, Izmir-Turkey.

[9]

Maksimovi S., Miljanovi I., (2011), Application of structure models in planning the development of EPIS production sectors,
IMCET 2011, Ankara-Turkey.

[10]

Maksimovi S., Milinovi Z., et al., (2009), Application of an input-output analysis in the companies of thermoenergetic sector of
EPIS, SYM-OP-IS 2009, (pp. 587-590), (in Serbian).

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CONCEPTUAL SOLUTIONS OF THE MAIN MINING PROJECT


OF THE OPEN PIT MINE UGLJEVIK ISTOK, MINE
AND THERMAL PLANT UGLJEVIK REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA

ABSTRACT
The brown coal open pit mine Ugljevik-istok is operating within the Mine
and Thermal Power plant Ugljevik in the Republic of Srpska, and providing
the thermal power plant with 300 MW of power with coal. Since the now
operative project documentation is expiring, a new Main Mining Project for
the Ugljevik Istok was assembled. The paper presents the concept of the
new project, with particular emphasis on the new and specific solutions.

Neboja MAKSIMOVI1
Sran KNEEVI
Simeun MARIJANAC

Mining Institute, Belgrade, Serbia


1
n_maksimovic@ikom.rs

Keywords
Open Pit Mine, Ugljevik, Brown Coal, Mining Project

1. INTRODUCTION
According to the approved, project documentation, coal exploitation at the open mine pit "Bogutovo selo" will be
terminated in the year 2014. However, certain deviations can be expected. A situation like this is the basic reason
for projection of a new open mine pit which would be exploited for the needs of the existing thermal plant block
Ugljevik, of 300MW.
Proved coal reserves, analyzed variants as well as the proposed solutions point to the "Ugljevik-istok" basin.
The brown coal basin "Ugljevik-istok" has a surface of 300 ha. The south border of this deposit is represented by the
coppice zone of the floor (main) coal layer, west, pit "east", but the northern and the eastern are represented by the
finishing contours of the projected pit. The eastern border goes through the valley of the Ugljevik stream. The
excavation direction is from east to west.
Exploitation coal reserves of the "Ugljevik-istok" calculated through several methods were defined with a total of
51.3 x 106 t with 300,400,000 m3 sm (solid mass) of waste rock for a period of twenty nine years starting from 20132041. Out of twenty nine years in total, only during the first two coal exploitation of coal will be lesser than the
planned 1,850,000t while the lacking capacity will be compensated from the open pit "Bogutovo selo". After the
first two years coal production will be stabilized and based on the project will be absolutely sustainable.
The excavation dynamics of waste rock varies from the starting 3,500,000 m3sm to the maximum of 13,500,000
m3sm. In the period of the last five years the excavation dynamics drops again and from 13,500,000 in the last year
remains at 2,000,000 m3sm. Table 1 displays the waste rock and coal exploitation dynamics.
Table 1.

Overburden m3 sm

Year

Coal, t

2011

Preparation works

1st year

2012

Preparation works

2013

3,500,000

3,500,000

350,000

350,000

2014

4,500,000

8,000,000

1,000,000

1,350,000

2015

5,500,000

13,500,000

1,850,000

3,200,000

2016

7,500,000

21,000,000

1,850,000

5,050,000

2017

11,000,000

32,000,000

1,850,000

6,900,000

5th year

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2018

11,000,000

43,000,000

1,850,000

8,750,000

2019

11,000,000

54,000,000

1,850,000

10,600,000

2020

11,000,000

65,000,000

1,850,000

12,450,000

2021

11,000,000

76,000,000

1,850,000

14,300,000

2022

11,000,000

87,000,000

1,850,000

16,150,000

2023

11,500,000

98,500,000

1,850,000

18,000,000

2024

12,100,000

110,600,000

1,850,000

19,850,000

2025

12,100,000

122,700,000

1,850,000

21,700,000

2026

12,100,000

134,800,000

1,850,000

23,550,000

2027

12,100,000

146,900,000

1,850,000

25,400,000

2028

12,500,000

159,400,000

1,850,000

27,250,000

2029

12,500,000

171,900,000

1,850,000

29,100,000

2030

12,500,000

184,400,000

1,850,000

30,950,000

2031

12,500,000

196,900,000

1,850,000

32,800,000

2032

13,500,000

210,400,000

1,850,000

34,650,000

2033

13,500,000

223,900,000

1,850,000

36,500,000

2034

13,500,000

237,400,000

1,850,000

38,350,000

2035

13,500,000

250,900,000

1,850,000

40,200,000

2036

13,500,000

264,400,000

1,850,000

42,050,000

2037

13,500,000

277,900,000

1,850,000

43,900,000

2038

10,000,000

287,900,000

1,850,000

45,750,000

2039

6,000,000

293,900,000

1,850,000

47,600,000

2040

4,500,000

298,400,000

1,850,000

49,450,000

2041

2,000,000

300,400,000

1,850,000

51,300,000

300,400,000

10th year

15th year

19th year

24th year

29th year

51,300,000

2. PROJECT SOULUTIONS
Considering that the project was done in two variants it is very important to mention that the exploitation method,
excavation, transport and disposal are the same in both variants from the first to the tenth year, which means:
Excavation of waste rock and coal with excavators/ hydraulic excavators.
Transport of the waste rock with trucks to the external depository, and coal to the stationary crushing
facility (primary crushing)
Coal transport towards the thermal plant is done by transporters with a rubber track with the width of B=
1,200 mm, v= 1.31 m/s
Excavation and loading of waste rock, is done with hydraulic spoon excavators with a height spoon of 12 to
15 m3 in volume, with blasting being substituted with ripping. The excavation of waste rock is done by an
excavator from bottom to top in a block 11 to 15 m wide in cuts to 1m thick in a circular swath and directly
loaded into trucks with a 120 t capacity. The minimum floor width is 35m, the general slope of the work
floor systems at the waste rock is = 11, work floors are 48 m wide, which creates the possibility of
excavation two blocks at the same floor before moving to the next. The projected floor height at the waste
rock is 10 m. Five excavators will work on three floors, with one working on five floors the whole time.
Before the end of the tenth year of exploitation, the conditions necessary for disposal at the internal depot are
achieved. In the first year of depositing, around 3.62x106 m3 sm which would the loosening coefficient/ disposal
through trucks alone/ of 1.25 t amount to 4.52 x106m3rm (raw mass) of waste rock. Masses are deposited through
trucks and bulldozers, which define the first position of the disposal transporter as well as a place of placement for
the operation disposer according to the E-T-C-CB-D variant.
It is clear that the tenth year will be the turning point and that this is the moment when the continuous equipment
can be introduced to the production process. In the figures 1 and 1a, the condition of the pit is displayed at the end
of the tenth year of exploitation according to the ET variant and in figures 2 and 2a according to the CCBD

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Figure 1. Situation map with work status at the end of the tenth year
at the open pit "Ugljevik Istok", truck disposal (T).

Figure 1a. Situation map of the external depot at the end of the tenth
year at the open pit "Ugljevik Istok", truck disposal (T)

Figure 2. Situation map with the work status at the end of the tenth
year at the open pit "Ugljevik istok" Combined disposal (CCBD-T)

Figure 2a. Situation map of the external depot at the end of the tenth
year at the open pit "Ugljevik Istok", combined disposal (DTO-K)

In the period since the opening to the end of the tenth year 49,980,936m3 sm of waste rock will be excavated. The
tailings masses are transported in trucks to the external depot: 46,363,956 m3 sm, i.e. it is disposed with the
looseness coefficient of 1.25 57,954,945 m3 rm in total. At the internal depot, tailings masses will be deposited
with the same looseness coefficient 3,616,980 m3 i.e. 4,521,225 m3 rm.
In the aforementioned period a total of 8,046,434t of coal will be mined.
The project went in two directions with the solutions:
E-T variant (excavator-truck)
E-T-C-CB-D variant (excavator-truck-crusher-conveyor belt-disposer)

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E-T Variant
The mining continuation for X-XV years, in a technological sense brings no change. The established excavation
technology is used for the tailings as well as for coal. The front progress is the same, with its length reaching the
maximum 1950 m. The front is divided in 18 excavation floors with the height of 10 m. The lowest floor excavated
is the 90th and the highest 280th. All tailings masses are deposited at the internal depot. Depositing is done from
the lowest to the highest elevations starting from the 130th i.e. 140th vertical alignment. It is deposited at the
depth work with floor formation of ten meters. The depositing areas are completed at the excavation floors while
the alignments are synchronized. During this period 60,867,645m3 sm of waste rock will be mined with the
looseness coefficient of 1.25 amounts to 76,084,556 m3 rm. A total of 8,604,217 t of coal.
At the end of the aforementioned period of exploitation, from XV-XIX year, the total length of the front is about
1,750 m, and is excavated to the altitude of 100 m amsl (above medium sea level), with the highest elevation of the
floor being at the altitude of 280 m, waste rock is deposited at the internal depot by trucks through already formed
depositing floors.
In the south part of the internal depot it is deposited from the 180th roadway to the 260th, in the middle section
from 140th roadway. These differences in the disposal height are a consequence of the spread of the coal layer,
rifts, as well as the barren areas. Having in mind all of the limitations which appear in this period of exploitation, it
is impossible for all of the excavated waste masses to be deposited at the internal depot. After a detailed analysis,
based on the situation map and the calculation profiles, both longitudinal and cross-sectional, it is concluded that
the deposition must take place at the external deposition location. It will firstly be deposited along the 244th
alignment and the 250th alignment will be formed. After this, the 260th will be formed as well as a part of the
3
3
270th. In total, 43,891,083 m sm of waste rock will be excavated which is 54,863,855 m rm /1.25/. At the internal
3
3
depot 35,795,076 m rm was deposited while 19,068,779 m rm was deposited at the external depot. In this period,
a total of 7,045,184 t of coal was mined.
Exploitation period from XIX to XXIV follows in which the mining front will be shortened at the length of about
1100 m during which the highest floor will be at the altitude of 230 m in the central zone, at the most northern part
the highest floor is at the 300th alignment and crosses in to the northern finishing floor, with the lowest being at
the altitude of 90 m amsl. In general, the front has progressed for 450 m. Waste rock masses are again, and all,
deposited at the internal depot starting from the 100th floor up to the 260th. In total, 74,920,911 m3 sm of waste
rock was excavated, which is about 93,651,138 m3 rm. /1.25/. In the aforementioned period a total of 9,914,731 t of
coal was mined.
The final excavation period from XXIV to XXIX year is defined by the front moving for about 620 m, the highest
excavated floor is at the altitude of 180 m amsl, and the lowest is at the altitude of 100 m amsl. The lowest deposit
altitude is at 110 m amsl, seven depositing floors follow in heights of 10 m with berms wide from 35 m which form
the final angle of 11.56 for the total length of around 390 m. A plateau follows at the altitude of 180 m amsl
around 230 m long. After this, a level at 190 m amsl in which deposits were made along the length of around 980 m
which fits into a floor at an altitude of 200 m amsl which was formed in the previous stage.
Disposal like this functions in the dynamic of excavation front movement in direction and width, through the
designers efforts to leave the smallest depression possible in the area of the final excavation, as well as leave the
flattest surfaces possible for land reclamation and subsequent disposal works. This approach is considered to be
absolutely justified considering that there are noted basins which will probably be exploited, so this depot will
probably be of use. 35,665,810 m3 sm of waste rock was excavated in total, which with a coeficient of 1.25 makes
44,582,262 m3rm. All waste rock masses are deposited at the internal depot. In the aforementioned period a total
of 9,935,700 t of coal was mined.

3. VARIANT ANALYSIS
Excavation and depositing are in sync, a continuous deposition at the internal depot is possible in the period from
XV to XIX year. Transport of waste rock and coal will be done by trucks. Based on the detailed account 48 trucks will
be required with the already existing logistics. Coal transport is done with trucks of a 90 t loading capacity with the
maximum number of trucks required being 6. According to this variant a total of 301,621,795 m3 sm of waste rock
and 51,644,608 t of coal were mined.
At the external depot 97,927,122 m3 sm of waste rock was deposited which with the looseness coefficient amounts
to 122,408,406 m3 rm.
In the internal depot 203,707,406 m3 sm was deposited or about 254,634,257 m3 rm.

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Figures 3 and 3a show the status of the mining area with the internal depot as well as the status of the external
depot.

Figure 3. Situation map with the mining status at the end of year 29
at the open mine pit "Ugljevik Istok". Deposition by trucks

Figure 3.a. Situation map of the external depot at the end of year 29
at the open mine pit "Ugljevik Istok". Truck deposition

Variant B-T-C-CB-D
Deposition technology according to the B-T-C-CB-D variant in quite different in comparison to the previous. Out of
the planned waste rock masses necessary to be deposited in the internal depot, 65% is deposited by a disposer, and
around 35% by trucks. The looseness coefficient for these two deposition methods is different and for the masses
deposited by a disposer, and were previously crushed is 1,40 while for the masses directly loaded onto trucks
amounts to 1,25. Truck deposition at the internal depot in this variant is practically pre-deposition of the waste
rock being deposited by the disposer. The amount of deposited waste rock by trucks in the internal depot by the
end of the 10th year of exploitation is enough for filling the deepest, excavated floors on one side as well as to form
a route for establishing a connecting conveyor belt as well as a plateau for installing and fitting the disposer.
In the deep mine, a height of 20 m is being deposited, and in the height mine 15 m. By changing the altitudes i.e. by
depositing from two conveyor belts it is possible to deposit a total height of 70 m.
The floor transporter is installed at the 210 th floor of the base length of 1,432 m. On it two semi mobile crushers
are located marked D1 and D2. The drive and return station of the transporter are defined by positions marked with
points and coordinates of those dots: A.1 and A.2.
At the south finish slope, a route is formed for the first position of the connecting conveyor belt, partially in the
mound and partially in the stretch. The route of the connecting conveyor belt is formed from the 210 m amsl, with
a drop of 5% towards the eastern border of the pit and the altitude of 175 m amsl The connected conveyor belt's
first position is defined by points A.2. and A.3, with the starting length being 1067m. This route serves for
installation of the connected conveyor belt and for the transport of the disposer to the deposition starting
location. A disposer is added to the connected conveyor belt, drive stations at the altitude of 170 m amsl, while the
return station is at the altitude of 175 m amsl, which means that this transporter is in a small drop from the return
to the drive station.
A disposing conveyor belt is defined by points A.3. and A.4. and is 428 m in starting length.
All three transporters are marked as ET-1, VT-1 and OT-1 and displayed in the figure.
Transport of the disposer from the industrial circle, as a place to be assembled, to the fitting location on the
disposing conveyor belt is precisely defined in the project. After the disposer is transported, fitted and tested, the
system is ready for operation.
3
Up to the X year of exploitation, a total of 49,980,936 m sm of waste rock was excavated, masses were transported
by trucks to the external depot where a grade line at 244 m amsl, while 3,616,980 m3 sm i.e. 4,521,225 m3 rm was
deposited in the internal depot and used for the described preparation works.
The exploitation period from X to the XV year, is defined with deposition at the internal depot in function of
technical-technological characteristics of the disposer, free space as well as conditions of geo-mechanical stability.

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It is deposited through the height as well as depth work of the disposer, the disposal conveyor belt is moved and
extended. It is necessary to introduce another disposal conveyor belt in the process of deposition, in order to ease
the disposal process and work continuity during which, long term moving of the transporter from one to the other
grade line is to be avoided. Because it is necessary to maintain the finishing angle of the slope of 12, part of the
waste rock masses must be deposited by trucks at the external depot. Exit to the external depot is necessary,
during which the formation of a grade line at 250 m amsl will begin. In this period at the internal depot, 74,000,402
m3 rm will be deposited while at the external, 8,083,505 m3 rm of waste rock will be deposited. Coal mining
dynamics is synchronized.
The period from XV to XIX year of exploitation is characterized by the necessary coal mining dynamics as well as
relatively small excavation front progress which influences the depositing space. Excavation is done to the grade
line at 100 m amsl, with the highest floor being at the grade line of 280 m amsl. The mined coal is transported by
trucks to the crushing installation, and after crushing the coal is transported by conveyor belts to the secondary
crusher. Waste rock is deposited by trucks through already formed depositing floors as well as roads on finishing
slopes, in the internal depot. Considering the relatively small excavation front movement in the zone of the north
area of the open pit it is possible to deposit a little of waste rock considering the geo-mechanical stability
requirements. Most of the waste rock masses is deposited in the middle and south part of the excavated zone of
the open pit mine. In the south part it is deposited from the 160th to the 180th grade line, and a part is deposited
and filled at the grade line of 210 m amsl. In the middle part of the excavated area of the open pit mine it is
deposited starting from the 140th grade line to the 170 grade line.
Deposition by a disposer is continued practically from the half of the front and only in the middle and south area. It
is deposited along two differently located disposal conveyor belts during which, grade lines at 200 and 215 m amsl
are formed while in the height work, a grade line of 235 m amsl is formed. Deposition in the deep block, by a
disposer, a grade line at 200 m amsl is formed and in the height block, a grade line at 215 m amsl. The final phase of
deposition in this period is the disposer entering the grade line at 235 m amsl and deposition in the most southern
zone of the mining area.
After a detailed analysis, based on the situation map, account, longitudinal and cross profiles, as well as account
profiles of the external depot, it follows that in this period it should be deposited at the external depot at the
altitude of 250 m amsl.
Review of the deposited masses is:
3
In the aforementioned period: 43,878,350 m sm of the waste rock was mined, and around 8,604,217 t of coal.
It is necessary to do the depositing through the CTD system of 65% of the total amount which is 28,520,927 m3 sm
x 1.40=39,929,298m3 rm of waste rock, and through the T system, 35% which is around 15,357,422 m3 sm x1.25=
19,196,778 m3 rm of waste rock.
In total it is necessary to do the depositing at the internal depot of 59,126,076 m3 rm of waste rock.
It is possible to dispose it in a technologically correct and geo-mechanically verified manner at the internal depot:
CCBD system 27,701,714 m3 rm of waste rock, and through the T system around 7,712,333 m3 rm of waste rock.
In total it is possible to deposit at the internal depot: 35,414,047 m3 rm.
The rest is not deposited: 23,712,029 m3 rm.
If all of the non-deposited waste rock masses are treated as masses deposited by trucks the full amount would be
smaller considering the looseness coefficient, so the non-deposited amount would be around: 22,401,930 m3 rm.
The front of the mining works from XIX to XXIV years of exploitation, is firstly narrowed, and then expanded which
is a consequence of going around the waster rock zone as well as the formation the stable south finish slope. Waste
rock masses which were deposited by trucks as a pre-depot are sorted on depositing floors starting from the 100th
to the 170th. Along the 170th, a plateau 540 m long was formed. The formation of this plateau is necessary
considering the deposition technology by a disposer on one side, as well as the necessary depositing area for the
deposition of the total waste rock masses. A large part of the masses deposited by trucks must be deposited at the
external depot. Depositing by a disposer is continued by forming a depth block along the entire width of the
excavated space of the open mine pit, precisely in the north-south direction. It is deposited along two transporters
placed at the grade line of 200 m amsl, and two at the grade line of 235 m amsl. The finishing grade line of
deposition is 253 m amsl. Transporters are moved radially and parallel in technology function. The lack of space in
the internal depot requires additional deposition at the external and end of deposition at the grade line of 250m
amsl.
3
It follows that the waste rock mined is 74,920,911 m sm and coal 9,914,731 t.

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CCBD 65% of the total amount = = 48,698,592 m3 sm x 1.40=68,178,029 m3 rm of waste rock, and K 35% of the
total amount = 26.222 319 m3 sm x 1.25= 32,777,898 m3 rm of waste rock.
The total amount required to deposit at the internal depot: CCBD: 48,953,538 m3 rm, and T: 19,648,140 m3 rm of
waste rock, it follows that it is possible to deposit at the internal depot: 68,601,678 m3 rm. The rest is not
deposited: 32,354,249m3 rm i.e. 30,503,806 m3 rm.
The final exploitation period from XXIV to XXIX year is defined by the constant truck pre-deposition from the 100th
to the 140th grade line, plateau formation at the 140th grade line 650 m long, followed by the entrance at the
grade line of 150 m amsl, and a plateau on the same around 600 m after which a depositing floor is formed with a
grade line of 160 m amsl. Distances between floors are in function of deposition technology as well as familiar geomechanical stability conditions.
Deposition in a technological sense, means a depth bloc of 20 m, height of 15 m, moving of the transporters to the
lower grade lines, radial movements, extensions and shortening, to sum up, very complex technology.
During this period a total of 35,665,810 m3 sm of waste rock and 9,235,700t of coal were mined. The deposited
amount in the internal depot:
CCBD 65% of the total amount = 23,182,776 m3 sm x 1.40=32,455,806 m3 rm of waste rock.
K 35% of the total amount = 12,483,033 m3 sm x1,25= 15,603,792 m3 rm of waste rock from which follows that a
total amount deposited is 48,180,989 m3 rm.
Figures 4 and 4a display the situation at the mine pit and external depot.

Figure 4. Situation map with the work status at the end of the 29th
year at the open pit mine "Ugljevik Istok". Combined deposition
(CCBD-T)

Figure 4a. The situation map of the external depot at the end of the
29th year at the open pit mine "Ugljevik Istok". Combined deposition
(CCB-K)

In the previous and in this variation the total amount of waste rock mined is 301,621,795 m3 sm and 51,644,608 t of
coal.
In the external depot 89,138,902 m3 sm x 1.25 = 111,423,628 m3 rm of waste rock is deposited.
In the internal depot: 230,718,350m3 rm of waste rock is deposited, and of that: by trucks: 65,607,292 m3 rm,
conveyor belt: 165,111,058 m3 rm.
It is necessary to find additional room for: in a period from XV to XIX year 22,401,930 m3 rm, and from XIX to XXIV
year 30,503,806 m3 rm, in total 52,905,736 m3 rm. Depositing area can be found in the expansion and heightening
of the external depot to the altitude 310 m amsl, but even that space is not enough and additional locations must
be found. According to this variant 48 trucks are necessary, after which the number will be decreased to 22.
Disposer purchases are necessary, conveyor belt systems with all the necessary technical equipment and logistics
which will not solve the problem of continuous transport and depositing of waste rock in one location. The required
amount of trucks is the same as for the previous variant (6 trucks with a load capacity of 90t)

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4. CONCLUSION
Considering the very complex and difficult layer conditions, introducing the CCBD exploitation systems would
additionally complicate an already complicated technology, foremost at the deposition. Introduction of a disposer
in a technological process would not justify expectations in a relatively long period from XV to XXIV year,
considering that it would have to be deposited also by trucks at the external depot. Besides the superelevation to
the altitude of 310 m amsl, as well as the expansion, the depositing area would not be enough so it is necessary to
look for additional locations. Technical-technological conduction of this complex and highly demanding process,
would pose an additional load and risk to the successful application of this system.
After a detailed analysis of both possible mining variants, transport and deposition at the open pit mine "Ugljevik
Istok" the B-T variant posed as the most probable and acceptable from a "mostly technological aspect, although
the other analyzed elements point to the same conclusion. The idea about electrifying a part of the truck roads
seems to be far more acceptable and cost efficient than the CCBD variant and is therefore, worthy of elaborating.
This article was extracted from a detailed project, and additional elaboration and finally, implantation of one of the
project solutions will probably depend on the expertise and business policy of relevant factors.

REFERENCES

[1]

The Main Mining Project of the Open pit mine Ugljevik istok, Mining Institute, Tuzla, 1991. (in Serbian)

[2]

An innovated investment program of the Ugljevik istok open pit mine development Ruding princs son doo, Nevesinje, 2010.
(in Serbian).

[3]

An innovated case study on the selection of main equipment and an optimal direction of front development, Ruding princs son
doo, Nevesinje, 2010. (in Serbian)

[4]

An innovated case study on the selection of potential location for the deposition of overburden from the open pit mine
Ugljevik - istok, Ruding princs son doo, Nevesinje, 2010. (in Serbian).

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EXAMINATION OF GAS-BEARING QUALITIES OF COAL


AND ACCESSORY ROCKS IN THE IVOJNO BASIN, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

ABSTRACT
1

Nenad RADOSAVLJEVI
Aleksandar ERISILO2
Zlatko PETROVI3
1

Mining Institute, Belgrade, Serbia,


nendad.radosavljevic@ribeograd.ac.rs
2
Mining Institute, Belgrade, Serbia, aleksandar.djerisilo@ribeograd.ac.rs
3
JPP Mines of Aleksinac, Aleksinac, Serbia, zlatko.petrovic@jppeu.rs

This paper presents results of research of the gasbearing potential of the Zivojno deposit, Republic
of Macedonia, i.e. the parameters depicting the
gas-bearing potential and the described
methodology of approach for testing the methane
content and other gases in samples of coal and
accessory rocks of the operating environment.

Keywords
Coal, Gas-Bearing, Methane, Sorption, Zivojno

1. INTRODUCTION
Testing of gas-bearing qualities of coal and accessory rocks in the "Zivojno" basin was conducted in order to remove
potential dangers while mining operations are in process as well as to introduce safe excavation technologies and
proper venting for the future mine. In order to determine the gas-bearing potential of coal and accessory rocks, a
core immediately extracted from the core tube was used. Samples from the roof, bottom and the main coal layer
were used. This paper points to the parameters which characterize gas-bearing potentials, and describes in short,
the methodology of determination of gas-bearing qualities, in order to more easily evaluate the results of the
research.

2. EXAMINATION METHODOLOGY
Gas-bearing parameters
Gas-bearing qualities are determined using the following parameters (rc raw coal, cc cleaned coal, dc dried
coal):
Free gas capacity - (m3/trc)1 and (m3/t cc)2, i.e.
Gas contents (methane, carbon-dioxide and
(m3/t dc)3
nitrogen) - (%)
Total gas capacity - (m3/trc)1 and (m3/t cc)2, i.e.
Remaining gas-bearing qualities - (m3/trc)1 and
3
2
3
3
(m /t cc) , i.e. (m /t dc)
(m3/t dc)3
3
1
3
2
Porosity - (%),(%), (m /trc) and (m /t cc) , i.e.
Moisture contents (%)
(m3/t dc)3
Ash contents (%)
Sorption gas capacity - (m3/trc)1 and (m3/t cc)2,
i.e. (m3/t dc)3
Gas zonality
In order to determine gas zonality i.e. the criteria to classify layers according to the degree of methane danger, the
SRPS B.Z1.070 standard was used. This standard categorizes gas-bearing qualities as methane and non-methane
categories.
Gas capacity prognosis
In order to determine the gas capacity of deeper or unopened areas of the deposit, data on sorption isotherm,
porosity, moisture and ash contents are being used.

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3. EXAMANATION RESULTS
The results of the analysis necessary to work according to the applied methodology, which consists from
determining the free and the absorbed gasses in the coal substance and the saturation pressures in the coal layers
are displayed in this chapter.
Moisture and ash contents
Sorption as well as free gas capacity, depends mostly on moisture and ash, whose concentrations are, therefore
necessary to know in order to review these results. Aside from that, recalculation of the gas-bearing parameters
also requires knowing ash and moisture contents.
According to the data in table 1, moisture and ash values are displayed:
Table 1. Moisture and ash contents in the samples

Drillhole

Interval

Material

Moisture (%)

Ash (%)

B-45/34

79,7-79,85

Roof

1,49

13,42

81,85-82,0

Coal

6,67

18,82

89,2-89,3

Floor

0,70

87,64

49,7-49,8

Roof

2,62

73,58

52,0-52,1

Coal

5,49

24,67

56,0-56,1

Floor

0,41

96,81

66,1-66,2

Roof

3,63

51,26

67,6-67,7

Coal

5,94

10,63

70,5-70,6

Floor

1,49

34,92

B-59/24

B-69/28

Porosity
Coal and accessory rocks porosity is an important quality for determining total gas-bearing qualities of the coal
layer. Pores are free gas bearers, whose determination is key in determining the free gas capacity, i.e. how much
gas is contained in the pores.
Drill site gas contents
Coal and accessory rock samples have being produced through coring from the drill site. Upon core extraction, a
sample is taken and placed in a hermetically sealed container and shipped to the laboratory. In the laboratory it
undergoes grinding in an adapted container on a vibro-mill an after that it is being heated and degassed. The
extracted gas is injected in a container of a known volume.
After degassing, the container is opened after the gas state has been measured and the gas is analyzed. A certain
amount of gas is being placed in a degassing container which is conducted until the manometer shows that the gas
separation is complete.
The extracted amount of gas is recalculated to normal conditions and the sample weight unit for a gas extracted
through desorption, vacuuming and total gas mixture.
The gas mixture contained in the sample is determined through a gas mixture which is extracted through:
desorption from the moment of sample placement in the container up until the container is opened
Vacuuming according to the described procedure
Gas mixture content was determined with a "Varian" chromatograph and the results are displayed on table 2.

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Table 2. Gas mixture contents


Sample

Drill hole

Interval

Material

Moisture

Ash

Desorption

CO2

CH4

Vacuuming
N2

CO2

CH4

Total
N2

CO2

CH4

N2

Participation in percent
79,7-79,85

Roof

1,49

13,42

4,3

0,010

83,99

8,5

0,018

78,78

93,88

0,00

6,11

B-45/34

81,85-82,0

Coal

6,67

11,82

0,7

0,008

84,49

1,1

0,024

83,67

21,96

0,00

78,04

89,2-89,3

Floor

0,70

87,64

3,8

0,030

83,57

4,9

0,020

79,98

96,19

0,00

18,52
59,22

49,7-49,8

Roof

2,68

73,58

2,3

0,014

85,28

1,2

0,010

89,79

40,77

0,00

B-59/24

52,0-52,1

Coal

5,49

24,67

0,4

0,024

83,87

0,6

0,015

85,18

8,60

0,00

91,40

56,0-56,1

Floor

0,41

96,81

0,8

0,011

87,59

1,2

0,024

89,77

9,40

0,00

90,60

66,1-66,2

Roof

3,63

51,26

0,4

0,015

74,80

0,5

0,023

79,57

9,52

0,53

8,99

B-69/28

67,6-67,7

Coal

5,94

10,63

0,6

0,018

73,90

4,20

0,020

81,98

53,79

0,49

46,27

70,5-70,6

Floor

1,49

84,92

5,0

0,026

80,17

5,10

0,20

79,98

84,66

0,57

14,77

Sorption characteristics in a work environment and isotherm sorption


The quantity of gas in m3/t is determined through sorption characteristics of a work environment, which can in
certain thermodynamic conditions be absorbed by the work environment.
Sorption capability is determined through isotherm of sorption which displays the relation of gas capacity and gas
pressure in a deposit.
Determination of sorption capacity is conducted for pressures up to 20.100 kPa and separately for pressures below
and above 100kPa.
In both instances testing is reduced to determining the gas volume that coal is capable to absorb under certain
thermodynamic conditions. Sorption is conducted until a balanced state is achieved.
For sorption gas capacity up to 100kPa the quantity of absorbed gas can be determined from the difference
between the amount of added and total gas at the end of the experiment.
An example of isothermal sorption for methane is displayed in picture 1 for drill site B-45/34. Isotherms for clear
coal substance i.e. dry samples are displayed besides those for samples from the massive.
20

14

18
16

m CH4/ tru i tsu

10
8

14
12
10
8

m CH4/ tru i tsu

12

6
4

2
0

0
0

10

15

20

25

10

15

20

25

P(100 kPa)

P(100 kPa)
14

10
8

............
sorption isotherm of methane for clear coal substance i.e.
dry samples

m CH4/ tru i tsu

12

_______

sorption isotherm of methane for the deposit samples

0
0

10

15

20

25

P(100 kPa)

Figure 1. Drill site B-45/34

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Under pressure of 20.100 kPa the sorption gas capacity is:


For samples in the deposit at:
Floor from 0.674 to 2,011 m3/trc
Total coal from 0.876 to 4,744 m3/trc
Roof from 0.621 to 2,241 m3/trc

For clean coal substance i.e. all samples at:


Floor from 0.703 to 2,214 m3/tdc
Total coal from 0.944 to 4,926 m3/tdc
Roof from 0.672 to 2,408 m3/tdc

Remaining gas-bearing potential


The remaining gas-bearing potential of a layer represents the quantity of gas contained by the weight unit of the
coal extracted from the layer without undertaking any kind of gas-bearing preservation at the pressure and
temperature of the deposit.
Testing results for carbon-dioxide, methane and nitrogen, i.e. total gas content in m3/trc are displayed in table 3.
Table 3. Remaining gas-bearing potential
Sample

Drill
hole

Interval

Material

Moisture

Ash

Desorption
CO2

CH4

Vacuuming
N2

CO2

CH4

Total
N2

CO2

CH4

N2

m /t cc
79,779,85

Roof

1,49

13,42

0,003

0,00

0,007

0,212

0,00

0,007

0,215

0,00

0,014

81,8582,0

Coal

6,67

11,82

0,008

0,00

0,065

0,030

0,00

0,110

0,038

0,00

0,175

89,2-89,3

Floor

0,70

87,64

0,008

0,00

0,010

0,136

0,01

0,025

0,144

0,01

0,035

49,7-49,8

Roof

2,62

73,58

0,012

0,00

0,032

0,030

0,00

0,029

0,042

0,00

0,061

4
5

B45/24

B59/24

6
7
8
9

B69/28

52,0-52,1

Coal

5,49

24,67

0,002

0,00

0,021

0,014

0,00

0,149

0,016

0,00

0,170

56,0-56,1

Floor

0,41

96,81

0,003

0,00

0,028

0,030

0,00

0,290

0,033

0,00

0,318

66,1-66,2

Roof

3,63

51,26

0,001

0,00

0,004

0,017

0,01

0,013

0,018

0,001

0,017

67,6-67,7

Coal

5,94

10,63

0,002

0,00

0,019

0,106

0,01

0,074

0,108

0,001

0,093

70,5-70,6

Floor

1,49

84,92

0,006

0,00

0,001

0,143

0,01

0,025

0,149

0,001

0,026

Determining the gas-bearing potential prognosis


The gas-bearing potential prognosis of lithological items (gs), represents the gas quantities (m3) that is contained by
the mass unit of the tested sample (t) under the gas pressure measured at the sampling location that can be
released in the work environment during exploatation.
The gas-bearing potential prognosis is determined from the relation:
gs=x-x1 (m3/t)
where:
X - is the total (natural - potential gas-bearing quality) - the sum of the gas-bearing potentials of all ingredients
(m3/t) for the measured value of the gas pressure in the massive,
X1 - total remaining gas-bearing potential - the sum of the remaining gas-bearing qualities of all ingredients (m3/t)
The prognosis for the gas-bearing potential has been calculated for coal and accessory layers. Results are displayed
for a sample as it was when delivered and for a clean coal substance i.e. dry sample. It was already stipulated that
the values for the samples that were delivered correspond to those in the massive while other values are borderline.
Results are also displayed by gas mixture composition.
Values for the remaining gas-bearing potential were obtained (x1) - tables for total gas-bearing potential according
to methane, (xVCH4) - isotherm sorption.
For gas mixture pressures close to those of the atmospheric pressure, can be calculated only based on the data of
the remaining gas-bearing potential which has in this case, been done. Based on the fact that the time it takes to
take a sample by core borehole in order to test the remaining gas-bearing potential until placement in containers is
very short and therefore no significant exchange of gasses between the sample and air could not take place i.e.
desorption. Values of the gas-bearing potential prognosis are displayed in table 5 and sorted according to drill sites
for coal, floor and roof. The maximum values of the gas-bearing potential prognosis can be seen in table 4.

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Table 4. as-bearing potential prognosis


Sample

Drill
hole

Interval

Material

CO2

CH4

N2

CH4

CO2

m trc

m t cc

79,7-79,85

Roof

0,215

0,00

0,014

0,229

0,218

0,00

0,014

0,232

81,85-82,0

Coal

0,038

0,01

0,175

0,173

0,040

0,00

0,187

0,228

89,2-89,3

Floor

0,144

0,01

0,035

0,189

0,145

0,00

0,035

0,190
0,106

B-45/34

N2

49,7-79,8

Roof

0,042

0,00

0,061

0,103

0,043

0,00

0,063

52,0-52,1

Coal

0,016

0,00

0,170

0,186

0,017

0,00

0,180

0,197

56,0-56,1

Floor

0,033

0,00

0,318

0,351

0,033

0,00

0,319

0,352

B-59/24

66,1-66,2

Roof

0,018

0,001

0,017

0,189

0,018

0,001

0,017

0,196

67,6-67,7

Coal

0,108

0,001

0,093

0,201

0,115

0,001

0,099

0,214

70,5-70,6

Roof

0,149

0,001

0,026

0,176

0,151

0,001

0,026

0,179

B-69/28

Relative gas abundance


Gas abundance of the work environment is expressed as m3/tru and is determined from the relation of the gasbearing potential prognosis of all the lithological elements in which the exploitation of the median daily production
is conducted.
In order the calculate the gas-bearing potential prognosis of the lithological elements on the locations of the test
drill sites a pillar of 1m2 in diameter and a height that corresponds to the thickness of the coal layer being
excavated in one move and is 6,0m was taken. It is also taken into account that the floor encompassed is 1,5' and
the roof 3,0'.
In this pillar, based on the seemingly relative density of the sample of coal, floor and roof and their presence, their
saturation in weight units was determined (t).
The assumption that the entire gas-bearing potential prognosis of the tested layers gs(m3/trc) during exploitation
of coal is released in the work environment was adopted. In this manner the gas-bearing potential of the elements
in the aforementioned pillar for all tested drill sites has been determined.
After that the resulting gas abundance at the drill site has been calculated to the weight unit of coal as a useful
ore.
The calculated relative gas abundances according to the aforementioned procedure are displayed in table 5
according to drill sites, in total and according to the composition of the gas mixture, and as was stipulated earlier
relate to the pressure of the gas mixture in the layers of 100 kPa.
Table 5. Relative gas abundance

Drill site

Relative gas-bearing potential m3/tru


CO2

CH4

N2

B-45/34

0.059

0.00

0.248

0.362

B-59/24

0.241

0.00

0.181

0.431

B-69/28

0.186

0.002

0.005

0.411

4. TEST RESULTS ANALYSIS


Based on the 75 (seventy five) samples and the 9 (nine) samples displayed in this paper, it can be concluded:
that the moisture saturation ranges from 1,26%-13,96%
that the ash saturation ranges from 5,03%-56,21%
that the methane saturation ranges from 0,00%-0,73%
that the remaining methane-bearing potential ranges from 0,00m3/tru -0,002 m3/tru
that the remaining methane abundance ranges from 0,01m3/tru -0,012 m3/tru
that the absolute methane abundance ranges from 0,004m3/min -0,044 m3/min

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5. CONCLUSION
Based on the obtained minimal values of the relative and absolute methane abundance it can be concluded that
methane will not cause difficulties in the site excavation stage, because due to a proper ventilation regime the
methane quantity can be reduced to normal values.
Presence of pressure has been discovered in certain drill sites during the drilling process, which in a certain way
indicates that there is free gas in the "ivojno" deposit as well as that areas with a higher methane concentration
can be expected to be found than those determined in this paper.

REFERENCES
[1]

N. Radosavljevi, A. erisilo: Report on gas-bearing capacity for the coal at the ivojno deposit, 2012 (in Macedonian)

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METHANE INFLUENCE ON COAL DUST EXPLOSIVITY


FROM THE MARIOVO DEPOSIT

ABSTRACT
Nenad RADOSAVLJEVI1
Aleksandar ERISILO2
Milinko RADOSAVLJEVI3
Mining institute, Belgrade, Serbia
nenad.radosavljevic@ribeograd.ac.rs 2
aleksandar.djerisilo@ribeograd.ac.rs 3
zastita@ribeograd.ac.rs

It is generally known that coal dust explosions can occur in the underground
coal mines even without the presence of methane. However, according to
the statistical data, methane explosion is the most common cause of coal
dust explosions. This paper presents results of the tests of methane
influence on the explosion related properties of the coal dust from the
Mariovo deposit in the Republic of Macedonia.

Keywords
Coal, Dust, Explosion, Methane

1. INTRODUCTION
It is known that explosions of coal dust happen in coal mines with underground exploitation even without methane
presence. Still, methane explosion is the leading cause of coal dust explosions. Methane concentration in pit air,
according to regulations in the Republic of Serbia, can go as high as 1,5%, and in extreme cases up to 2%. This was
the reason to conduct testing of the coal dust explosiveness from the "Mariovo" deposit and the influence of
methane in concentrations of 2%.
Methane not only causes coal dust explosions, but significantly increases the power of the explosion depending on
the concentration of methane in the air. There are types of coal dust that even when exposed to ignition sources
cannot explode but are explosive in the presence of methane. If methane is present in the dust-air mixture, the gas
and dust will explode. This is evident from accidents in coal mines.
The process of explosion begins when methane is ignited, because it has a lower ignition point, then creates an
explosion pressure wave which precedes the flame, which lifts and swirls the accumulated dust along pit chambers,
which leads to the creation of dust-air mixture. Movement of the flame wave not only causes the creation of dustair mixture in front of it, but also heats and ignites the dust, during which a pressure which increases combustion
rates and intensity of the explosion is created.
If there is an excess of air, methane and dust combust. If there is not enough air then only methane combusts while
the dust only partially combusts or not at all.
Methane presence in an air current, even below the lower explosiveness limit, increases the likelihood of ignition
and explosion of the coal dust. During methane combustion the following reaction occurs:
CH4 + 202 = C02 + 2H2O + 803 kJ
During which a large amount of heat is being released.

2. TESTING METHODOLOGY
Explosive characteristics of coal with and without methane from drill site B 32/11 are displayed in tables 1 and 2, as
well as figures 1, 2, 3 and 4.

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Table 1. Explosive characteristics of coal dust without methane

EZ 04/10-(B32/11)
Measurement

Concetration
[g/m3]

Pmax
[bar]

Pmax/t
[bar/sec]

dp/dt
[bar/sec]

Ek
[bar/sec]

Measurement 1.1

125

4,589

25,215

40,509

31,960

Measurement 2.1

250

6,244

81,094

135,031

104,643

Measurement 3.1

375

7,772

87,326

226,659

140,688

Measurement 4.1

500

7,859

88,301

193,866

130,838

Measurement 5.1

750

7,737

89,968

209,298

137,223

Measurement 6.1

1.000

6,821

68,542

98,702

82,251

Figure 1. Graphical display of pressure increase

Figure 2. Graphical display of change in the explosive characteristic,


3
Kex=190 g/m

Table 2. Explosive characteristics of coal dust with methane presence of 2%

EZ- 04/10-(B 32/11) sa 2% CH4


Measurement:

Concetration
[g/m3]

Pmax
[bar]

Pmax/t
[bar/sec]

dp/dt
[bar/sec]

Ek
[bar/sec]

Measurement 1.1

75

3,924

23,495

65,586

39,255

Measurement 2.1

125

5,712

54,921

102,238

74,933

Measurement 3.1

250

7,459

86,738

196,759

130,639

Measurement 4.1

375

7,899

111,258

244,020

164,770

Measurement 5.1

500

7,917

102,814

283,565

170,747

Measurement 6.1

750

7,452

85,113

221,265

137,231

Figure 3. Graphical display of pressure increase

89

Figure 4. Graphical display of the explosive characteristic change


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3. TEST RESULTS ANALYSIS


Testing has showed that the presence of methane of 2% influences the increase of the explosive indicator and with
it the power of the explosion. With an increase of the explosive indicator the lower explosiveness limit is lowered.
Without methane present it is 190 g/m3, and with 2% of methane present it is 119 g/m3.

4. CONCLUSION
These test results indicate a problem in the future mine, whose basin has been declared as a methane basin based
on the presence of methane. Coal dust has also displayed explosive properties, which is also the reason the deposit
was declared as methane.
The designers and managers of the future mine should take into consideration these indicators which relate to coal
dust and methane, during projections and coal exploatation.

REFERENCES
[1]

N. Radosavljevi, A. erisilo: Report on gas-bearing capacity for the coal at the ivojno deposit, 2012 (in Macedonian)

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NEW PERSPECTIVE OPEN PIT MINES


IN KOLUBARA LIGNITE BASIN IN SERBIA
ABSTRACT
Nenad POPOVI

Electric Power Industry of Serbia,


Belgrade, Serbia
nenad.popovic@eps.rs

In 2012, EPS produced a total of 37.6 million tons of lignite in mines located
in the Kolubara and Kostolac basins. The lignite, extracted by the Corporate
Enterprise Mining Basin Kolubara, was used to generate 46.2% of the total
electricity produced by EPS, whilst the lignite mined by TPPs-OCMs
KOSTOLAC fuelled 14.4% of EPS power generation.
Lignite output in both the Kolubara and Kostolac basins is expected to
increase, since the Serbian energy development strategy includes the
construction of new thermal power plant. Investments are therefore needed
at existing lignite mines and for development of new lignite deposits.
Priority is given to joint projects with strategic partners of EPS, including
projects to construct two new 350 MW lignite-based units near the Kolubara
mine at TPP Kolubara B and the new unit, Nikola Tesla B3 with a capacity of
700 MW.At the same time, existing lignite fields will be extended and new
deposits will be accessed.
Mining basin Kolubara operates four opencast mines, namely Field B in C,
Field D, Veliki Crljeni and Tamnava West Field.The lignite is used to generate
heat and power at the Kolubara thermo power plant (TPP), TPP Nikola Tesla
A and B and TPP Morava.
Since the future opencast mine Field E will not capable solely to satisfy fuel
supply to existing TPP capacities, EPS needs to open up new lignite fields at
Radljevo,for field D substitute field E and Field G at Southfields deposit. In
accordance with this mining development strategy, the main issue is to
improve resource utilisation and search for possibilities to maximize lignite
extraction, to examine different investigate output scenarios and finaly
sustanable operational costs.
The opencast operation use modern mining equipment, including bucketwheel excavaters, belt conveyors and spreaders with an average capacity of
4000 - 6000 cbm/h. This technology allows continuous extraction and
thereby ensures a steady flow of the fuel to the power stations.
Keywords
Deposits, Lignite, Perspective, Production, Sustainable

1. MINING DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY


In 2012, a total of 37.6 million tonns of coal were produced at open-cast coal mines in Serbia operated by EPS
(Kolubara and Kostolac basins).The lignite extracted by the corporate enterprise Mining Basin Kolubara, was used to
generate 46.2% of total electricity produced by EPS, whilst the lignite mined by TPPs-OCMs Kostolac fuelled 14.4%
of EPS power generation.The ratio of excavated overburden lignite was 2.19 : 1 cubic metres per tonne in Kolubara
mining basin and 4.00 : 1 cubic metres per tonn in Kostolac.
Mining in the very populated Kolubara basin is rather costly, as many compulsory land purchases must made before
mining activities can start.

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Mining basin Kolubara operates four opencast mines, namely Field B,Field D,Veliki Crljeni and Tamnava West
Field.The lignite is used to generate heat and power at the Kolubara thermo power plant (TPP), TPP Nikola Tesla A
and B, and TPP Morava.
The new open-cast coal mine in MB Kolubara-V.Crljani started operation in the last quarter of 2009.High quality
coal at this open-cast mine should ensure the quality required for the operation of thermal power plants as well as
the mining of lower-quality parts of the coal deposit, which could not be utilised without blending coal.
Owing to years-long problems with the relocation of the community of Vreoci and inability to mine-out the coal
resources, overburden removal and mining of the coal seam top at Field E, adjacent to Field D, was started.As
regards the land expropriation process, there were problems in all EPS open-cast mines, which resulted in
underperformance in overburden removal in comparison with the realistic possibilities.
Overburden removal in 2009 was marked by land expropriation problems, low bearing capacity of the soil and
difficulties in the operation of the eastern dump site of field D.In this zone, excavation is conducted with four of
the six available excavator-conveyor-stacker (ECS) system in order to provide prerequisites for the opening of the
future open-cast mine Field E, which will be the largest and depeast open-cast mine in EPS.
Since the future opencast mine Field E will not capable solely to satisfy fuel supply to existing TPP capacities and
to ensure the supply for the new TPP capacities, EPS needs to open up new lignite fields at Radljevo and/or
Southfields deposits.In accordance with this mining development strategy, the main issue is to improve resource
utilisation and search for possibilities to maximize lignite extraction, to examine different mine development
scenarios, consider lignite quality fluctations over lifetime of new mines and finaly investigate different output
scenarios and finaly sustainable operational costs.

2. POTENTIAL SUPPLEMENTARY FIELDS AND DIFERENT MINE SCENARIOS


In the furher years, several Kolubara basin open-cast mines will be exhausted.The annual lignite output from the
present fields will decrease up to 2020 from about 30 million tonns to 11 million tonns annualy.In the same period
of time, the power plants demand will increase to approximately 36 million tonns annualy.

Figure 1. Active and replacement Kolubara opencast mines

Field E opencast mine


The changeover from Field D the largest lignite field in Kolubara coal basin with lignite output of 12 million tonns
annualy. Field E is planned from the year 2015.Launching the Field E will be from the east boundary or from the
existing Field D mine opening cut. Production developing mining direction will be from the east to the west,
approximately 150 m annualy.
Field E deposit consisting of three mine-able lignite seams, but more than 250 m deep.
Results of floor seam coal quality exploration in next five years show relatively favorable heating values in the
range from 6366 kJ/kg up to 8516 kJ/kg.Main coal seam heating values range from 6000 kJ/kg up to 8173 kJ/kg.In

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the next 28 year average coal heating value will be about 8474 kJ/kg without additional blending.With the 6% of
blending level, coal quality could be decrease to 7966 kJ/kg.
Table 1. Field E coal quality forecast

Floor seam coal


Field E

Main seam coal


Field E

Main seam coal


Field D

Total

DTE kJ/kg

DTE kJ/kg

DTE kJ/kg

DTE kJ/kg

2012

6366

6000

9381

7851

2013

6873

7927

8815

9296

Years

2014

8516

8173

9609

7619

2015

7172

7814

8557

7369

2016

7306

7780

2012/2016

7224

7860

9128

7946

Considering deep seam coal bedding of Field E, mining work will be carrying out on many benches (even less 10)
with ECS sistems from Field D when it finish the excavation. Futher investments in excavation machinery
revitalization and modernization is certain and significant.
One of the most significant achievements that should be carried out is Pestan river relocation, local road and
railroad relocation. Therefore the related opencast fields capabilities such as Southfild and/or Radljevo will be take
into consideration more detailed.
Southfield and Radljevo Field
Remaining annual missing capacity of approximately 13 million tonns annualy.This missing demand is intended to
cover with mining fields of Southfield and/or Radljevo.There are actualy assumed different variants.
The first variant would be opening-up of two new mines with a capacity of 6 7 million tonns annualy Southfield
and Radljevo Field.
The second variant is opening-up of one new mine with a capacity of less than 13 million tonns/a and developing
the capacity of existing mines.
The third variant is opening-up of one completely new mine with capacity of 13 million tonns annualy. This final
decision is the matter of lignite quality, expected lifetime and economical aspects.

Geological Conditions
The coal seam is deposited mainly flat, slightly dipping into western and southern direction.The seam complex,
consisting of 6 minerable seams, is about 60 m thick. The single seam have a thickness of up to 8 m each and are
separated by cohesive intercalations. Lens shaped sandy inclusions are embedded in this these intercalations.
Tertiary and quarternary sand, gravel, and clay with a total thickness of about 25 m are deposit above the seam
complex. In general the deposit condition and the material properties are comparable to the adjacent Tamnava
West mine.

Hydrogeological Conditions
In the mining area there can be proved three compact groundwater layers. The top grounwater layer has essentialy
no influence to the mining operation. The intermidiate groundwater layers occurs within the seam complex. The
thickness varies and can reach up to 30 m.The bottom groundwater layer formed by an up to 130 m thick series of
fine-to-midle grained quartz sands is located under the seam complex. This groundwater layer is the most
homogenous as per granulometric and lithological structure.
Opencast mine Southfield
The potencial opencast mine takes the largest part of Field F about 70% of area, the west part of Field G oabout
60% of area, and north part of Field opi obout 45% of area.

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Figure 2. Disposition and geological cross section of Southfield opencast mine

Field F coal deposit


Field F coal deposit belongs to a central part of Kolubara's basin. Coal series with an average depth of over 250 m,
in deeper parts more than 300 m, are made of lignite which forms three coal layers clearly developed as top, main
and bottom coal seam, stratificated with sandy and clay sediments of basin.
Table 2. Field F geological reserves
Coal Seam

Category of Reserves

Total [t]
B+C1 [t]

B [t]

C1[t]

Top

92,417,310

28,926,517

121,343,827

Main

249,978,909

113,941,684

363,920,593

Bottom

122,849,981

38,732,260

161,582,241

Total

465,246,200

181,600,461

646,846,661

The main coal seam at the Field F as well at the other fields
of the East part of the Kolubara basin are the most important
seams from the point of view of economic due to thickness
and quality.The thickness of the main seam is up to 40 m,
mostly 25 to 30 m, while at the west part thickness is
considerably lower.The main coal seam at the Field F area has
a shape of irregular asymetric synclinale and depth is
between 100 and 130 m at the south and up to 70-100 m at
the north, to over 200-225 m in the central field parts.

Field G coal deposit


Field G coal deposit is located in the east part of Kolubara's basin, between Field F at the south and Field D at the
east and Tamnava-East at the west.Borders of the Field G are articifial, extent toward the north where the coal is
influenced by erosion.The coal seam is sub-horizontal generaly dipping direction from west to east.It is shaped like
a flat asymetric synclinale.One interburden layer is spread continually almost over the entire area of Field G with a
thickness of 0.5 to 5 m.The average thickness of the coal seam in the deposit is 30.3 m.
Table 3. Field G geological reserves

Field Sopic is spread over the south area of central Kolubara


basin part.Field size is over 40 km2, while the area under the coal
B [t]
C1[t]
B+C1 [t]
is only 14.5 km2, and the rest part of the field is unproductive.
58,077,013
49,105,386
107,182,399
Main
Thickness of coal seam productivity amounts over 200 meters as
Total 58,077,013 49,105,386 107,182,399
the middle value, considering its increasing from south with the
value of 90 m toward the north to a thickness of more than 275
m.
The top coal seam is located at boundaries of exploration Fields F and Sopic.The seam thickness is approximately
30 m.Results of coal quality exploration, as per borehole, show low heating value in the range from 2800 kJ/kg to
9700 kJ/kg and average value of 6040 kJ/kg.Ash content, as per boreholes, is in the range from 5% up to 42.1% and
average value of 17.5%.Moisture content amounts to 33.7% up to 66.8% and as average 51,93%.
The main coal seam is located at boundaries of exploration fields Field G, Field F and exploration Field Sopic.Main
coal seam complex has thicknes up to 75.6 m, and middle thickness amounts 26.8 m.Interburden occurs within the
main coal seam and localy achieves a thickness of up to 70 m.Average thickness amounts to 6 m.

Coal Seam

Category of Reserves

Total [t]

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Results of coal quality exploration show low heating values in the range from 3000 kJ/kg up to 13000 kJ/kg with an
average value of 7370 kJ/kg.Ash content is in the range from 5.2% up to 49.1% with average value of
22.24%.Moisture content amounts from 28.4% to 61.3% and as average 42.98%.
The bottom coal seam is located at the boundaries of exploration fields Field G, Field F and exploration Field
Sopic.Complex bottom coal seam thickness is up to 36.2 m, average 17.3 m.Within the botton coal seams there
appears to a small extent interburden, localy achieving a thickness up to 19 m.
Results of coal quality exploration show low heating values in the range from 2700 kJ/kg up to 12700 kJ/kg with an
average value of 9400 kJ/kg.Ash content amounts from 28.1% to 60.5%, in the average 41.9%.
For the Southfield mine performed a quality analysis appeared two variant of mine advance directions:parallel mine
advance direction and combination of parallel and radial development.For both variants there was considered an
opencast mine with the same boundaries.
Total coal reserves outlined by opencast mine amount to 386 mt with average low heating value of 7346
kJ/kg.Minimal average low heating value of 6500 kJ/kg for thermal power plant supply has been provided by EPS.
Within the parallel variant of mine advance direction available reserves in the quntity of 275.2 mt with average low
heating value of 7900 kJ/kg are available for thermal power plant supply.A coal quantity of 110.6 mt with average
lower heating value of 5953 kJ/kg remains.
Radljevo Field opencast mine
Radljevo field lies in the western area of the Kolubara basin and is less than 100 m deep and compared to
Southfield shallow and less compact.It is characterises by the appearance of six lignite seams the quality and
thickness of which is generaly deteriorating from north-east towards the boundaries in western and southern
direction.

Figure 3. Spread of coal seam Radljevo and geological cross section

3. COAL RESERVES AND QUALITY


In the Radljevo field there were find out 6 coal seams. Quality fluctations in Radljevo are larger than in Southfield.
The oldest seam seam 1 reaches thickness of few centimetres up to 5 m and has a minable thickness in the
western and northern part of the area.The seam is dipping into north-eastern directioon.
Coal seam 1 heating values is between 6500 and 8500 kJ/kg.The ash content is varying strongly.For single drillholes
it was measured at about 26%, whereby the mean value was about 16.21%.The water content of the bottom seam
is approximately 50%.
Coal seam 2 was found in the whole central, northern, southern and eastern area of the future field.The floor of
seam 2 dips from about 115 m in the south-west to 15 m in the east and southeast of the field.Thickness of the
formation varies between 1 m and 2.5 m.The determinated heating values range from 4000 to 8500 kJ/kg within
the whole area of extension.
Coal seam 3 has been explored within the whole Radljevo field, except in the two extension areas in the west.
The heating value reach a maximum value of up to 9000 kJ/kg.Howeever, the heating values fall to 5200 kJ/kg in
the south of the area and in the northern part there are small areas with low values of approximately 6000
kJ/kg.The average ash content is 15.1%.In the northern part of the field ash conatents are lower up to 20% than in
the south up to 30%.

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Coal seam 4 was found in the whole central, northern, southern and eastern area of the future field.The thickness
of the formation varies between 2 m and 4 m in the western part of the area of exstension, and 3 m to 6 m in northeast and east.The determined heating values range from 4000 to 8500 kJ/kg within the whole area of extension.The
average ash content is 15.1%.In the northern part of the field ash contents are lower up to 20% than in the south
up to 34%.
Figure 3. Forecast of coal average heating
value assuming 13 mt/a output

Coal seam 5 was found in the


central, northern and eastern area
of the future field.The thickness of
the formation varies between 2 m
end 5 m in the whole area.The
determined heating values range
from 2500 kJ/kg to 8000 kJ/kg within the whole area of extension.Actualy, the heating values fall to 2500 kJ/kg in
the southeast of the area and in the northern and eastern part there are small areas with low values of
approximately 6000 kJ/kg.The ash content is clearly higher in the southeast 35% than in the other area of
extension 15%.
Coal seam 6 was only explored in the west of the area.The thickness of the formation varies between 1 m and 5
m.In the southeast the heating value of the coal is very low with values between 3000 kJ/kg 6000kJ/kg.These
values rise to average 7500 kJ/kg in the central and northern area, but values above 8000 kJ/kg are rarely
reached.The ash content is clearly higher in the south 25 to 40%, than in the other area of extension 10 to 20%.
Coal reserves and quality on behalf of mining variants
The total coal reserves amount to approximately 396 million tons.Power plants has calculated a minimum average
heating value of approximately 6500 kJ/kg for the supply.Therefore one of the variants variant 2 represents the
maximum minnig variant.The boundaries follow the spread of the coal base on the existing stripping ratio and
approximately 340 mt of coal with a mean heating value of 6955 kJ/kg are available in this variant.The maximum
average value is about 7700 kJ/kg and the minimal value is at 6300 kJ/kg.
At the end of lifetime of the opencast mine, there will be available another 55 mt with an average heating value of
5330 kJ/kg.

Southfield

Radljevo-variant 2

Radljevo-variant 3

Minerable reserves [Mt]

385,8

341,4

294,8

Total Waste [Mbcm]

1430,9

1179,6

1048,9

Striping ratio W : L

3.71 : 1

3.46 : 1

3.56 : 1

Average heating value [GJ/t]

7362

6890

6820

Table 4. Minerable reserves, ratios


and average coal quality for
selected variants

The variant 3 of the


technological development
5332
Average heating value [GJ/t]
was prepared to minimaze
necessary
resettlement
measures. In the northern field area, mine boundary were reduced. The total coal reserves amount to
approximately 350 million tonns.EPS has calculated a minimal average heating value of approximately 6500 kJ/kg
for the supply to the power plants. Therefore, approximately 295 mt of coal with mean heating value of 6880 kJ/kg
are available in this variant. The maximum average value is about 7500 kJ/kg and minimal value is at 6300 kJ/kg.
At the end of the lifetime of the opencast mine, there will be available another 55 mt with an average heating value
of 5330 kJ/kg. The reserve losses by reducing resettlement measures amount to approximately 45 mt.The mean
heating value due to losses is approximately 7200 kJ/kg.
54,8

Additional low heating value [Mt]

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4. CONCLUSION
Considering the depletion of the coal reserves in the mines Field D and Field B toward fuel demand of existing and
planned new power capacities, a future annual deficit of approximately 13 million tonns of coal will be cover by
opening up the new Field E, Radljevo an/or Southfield mines.
Southfield mine requires less overburden removal in the initial years. Few years later output capacity constrains will
occur during the transfer from sub-field G into sub-field F where the coal seam is strongly dipping downwards into
southern directions.
The expected maximal output capacity of Southfield can be achieved only rather late after 10 years of operation
when mine reached the 250 m deep bottom seam and the lower benches are establish.
Radljevo mine can rich a countinuous and stable annual output of 13 mt rather fast within three years from
opening up coal. Radljevo mine can maintain the 13 mt output level over the full lifetime without capacity
constrains.
Resettlement and relocation measures are inevitable in both fields.While settlement is concetrated the eastern
deposit area in the Southfield, it is spread over the entire field in Radljevo.Therefore the Radljevo field will get
priority for development. Compared with Southfield it requires lower total investments and requires lower
opertional costs.
As supplementary coal production capacity for field D is predicted the new opencast mine Field E, which should
be operational during the 2015.But as far as the new capacity rich full production range, the coal from Field C need
to be excavate.Serious coal production shortage at Field D is caused by as follows reasons:recenty moved on
cementary at Vreoci village for the purpose of normal production enlargement toward village, therefore the lignite
reserves are decreased by 40 million tonns.The further reason: Increasing coal demand for the purpose of
combustion in the TPP Nikola Tesla which units has been improved since 2001 in order to produce more energy.
Future coal supply from MB Kolubara to existing and new TPP will likely be a mix of coal from different mines.
Long term development plan of EPS anticipate the strategy that the lignite further remains main energy resources
for power generation in Serbia.

REFERENCES
[1]

Preliminary project and feasibility study of opening and excavation of Field E,


EPS, 2006

[2]

Study on selection of limitation and opening of opencast mines Southfield and Radljevo with comparative overview of coal
mining for the selection of priority coal supplier of CHP Kolubara B, EPS,RGF,Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, 2009

[3]

Popovi.N.,Coal supply in next decade derived from EPS supplementary opencast mining facilities, IMCET Congres, Ankara 2011

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IMPROVEMENTS IN HIGH PRESSURE SORPTION INVESTIGATIONS OF COAL:


CASE STUDY OF THE VELENJE LIGNITE

ABSTRACT
Joe PEZDI1
Ana R. MEDVED1
Edi BURI1
Antonija LESAR1
Janja ULA SKORNEK2
Lucija PETRINJAK3
Tine PEZDI1
Robert MORAVEC4
Gaper TAVAR4
Simon ZAVEK12
1

RO GEORIS, Radovljica, Slovenia


Velenje Coal Mine, Velenje, Slovenia
3
RCE, Velenje, Slovenia
4
Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana,
Slovenia
Corresponding Author's E-mail:
joze.pezdic@georis.si
2

The knowledge about characteristics of coal gases is of great importance,


especially during mining. The sources of gas, its transport and accumulation
are included. This study focuses on lignite seam in the Velenje Coal Mine and
different sorption capacities of particular types (lithotypes) of lignite. The
progress in laboratory high pressure sorption studies is presented (up to 100
bar).
The measurements were performed on an updated instrument according to
the improved volumetric gas sampling method. The gas was sampled from
the reaction cell during the sorption simulation. The data quality has been
positively affected by the updated instruments. The performed three sets of
measurements led to results that were crucial for further research. In the
experiment, the amount of adsorbed and desorbed gas was calculated from
the pressure difference in the known cell volume.
The obtained amounts of gas could permit the risk assessment of possible
coal dust and gas outbursts. The performed tests shall enable a more exact
determination and understanding of gas effects, possibly add some new
knowledge to understanding of the dangerous phenomena, possibly also
their prediction, and lead to better safety in mining.

Keywords
Coal Gases, Coal Mine Velenje, High Pressure Sorption, Lignite, Methodology

1. INTRODUCTION
The main purpose of the research is determining the sorption properties of coal gas from the Velenje lignite coal
mine at high (critical) pressures. The studies were initially involved in the research project of the Velenje coal mine,
addressing an additional and extensive research of sorption properties of gases in the coal layer [1], [2], [3], [4]. Over
the past two years, an ongoing research has been held under the project named ''Methodology of CO2 fixation on
coal ash'' where new technologies were developed and the sorption properties of gases were investigated in full
detail [5].
Various lithotypes (macroscopically distinguishable lignite/coal varieties) of the Velenje lignite differ considerably
by their porosity structure (as e.g. observed microscopically [6]) and the cleat pattern in which coal-bed gas may
occur in a more or less compressed form at normal geothermal gradients. The Velenje basin is an area of a regular
heat flow, which is between 50 and 60 mW/m2 since at least the late Miocene times.

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Figure 1. Schematic geological map of Velenje basin,


after Brezigar (1987) [7]

Figure 2. Mine works with borehole locations

A gas mixture accumulated in a coal, named the coal-bed gas, can be of various origins and this is also an
outstanding fact in the case of the Velenje lignite [6], [8], [9]. The coal-bed gas occurs in pores and cleats of coal
under lithostatic pressure of rocks above the coal seam and under the gas pore pressure. Gases can be accumulated
in the void volumes (pores, joints, crushed zones, chambers) of various sizes, both adsorbed on the surface and
dissolved in water. As pressure decreases, the gas is released from the coal, and can migrate inside a seam.
Migration of gas is enhanced in tectonized zones along faulty systems and especially during mining activities.

2. METHODS
Equipment
The methods employed in the experiments are able to provide valuable results. The two pressure vessels with the
volumes of 93 ml and 375 ml were available for the use at high pressures with a good seal. The vessels are designed
in a way that permits the investigation of samples of different sizes (large pieces of coal, core diameter up to 45
mm) and the measuring the temperature inside the vessel and at the housing. A system for the gas capturing from
the desorption has also been established. Thus, the reliable data on a total desorption can be collected.

Figure 3. Sorption system (2012)

We started with the sorption experiments in 1994


First paper was published in First software was done in 2002
New autoclave with new trends was designed and constructed in 2010/11
In 2012/13 new methodology for total adsorption and desorption determination was developed
1998

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Sampling
It is important to use proper sampling for each analytical process. This is especially true for samples from large
systems, like the one from the lignite layer in the Velenje coal mine. All samples for this study were taken from
cores of research boreholes prior the exploitation. Systematics of the withdrawal is given in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Schematical protocol of sampling. Appropriate sampling is essential


for all further stages of investigation.

Calculations
The amount of adsorbed gas was determined according to the sorption method described in the article by Pezdi
[2]. For measuring the adsorption-desorption properties of various lignite lithotypes at high pressures (up to almost
100 bars) the volumetric method was applied. The theoretical bases for the calculations of the amount of adsorbed
gas were also presented in the previous works [2], [3] and they are here summarized briefly.
The volume of the adsorbed gas Va is calculated according to equation (1):

(P0 - Pt) Vfree = Va Pa


(1)
where P0 is the initial pressure, Pt is the pressure determined after a time period t, Pa represents the pressure of
1.013 bar and Vfree the free volume in the autoclave. The amount of the gas absorbed on coal is computed from
equation (2):

Vadsorb = Va / mmaterial (l/ kg)

(2)

The ideal gas equation

PV = nRT

(3)

describes the PVT behaviour of real gases only to the first approximation. While the experiments were conducted at
high pressure, the non-ideal behaviour of the gasses should be taken into account. To calculate the adsorption
capacity, the the measured pressure is corrected with the compressibility factor Z of CO2 gas for the system
temperature. Thus, the real pressure Pireal of CO2 into the autoclave is related to the measured pressure Pi through
equation (4):

Pireal = Pi /Z

(4)

The Z factor describes the deviation from ideality. For our experimental conditions we have determined it in our
lab.
Finally, the extrapolation of initial pressure to the zero time of adsorption was introduced to ensure the more
reliable pressure of adsorption at the beginning of the process, which our data acquisition system (software) did not
detect. An added value for determining the maximum desorption was also the capturing of complete desorption
gas and subsequent weighing it, through which we approach to the total amount of desorption gas.

3. RESULTS
We have measured the changes of the pressure in the adsorption of CO2 on coal from the lignite layer of the
Velenje coal mine as well as the changes of pressure in the reverse process (desorption). The selected results of CO2
sorption on detrite are illustrated in Figure 5, while those with addition of N2 are given in Figure 6. Figure 7
presents the sorption of CO2 on xylite.

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Figure 5. A demonstration of sorption on a detrite sample, grain size 2-4 mm, with 3-times the CO2 adsorption and 3-times desorption (chart A).
Chart B further shows the 3-fold desorption from chart A in detail.

Figure 6. A demonstration of sorption on a detrite coal sample, grain size 2-4 mm, with 3-times the CO2 adsorption with the addition of N2 (chart
A), and a detailed view of the 3-fold desorption on chart B.

Figure 7. A demonstration of sorption on a xylite core sample, with 2-times the CO2 adsorption (chart A) and a more detailed chart (chart B),
where CO2 was exctracted after every stage of desorption for use of gravimetric determination of the total desorption.

4. DISCUSSION
The purpose and focus of the research
We investigate the sorption at the partial pressure of CO2 (~ 60 bar at 25 0C) in order to come closer to the realistic
conditions in a mine (in the Velenje coal mine, the lignite layer is up to 500 m deep). The lithostatic pressures there
are over 100 bars and a part of the CO2 is in a condensed state. Due to excavations a part of the lignite layer is
depressurized, which causes the structure of coal to degrade. This especially happens just at the main dig site,
where it causes shear stress (up to 200 bar) to occur first and then follows a rapid relaxation of pressure to 1 bar.
The aggregate state of CO2 is changing rapidly and is one of the main reasons for outbreaks during an excavation.

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The transition from previous research to new conditions


In relation to the latest publications of previous researches [3], [4] we significantly improved the methodology of
sorption analysis with the use of a new reaction vessel (autoclave). For comparison and verification, we used during
this period both the old autoclave (93 ml) and the new one (375 ml), of which the latter has additional equipment
for measuring temperature in the same reaction volume and enables the use of larger patterns which includes
cores with diameters of 45 mm. All the data measured with the old autoclave is comparable with the
measurements from the new one (Table 1).
Table 1. The comparison of sorption results obtained in the old and the new autoclave under the same conditions of process control (time,
pressure, temperature, sample type).

Fine detrite
P0 = 60 bar

New (V = 375 ml)


[gCO2/kgcoal]

Old (V = 93 ml)
[gCO2/kgcoal]

Adsorption with extrapolation

16.37

17.61

2 staged desorption

18.83

17.77

Ratio Ads. : Des.

1 : 1.15

1 : 1.01

Through the additional parameters provided by the experiments in the new autoclave we significantly improved the
possibility of the sorption process recognition.
Corrections of the initial pressure and the pressure due to the non-ideality of CO2
First, we calculated the sorption properties [gCO2/kgcoal] directly from the measured pressures at the constant
temperature as we have done in previous studies [3], [4]. New experimental equipment in the actual study allowed
us to resolve the basic principle of sorption a high level of reversibility of the process (the equal molar ratio of
adsorbed and desorbed gas from the same experiment). The total desorption of CO2 was determined with direct
pressure measurements in several stages (charts B on Figures 5, 6 and 7) or with gravimetric method (chart B on
Figure 7). Achieving the reliable data for the total desorption required an optimization of the gas induction time
into the reaction vessel, since the adsorption rate is very fast at the beginning, but the gas induction time lasts for
a few seconds (extrapolation based on time and starting pressure).
In separate experiment we determined the factor of compressibility (Z) for CO2 at room temperature for the
pressure range from 10 bar up to 60 bar. Figure 8 present the results of CO2 adsorption on coal with Z-corrected
values (green line) and without correction (red line). It is evident from the figure that the non-ideal behavior of CO2
significantly increases with the increased pressure and it is essential to ensure a reliable sorption results. Just to
mention, the uncorrected values (red line) resulted in an apparent decrease of adsorption capacity at high
pressures.

Figure 8. The adsorption of CO2 on coal [gCO2/kgcoal] at different pressures with


Z-corrected values (green line) and without correction (red line).

On a sample of fine-grained detrite JPK 66/13-1, grain size of 4


mm, we performed a two-staged pressure desorption and also
we weighed the extracted gas. Thus we achieved the total
desorption. With the adsorption, we only measured the
difference of pressures during the procedure. The amount of
adsorbed CO2 was calculated: a) after two dosages directly
from the measured pressure drop and then using extrapolation
based on the beginning of dosing; b) taking the compressibility
factor (Z) into account total adsorption. The corresponding
resulted are summarized in the Table 2.

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With improved equipment and two types of additional corrections described above, we significantly improved our
understanding of the sorption, in particular, the initial adsorption at the partial pressure of CO2. Due to the
determination of the total desorption with several stages and mostly with the weighing of the total sorbed gas, we
were able to carry out the real corrections with the adsorption, while there was no possibility to check it by
weighing the CO2 gas.
Table 2. Sorption of the fine-grained detrite (sample JPK 66/131, parallel 4) with the initial pressure of CO2 at 59 bar, without (a) and with (b) the
compressibility (factor Z) corrections.

DESORPTION of CO2

ADSORPTION of CO2

sample
Fine detrite
P0 = 59 bar

P (Des)
[bar]

Des. directly
from P (a)
[gCO2/kgcoal]

Tot. des. with Z (b)


[gCO2/kgcoal]

1. step

9,4

15,7

2. step

3,3

5,5

Sum

P (Ads)
[bar]

Ads. directly
from P (a)
[gCO2/kgcoal]

Tot. ads. with Z (b)


[gCO2/kgcoal]

19,8

12,3

13,3

17,4

6,6

2,6

6,3

8,0

21,2

19,6

TOTAL

26,4

25,4

Ads. vs. Des.

1,04

1,00

According to the previous methodology and corrections (Table 1), the adsorption capacity is approximately 17.5
gCO2/kgcoal. Using the extrapolation at the beginning of the CO2 induction, where the dosing or adsorption is rapid in
the opposite direction, we received both strain values of around 20 gCO2/kgcoal (Table 2). When also the factor of
compressibility (Z) is taken into account and the use of a multi-staged procedure including weighing of the
extracted CO2 for desorption, we obtained the total sorption capacity of lignite at around 26 gCO2/kgcoal (Table 2).
The total desorption only differs from the corrected adsorption by less than 4 %.
Similar studies were carried out in the years 2010-12 at the Imperial College of Science in London [10]. There the
methodology was somewhat different, but they used the same samples (Velenje lignite and high pressures). One of
our co-authors (S. Zavek) was also involved in those studies.

5. CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATION GOALS


The sorptive characteristics of different lignite lithotypes have been investigated and the main conclusions are the
following:
We have developed a methodology for sorption (adsorption and desorption) on lignite coal and applied it to
various lithotypes of lignite samples. We are using improved equipment (150 bar, 160 0C), with which we
digitally measure pressure in the reaction cell as well as the temperature on the periphery of autoclave and
in the surroundings. In addition, we collect the data of additional parameters (humidity, speed of dosing).
For desorption we also weigh the released CO2. Modern software enables a more accurate data collection
from the process, which is especially important in the first minutes, when both processes are very fast.
Optimization of total adsorption and desorption achievement is based on the assumption that they are in
the ratio of 1:1. The main problems are the non-ideal characteristics of CO2, the technology for gas dosing
and sufficiently reliable data recording. According to basic knowledge and technical capabilities in the
previous research [1], [4] this could not yet be achieved. Current conditions and knowledge allow us to
achieve the required criteria well.
Taking into account all the described parameters, the total sorption capacity for fine detrite is about 26
gCO2/kgcoal.
Sorption is dependent upon lithotype of lignite, moisture and temperature. Samples which have a lot of
detrite (fD) components and micropores in the coal structure are the most suitable for sorption. Processes
and quantitative adsorption capacities are very important case for pre-evaluation of gas outburst risk during
exploitation.
The sorption methodology still remains in the development phase. The principal future research trends will
be aimed at collecting new data on coal petrology [6] and so find most relevant samples for detecting the
range of sorption diversity. Results from sorption tests will be used to verify and fit the mathematical model

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which is being developed last few years in order to examine the influence of various stress states and
amount of coal gasses to the structural and petrographical changes of lignite and so its characteristics for
excavation which is presently a case study for the Velenje coal mine.

REFERENCES
[1]

Pezdi J., Marki M., Leti M., Popovi A., Zavek S.: Laboratory simulation of adsorption desorption processes on different
lignite lithotypes from Velenje lignite mine, 1999

[2]

Pezdi J., Zavek S., ula J.: High pressure sorption of CO2 on lignite coal, 20 NZGG Conference, Dunedin, New Zealand, 2007

[3]

ula J., Pezdi J., Zavek S., Buri E.: Adsorption-Desorption Propreties of the Velenje Lignite. 4 BALKANMINE CONGRESS,
Slovenia, Ljubljana, 301314, 2011

[4]

ula J., Pezdi J., Zavek S., Buri E.: Adsorption capacity of the Velenje lignite:methodology and equipment, RMZ Materials
and Geoenvironment, Vol. 58, No. 2, 193216, 2011

[5]

Pezdi J., Zavek S., ula J., Skapin T., Moravec R., Tavar G., Buri, E., Pezdi T., Petrinjak L., Medved A.R.: Annual
report:SORPTION RR project RCE, 44 p. 2012

[6]

Marki M.: Petrology and genesis of the Velenje lignite, Ph.D. thesis, University of Ljubljana, 208 p. 2009

[7]

Brezigar A., Ogorelec B., Rijavec L., Mio P.: Geologic setting of the Pre-Pliocene basement of the Velenje depression and its
surroundings, Geologija 30, 31-65, 1987

[8]

Kandu T., Pezdi J.: Origin and distribution of coalbed gases from the Velenje basin, Slovenia. - Geochemical Journal, Vol. 39,
397409, 2005.

[9]

Zavek S: Model for research of structural and petrographical changes of the Velenje lignite depending on various stress states
and presence of gasses, Ph.D. thesis, University of Ljubljana, 151 p. 2004

[10]

Durucan S., Korre A., Sinayuc C., Jozefowicz R., Brenkley D., Zavek S., Golob L., Jamnikar S., Morillo P., Beckmann K., Rodriguez
J.L., Arias B., Abraham K., Beckmann K., Baltz R., Mutke G., Lurka A.: Development of Novel Technologies for Predicting and
Combating Gas Outbursts and Undercontrolled Emissions in Thich Seam Coal Mining, CoGasOUT tehnical report 2, Imperial
College of Science, London, 2012

th

th

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MONITORING AND PREDICTING SURFACE MOVEMENTS


IN THE VELENJE COAL MINE AREA

ABSTRACT
Drago POTONIK1
Janez ROER2
Milivoj VULI3

PV Invest d.o.o., Velenje, Slovenia,


drago.potocnik@pvinvest.si
2
PV Invest d.o.o., Velenje, Slovenia,
janez.roser@pvinvest.si
3
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of
Natural Sciences and Engineering,
Ljubljana, Slovenia,
milivoj.vulic@guest.arnes.si

The impact of underground mining excavation in Velenje Coal Mine reflects


as surface subsidence soon after excavation and reaches 90% of its final
value of approximately three months after the excavation is finished. In this
paper an extensive surface subsidence monitoring and computer modelling
for predicting the movements on the surface will be introduced. On the
surface of the mining area the measurements of observation networks are
performed for more decades. Before 1990 the measurements of the
networks were made only by a combination of triangulation and trilateration
for planar networks and geometric leveling for the orthometric heights. With
the development of satellite technology and the emergence of GPS system
the Velenje Coal Mine began to consider establishing a monitoring network
based on GPS measurements. In 1996 GPS observation network with 18
measurement points was established. Nowadays, all together over 300
measurement points in the entire Velenje Coal Mine surface area is observed
at least once per year. Due to surface subsidence three lakes emerge in the
aleka Valley. Surface subsidence monitoring includes a measurement of
those lakes bottom once a year, which gives us also an insight into the
modifications of the terrain under the lakes.
Further, for predicting the movements of the surface a computer model is
used. The basis of this complex model is consolidation model and statistical
analysis of measured subsidence. Analyses and predictions of surface
movements over mining areas on the basis of geodetic networks
observations results and computer subsidence modelling have proven to be
reliable and coincide with subsequent verification based on measured data.
Furthermore, acquired information enables timely and appropriate respond
and preparations to ensure safety, future land works, surface remediation
and reclamation for any defined periods until the end of the planned coal
extraction.
Keywords
Coal Mine, Monitoring, Movements, Surface Subsidence, Underground Mining

1. INTRODUCTION
Velenje Coal Mine (VCM) is one of the largest and most modern deep coal mining sites in Europe. The thickness of
the coal deposit ranges from 20 m to 160 m. The coal layer is 100 m thick at the depth of 400 m and the greatest
amount of the coal can be found at the depth of 290 m. The mining method used is known as Velenje Mining
Method (VMM) and is unique in world mining technology [1]. The VMM is characterized by continuous caving-in of
the hanging wall layers and the length of longwalls amounts from 80 m to 210 m and the length of panels vary from
600 m to 800 m (Figure 1). Underground coal mining excavation leads to surface subsidence.

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Figure1. Typical VMM longwall face equipment

The impact of mining excavation reflects on the surface soon after excavation and reaches 90% of its final value of
approximately three months after the excavation is finished. Measurements to determine the movements of
grounds cover geodetic measurements of planar and height networks. In the VCM more longwall panels are active
at the same time and after the extraction one of them is finished, already starts extraction of another. Therefore it
is difficult to talk about the impact of individual longwall coal panel on the surface. While the subsidence at the
surface does not occur suddenly but develops progressively as the coal is extracted within the area of influence of
the extracted coal panel, a point on the surface will be affected by the extraction of several adjacent panels [2].
Since surface subsidence measurements are carried out in the spring months, the impact of mining on surface
corresponds to the extracted panels in the year prior the measurements were taken. Furthermore, for the purposes
of planning, timely and appropriate preparations of future land works, surface remediation and reclamation, a
computer modelling for predicting surface movements is used. The measurements of observation networks on the
surface of the mining area are performed for more decades [3, 4, 5, 6, 7] and in this paper a synthesis of these
studies is presented.

2. METHODS FOR MONITORING OF MOVEMENTS AND DEFORMATIONS


Movements and deformations monitoring of the wider VCM area consists of measuring observation networks and
measuring the lakes depths.
Surveying networks
In the wider area of VCM over 300 observation points on the surface, which are part of several observation
networks, are monitored. In 1996 GPS observation network called Small Geodynamic Network of Velenje Coal Mine
(SGNVCM) with 18 measurement points was established (Figure 2). 15 points are located inside the coal mine
subsidence area and three points are stabilized outside the area of mine excavation influence [8]. The red polyline
on figure 2 and 3 corresponds to VCM area.

Figure 2. Small Geodynamic Network of


Velenje Coal Mine (SGNVCM)
consisting from 18 observation points (red
polyline corresponds to VCM area)

Each minor mining observation


network consists of at least one
base point that is part of SGNVCM
(starting points of light blue lines on
figure 2) and more additional points
(Figure 2). On figure 2 five minor
observation networks are shown:
otanj, Gaberke, kale, Pesje and
NOP, which are schematically
represents by magenta polylines.

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Figure 3. Minor observation networks


in the VCM area

To eliminate errors in setting up monitoring equipment on observation points, the stabilization of observation
points is fabricated from concrete pillars (Figure 4). All concrete points are further equipped with a metal pedestal
on which during the measurement measuring equipment is placed. Point displacements are determined from at
least two epochs based on the positions of the points set out in identical coordinate system.

Figure 4. (left) GNSS measurements on concrete pillar observation point,


(middle) terrestrial measurements on concrete pillar observation point, (right) geometric levelling

Observation of points in observational networks are performed with classical terrestrial surveying methods, which
result in three-dimensional coordinates (Y, X, H) in the national Gauss-Krger coordinate system. For a more
accurate determination of point elevation the method of geometric levelling is used (Figure 4 - right).
Measurements of observation networks are generally performed at least once a year, in some cases, even several
times per month.
On the basis of measured and analysed observation networks from different epochs, movements of observation
points are calculated. The horizontal and vertical movements of observed points are published in tabular and
graphical form for individual and cumulative years, as well as in contour plot with movements iso-lines (Figure 5).

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Figure 5. The contour map of vertical movements made on the basis of the results
of the two epochs, and the graphical representation of the movement of individual points

Bathymetry
As a consequence of the mining activities that results in subsided surface three large depression lakes have been
formed in aleka Valley. Measuring the lakes depth is performed to observe and track the impact of coal
excavation on the terrain under the lakes, i.e. lakes bottoms, and is performed once a year. First bathymetry of
Lake Velenje goes back in 1960. From 1975 onwards every year all three lakes are measured. Since 2010 the sonar
Reason NaviSound 110, which is automatically connected to GNSS device, is used and the obtained point data
consists of coordinates Y, X, Z and depth. The measuring process includes determination of position in a square grid
with the cell size approximately 25 meters through GNSS Real Time Kinematics method and the depth
measurements with sonar on every 5 meters are carried out. At the same time measurements of water temperature
at different depths are performed. During data processing also sound velocity corrections are made. Finally, from
point data Y, X, Z and depth the lakes bottom is modelled. Knowing depth data is essential for monitoring
subsidence terrain under the lakes. Comparison between different years models provide an insight into the changes
that have occurred within one or more years [9]. Figure 6 shows field work (left), 3D model based on bathymetric
measurements (middle) and the final bathymetric map of Lake otanj (right).

Figure 6. Field work on the lake with all equipment (left), 3D model
based on bathymetric measurements (middle) and the bathymetric map of Lake otanj (right)

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3. SURFACE SUBSIDENCE PREDICTIONS


Predictions of mining operations impact on surface are an integral part of any underground mining project. For the
purpose of predicting the movements of the surface as a result of coal mining excavation a computerized model
called "Pogrez", which was created in collaboration with the Institute for Mining, Geotechnology and Environment,
and Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, is used [10]. The basis of this complex
model is geomechanical consolidation model and statistical analysis of measured subsidence.
Computer program calculates the horizontal and vertical displacements of the ground for each observation point
that forms a relief model of mining area. The input data for the calculation of the movement of the terrain consists
of surface point data, longwall panel geometry and geomechanical characteristics of the materials that are part of
mining projects [11, 12]. In Figure 7 the graphical interface of the computer program is shown, including input
parameters, longitudinal and transverse profiles through the panel surface area and the subsidence development
with time.

Figure 7. GUI of the computer program Pogrez, including input parameters,


longitudinal and transverse profiles through the panel surface area and the subsidence development with time

As surface data we use the national digital terrain model from 2006 [13] that include the points in square grid of 25
x 25 meters (Figure 8). Every year on the basis of field measurements this digital terrain model is updated. On the
left side of figure 8 the black lines represents geometry of all of the excavation panels that we want to include in
the model and in the right side of figure 8 iso-lines of subsidence and colour contour map are shown.

Figure 8. Surface elevation points with planned excavation panels (left) and resulting subsidence colour contour map (right)

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Based on the results of field measurements and computer modelling the movement predictions of the surface for
any defined periods until the end of the planned coal extraction are prepared. That enables timely and appropriate
response for necessary land works, remediation of degraded areas and reclamation. Figure 9 shows predicted
subsidence in the VCM mining area until the year 2023. Maximal vertical displacements up to 50 meters are
predicted at the location between otanj and Velenje lakes.

Figure 9. Colour contour map of predicted subsidence in the VCM area until the year 2023

Since the subsided area between lakes is constantly strewed by material, the height of the terrain at this location
does not change. Therefore there is no merger of the two lakes. Figure 10 (left side) shows an analysis from the
2010, which indicates the expansion of the lakes in 2013, 2017 and 2023. Prognosis has resulted in a creation of a
small lake north of the existing one in the next three years. On the right side of figure 10 the actual status of the
area in April 2013, which confirms the correctness of the analysis in 2010, is shown.

Figure 10. Lakes extending prognosis from the 2010 analysis (left) and the actual photography of the area in the April 2013 (right)

Analyses and predictions of surface movements over mining areas on the basis of geodetic networks observations
results and computer subsidence modelling have proven to be reliable and coincide with subsequent verification
based on measured data, both in predicting the maximal subsidence as well their locations. However, the model is

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constantly updated with new measurements and observations. Based on the comparison between actual measured
movements in monitoring networks and predicted movements the difference is minimal and acceptable.

4. DISCUSSION
The consequences of mining activities in the aleka valley reflect on the surface by forming subsided surface,
which was filled by water and three lakes arose. In order to manage events in the Velenje Coal Mine area continuous
observation of the surface movements including depth of the lakes is performed. The monitoring movement system
includes observation network with more than 300 points on the surface. Based on these observations, we calculate
changes in the position of the observed points of the surface and the bottom of the lakes in the desired time
period. Monitoring movement system of Velenje Coal Mine is constantly expanding with new measurements and
upgrades with new methods and most modern equipment.
For the purposes of planning, timely preparation of deprived areas and the rehabilitation of degraded areas the
movement of the surface with computer models prediction is used. In this way the required information about the
location and extent of subsidence, the maximum size of the movements and the time evolution of the surface
subsidence are obtained. Thus the mining impact on the environment and the safety of VCM area is controlled and
further the smooth operation, safety and related good public opinion is assured.

REFERENCES
th

[1]

Medved M., Golob L.: Sustainable development of Velenje Mining Method and its global use, 4 Balkanmine congress, Slovenia,
Ljubljana, 2011

[2]

Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants: Introduction to Longwall Mining and Subsidence, New South Wales, Australia, 2007

[3]

JGS: Poroilo programa Jamomerstvo in geodetske storitve za obdobje 1996 2012, Premogovnik Velenje, 2012

[4]

Rajter T., Slatinek J., Roer J.: Analiza premikov terena na severnem delu kalskega jezera in prognoza premikov do konca
odkopavanja, t.j. leta 2054, PV Invest, Velenje, 2013

[5]

JGS: Poroilo o opazovalni mrei Pesje za obdobje 2000 2013, PV Invest, 2013

[6]

JGS: Poroilo o opazovalni mrei kale za obdobje 2000 2013, PV Invest, 2013
JGS: Poroilo o opazovalni mrei Pesje za obdobje 2000 2013, PV Invest, 2013

[7]

Vuli M., Potonik D.: Zasnova in iritev opazovalne mree za spremljanje dinamike povrja na obmoju mesta otanj do naselja
Ravne, raziskovalna naloga, 2010

[8]

Stopar B., Sterle O.: Obdelave opazovanj GNSS od leta 1996 do leta 2011 v Mali geodinamini mrei Premogovnika Velenje
(poroilo za leto 2011). Fakulteta za gradbenitvo in geodezijo, Ljubljana, 2012

[9]

Roer J., Potonik D.: Aktivnosti pri spremljanju stanja alekih jezer in deponije premoga, Rudar razvojni doseki Skupine
Premogovnik Velenje, 2011

[10]

Medved M., Koar S., Jamek Z.: Pogrez 2002 (Visual Basic), Ljubljana 2002

[11]

Rudarski projekt RP-54/91. Plan odkopavanja v jami Preloge jug do zakljuka odkopavanja, Premogovnik Velenje 1991.

[12]

Rudarski projekt RP-325/2007TK. Odkopavanje jame Pesje od k.-40 do dna kadunje ter stebra CD, Premogovnik Velenje 2007.

[13]

Podobnikar T.: Digitalni model terena iz razlinih podatkov, ivljenje in tehnika, 2006, pp 20-27.

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NDT IN FUNCTION PREVENTION OF LOSS


INTEGRITY OF STRUCTURES LARGE DIMENSIONS

ABSTRACT
Vujadin ALEKSIC1
Srdjan BULATOVIC2
Ljubica MILOVIC3

Institute for testing materials-IMS


Institute, Belgrade, Serbia,
vujadin.aleksic@institutims.rs
2
Yugoslav River Shipping, Belgrade,
Serbia, srdjan.bulatovic@yahoo.com
3
Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy,
Belgrade, Serbia, acibulj@tmf.bg.ac.rs

The paper presents examples of the loss of structural integrity due to large
induced defects in welded joints occurred during the time of preparation of
construction or during operation, which are not detected in time or not at
the time repaired, and can be attributed to inadequate prevention in system
maintenance.
Daily visual inspection should be provided in order to monitor the behavior
of structures in exploitation, and if necessary, NTD method of testing the
most loaded parts of the structure should be applied. This approach may be
applied to other types of similar construction, and its application in
preventive maintenance would help extend the life of structures of large
dimensions.

Keywords
NTD, Prevention, Integrity Loss, Large-Scale Structures

1. INTRODUCTION
Large-scale structures, such as various types of excavators and reloading bridges, which are used in the production
processes of abstraction, transport and disposal of coal, ash and slag or open cast mines and power plants require
specially organized monitoring of behavior of structure during operation and maintenance. Continuous mining in
very harsh environmental conditions can lead to relatively frequent failures of these structures. During the
exploitation of large-scale structures under the effect of variable amplitude loading leads to unexpected failures.
These failures other than direct material damage, could jeopardize the safety of personnel. In addition,
unanticipated delays in exploitation cause the damage, which is often much higher than the direct damage. High
place among the causes of these failure takes inadequate exploitation and maintenance.

2. EXAMPLES OF INTEGRITY LOSS


Dragline excavators that are used in our open cast mines are mainly produced in Russia and work on loading the
slag in bunker. Dragline excavators are working on our open pit mines are mostly made in Russia and working on
loading overburden into the bunker ECS (Excavator-Conveyor-Stacker) system. The whole construction is exposed
to low cycle dynamic loading. This load caused fatigue failure on observed excavator. The fatigue failure was
spotted on one of the welded joints and emergence of a large number of initial cracks on the other welded joints of
pipe and excavator, fig.1.

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fracture of girder

fracture of girder

repaired cracks

crack on the girder

Figure 1. Fatigue fracture of girder and appearance of a large number of initial crack pipe boom of dragline excavator caused a loss of integrity

During the exploitation of bucket wheel excavator under the effect of variable amplitude loading, which is the
result of operating conditions and its own low-frequency oscillation occurs unforeseen failure,damage and fracture
of its components. Combined fracture, fatigue, stable crack with shear lips and final brute breaking, upper part of
lug and brittle fracture down part of lugs on counterweight holder rotary escavator [1], in which could see region of
initial fracture shown in fig. 2.
Unloading bridge structures is exposed to low cycle dynamic loading. This load caused fatigue failure at the
supports of observed unloading bridge, figure 3, which was confirmed by visual examination [2,3].
These examples show that ISO 9000 standards haven't been respected, ISO 3834, EN 287 and EN 288 standards
weren't properly applied and also independent accredited laboratory for testing of NDT methods did not confirm
the results of NDT testing. Problems shown in these examples can be reduced considerably in similar constructions
if we pay attention to: irregularity in the design, manufacture and operation, final quality control before operation,
properly defined control and testing, maintenance and repair during operation, qualification and certification of
welding personnel who participates in the production, and later in the repair of damages of large-scale structures.

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undamaged lugs

cover of plate about lugs

damaged upper part of lug

damaged lugs

start of initiation of damage [1]

Figure 2. Fatigue fracture of lugs on counterweight caused a loss of integrity of the excavator

cracks

cracks

cracks

cracks

Figure 3. Fatigue failure at the supports of observed unloading bridge caused integrity loss

3. CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF INTEGRITY LOSS


The majority of the mechanisms and consequences of metal damage can be predicted on the basis of operational
conditions [4]. However, some of them are hard to detect and can cause serious damage in a short time, fig.2.
According to frequency of damage creation, causes are fatigue, ductile fracture and corrosion of materials. Such
phenomena are based on errors in calculation, design and construction, errors in production and assembly,
unexpected operating conditions and working environment.

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After professional analysis of the results of inspection and testing damaged parts of large-scale structures, the
appropriate conclusions about the causes of failure and damage of large-scale structures could be performed.

4. TECHNICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF INTEGRITY LOSS


During the operation period of large-scale structures in comes to fatigue of its components. Degradation of
material properties and deformation of elements can be accelerated due to the exploitation and repair errors,
that's why periodic or continuous diagnostic measurements are needed. In this way, processes that could lead to
the creation of system damage are under systematic control, what are also the legal obligations imposed by the
regulations, directives and harmonized standards.
Properly conducted technical diagnostics protects parts of large-scale structures from accident, and also ensures
safer conditions for employees as well as rational techno-economic exploitation and maintenance.
Technical diagnostic of large-scale structures must be based on three basic principles:
volume of tests and measurements shall be in accordance with the program of research and an expert
knowledge of structure and working conditions;
tests and measurements must be performed in accordance with special procedures, using appropriate
equipment and qualified personnel;
test results should be presented in such way that the conclusions include large-scale structures operating
conditions, the availability of the test team and staff with appropriate experience and knowledge in the field
of design, construction, installation, operation, maintenance, reliability, fracture mechanics and others.

5. INTEGRITY LOSS PREVENTION PROGRAM


Creating a integrity loss prevention program requires expertise and in-depth analysis of:
legal regulations for this type of structure;
calculation, design and structural documentation of the object with license for usage;
documentation on the installation, reliable process scheme and technological description of the device, as
well as data regarding exploitation (instruction manual, maintanance, periodic diagnostics, delays, damages,
recoveries etc.);
established plan of inspection and testing (range, critical areas, sampling places ...);
methods of non-destructive testing (NDT), (selection procedures and techniques, supervision, equipment,
personnel, documentation);
sizing damage found
characterization of defects(metallurgical testing);
previous reconstructions and used technology
monitoring of behavior of damage/damages in the exploitation
Dealing with the problem described above requires interdisciplinary knowledge from different fields - chemistry,
engineering, physics, metallurgy and tribology. Only well organized and systematic approach as well as teamwork
can lead to satisfactory results and reliable answers in order to prevent integrity loss. Program of inspection and
testing of construction parts is defined based on the integrity loss prevention program determining the cause of
failure of large-scale structures.

6. CONTROL AND NDT TESTING


Organization of the maintenance of such structures depends primarily on their size, shape, structure, number of
employees and their professional experience in system maintenance and adequate database, both technological
and diagnostic [5, 6, 7]. On the basis of the obtained parameters, specific activities on the large dimension
constructions are defined.
In order to minimize the potential loss of integrity of these structures, it is necessary to constantly monitor the
situation and structural behavior through the control center system for monitoring, updating, detection and
analysis of the measured characteristic parameters.

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Failure analysis in [1, 2, 3, 8, 9] and the conclusions are not sufficient to completely avoid manufacturing
imperfections and ensure the integrity of welded large-scale structures in exploitation. Directives, standards and
recommendations for production of welded structures significantly contribute to solving the problem, but it
cannot be completely eliminated because of its complexity and the large number of influencing factors.
The damages could be identified during regular and special NDT testing with use of information technology
standards [7], or by measuring the deformation at the macro or micro level [10, 11]. For the purpose of prevention
of integrity loss it is necessary to make 100% visual inspection, MT, PT, UT, in order to determine the material
degradation and damages of components and structural parts of construction.
Other tests like penetrant testing (PT), radiographic testing (RT), and if necessary, control of hardness (HT) of
welded joints and evaluation of microstructure by replica method (REP) can be used in order to get a reliable and
useful results for determining the degree of integrity of large-scale structures and qualitative level of material
degradation over the lifetime.
Visually optical control (VT)
VT is used to detect defects that are visible on the surface of large-scale structures, if the structure is made of
closed profiles. It applies regardless the method to be applied after it, because it is possible to detect errors, such
as in our case, and avoid the use of other, more costly methods of NDT. It is often used for the selection of critical
areas of the construction for the application of other NDT testing methods. At the same objects it may be
performed multiple times (eg, before and after cleaning, or before and after the execution of corrosion protection,
etc.).
Control of the inside of the closed profiles (endoscopy) allows optical access to the interior of profiles. It is
performed using an endoscope, and as a result we get control of video or photograph controlled inner surface.
Magnetic particle testing (MT)
The method is based on emphasizing the stray magnetic flux caused by the presence of surface or subsurface
defects like cracks, notches, inclusions and other types of sharp or planar defects. Advantage of the methodis that
it requires a moderate cost, and if done correctly, you get a very good sensitivity for the detection of surface
defects. The disadvantages of this method is that it could only be appllied to ferromagnetic materials as well as the
potential need for degaussing after completing the testing. The method is commonly used for the detection of
cracks and other defects in weld joints, castings and forgings. It is compatible with the PT method.
Ultrasonic testing (UT)
The method is based on detecting changes in acoustic resistance due to the presence of cracks, voids, inclusions,
and general physical separation in the material. The advantage of the method is that is also applicable to the
thicker material, it is excellent for detecting and locating cracks and other defects, and it is suitable for
automation. The biggest disadvantages are the need for a medium on the surface to be tested (or complete
immersion of testing item in contact medium), as well as the request that surface on which the probe is moving is
relatively smooth (ie cleaning needs, grinding the metallic shine).The most common application is to detect and
precisely determine the position of defects in plate, welded joints (and butt and fillet) steel castings and forgings (if
their geometric configuration allows). Application of this method for testing materials with high attenuation of
ultra sound energy (for example, high alloyed austenitic steels, cast bronze...) is difficult and can be done only under
special circumstances. It is compatible with the RT method.

7. DATA BASE AND CONTROL CALCULATION


Reliable assessment of the integrity of the observed elements, could be made only after creation of adequate data
base and the basis for the development of computer programs [7, 12]. Load data, the characteristics of the base
material and its welded joints, technology development, technical and physical characteristics reported fractures
data and preventive measures provided for damage and destructionare obtained from the databases.
Also, the data base should include data collected during previous investigations of the structure of supporting
constructions. Database of implemented testing and research [13, 14, 15, 16] on the appropriate structures allows
us to analyze the behavior of supporting elements of large-scale structures in order to determine changes in
mechanical properties of materials. We analyzed the damaged parts of of large-scale structures, to determine the
cause of the problem, which is a process that requires a systematic approach. Test results of NDT methods
contribute to the integrity loss prevention, and if damages appear, allow us to determine the cause of large-scale
structures failure. Based on the research of failure and causes of failure of certain components of construction

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using method FMEA and reliability parameters obtained from the analysis of the data collected in real operating
conditions, a system of continuous diagnosis could be established. Stress analysis, analysis of damage and fractures
of welded joints [17, 18, 19, 20], and construction elements provide important directives for the development of
design methods and construction elements of large-scale structures to improve the properties of existing materials
and their processing technologies. Also,by analyzing fractures, the development of new technical solutions and
methods of testing [10, 11] is enabled in the prototype stage. It is necessary to take into account the risk analysis
and structural integrity [21, 22], as a new approach to the assessment of structural integrity. Based on data
collected from control, testing and analysis of damaged elements, control calculation of the critical parts of the
constructionis made. Tipical calculation, should be illustrated with the calculation of static and dynamic stress
analysis using the finite element method, FEM, to see the stress distribution due to the impact of the load in the
present conditions. Control calculations confirm the existence or loss of structural integrity, and provides guidance
for further action. Supporting software packages would allow more efficient use oft he database, the analysis of
some influencing factors, and the search of alternative solutions in all phases of design and development of
construction.

8. CONCLUSION
Inadequate maintenance of large-scale structures in terms of protection entails a costly repair, and it is necessary
to determine preventive measures and very thoroughly research issues of protection, durability and maintenance,
especially critical parts of large-scale structures.
In relation to above stated, assessment of the state of the parts of large-scale structures affected by outside
influence is required. This should be followed by the NDT testing, in order to determine the actual extent of
damage, and if necessary, appropriate measures of rehabilitating critical damages and material degradation should
be taken.
Only by testing the large-scale structures under working conditions make it possible to assess their condition
completely. During examination period, the necessary data are obtained to determine the quality and structural
integrity assessment and evaluation of the impact of the elements on the capacity and is given the necessary data
to establish the joint work of equimpent and structure.
In case of breakdown of large-scale structures systematic testing, control, analysis and calculations are required.
Then, on the basis of a program to determine the cause and consequence of damage, make the appropriate
conclusions in order to obtain new information for the following reliable design and construct large-scale
structures.

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company, Structural integrity and life, Vol.11, No3, 2011, pp. 209-212, UDK 65.012.32.

Acknowledgement
The paper was done within the project TR 35011, "The integrity of the pressure equipment with the simultaneous
action of fatigue load and temperature," founded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological
Development of the Republic of Serbia.

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STORAGE AND PARAMETERS FRESH GRACE


RECLAMATION POWER PLANTS KOSOVO

ABSTRACT
Naim BAFTIU

Pristine, Kosovo
n.baftiu@hotmail.com

The location of the ash dump outside Dardhishte found in the extreme east
distance 1000m (1km) from the TPP Kosovo A. Ash dump is created from
the ashes released from the coal combustion process for electricity
generation and transported to the landfill.
This site covers an area of 243 hectares and has horizontal and vertical
folding is used for ash and overburden (external folding overburden
Dardhishte). While ash is stored (folded) in this area since the beginning of
the work of TPP Kosovo A since 1962, began folding to overburden in
1987 and ended in the mid 90s. Folding exterior Dardhishte was created by
transported overburden measures from the process of coal mine detection
surface Mirash.
Dog overburden originally planned to cover the ash reclamation purposes,
but is not implemented practically, so that overburden is deposited in the
south west and south-west wing and part of the overburden folding covered
with ashes. The total volume of measures stored in this location is about 50
3
million ash m .

Keywords
Landfill, Fresh Ash, Power Plants, Surface

1. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING SITUATION IN LANDFILL


Landfill as a whole has the following dimensions;
Extreme north-south length is 2600m
Average width is 1230m east-west
High level of landfill area is 668m east
Circumference 8152 m
The total surface area of the ash dump and folding exterior of overburden is 243 ha.
Currently dry ash free of TPP "Kosovo" Do transported by rubber bands belt with two lines, line "A" and the line "B"
and stored in two folds in the central location of the landfill and dump both sides, east and west .
Operates on the east side of the folded type "ZGOT" - 500 "A" scale bar "A" with 800 mm width and length 375m.
This operates to flatten average with 642 m height and performs work in 648m level.
On the west side of the folded type operates "ZGOT" -500 "B" and tape scale "B" with 800 mm width and length
222m. folding operates to 640m with average height and performs work on 650m level. Both folds operate without
technology designed.
The landfill is divided into four main constituent parts.
Hydraulic dump (northern)
Central Landfill dry ash
Landfill semi hydro (southern part) and
overburden Dog

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Figure 1. The outline of the ash disposal with associated facilities

Hydraulic dump
Northern-located about 1km near TPP "Kosovo" and has a 20 ha area with average height 28m and 590m lower
level (quota field) and high level of quota 618m. The surface of the landfill is technically designed flat surface
coverage by layers of clay but not reclaimed. The slopes of the landfill are stable with a significant slope at 350 and
the average angle formed by two levels stable. In the northern part of the landfill in the first escalation level quota
613m north west there are metal tubes that industrial disposing of "Kosovo coal" and through the canal crosses the
northern landfill waste deposited in artificial reservoir created in the landfill. In conversation with competent
company "Kosovo coal" This action continues until May September 2013. After this period terminated the dumping
of industrial waste and sent to a special tank at the company complex "Kosovo coal". Landfill slopes are re-green by
nature.
This part of the landfill area 20 ha, although the overall contours of the landfill not treated with this project for the
design, and the reclamation process is treated along with the entire landfill. Near the north landfill extreme
distance exceeds 10m Shkabaj River which flows into the river Sitnica, while in the north - east and west are
generated lower levels of these ash disposal.

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Figure 2. Ash landfill designed

Central Landfill - dry ash


Hydraulic dump south central part of the landfill is ash created by the dry ash. The dry ash is through folding fold.
Structures of folding technology and the surface is covered with natural plants. Shaping - surface design is not
done.
Mother the central part of the landfill is built cemented tunnel through which water passes Shkabaj channel.

Figure 3. Central part of the ash landfill

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This part of the landfill is active and both sides (east and west) realized dry ash disposal to fold. In the centre of the
landfill are two conveyor mounted ash from TPP "Kosovo" A dump share in two parts, east and west by the grace
tuck in the two arms.

Figure 4. Active dump the west central line "B" Photo by 03/04/2013

Eastward to landfill disposal due to high technology and without regular ash disposal measures flow in the east of
the landfill and created huge natural angle. The height of the landfill in this section is 48m.

Figure 5. Active landfill central eastern flank, line "A" Photo 04/03/2013

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Semi hydro Landfill


This landfill in the area is 20 hectares of reclaimed plan and the grass surface semi hydro method. But at the same
time the design of the project was agreed between KEK and the company "Bechtel & Enka" that this part of the
landfill in 30 ha area covered with clay from measures of highway which is under construction near landfill.
Overburden Dog: The outline of the ash disposal is carried out in the south west of overburden folding "Dardhisht"
from the mine "Mirash" of the use of coal. This tuck is currently about 82 ha area and ended in the 90's. Configuration of the regular tuck is free, so DPRT by cleaning program and the land re-designed in 2008 a part of the Final
Report of the tuck is plan and prepared for re-cultivation. On the part of the design without the tuck planned excavation and transport of overburden measures amount to 1 million m3 of ash landfill cover.

2. THE SAFETY FACTOR


Taking into account the above criteria, a geotechnical safety, taking into account the economic aspect of the implementation of mining operations without consequences and without interference criteria must be met for the
safety factor are given in table.

Figure 6. fresh angles ash

As seen in this picture phenomenon, where the ash derived measures have taken the form of language. With these
partial slope geometry (1.6) safety factor Fs earned 1.00, which means that such a slope formed by the long-term
stability geometry there, from that in the two profiles, partial slopes formed have slope angle 39.0 .
So to stabilize slopes of the landfill anyway should intervene with heights down slopes or mitigate the slope angle,
especially the initial slopes are partial to scroll and deposited flow measures.
Technical planning of landfill
In the technical planning of landfill foreseen to realize these activities;
Planning for disposal of ash in amounts up to 200 000 tone in July 2013 under the tenure of the EPD approved by competent and INKOS the meeting held on 16.04.2013
Designing the central landfill ash,
Excavation of overburden folding exterior "Dardhishte"
Filling and design of the central landfill ash with clay for re-cultivation
The technical part of the central landfill design work is based on geodetic survey of the landfill and stability parameters of geo ash. Technical execution of the design of the landfill is planned for the device which has DPRT.
For central landfill ash, are working maps of the situation with the state planning designed to separate annexes,
and maps of the excavation and the folding design "Dardhishte".
In this variant is designed geometry of the slope with a height h = 40.0 m general slope angle = 11.0 . Accomplished in such a way that the higher parts of the slopes where measures are stored fresh ash, the ash should bulldozer extended in the direction of the slope collapse by reducing the height and angle of slope tame generals to
= 11.0 .
Technology work in this version is based only on working excavators and has a lower cost than in the first variation
and easily implemented in the field. Schematically shown in profiling.

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Figure 7. Presentations of stairs for re-cultivation

Filling the space between the two wings


The full design of the central landfill realized with ash deposited measures.The main purpose of design is to create
conditions landfill lighter refills Technical clay layer in the thickness of 1m and re-cultivation.
Across central ash landfill based on the situation, location - are currently active valley where two conveyor belts of
grace is location more complex design.
The design on this site should be realized in stable parameters after the dump and full of ash disposal on both sides
of the landfill.
To remove the ash was first drafted by implementing measures ash excavated from higher positions through truck.
Design excavator and transport of scales is presented in different profiles. At ground level 644m quota starts digging formation of ash and first degree level 641.2m 2.5m height scale. Formation of successive steps and done it
from top to bottom.Throughout the exploitation rate in the sector formed the eastern 644m, 640m, 635 and 630m
and 643m west side, 635m and 630m.
These levels are functional connection between them, namely the existing transport routes between the ash dump
and location where the excavation of overburden.Front stairs is progress towards north - south and vice versa.
Digging excavator measures is undertaken in parallel with grace in both arms of the front storage with advancement of scale north-south. While transporting the ash measures from the trucks filling up the shelves (profiles between 24-24 'and 26-26') which also made their emptying. Filling the space with grace measures implemented up to
a certain level as shown in the mapping project. When filling in this form does not scale space geometry but certain
measures we drive space remaining after removal of belt conveyors
Defined contour filling with clay from the company "Bechtel & Enka" on the east side does not preclude the possibility of postponing measures to grace this side of the valley filling.In the following chart we are working levels and
grades shown in the ash dump and filling levels.

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Figure 8. Eastern and western side of the ash landfill

The quantity of ash for the design of


The basis for calculating the volume is the position of the slopes of the active folding map of the situation presented in the March 22, 2013. Data available for quotes terrain and therefore geological model does not meet the requirements for an accurate calculation of the measures. A more precise calculation of the final position should be
prepared if more detailed information about the design. Technological development will proceed as described in
chapter activities in the east and west (reduction of working, and folding concentrated in the east). Calculation of
grace to design measures was conducted by the method of profiles. We both folding wings that grace is necessary
levelling of ash layers and these measures pushed through excavators. Calculation of measures to be levelled are
presented in the following tables and calculated according to the method profiles.

Final state of the folding design "Dardhishte" in the first


location

Figure 9. The location of the second final state of design

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3. RECLAMATION

Figure 10. Situation after reclamation position of the main channel in the centre of landfill

Planting grass
In these areas will be planting grass mixtures. Plants that will be used for re-cultivation have fibrous roots that form
a dense layer, connected to the ground. These layers prevents soil erosion, creates good plant cover and protect
soil from erosion, fast growing and renewed good fit wet climate and irrigation needs, suitable for alkaline soils.

Figure 11. Development of grass dumpsites TPP "Kosovo A" method semi hydro

Designation scientific (Latin)

English

Acer platanoides

sharp sheet

Acer pseudoplatanus

Mountain maple

Alnus incana

white / wild

Fraxinus excelsior

Ash / black

Pinus mugo

Pine Mountain

Pinus nigra

Black Pine

Pinus sylvestris

Hardin

Populus spec.

poplar

Pseudotsuga menziesii

Douglas

Quercus spec.

Oak / Oak

Quercus robur

Bung

Quercus rubra

Red oaks

Robinia pseudoacacia

Robins

Salix alba

White willow

Tilia platyphylla

Broad leaf linden

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4. CONCLUSION
Planting is done by hand with the help of container planting. For one hectare planted approximately 50 kg of grass.
Before she became planting grass on the substrate should be placed humus 300 kg / ha, 200 kg and 200 kg of compost fertilizer NPK bait. After that, the planting of grass made through the use of rake.
In order to create a green ribbon around the ash landfill should be made to plant trees. Planting of trees should be
done in the fall because the optimal amount of moisture, the distance between plants should be 2 m. Seedlings
should be two years old and with a length of 30 to 50 cm are most suitable. Planting is done by making holes (holes)
help shallow with the hoe. Seedlings inserted into this hole and compacted down through the right leg. NPK fertilizer will be used in the third year after forestation. Then, each sapling forced by three poles and protected with
mesh fabric. Stakes must have a length of 2:40 m and 1.80 extensions from the ground. They burrow into the
ground by the hammers of wood pickets insistence of high-type "Rammkatze". These trees should be checked regularly. A person must walk along the entire length of the trail once a week. Injuries of wire cloth or fall of pickets
should be repaired immediately. The landfill perimeter is 8152 m and 4076 seedlings have perimeter are necessary.

REFERENCES

[1]

Naim BAFTIU, Final Report For cleaning and land re-Additional design ash dump TPP "Kosovo" A, Institute INKOS Obiliq, Kosovo 2013.

[2]

Thomas Suhr, Stephan Peters, Uwe Schmidt, Joachim ten Thoren Field Research, Technical Planning / Organizing and Determination
of Environmental Impact Assessment and Preparation of Environmental Management Plans Vattenfall Europe Mining AG Kosovo,
2008.

[3]

Naim BAFTIU plans for 2013-2017 medium-terms the mine to Sibovci South Western Kosovo, Obiliq 2012.

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STRATEGY AND TACTICS AT DESIGNING


AND EXPLOITATION OF DEEP OPENCAST MINES

ABSTRACT
At designing and development of deep opencast mines it is feasible
the main strategical and tactical tasks to be defined and solved.
The authors solve one of the strategic task in details in this report,
i.e. defining of the boundaries of opencast mine, based on the example for deep Assarel and Elatzite mines, under ensuring the
slope stability. A probability statistical method is used in defining
the boundaries of the mine.

Prof. Stoyan CHRISTOV


dipl. eng. Delcho NIKOLOV
University of Mining and Geology, Sofia, Bulgaria
Assarel Medet JSC, town of Panagyurishte, Bulgaria

1. INTRODUCTION
a)

At designing and development of opencast mines many tasks need to be solved for defining of their parameters and indexes. They are divided by strategical and tactical tasks. Defining of the final mine boundaries refer to the first one, as well as the method of uncovering of the mining field, development of the
mining activities both in plan and profile, productivity of the mine based on the mineral resources and volumes of mining mass. The angle of the work face, bench height, width of the working and unworkable areas, length of the working face and block, etc. are referred to the tactical ones. However, many of the strategical and tactical tasks are interrelated and their separate solving is impossible. Some of these tasks are
presented in our and foreign publications [1, 2]. Because many of the tasks are very much comprehensive
and it is difficult to be presented in one report, we shall get restricted only to defining of the boundaries of
a deep opencast mine from the type of Assarel and Elatzite. The alteration of the mine boundaries in
plan and profile have an influence mainly on the volumes of overburden which has to be mined within the
mine contour. The mine efficiency depends to a great extend on the correct solving of this task. By increasing the depth of the opencast mine the volumes of overburden are increased quickly compared to
the volumes of mineral. The costs for uncovering activities in the contemporary mines represent no less
than half of the cost price of the mineral. That is why, the main provision for ensuring of optimum boundaries and operational safety is to build a stable construction of the unworkable faces.
b) Defining the boundaries of opencast mines
Due to the probable character of the output data at designing of an opencast mine, there is some risk in taking of
the final decision for mine boundaries. A method for defining of the mine boundaries is proposed in the present
report based on probability - statistical solutions.
One of the important strategical problems in designing and construction of opencast mines is the determination of
their boundaries in plan and profile. The efficient work of the mines depends to a great extend on the correct solving of this problem. As the initial design information of an opencast mine has a probability character, there is a
certain risk in taking of the final decision about its boundaries. When defining the mine boundaries and the reliability estimation of the taken decision it is necessary probability methods to be applied. The present paper suggests a
method for defining the mine boundaries on the basis of probability statistical solutions (Christov, 1994).
The probability character of the values of the strength parameters of rocks brings to uncertainty in determining
the final situation of the slope. The permissible interval of its change depends on the changing scope of the relative
error of the calculated strength rock characteristics. It will bring to changing of the mine boundaries - from 1 to 2
at depth H (Figure 1). In our case 1 changes from 30 to 50, while the depth is H=150 m.

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Figure1. Dependence of the boundaries of an opencast mine exploiting steeplyinclined deposits considering the probability character of the angle of the unworkable slope

For a selected direction for development of the mining works and angle of the working slope max = 15 the stage
volumes of the overburden and the mineral have been consequently defined (Figure 1). On the basis of these data
the increasing values of overburden and mineral P have been calculated from the exploitation H and the cumulative graphs V = f (P), P = f (H) and V = f (H).
On the basis of the method of I.A. Arsenov (Arsenov, 19/4,) from the cumulative schedule the values of the average
overburden ratio ncp, the initial overburden ratio n0, the most unfavorable exploitation overburden ratio ni, the irregularity coefficient of the overburden removal operation.

(1)

and the portion of the overburden during the construction period


(2)
have been defined. The values of these parameters at slope angle of the unworkable slope 30, 40 and 50 are
shown in Table 1.
From the cumula schedules in Figure 2 it can be seen that the increase of the production with P and the dependence of mining works with h correspond to a respective certain increase of the overburden volumes. For example,
at H = 150m, P = 1.0 million m3, h = 20 m and angles of the unworkable slope 30, 40 and 50 these increases are
respectively V30 = 7.8 million m3, V40 = 4.40 million m3 and V50 = 2.73 million m3. The Figure 2 shows the curves V = f
(H) for = 30 at an average overburden ratio. From this diagram the volumes of overburden which are additionally
mined or reserved in separate stages can be defined.
The studies carried out by the author and other specialists show that the strength rock parameters have a distribution close to the normal one. Therefore, we can use the low rate of normal distribution of error in the strength rock
parameters, while the error in the calculation of the average overburden ratio will be proportional to the error of
calculation of the slope stability.
At a respective possible error of the calculated strength rock parameters =0.36 the root-mean square =0.12 and
a possible deviation E = 0.674 =0.08 the degree of risk in various slope angles can be defined (Christov, 1994;
Christov, 1989).

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tg0=tgm(1-3)=0.576

30

tg1=tgm(1-2)=0.680

3410

2.3

tg2=tgm(l-) =0.790

3810

15.9

tg3=tgm(1-E) =0.827

3950

25.01

tgm=tg0 =0.827

42

50.01-3e

tg4=tgm(1+E) =0.970

44

75.00

where m is the mathematical expectation of the slope angle.


Table 1. Parameters of the mine with slope height 150 and 100 m and various angles of the unworkable slope

Angle of the slope

Height of the slope, m


H = 150 m
1

ncp
3

m /m

m /m

n1
3

m /m

m /m

H = 100 m

ncpa
3

m /m

ncp
3

m /m

n1
3

m /m

m /m

1
3

m /m

ncpa

m /m3

30

7.55

0.055

13.20

1.85

2.80

5.63

0.125

7.83

1.58

3.33

40

5.32

0.081

7.20

1.47

3.52

3.90

0.179

4.33

1.53

3.89

50

3.85

0.112

2.34

1.30

5.17

2.86

0.245

2.67

1.24

4.25

The diagrams of the relationship between the average overburden ratio and degree of risk created by the angle
increase of the unworkable slope are given on Figure 3.a. The same figure shows the production change of the mine
at various slope angles.
Defining the boundaries of the opencast mine is done by the method of the admissible average overburden ratio
(Arsenov, 1970)
(3)

Figure 2. Graph schedule of the regime of mining activities in a mine at H = 150 m


1 - before making the overburden ratio average,
2 - after making the overburden ratio average
where n b is the boundary overburden ratio (in
3
3
our case nb is accepted 5m /m ).

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In Table 1 the obtained results in the calculation of ncpd are given. The crossing point in Figure 3.a. satisfies the
equation ncp = ncpd..The slope angle is =44, the production of mining mass AMMg = 7.0 million m3, while the risk degree is R=75%, which is practically unacceptable for normal work in the mine. Similar conclusions were made at
H=100 m. The obtained results are given in Table 1, Figure 3. and Figure 4.
At H=100 m the condition ncp = ncpd is fulfilled for point B1 (Figure 3.). In this case the mine is formed under the
slope angle of the unworkable slope =40 AMMg = 6.5 million m3 and risk R=25%.
Thus, at H= 125 m and =42 the risk degree is R=50%. (Figure 5).
The reverse problem can also be solved at a given risk degree to define the boundary depth of the opencast mine.
Considering the possible negative and positive error when defining the strength rock parameters, the boundaries of
the opencast mine in designing should be calculated at two values of its depth - the first one with a risk bellow 50%,
i.e. H<125 m and the second one with R>50 %, H>125 m. At the final decision on the boundaries of the opencast
mine it is necessary to have in mind as well the financial factors with the help of the function of efficiency (Christov, 1989).
The suggested method allows to use the probability method for defining the boundaries of the opencast mine and
calculating the risk degree estimating the angle of the unworkable slope. The method allows to obtain more real
optimal boundaries of the mine. It can be applied in designing and exploiting of steep running depositions of the
type "Medet", "Elatzite", "Asarel", "Burdze", etc.

Figure 3. Diagrams of the


relationships between the
average overburden ratio
ncp, the addmissible overburden ratio ncpd, the
production power of the
g
mine AMM and the pit
slope angle considering
the risk degree R. a) at
mine depth H=100 m; b) at
mine depth H=100 m

Figure 4. Graph schedule


of mining works in an
opencast mine at H = 100
m
Figure 5. Defining the limit
depth of an opencast mine
at a definite risk degree

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Figure 6. Integral curves V = f (p) for values of the stability factor = 1,0; = 1,2; = 1,2 for the conditions in Trayanovo-Sever Mine

2. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


The analysis of the obtained results from determination of the probable mine boundaries show that there are big
reserves for the effective utilization of the mining mass at rational binding of the mine boundaries, slope stability
factor and development of the mining activities. That is why we recommend for each mine contour the integral
curves V = f (P), VP = f (T) and So = f (To) to be used (where, V volumes of overburden, P volumes of mineral, T
time, So resistance forces, To forces of rock sliding). The common use of these curves (Fig.6) give the possibility
for a complete analysis and assessment of the effective development of mining activities over the whole period of
the mine life. The problem at selection of rational boundaries for management of the mining activities development is getting complicated at simultaneous development of deposits of group of mines (for example mines
Buchim, Vrashtnik, Bunardjik in Republic of Macedonia). It is like this because each mining field is characterized by different geological conditions, power of lithological variety, different volumes of mining mass, quality of
mineral, relief configuration, direction of the mining activities development and transport activities.
In addition, the obligatory securing of the slope with a normative stability factor has a significant impact on the
volumes of overburden, which have to be mined.
Mining of irregular volumes of overburden over the time has a significant impact on the organization of operations
in the mine, the main technical-economical parameters are getting worse, and in some cases they are a prerequisite for violation of the design parameters. On the other hand, the irregular mining of overburden in the adjacent
mines might be effectively used if the slope stability and their calendar volume over the time and space are simultaneously considered.
Therefore, the management of the slope stability, designing of the regime and calendar plan of the mining activities, productivity and boundaries of group of mines is feasible to be performed in close interaction, i.e. a complex
assessment is required for their operation.

REFERENCES
[1]

Arseniev, A.I. 1970. Defining the productivity and the boundaries of the opencast mines, M.Nedra

[2]

Christov, S.G. 1994, Relationship between the development of mining works and the slope stability of the opencast mines. S.Christov

[3]

Christov, S.G. 1989, Technological problems in the development of mining works in opencast mines. Abstract of the D.Sc. Disertatation S.Christov

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MINING METHOD SELECTION FOR DEEPER PARTS


OF SVINJA REKA ORE DEPOSIT - SASA MINE

ABSTRACT
1

Stojance MIJALKOVSKI
Zoran DESPODOV1
Dejan MIRAKOVSKI1
Marija HADZI-NIKOLOVA1
Nikolinka DONEVA1
Borce GOCEVSKI2
1

Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences,


University Goce Delcev Stip, Republic of Macedonia
2
SASA Mine, Makedonska Kamenica, Republic of Macedonia

The paper presents a scientific approach in mining


method selection for deeper parts of Svinja Reka ore
deposit. Rational mining method selection include in
depth analysis of the all important montan-geologycal
parameters of ore deposit, as much as technical and
economical indicators. As a decision support tool for
optimal method selection, a multi-criteria evaluation
techniques are used.

Keywords
Mining Method, Rational Choice, Multi-Criteria Decision

1. INTRODUCTION
Mining method selection for underground mine presents essential problem, especially considering that mining
method should to provide safe and healthy working conditions. Also, should constantly bearing in mind the fact
that the excavation costs occupy the largest part of the total mine operating costs, and therefore the adequate
mining method selection is essential for positive financial effects of mine working.
The purpose of this paper is contribute to establishing the methodology for preliminary method selection for deeper parts of "Svinja Reka" ore deposit in the underground metalic
mine "Sasa" in M. Kamenica, including depth analysis of more
mining-geological, technical and
economic factors.

2. MINING METHOD SELECTION FOR DEEPER PARTS


OF "SVINJA REKA" ORE
DEPOSIT
The procedure for mining method
selection can be divided into two
parts:
Rational mining method
selection
Optimal mining method
selection.
Basic concept of the proposed
methodology for optimal mining
method selection of Svinja Reka
ore deposit is shown on flowchart
below:

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Rational mining method selection


First we perform rational choice or mining methods selection according to geological factors that influence on the
mining method selection. This includes: the geometry and the prevalence of ore bodies (shape of mineral bodies,
the power of mineral bodies, the overlap angle of ore bodies, overlap depth of ore bodies, the prevalence of ore
bodies) and physical-mechanical characteristics of the ore and adjacent rocks (strength of the rock mass, the distance between the cracks, the number of cracks / m ', RQD and RMR index, the strength of the shear cracks).
There are several procedures for mining methods selection by geological factors. The most important are:
Boshkov`s and Wright`s procedure (1973);
Laubscher`s procedure (1981 1990);
Hartman`s procedure (1987);
Morrison`s procedure (1976);
Nicholas`s procedure (1981);
UBC procedure (1995).
For rational mining method selection commonly used UBC procedure.
This procedure is a modified version of the Nicholas`s approach and was
proposed by the University of British Columbia - Canada. Mining methods
selection by UBC procedure (Miller - Tait L., Pakalnis R. and Poulin R., 1995
g.) presents a numerically ranking for mining method selection or group of
mining methods, which are suitable for excavation of given ore deposit.
Based on the mentioned input parameters for the ore body mining methods selection by UBC procedure was performed. After the calculation according to this methodology following sequence of mining methods was
obtained:

ble 1. Ranking mining methods by UBC

MINING METHOD
Sublevel Caving Mining Method
Sublevel Stoping Mining Method
Shrinkage Stoping Mining Method
Cut and fill stoping Mining Method
Room and Pillar Mining Method
Block Caving Mining Method
Top slicing mining Method
Square Set Stoping Mining Method

For further mining methods selection the first four methods will be used.
Optimal method selection using a multi-criteria evaluation techniques
After rational mining methods selection and separation the most acceptable mining methods according to geological factors (top four highest ranked mining methods), follows optimal choice, ie selecting the separated mining
methods according to technical-economic and organizational factors that influence when choosing mining method. This includes: the value of excavated ore, occupational safety and health conditions, the cost of one ton ore,
utilizing of the excavated ore, coefficient of depletion of ore substance,
coefficient of preparation works, effect of excavation, degradation of ble 2.
terrain and other environmental impacts.
No.
Alternative Mark
For optimal mining methods selection by technical-economic and organi1
Sublevel Caving Method
1
zational factors are used multi-criteria optimization methods. In this pa2
Sublevel Stoping Method
2
per PROMETHEE, AHP and AHP-PROMETHEE integrated methodology are
3 Shrinkage Stoping Method
3
developed. Three multi-criteria optimization methods to compare outcomes were used and so will choose the optimal mining method.
4 Cut and fill stoping Method
4
Multi-criteria model consists of four alternatives,
ble 3.
including (Table 2).
No
Criteria Mark
After identifying the problem, and its detailed
analysis, were selected and identified eight cri1
Value of excavated ore
1
teria that have the greatest impact on solving
2
Occupational safety and health conditions
2
the model given in Table 3.
3
Coefficient of preparation works
3
Each of these criteria has impact on alternative
4
Utilizing of the excavated ore
4
solutions. To define the impact of criteria func5
Coefficient of depletion of ore substance
5
tion to the alternative solutions :
6
Cost
of
one
ton
ore
(1
t)
6
analysis of technical and economic pa7
Effect of excavation
7
rameters and other technical information;
8 Degradation of terrain and other environmental impacts
8

consultations and surveys of experts in


the field of underground mining;
Calculation of average values on the impacts obtained from the above procedures were made.

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Based on the theory and equations of PROMETHEE method as well as on our assessment, were selected certain
types of generalized criteria.
After analysis for evaluation of individual criteria for each alternative solution, this multi-criteria model was obtained (table 4):
Table 4. Input model

Alternatives

Criteria features

Criteria
K1

K2

K3

K4

K5

K6

K7

K8

Aim

max.

max.

min.

max.

min.

min.

max.

min.

A1

94,3

2,56

75

22

30

A2

81,6

23,9

80

18

22

A3

88,2

17,55

85

12

10

A4

93,3

8,65

94

15

Impacts

0,19

0,12

0,115

0,14

0,09

0,185

0,0975

0,0625

Type

III

IV

III

II

IV

IV

III

IV

4,3

6,09

Table 5 compares the results obtained with multi-criteria optimization ie, results obtained by applying the PROMETHEE II, AHP and AHP-PROMETHEE integrated methodology.
The results from the PROMETHEE II, AHP and AHPPROMETHEE integrated method application suggest
Table 5. Different multi-criteria ranking methods
that the solution is uniquely and identical.
Alternatives

PROMETHEE II

AHP

AHP- PROMETHEE

So, the final ranking of alternatives is: 1 4 3 2.


From the above table can be concluded that the most
acceptable alternative is A * = A1, because it has the
highest value according three methods. Hence it follows
that the most acceptable alternative mining method is
Sublevel Caving Method.

3. CONCLUSION
Mining method selection presents the biggest problem for each designer during design a new underground mine or
developing an existing one. When making the decision about which mining method will apply should take into account many factors that influence on the mining method selection. Selected mining method will be more suited to
specific mining and geological conditions if a number of relevant factors are included.
Very important indicators for exploitation of a ore deposit depends of the selected mining method, such as: working effect, costs of mining, losses and depletion of ore and finally financial effects which are exercised thereby.
Providing safety working conditions, utilization of ore deposit and depletion of ore can also be among the influential factors on the mining method selection, which also have a significant impact on the financial effects that are
achieved with the use of mining method to a given ore deposit.
Numerous studies and researches indicate that the underground mining method selection depends of a number of
relevant factors, that can be grouped into three basic groups: geological factors, technical and economic factors
and organizational factors.
The problem of underground mining method selection, because of its importance was studied by many authors. As
a common stage of the proceedings which the individual authors was proposed, in order to select the underground
mining method can be distinguished two stages: a rational mining method selection and optimal mining method
selection.
First a rational mining method selection was performed with selection a group of methods suitable for the application, and then optimal mining method selection was performed based on the technical-economic and organizational factors, in addition multi-criteria optimization can be used.

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In the begining a rational mining method selection was performed with separation a group of methods suitable for
the application, and then optimal mining method selection was performed based on the technical-economic and
organizational factors, in addition multi-criteria optimization can be used.

REFERENCES
[1]

.: ( ), - , , 2000;

[2]

.:
, (), , ,
2013;

[3]

.: , ,
9, , , 2008;

[4]

., ., .: , V, 5
, , , , 2011;

[5]

.:
, (), ,
, 2009;

[6]

.: , (), ,
, , 2008;

[7]

.: , (), ,
, , 2009;

[8]

Miller-Tait L., Pakalnis R., Poulin R., University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C., Canada: UBC mining method selection, Mine
Planning and Equipment Selection 1995, Singhal et al. (eds) 1995 Balkema, Rotterdam, 1995;

[9]

., .: ( ), , , 1997;
nd

[10] Howard L. Hartman: SME Mining Engineering Handbook, 2 Edition, Volume 2, Society for Mining, Metallyrgy and Exploration;
[11] Clayton Cameron, Input and Knowledge from: Dr. Pakalnis Rimas, Dr. Meech John: The mining method selection (MMS) system, An Expert System for the Selection of a Mining Method, Based on: The UBC Mine Method Selection Algorithm, Version 5.13 (Run-time),
Copyright 1986-1993 Comdale Technologies Inc., 2001

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THERMOVISION MONITORING
OF THE PRODUCTION PROCESS IN FIRE PREVENTION

ABSTRACT
Snezana VUKOVIC1
Nenad VUSOVIC2
Dejan PETROVIC3
Andja SPASIC4
Radoje PANTOVIC5

RB Kolubara, L1RB Kolubara, Lazarevac, Serbia, snezana.vukovic@rbkolubara.rs


2
University of Belgrade, Technical
Faculty in Bor, Serbia, nvusovic@tf.bor.ac.rs
3
University of Belgrade, Technical
Faculty in Bor, Serbia, dpetrovic@tf.bor.ac.rs
4
RB Kolubara, L1RB Kolubara, Lazarevac, Serbia,
andja.spasic@rbkolubara.rs
5
University of Belgrade, Technical
Faculty in Bor, Serbia, pan@tf.bor.ac.rs

Larger mining systems require the engagement of a significant amount of


material resources as well as human engagement for element, device and
equipment maintenance.
The cycle maintenance that goes on 24 hours a day, 365 days a year is of
special importance; it is a hard and expensive task, and the continuity of
electrical energy supplies depends on this tasks efficient solution.
This paper shows thermovision as an efficient means of tracking the state of
a production system, whose shortcomings, functional errors and problems
cause the system to come to a stop, or in some cases accidents related to
property damaging or geoperdising peoples safety and health.
The monitoring system in technical system diagnosis can be fully accomplished by the application of software-enabled thermovision cameras of the
newer generation; the monitoring system which would contribute to timely
spotting of a systems weak link, without interrupting the production process at any cost.
The idea is to extend the scale of preventive maintenance by recording and
monitoring the entire production process with a thermovision camera, with a
special attention to distinct places for which it has been determined that
they are potentially prone to catching fire, all in order to react in a timely
manner when maintaing a technical system and dealing with fire prevention.

Keywords
Fire, Fire Prevention, Thermography

1. INTRODUCTION
The object of the research is monitoring, recording and processing of the data collecting using the most up-to-date
methods of recording with thermovision cameras, with the goal of fire prevention and it is related to all the indoor
and outdoor premises of the PDRB Kolubara. The application of thermovision in technical diagnostics has been
present over the past decades, but this equipment has been used for periodical preventive scans of indoor
premises, electric facilities of both high and low voltage. These periodical scans have shown to be completely
justified regarding the number of possible sources of fire.
PDRB Kolubara possesses the equipment and tools that use high voltage sources, which are independently
monitored and maintained. The criteria for regular, daily, weekly and periodical maintenance of the electric power
system and equipment, which includes thermovision inspection are determined by standards and rule books. It is
necessary to expand these inspections to all points of high risk of fire, in order to achieve higher security and fewer
visual control visit.

2. RESEARCH METHODS
Biblographic sources of scientific knowledge are the basis of these logical considerations, that could bring a quality
conclusion on the application of thermovision when diagnosing failure of technical systems, as well as its use when
preventing fire, reducing the risk to zero. Research relies party, especially the part with thermography and its use,

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on the biblographic sources of preventive machine, tools and equipment maintenance, as well as the coal digging
equipment, in addition to the literature about the application of devices for monitoring and thermography.
The other source of information consists of the measuring done in order to keep the accuracy of electric power
system facilities, tools and equipment. The knowledge and awareness of constructive characteristics and the
principle of functioning of track transporters, monitoring and remote control of this transmission, as the
potentially most dangerous part of the coal transportation systems, were used during the course of the research.
The relevant documentation on fire history was used, which is (and must) be in RB Kolubara according to the law
and rule books. This consists of date about the causes, sources, time and place of all beginning, medium and big
fires. Based on this experience, it can be claimed that a significant number of fires are caused by errors,
malfunctions and mis-synchronization of electrical and machine installations and the exploitation equipment.
Beside these analyses, this paper uses the data collected from yearly reports of the fire prevention department of
Kolubara. Statistic method results has shown a significant drop in the impact of the malfunction of electric power
systems on the possiblity of fire, regarding the applied diagnostic using the periodic thermovision monitoring.
The dangerous stops that should be constanly monitored and examined were determined, from the aspect of fire
prevention. The use of manufacturer's data on technical and working characteristics of infrared and thermovision
cameras have been extensively used.

3. EXPECTED SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTION


The connection of scientific methods and numeric models is a synthesis of modern and traditional approach to the
problem of fire prediction, as a significant factor of risk in surface coal mining and as a modern approach of
proactive maintenance of machine, electric and mining tools and equipment. The suggested model defines the
methodology of setting and solving the problem of implementation of the modern monitoring system in fire
protection, the importance of which lies in both prevention and post-accidental forensic analysis, which has the
goal to keep the production system running without accidents and with minimal human/material resources.
Long-term monitoring of fire causes and sources and analysis with available methods make us notice that this
tradition of thermovision inspection has brought a significant reduction in fires caused by electric power
installations. It was also concluded that a significant cause of fire was the rolling mechanism of the track
transporter.
From an engineering point of view, the problem of thermovision monitoring can be reduces to answering the
following questions:
What scale of preventive measures should be taken constant monitoring or periodic examinations, when
servicing equipment?
Should the conditions for permanent data collection should be set, in order to prevent any damaging event
from hapenning?
How to determine the border line at which the next activity is to be taken, i.e. to constitute an intevention
plan
Is there an economic benefit of the suggested activities?
These questions cannot be answered completely accurately at the moment, at least not without seriously
conducted research in real time, with observatuib and recording temperature characteristics of exploitation tools
and equipment.

4. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF COAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM


RB Kolubara's main activity are lignite exploitation, mining equipment maintenance, coal and mullock transport, as
well as other jobs that are connected directly to the company's primary activity. The lignate excavation has lasted
for about half a century and the yearly production is currently at 30 million tons a years. At the same time, about
70 million tons of solid mullock has to be dug out, in order to exploit a layer of coal.
The coal is exploited in for pits, called Pit C, Pit D, Tamnava-west pit and Veliki Crljeni. These four digs make a
production and technological whole. Strip and coal production, depending on conditions are done with rotary
dredges/baggers, discontinued mechanization or combined. Mullock systems consist out of three functional
segments BLD (bagger-rolling transportation lane-disposer), and contain excavation machines, baggers, transport
tools transportaters with a rolling lane and disposal devices-machines disposal baggers. Mullock is then

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transported to the selected place. The coal systems send the coal from the excavation point to the load/unloading
spot with treadmill transporters.
Coal production systems contain a bagger and a transporter. Coal is transported for further processing (coal
procession dry-wet separation) or preparation (The coal preparation crumbling facility) where coal is crumbled
and crushed for the power plant or landfills. The biggest amounts of the excavated lignite are transported by rail to
power plants Kolubara A in Veliki Crljeni and Nikola Tesla in Obrenovac and Morava in Svilajnac, while another
part is delivered to costumers as retail.
Transportation of mullock and coal, depending whether the system is BLD (bagger-transportation lane-disposer),
BLC (bagger-transportation lane-crushing facility) or BLL (bagger-transportation lane-loading/unloading spot), is
performed with a system of treadmill transporters with remote control, which can send this material to a distance
of a couple kilometers. The common characteristic of all the systems mentioned is the need for continuity. [2].

5. THERMOVISION MONITORING SYSTEM


Thermovision devices have been introduced because of the need to increase efficiency when monitoring in the
night and in the conditions of reduced daylight visibility or bad weather conditions.
These systems work as they detect the reflected source radiation of low intensity. The radiation of the ground in
the IR spectre depends on the temperature of objects and the background, type and physical consistency of objects
and the surroundings, as well as the sun radiation. IR sensors that work on the principle of line scanning usually
have 2 ranges: (3-5)um (lower) and (8-14)um (higher). Using these two ranges is not accidental at all these are so
called atmosphere windows in which the permeability is greater for IR rays.
Thermovision recording represents a non-contact method which can registed emitted heat or IR ray in one second
bit. Thermovision photos show realistically the state of emitted heat, but only after they have been processed can
there be reliable conclusions. Every thermogram is a picture of its own, because it owns its own color pallette. Two
thermograms cannot be color compared, even when it is about the same object. Therefore, every thermogram has
to have a scale of colors, which connects colors and temperatures.
To precisely determine temperatures, thermovision camera makes a thermovision diagram which shows the
changes of temperature on objects. The more equally colored the object is, the more equal the heat emission (and
vice versa). Lighter colors (yellow, red) display heat and dark and cold colors like (blue and purple) show colder
places.
When they expand and go through the atmosphere, the electromagnetic waves react selectively. The reception
optics has a role in collecting the electromagnetic energy and in sending it to the detector.
The heat transmission through electromagnetic waves is called radiation. The heat transmitted through radiation
from the object to the camera lense is recorded on the thermogram. [3]
The amount of this heat energy E depends on the object temperature T and emissiveness its surface, is defined by
Stefan-Bolzmann law E=T4 in which sigma is Stefan-Bolzmann constant: 5.67x10-8W/m2K4, epsilon-the
emissiveness coefficient, the ability of a body to emit, which depends on the type of the material and the state of
the surface, dirtiness and oxidization. Based on this equation, we can calculate the temperature of the object that
we recorded. The exit radiation of the object is the radiation that is given off the object's surface which consists
out of two components: emitted, which is the heat of the very object E and the reflected Er, which comes from
the heat of surrounding objects, where E=, E+Er,, where the coefficient represents reflexivity and + =1.
The exit radiation should be seen in the photo, and the reflected radiation is useless.
Equipment
The photo made with a thermovision system represents objects and scenes in which the picture contrast is a result
of radiation and emissiveness of the body at different temperatures of the object and background. The very process
of making the thermal picture is different from the way of forming picture in the visible part of the spectre.
Thermal picture has more information than the standard picture in the visible part of the spectre, which was taken
with the process of radiation reflection out of the very objects.
All the existing thermovision sensors can be divided into two basic group based on their working principles [4]:
Thermovision systems with line scanning (IRLS)
Thermovision systems with detectors in focus plane (FPA)
The basic part of the equipment is the infrared camera that consists of the following:

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Figure 1. Infrared camera scheme


0-Object that emits radiation
1-Lens collects radiation
2-Filter permeates radiation of a specific wave length
3-Detector-reads radiation and turns it into an electronic form
4-Monitor electronic set that shows thermogram as a picture

Cameras are now available in different forms for different purposes. There are a variety of different cameras, which
can be remotely controlled and run software to function as fire alarm systems. Network Sxx thermal imager, which
can be found by different manufacturers, with a rather low price, is best suited for the monitoring of automated
processes: conveyors, crushers, hoppers, load/unload spots, coal deposits. This camera comes with software for
remote control. Sxx camera is compact, durable and lightweight, designed to work in harsh conditions of dust (IP67
protection system) and its small size allows accommodation in a confined space. [5]
Ethernet and video interfaces allow remote-controlled monitoring and transfer images and capture infrared images
in real time using a computer. Once set with different parameters using the software for remote control, the
camera can be disconnected from the computer and act as a stand-alone unit for monitoring. It can display thermal
and visual image at request, it is possible to program the camera to monitor independently, wirelessly send an
alarm signal to the network. In order to achieve this function it is necessary to adjust the measurement parameters,
set the alarm, record data of thermal and visual images (simultaneous recording only immutable image). The stored
data can be displayed as a thermal / visual recording, or used for temperature analysis. These cameras can also be
used in stand more units, a maximum of 15, with a network connection. Remote software allows users to remotely
control the camera via Ethernet, and the display, recording and storage of data recording and playback on your
computer. This software allows the user to setup and measure parameters (Level / Sense) and alarm parameters.
Once the parameters are set, the camera can raskaiti the computer to run as an independent monitoring unit. The
data saved in the software can be displayed as a thermal / visual or used in the temperature analysis. [6]
Another way of collecting data is omnidirectional method, which involves the use of infrared cameras with high
resolution and high-quality features placed on a stand, with the possibility of monitoring large areas with large
distances, moving in a wide angle, which could be used for monitoring coal depots, with sufficient height or
reclaimed land area covered by coniferous forests. [7]
The measurement results
The EPS and Kolubara, since the seventies, there is a tradition of use of thermography in the field of preventive
maintenance of power plants. All power facilities in operation are visited twice a year, and the results are sent to
the responsible persons unit, with the recommendation of the period in which the deficiency must be remedied. If
there is a discrepancy, defect or error is sent to the image and the thermal part of the plant with clear guidelines
for further treatment. The report presents technical information about the tested object, place, date and time, test
methods, equipment used and its characteristics, as well as the ambient test conditions, air temperature, load level
and the emissivity of the material. [8]
3 ,
.

Figure 2 .Examples of measurements from workshops in Kolubara

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Comment 1: Elevated temperature at RM 002 feeder terminals in the switch cabinet machine shop. Defect to be
rectified within 30 days.
This is an example where the defect where the results are received with the comparison of the thermal images. If
the other jacks that are at the facility in equivalent conditions do not show elevated temperature, that means that
there is a bad, damaged contact. Temperature conductive parts should be equal (about 25 C) at all inlet ports and
an increase in temperature to (35 40) shows the fault of current connection component, which increases
operating temperature transmitted to the cable thus increasing the risk of failure. Based on empirical parameters,
it is estimated that the observed element is partially damaged, but that does not jeopardize the safety of the
installation and it will not come to a sudden strain because it is a low danger and that is why the deadline for
fixing is 30 days.
Comment 2: Elevated temperatures in the main bulldoser closet fusebox, the fuse of 500A, marked in Fig. Urgent
repair the defect.
This is an example of the perceived defect that shows the three phase fuse 500A, of which only one is over-heated
up to the temperature of 81.849 C. Temperatures over 50 C require an immediate response and intervention,
except for the elements, which normally operate at that heat. If the fuse should not be allowed such a rise in
temperature, it must be checked and phase strain, as well, in order to avoid the same defect.
Using thermography altered states of devices and equipment in service can be determined, without invasive effects
in any of the equipment, without disturbing the production process, providing the optic visibitily of the observed
elements. [9 The temperature limit can be set with the monidoring of the element, depending on the kind, type,
function, and strategic importance of the observed part of the device or equipment. In accordance with certain
limits, cooling devices, alarm systems, or devices for remote signaling can be set, a plan of intervention for each
monitored device can be made separately or comprehensively. [10]
In the cases of the illustrated measurement, thermal imaging monitoring is not only a diagnostic tool, but there
was a reaction to the irregularity, which resulted in reduced operating temperatures element and eliminating the
cause of the fire.
Interpretation of results
Based on the results these hypotheses can be accepted:
Physical observation of the belt conveyor route a change in temperature would be noticed, before the temperature reaches a critical point of rubber ignition.
Physical monitoring other working parts of excavator and power stations can promptly detect a dangerous
place.
Thermal imaging device status and equipment in the course of their normal work activities without interrupting the production cycle can be improved by the process of mechanical and electrical maintenance, by
removing perceived faults and mistakes during maintenance.
Periodic monitoring of coal space in the landfill, under conditions that might be on the verge of problematic, looking from the standpoint of fire protection, the critical point of higher temperatures can be detected
before ignition occurs.
Monitoring reclaimed surface can be enhanced by monitoring and preventing forest fires. In the built watchtowers, increasing supervision in the summer by using thermal vision, rather than just the visual camera
should be done
The use of thermography in industrial maintenance to reduce direct maintenance costs, reduce losses due
to downtime and outages in the production cycle, which enables the development of effective preventive
maintenance plan.

6. CONCLUSION
Tracking changes temperature thermal imaging camera on the equipment and facilities, as a result of the
appearance of stress due to difficult working conditions or the occurrence of any defect, is important in the
prevention of fires, given that a good deal of prevention activities in the area are based on visual inspection of
devices and equipment. Regular visual inspection is no way to assess the state of the devices, so this type of control
is essential. Advantages of thermal imaging observations are:

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The temperature is recorded as the temperature distribution in real time, which is displayed as a visual information, which allows comparison of certain points and areas, contributing to seeing the big picture
The possibility of measuring the temperature of a moving object and those with complex geometric shapes,
or objects that are physically inaccessible for security reasons or for other reasons
The possibility of temperature measurement of microscopic objects without affecting the course and outcome measurement
Ability to measure the temperature of objects whose temperature is changing drastically or phenomena
that occur at short intervals.
The basic strategy in the application of infrared technology is based on the technique of comparative
thermography, a simple comparison of similar components or samples, which are under similar conditions.
A variation of comparative thermography technique is thermal mapping. Temperature distribution on the surface
to the observed sample is compared with the corresponding pre-captured images, which is the thermal signature of
the sample. Many thermographic recording techniques are based on the difference in conductivity materials, heat
capacity and diffusivity. The marked differences in different materials or the same material differences in the relief
surface, cracks or other discontinuities become apparent in the thermal image.

REFERENCES

[1]

Blagojevic M, Petkovic D.: Detecting fire in early stage-a new approach, Faculty of Occupational Safety, Nis, UDC 614.842.4

[2]

Jefteni B., Ristic L., Babic M., And others.: Realization of belt conveyor system with remote control, UDK / UDC 621.867.2-52,
2010th

[3]

Mandic G.: Basic principles of infrared thermography, UDK / UDC 620.179.13 2006

[4]

Blagojevic V., Stojiljkovic M., Jankovic M.: Possibility of infrared thermography in industrial systems, Mechanical Engineering,
Ni, project EE-232016

[5]

Examples of application of thermal imagers, NEC-Avio, 2012

[6]

Petrovic D., Damnjanovi Z., And others.: Application of modern computing devices and tools to reduce accidents in the
mining systems through mining No.2, 2010

[7]

Topisirovi D., Nikolovski D., Stevic Z.: Application of new technology in the protection of natural resources, Infotech Jahorina
V.10-2011

[8]

ikari Lj.: Application of thermography in the diagnosis of thermal condition of power transformers, Elektr.institut "Nikola
Tesla", UDC 621.311.1:722.96

[9]

Stojanovi, ., Toplievi M., Ristic S.: Application of thermography in the diagnosis of thermal condition of mechanical
systems, technical diagnostics No.4, 2011,

[10]

Senani M., ikari Lj., Simic N.: Thermographic surveys in power plants and electric power industry of Serbia Elektr.institut
"Nikola Tesla", UDC 621.311.1:722.96

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ANALYSIS OF UP-TO-DATE RESEARCH OF GOLD-BEARING


ALLUVIUM DEPOSITS FROM THE RIVER PEK-EAST SERBIA

ABSTRACT
Vladan KASIC1
Zivko SEKULIC1
Slavica MIHAJLOVIC1
Vladimir JOVANOVIC1
Radule TOSOVIC2
1

Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials,


86 Franshet d Esperey St., 11000 Belgrade, Serbia, v.kasic@itnms.ac.rs
1
Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials,
86 Franshet d Esperey St., 11000 Belgrade, Serbia, z.sekulic@itnms.ac.rs
1
Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials,
86 Franshet d Esperey St., 11000 Belgrade, Serbia, s.mihajlovic @itnms.ac.rs
1
Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials,
86 Franshet d Esperey St., 11000 Belgrade, Serbia, v.jovanovic@itnms.ac.rs
2
Faculty of Mining and Geology - University of Belgrade, 7 uina St.,
11000 Belgrade, Serbia, rtosovic@rgf.bg.ac.rs

One of the basic metallogenic characteristics of East Serbia are numerous occurrences and deposits of alluvium gold.
According to recent results of the research (Volujski Klju-1989 and 1997) of
gold bearing alluviums from the Pek river, the gold content is as two times
higher as it was reported earlier (1907,
and 1947-1952).
The Volujski Kljuc locality, with an aver3
age gold content of 0.25 gr/m is economically interesting, more exactly it
could be profitable for exploitation.
Keywords
Gold Bearing Alluviums,
The River Pek, East Serbia

1. INTRODUCTION
The first written research data of the river Pek alluviums were published in 1892. by Hofman and 1899. by Antula
(Simic, 1970). The exploitation of gold of The Pek alluviums lasted from1903. to 1941. Exploration of the Pek
alluviums by drilling machines began in 1906. and 1907., and detailed exploration continued from 1947. to 1952.
The research was resumed from 1980. to 1989., using drill holes with considerably larger diameter, which
contributed the better reliability and accuracy of obtained results. The Volujski Kljuc and Ujevac are distinguished
as localities with higher gold concentration. The newest publications (1997) point out that application of the stateof-the-art devices for concentration could provide more reliable data, and therefore correct results obtained so far,
(Velikovi S. et al.,: Report about the geology investigations in alluvium of the river Pek in 1989., Fond of the
professional documentation(FSD) Institute for copper, Bor, 1990, 51p; Jankovi S.,et al.: Criteria of the prospection
and researching gold in Serbia, Desk for economy geology , Mining-geology faculty, Belgrade, 1992, 166-170p; Kai
V.,: Comparative analysis of the researches since today of the gold-bearing detritus of Pek and suggestions for their
optimization , Paper for magisterium, Mining-geology faculty, Belgrade, 1995. 80p; Radosavljevic S. et al. 8th International Congress on Applied Mineralogy, ISBN: 85-98656-01-X, Brazil, (2004), 931-934 p; Kai V. et al.: 39th International October Conference on Mining and Metallurgy, Soko Banja, 7-10 October 2007, pp. 27-33; Radosavljevic S. et
al.: 9th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy, Brisbane, Australia, 8.-10. September 2008,, 195-197p).

2. GEOLOGICAL SETTINGS
Territory of the river Pek basin is characterized by complex geological structure. The bedrock rocks consist of
metamorphic Proterozoic rocks, mostly chlorite, chlorite-epidote, and quartz sericite schists with small
occurrences of amphibolites, marbles, and quartzites. Upper rocks represent Cambrian volcanic-intrusive
complexes metamorphised up to chlorite facies. They are mainly represented with chlorite, sericite, and
amphibolite schists, sandstones with minor occurrence of limestones, quartzites, and quartz conglomerates. Both
schist series were penetrated by Cambrian gabbroides, and granite, followed with pegmatites, quartz-diorites,
quartz-diorite-porphyries, and quartz-porphyries. In the contact area schists from chlorite series, and gabbroides
were progressively metamorphised into biotite schists. Beside intrusive rocks in the east part of terrain, great mass

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of hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks of dacite-andezite composition also occur. These rocks are of great
importance for gold-bearing alluvium deposits because they represent the main source of gold in alluvium deposits.
The Upper Cretaceous sediments characterize wider area in southern, and Neogene products in western part of
terrain (sands, clays, conglomerates). Territory from Debeli Lug to the river Danube is reached by exploration of
primary and alluvium deposits. It is characterized by multiphase tectonic structure, where Proterozoic schists are
the oldest, and Neogene and Quaternary sediments the youngest. The most noticeable rupture of this area is the
Blagojev Kamen dislocation,
separates
gneisses,
leptinolites, and plagioclasemicrocline gneisses on the
East from quartz-sericitechlorite schists on the West.
There are numerous igneous
rocks (peridotite-gabbro and
granite-aplite) around the
dislocation. Peridotites have
altered to serpentinites, while
granites, aplite-granites, and
aplites permeate surrounding
rocks. The dislocation extends
from Grabova Reka over Pek
and Brodica to V. Jasencar.
There are series of goldbearing quartz veins within
the narrow zone of chlorite
schists accompanying the
Blagojev Kamen dislocation
from Debeli Lug over Grabova
Reka and Brodica to the river
Danube. Great deal of gold of
the river Pek alluviums
originates from these goldbearing quartz veins.

Figure 1. Alluvial gold deposit of the


Volujski Kljuc:
A) Geological map; B) Geological
cross section; C) Gold distribution; D)
Bore hole; E) Cross section-detail,
(Dinic M., 1962, modified by Jankovic
S., 1990)

3. ORIGIN OF GOLD OF THE RIVER PEK ALLUVIUMS


The river Pek with its tributaries drains vast area with numerous extensive and intensive gold mineralizations of
different genetic types. Alluviums of upper flow of the river Pek from Vlaove over Debeli Lug to Gravova Reka
contain gold, which mainly originates from porphyry copper deposits of the Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC). This
part of terrain is spatially connected to hydrothermally altered zones, which regularly contain certain quantities of
gold. Besides, the TMC is well-known for "Zlace" type gold-bearing quartz veins, as well as polymetallic Pb-Zn-Cu
mineralization with gold. Decomposing of these deposits and mineralizations liberated gold via water flows in the
river Pek, while the other part of gold was deposited in deluvial and alluvial deposits. Having in mind the dimension
of the TMC, which is drained by the river Pek, it is considered that the greatest amount of gold in the river Pek

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deposits originates from the TMC. Downstream from Grabova Reka and Blagojev Kamen from Volujski Kljuc and
Neresnica, the river Pek drains areas with gold-bearing quartz veins and carries gold to alluvial deposits. It is
difficult, due to numerous tributaries, to give detailed origin of gold. However, it is undoubted that gold from the
river Pek alluviums originates from two basic sources: gold-bearing quartz veins and the TMC copper
mineralization, which contains low contents, but in total high quantities of gold.
The river Pek alluvium characteristics
Previous prospects and exploitation work before and after II World War were performed on alluviums of upper and
middle flow of the river Pek, among which Volujski Kljuc and Debeli Lug (Ujevac) are the most explored. Alluvium
deposits of Volujski Kljuc are characterized with quite extended length (some 5 km), width (some 400 m), and an
average thickness of 4.6 m (Fig. 1). The riverbed was shaped in the alluvium, only several meters above the bedrock,
so it belongs to the type called flooded valley. Particle size analysis yielded the following results on 15 boreholes
(diameter 800 mm): up to 6 mm is 66; from 6 to 8 mm is 9; from 8 to 10 mm is 7; from 10 to 12 mm is 6; over 12 mm
is 12 % (=100 %) (S. Velikovi, et al., 1990).
Mineralogically and petrologically, alluvium deposits of Volujski Kljuc are very heterogeneous with distinct features
of bedrock from upper flow. Decomposition degree in alluvium is in function of transport, petrological composition,
and breakdown of bedrock. Gneisses, gabbros, and amphibolites, are among most common rocks in alluviums. Since
most part of granite is intensively decomposed, it is predominantly represented by granite grus. Dacite-andesite
rocks from around the city of Majdanpek are represented by well-rounded pebbles.
Besides quartz, which is the most abundant in alluvium sand, zircon, tourmaline, garnets, and micas are most
common minerals. Clays are fairly uncommon and usually occur in tiny grey lenses and layers with rare round
pebbles of surrounding rocks. Widely observed, alluvium base consists of gneisses and chlorite schists in upper and
middle flow, while Tertiary sediments are most abundant in lower flow of the river Pek. An average thickness of
humus cover ranges around 1 m, beneath humus is gravel of low mineralization grade, mixed with sand, average
thickness of 3.5 m (Fig.1). Underneath gravel is gold-bearing layer of coarse-grained and middle-grained sand with
an average thickness of 2 m. The highest content of gold occurs in the bedrock, whether it is consisted of schists or
Tertiary sandy clays.
Results of previous research of the Volujski Kljuc locality
Research of the Volujski Kljuc locality from 1989. were conducted in order to confirm the results obtained in a
period from 1947 to1952, and in 1984 (S. Velikovi et al., 1990). According to these results, the territory with the
highest difference was chosen for the new survey. New drilling profiles (drilling net 180x40 m) were overlapped with
previous drilling, and the profile overlapping was required for comparison of the results. Corresponding drilling
analyses were given in Table 1 (Velikovi S. et al.,: Report about the geology investigations in alluvium of the river
Pek in 1989., Fond of the professional documentation(FSD) Institute for copper, Bor, 1990, 51p).
According to average gold contents of drillings from 1947-52 and 1989., the ratio is as 0.06110 : 0.13485 = 1 : 2.2.
Therefore, the gold contents obtained in 1989. are 2.2 times higher from those obtained in 1947-52. If the
correction factor was implemented for the whole Volujski Kljuc, the gold contents would be 0.246 g/m3
(0.123gr/m3-gold contents obtained from all drillholes in 1947-1952 increased two times), or around 0.4 g/m3 for its
east part.
In addition, 30 drillholes with average gold contents of 0.330 g/m3 were drilled in the east part of Volujski Kljuc
(Brodice locality) in 1988 (drill diameter 800 mm, drilling net 100x20 m). Although, due to different drilling net the
comparison is not possible, these results can be compared to those obtained by a 30x25 m drilling net, and average
gold contents of 0.2 g/m3. Thus, the correction factor for gold contents was close to 2 (1.75). Very similar values of
correction factors from 1988. and 1989. point out the reliability of these data.
The results of drillings, carried out with BANKA boring machine, cannot be considered reliable because of the time,
research technology, small drill diameter (165 mm), and particularly ongoing exploitation work. A commercial
exploitation, performed by relatively primitive techniques for decades, is a well-known fact. Overall recovery of
gold, according to a study from 1984., was 60 %. It is most probably that the gold contents of 0.123 gr/m3, obtained
using BANKA boring machine, could not be commercially exploited even though the so called correction factor for
such results looks more realistic. Naturally, this statement should be confirmed, and if it was true Volujski Kljuc,
with average gold contents of some 0.25 gr/m3 (0.123x2), could be considered as economically interested.

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Table 1. Comparatively results of boring on Volujski Kljuc(S. Velickovic and the others 1990 )

Serial
number

Boreholes 1989

Boreholes 1947-52.
Au
(g/m3)

Serial
number

Boreh.
Num.

Au
(g/m3)

Boreh.
Num.

I-S1

0,0501

458

0,0826

36.

S2

0,0565

457

0,0500

37.

S3

0,0312

456

0,0225

S4

0,0244

S5

0,0395

455

S6

0,0551

S7

0,2571

Boreholes
Boreh.
Num.

Boreholes1947-52.

Au
(g/m3)

Boreh.
Num.

Au
(g/m3)

IV-S6

0,1129

530

0,0572

S7

0,1308

529

0,0527

38.

S8

0,1632

528

0,0258

39.

S9

0,1833

527

0,0900

0,0760

40.

S10

0,4827

454

0,0167

41.

S11

0,1381

526

0,0041

453

0,0763

42.

S12

0,1308

525

0,0459

S8

0,5467

43.

V-S2

0,0367

562

S9

0,2417

452

0,0551

44.

S3

0,0310

561

0,0380

S10

0,1149

451

0,2002

45.

S4

0,0416

46.

S5

0,1176

560

0,0161

47.

S6

0,0901

559

0,0231

S11

0,5978

II-S4

0,0445

S5

0,0582

48.

S7

0,0286

558

0,0062

S6

0,0486

478

0,0160

49.

S8

0,0582

557

0,0042

S7

0,1007

477

0,0668

50.

S9

1,1483

S8

0,0279

476

0,0252

51.

S10

0,1005

556

0,2700

S9

0,4567

475

0,0692

52.

S11

0,0580

555

0,3606

479

S10

0,1144

53.

S12

0,0834

554

0,0834

S11

0,2675

474

0,0217

54.

VI-S1

0,0481

593

0,0094

III-S1

0,0103

504

0,0267

55.

S2

0,0199

592

0,0142

S2

0,0372

503

0,0077

56.

S3

0,0735

591

0,0101

S3

0,1589

502

0,1284

57.

S4

0,0173

590

0,0082

S4

0,0298

501

58.

S5

0,0511

S5

0,0870

59.

S6

0,0719

589

0,0211

S6

0,0805

500

0,0581

60.

S7

0,2346

588

0,0097

S7

0,3362

499

0,0127

61.

S8

0,0628

587

0,0032

S8

0,0887

498

0,0983

62.

S9

0,0675

586

0,0013

S9

0,1350

497

0,2206

63.

S10

0,0220

S10

0,1554

496

0,0200

64.

S11

0,0514

585

0,0211

S11

0,1046

65.

S12

0,0747

584

0,0097

S12

0,0639

495

0,5770

66.

VII-S1

0,0299

609

0,0032

IV-S2

0,1081

533

0,0086

67.

S2

0,2248

608

0,0013

S3

0,1222

532

0,0510

68.

S3

0,1000

607

0,0980

S4

0,1360

69.

S4

0,1336

606

0,0842

S5

0,1855

70.

S5

0,0479

605

0,0300

531

0,0911

average 0,1348 0,0611

A maximum effort in the present circumstances has been done in order to provide reliable research results.
Drillings, using the minimal drill diameter of 600 mm, is directed by regulations of the Republic of Serbia. In this
case, drillings were performed by drill diameter of 800 mm. Special dump trucks, which do not allow the loss of
material, were used for transport of samples from drillholes to the gold pan. Permanent expert control of all
research phases was also provided. State-of-the-art equipment was used for gravity concentration, extraction, and
amalgamation of gold.

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The latest research of the river Pek alluviums


The latest research of the river Pek alluviums was carried out in 1997. by the Copper Institute in the form of
experimental separation of gravel, sand, and gold from the Blagojev Kamen locality. Experimental work on gold
concentration from alluvium deposits was performed with and without gold pan, and with application of KNELSON
concentrator in the final phase. A significant increase of gold content was obtained only by using centrifugal
gravity concentration apparatus. Particularly interesting results were obtained for -0.2 mm fraction. Lower limit of
particle size was 0.054 mm for KNELSON concentartor, and 0.098 from gold pan (M. Petkovi, et al., 39th International October Conference on Mining and Metallurgy, Donji Milanovac, October 2000, 44-49p). Results of
experimental determination of gold contents are shown in Table 2 (Kai V. et al.: 39th International October Conference on Mining and Metallurgy, Soko Banja, 7-10 October 2007, pp. 27-33p).
Table 2. Results of experimental determination of gold contents.
3

Volume (m )
Procedure (separation)
fraction 0.2-0.0 mm
fraction 2.0-0.2 mm
Particle size
Average gold contents

Sample 1

Sample 2

4
KNELSON concentrator
3
total 0.0564 gr Au, contents 14 mg/m Au
3
total 0.5493 gr Au, contents 137 mg/m Au
54450, average 250
3
151 mg/m

8
gold panKNELSON concentrator
3
total 0.0180 gr Au, contents 2 mg/m Au
3
total 0.4578 gr Au, contents 56 mg/m Au
98430, average 200-324
3
58 mg/m

On the basis of the experimental results, regardless they were obtained only on two samples, can be concluded that
KNELSON concentrator yielded exceptional effects. The loss of overall gold using gold pan with bars amounts
nearly 60 %, in 0.2 fraction even 86 %.

4. CONCLUSION

Analyzing the researches of gold bearing alluviums of the river Pek until now, especially the Volujski Kljuc locality, we came to the conclusion that the middle content of gold is about 0,25g/m3. This particularity
changes the picture of potentiality of the Volujski Kljuc alluviums and shows that the mentioned deposits
could be payable explored.
The results of gold content obtained from the newest researches (since 1997), by using KNELSON
concentrator, are even bigger from those obtained in 1988 and 1989, especially in fine fractions (+0.020.00mm).
The latest researches of alluviums of the river Pek gave the unquestionably positive results, which approved
the money invested in it, and relegates on further researches of these deposits.

Acknowledgment
This paper is the result of research on the Project TR 034013 titled " Development of technological processes for
obtaining of ecological materials based on nonmetallic minerals", and the Project TR033007, funded by the Ministry
of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia for the period 2011-2014.

REFERENCES

[1]

Velikovi S. et al.,: Report about the geology investigations in alluvium of the river Pek in 1989., Fond of the professional
documentation(FSD) Institute for copper, Bor, 1990, 51p

[2]

Jankovi S., Milovanovi D., Putnik S., Jelenkovi R., Hrkovi K., Velikovi S., Grujii B.,: Criteria of the prospection and researching
gold in Serbia, Desk for economy geology , Mining-geology faculty, Belgrade, 1992, 166-170p

[3]

Kai V.,: Comparative analysis of the researches since today of the gold-bearing detritus of Pek and suggestions for their
optimization , Paper for magisterium, Mining-geology faculty, Belgrade, 1995. 80p

[4]

Radosavljevic S, Stojanovic J., and Kasic V.: 8 International Congress on Applied Mineralogy, ISBN: 85-98656-01-X, Brazil, (2004), 931934 p

[5]

Kai V., S. Radosavljevic, R. Toovi, M. Vukadinovic: 39 International October Conference on Mining and Metallurgy, Soko Banja, 710 October 2007, pp. 27-33

[6]

Radosavljevic S., Kasic V., Stojanovic J.: 9th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy, Brisbane, Australia, 8.-10. September
2008, 195-197p.

[7]

Petkovi M., Romi K., Bugarin M., Kondulovi R.,:, 32 International October Conference on Mining and Metallurgy, Donji Milanovac,
October, 2000, 44-49p.

th

th

th

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CHOICE OF OBJECTS FOR PROTECTION OF FLYING ASH


AND BOTTOM ASH DEPOSITS FROM WATER

ABSTRACT
Violeta OLAKOVI1
Vladan ANOVI

Mining Institute, Belgrade, Serbia


1
violeta.colakovic@ribeograd.ac.rs

This paper deals with the problem of choosing the objects of drainage whose
work would secure proper conditions in order to set the ground for the future flying ash and bottom ash deposit.
The location of the future flying ash and bottom ash deposit will be the
space of the internal deposit of the surface dig site irikovac which is characterized by adverse hydro-geological conditions from drainage perspective.
The objects required for the protection of the deposit from the surface and
underground waters are meant to secure the necessary stability of all objects built on the deposit, while simultaneously preventing the negative influence of the deposit on the environment.

Keywords
irikovac, Flying Ash and Bottom Ash Deposit, Drainage

1. INTRODUCTION
While choosing the location for the future flying ash and coal deposit, it was necessary to fulfill the terms regulated
by the law, which relates to the protection of the environment (distance of the deposit from buildings, health and
recreational institutions, infrastructure, river beds and accumulated water, water springs, culture monuments and
protected nature sites).
The geological and hydro-geological conditions of the environment have been considered in detail, the required
protection levels of underground and surface waters and the possible influence on the environment, while taking
into consideration the potential problems and requirements in terms of protecting the environment from pollution.
When all these accounts are taken into consideration, the most appropriate location to form a deposit of flying ash
and bottom ash was the dug up site of the surface dig irikovac. With all the adequate measures on isolation and
conservation of the deposited flying ash being conducted, all of the necessary requirements for the stability of the
installation and for prevention of a possible negative influence on the environment in the deposit would be provided.

Figure 1. Area of the internal deposit of the surface


dig site "irikovac"

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2. HYDRO-GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
In the "irikovac" coal deposit, starting from the terrain surface, onto the floor or the coal layer, the work environment consists from the following lithological elements: loess, clays, from dusty to sandy clay, sand of different
granulations (medium grain to dusty), clay sand, coal ( first, second and third coal layer, which are layered in three
banks ), coal clay, dust, marly clay and clay marl, as well as quaternary sandy-gravel layer (found in the alluvial plains
of Mlava and Velika Morava).
The division of the lithological elements present was conducted according the hydro-geological properties into:
hydro-geological collectors and
hydro-geological isolators
Permeable rocks made out of sandy deposits, appear in hypsometrically different levels, individually separated by
hydro-geological isolators. Sandy deposits are mainly characterized by an alternating thickness, limited span and
frequent litho facial changes which condition the changeability of the hydro-geological parameters.
In the "irikovac" coal deposit the following hydro-geological collectors are important:
loess which represents the "conductor" collector which releases the surface water in lower areas
Sand types under the loess deposits
Ia sand (sand directly in the floor of loess deposits)
Ib sand accumulated between I and its equivalent coal layer
IIa sand in the upper roof of II coal layer
IIb sand in the immediate roof II of the coal layer
IIc sand accumulated between II and its equivalent of the coal layer
III sand accumulated II and I bank i II and III bank of the coal layer
IV and V sand accumulated between the I and II bank and II and III bank of the coal layer
alluvium of the Velika Morava and
alluvium of the Mlava river
The function of hydro-geological insulators in the "irikovac" site have: loess clays, clays of different lithological
compositions (dusty, sandy, coal), coal, silicified sands and sandy limestones. Depending on whether they are under
or above sands, impermeable rocks have properties of roof or floor insulators.

3. TECHNICAL SOLUTION FOR PROTECTION OF THE DEPOSIT FROM ONCOMING UNDERGROUND WATERS
The study on geo-mechanical and hydro-geological research (RI-2007.) has confirmed the assumptions that the
masses that make up the internal deposit, have adverse hydro-geological characteristics, because of the predominant clay materials saturated with water which cannot be removed from the deposit by classical means of drainage
like wells.
With the goal of securing stability of the base of the future flying ash and bottom ash deposit, construction of the
following drainage installations is envisioned:
drainage carpet with built in perforated tubes and granulate and
drainage canals with built in perforated tubes and granulate
Waters collected by means of underground drainage will be gravitationally drained to the pumping station of underground water CS-1 from where they will be drained away by means of a deep pump and thrust pipeline into the
main water collector MWC. The main water collector MWC will have a pumping unit of 90kW which will lead the
gathered water through a 200 mm pipeline to a gravitation pipeline of 400 mm through which it will go to Mlava.
The following figures display the cross sections of projected installations for underground water protection.

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Figure 1. Cross section of a drainage carpet

Figure 2. Drainage canals

4. TECHNICAL SOLUTION FOR DEPOSIT PROTECION FROM SURFACE WATERS


In order to protect the projected deposit of flying ash from surface waters the following constructions are predicted:
Rim canal RC-1 which will gather the surface waters which pour from the south and east rim area of the
open pit mine and lead them to the Mlava River.
Rim canal RC-2 will gather the surface waters which pour from the west side of the flying ash deposit and
will lead it in to the main water collector MWC and partially to a water collector.
Level canal SC will gather water which pour from the north drainage area and lead it to the main water collector MWC.
Rim canal RC-3 will gather waters which will pour from the inside of the flying ash deposit space and drain it
to the west to the water collector WC from which the waters will be pumped in to the main water collector
MWC which will protect the foil from the surface waters and deposits.
The following figure displays a model canal which will gather and drain the surface water, and dimensions are given
for construction of each canal individually.

Figure 3. Cross section of a canal

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5. PROJECT REALIZATION
The drainage carpet is the first object of underground drainage which should be constructed and with a function of
a collector-conductor of underground waters drained from the base of the flying ash deposit. All of the collected
underground water from the drainage carpet and the drainage canals will be drained to SC-1 from where it will be
pumped through a deep pump into the main water collector MWC.
The cross section of the drainage carpet is of a trapeze profile with a bottom width of 2 m, depth 2 m and side tilt
of 45. A sheet of sand 0.15m thick is placed at the bottom of the dug canal, after which the installation of geotextile began. Drainage pipes 250 mm in diameter were placed over the geo-textile at a distance of 0.5 m. A layer
of uberlauf 0.5m thick is then installed, and over it a layer of crushed rock 150 mm in diameter and height of 0.5 m.
Up to the level of the terrain the canal is filled with larger crushed rock. After the drainage is installed, overlapping
and suturing of the geo-textile is conducted.

Figure 4. Construction of a drainage carpet, installation of drainage pipes, granulates and geo-textile

For collection of water from the body of the internal deposit, i.e. the body of the future site, a network of drainage
canals is constructed before foil installation. In a canal 1m in depth and width, over the placed geo-textile a drainage of 160 mm pipe is placed and a granulate over it. After geo-textile suturing in the canal, the dug materials
are placed back until the terrain is leveled.
Figure 5 displays the drainage canal construction, and figure 6 displays the drainage canal in the foot of the west
slope.

Figure 5. Drainage canal

Figure 6. West drainage canal

During mining excavation on the arranging of the base, especially on the work slopes, a frequent flooding occurred
from the waters filtered from the higher floors. Drainage canals were constructed for collection of these waters
considering that they proved as very efficient through fast results of their work. All of the drainage canals constructed are usually directly introduced into the drainage carpet. All of the waters gathered from the drainage car-

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pet are diverted to the drainage station CS-1 from which they are expelled in to a water collector through a submersible pump.

Figure 7. Drainage station

Figure 8. Main water collector

For water drainage outside of the deposit area, a thrust pipeline is installed, which will lead water to the gravity
canal, and then to the Mlava river.

Figure 9. Thrust pipelines which lead in to the Mlava

Figure 10. Gravity canal for water drainage to the Mlava

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With the goal of flying ash and bottom flying ash deposit protection from the surface waters, floor canals, permanent and temporary rim canals are constructed. Soon after construction of all the listed installations, the effects of
their work are visible, goal accomplished, the base of the future deposit is dried and stabilized and installation of
HDP foil has begun.

Figure 11. Active flying ash and bottom ash deposit

6. CONCLUSION
Considering the adverse hydro-geological characteristics of the future deposit (non-selective deposit of the tailings
masses, loess mixture, clay, sandy clays and dusty sand) it was not simple to decide to implement the drainage installations which are not typical hydro-geological objects, which have never been implemented in such a wide area
as the "irikovac" surface dig site. Justification for the chosen solution has been showed immediately after realization of all the projected installations for drainage through whose work has created the conditions necessary for
further operation of the mining and construction mechanization in the process of planning and implementation of
impermeable foil, which was the only assignment of the designers.

REFERENCES
[1]

Supplemental Mining Project of the pipeline route for a dense hydromixture and the deposition of flying ash and bottom ash of
the TPP Kostolac B into the excavated area of the OPM irikovac Technical Project of the flying ash and bottom ash deposition location from surface and underground waters and their evacuation Mining Institute, 2010. god (in Serbian).

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TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF VALORIZATION OF CALCIUM


CARBONATE RAW MATERIAL FROM KRALJEVA GORA DEPOSIT

ABSTRACT
ivko SEKULI1
Vladimir JOVANOVI2
Slavica MIHAJLOVI3
Vladan KAI4
Dragan RADULOVI5
Branislav IVOEVI6

Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials,


86 Frane d'Eperea St., 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
1
z.sekulic@itnms.ac.rs 2 v.jovanovic@itnms.ac.rs 3
s.mihajlovic@itnms.ac.rs 4 v.kasic@itnms.ac.rs
5
d.radulovic@itnms.ac.rs 6 b.ivosevic@itnms.ac.rs

The possibility of application of products obtained


from Kraljeva gora carbonate raw materials was
investigated in the Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials. Results of the
investigations imply that two commercial products
can be obtained from this raw material in preparation of mineral raw materials: limestone for calcification of acid agricultural soils (size class 100% -2 + 0
mm), and carbonate dust - a filler for production of
asphalt concrete (size class 100% - 0.71 mm). This
paper presents description of technological operations of valorization and a proposal for a technological process of valorization of calcium carbonate raw
material from Kraljeva Gora deposits.

Keywords
Carbonate Raw Material, Kraljeva Gora Deposits, Technological Processes, Technological Scheme

1. INTRODUCTION
On calcium carbonate raw material from the deposit "Kings Mountain" were conducted laboratory tests to
ascertain the possible enhancement of these raw materials. The results of the testing of new given in the
Preliminary technological project (. Sekuli et al. , 2005) which was developed at the Institute for Technology of
Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials, Belgrade. According to geological exploration works, bearing calcium
carbonate raw material Kraljeva Gora consists of a compact mass of tuff and the second part of the crushed mass
(M. Todorovic, 2005) .Exploitation of deposits was carried out from time to time. This paper proposes a
technological procedures and technological schemes for the valorisation of these materials. In developing a
technological scheme starts with the availability of an established two commercial products, ie. Class -2.0 +0 mm
and -0.7 +0 mm class. This option is determined by comparing the results of tests and quality requirements
prescribed standards (Official journal 60/2000, SRPS B B3 100).

2. TEST RESULTS
Liming material for acid soil
Liming material for acid soils (-2.0 +0 mm) for grain-size composition of which is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Particle size range for assortment for liming acid soils liming acid soils

154

M%

M,%

21.42

21.42

100.00

11.35

32.77

78.58

-0.71 +0.50

6.85

39.62

67.23

-0.50 +0.00

60.38

100.00

60.38

TOTAL:

100.00

Size class, mm

M,%

-2.00 +1.00
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According to information on the quality of some parts of bearings can be expected that the quality of this range is
suitable for quality raw materials. Raw material quality in service and the quality of the finished product should be
monitored on a daily basis in order to properly use affect the uniformity of the quality of this product range.
Filler for asphalt mixtures
The main application of filler for asphalt mixtures is for the production of asphalt concrete. Components for
production of asphalt concrete (which are produced by hot and cold process) are:
Hydrocarbon binder - bitumen, whose share in the total volume of asphalt concrete is 5 - 12%
Mineral filler - filler with an aggregate particles below 0.09 mm. The amount of filler in the total mass of
mixture for making asphalt concrete ranges in a wide range of 5 - 20%. It is believed that 5% is the minimum
value. The maximum content of filler in asphalt concrete depends on other sized aggregates.
Sand - mineral material passing through the sieve openings 2 mm, and remains at 0.09 mm sieve. It can be
natural or crushed. Its grain-size composition must comply with the prescribed conditions. Must be clean,
without clay and organic impurities. Must not contain particles less than 0.02 mm. If the sand is created by
crushing must have a compressive strength greater than 120 MPa, it has low water absorption and is resistant to frost.
The results of tests on a sample obtained from the starting materials bearing the Kraljeva Gora with the purpose
of asphalt mixtures are given in Table 2
Table 2. Characteristics of the sample to be used for asphalt mixtures

Property

The obtained value

Allowed

2661

Content lumps or impurities

None

Not allowed

Density, kg / m

Plasticity index

Not plastic

Max 4

Cavity fillers in dry compressed condition by Ridgen,% (v / v /)

34.5

Moisture content,% (m / m)

0.4

Index hardening of bitumen

1.95

1,8-2,4

Based on the results given in Table 2, compared with the conditions defined by the standard can be concluded that
the sample meets the quality requirements and can be applied for the production of asphalt mixtures.
Principle scheme of technological process
Keeping in mind the requirement of reference to the raw material-150 mm get two products of different particle
size distribution, was elected principal scheme of technological process is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Selection of principal scheme of technological process

The scheme of technological process


Explanation dilemma about whether to drying or not to bring the final judgment about the possibility of not drying
process it is proposed that a sample mass of 30 t of crude industrial raw materials do tests that would include the
delivery of raw materials to crude raw circle separation of quartz sand in Milici , unloading at the landfill and
covered to stay there 5 - 6 days, After that to do industrial crushing test. Technological scheme is designed on the
basis of the data on the feedstock and the availability of an established range of -2 +0 +0 mm and -0.7 mm. The
proposed scheme of technological process will allow obtaining products -2 + 0 mm. Asortment asphalt (Class 0 + -

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0.7 mm), which are required to be 100% dry, it could be expected in the very favorable climatic conditions. And who
market demand increases significantly afterwards to upgrade the rotary kiln for this range. Technological scheme
of production materials for liming acid soils and asphalt filler is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Technological scheme of production materials for liming acid soils and asphalt filler

Description scheme of technological process: Crude materials ("stalactites sand"), class size was -150 + 0 mm, with
open pit brings to the circle separating trucks and unloaded in covered dump (D).The landfill (D) Crude materials for
about 5 days to naturally moisture content in the feed decreased from 25% of the moisture that allows smooth
grinding and sieving. From the landfill (D) using the loader, Crude raw materials are transferred to the existing
reception hopper (Item 1.) Above the bunker with a grid size of the opening is 50 x 50 mm. Booker volume V = 40 m
3.To the bunkers are installed "air gun" for discharging bunker in case of "arching" material in it. From the reception
bunker material by shaking (eccentric) feeder (item 2), added to the ribbed tape transport (Item 3), which is
transported to the plant material separation. With the conveyor belt (Item 3), which is at an angle of 22 0, the
material goes to the gravitational lattice vibration (Item 4) hole size of 20 mm. Sieved material from vibrating grate
(Item 4) class size was 150 + 20 mm gravity moved to impact crusher (item 5). Impact crusher product (item 5) is
combined with sifted material vibrating grate (item 4) on the conveyor belt (Item 6. Conveyor (item 6) material
transported to vibrating screen (item 7). Screen mesh size is 2 mm. sieved material vibratory sieves (item 7), class
size was -20 2 mm, falling into the impact crusher (Item 8), which produces a 100% class -3 + 0 mm. Impact
crusher product (item 8) using elevators (Item 9) returns to the vibration sieve (item 7) of screening. sifted material
vibratory sieves (item 7), class size was -2 + 0 mm, using a conveyor belt (item 10) and elevators (item 11) is sent to
the receiving hopper (item 12). From the reception bunker (item 12) material, the class size was -2 + 0 mm, using
bars directed to the bunker for the finished product (item 15). From the bunker on the finished product (item 15),
class size was -2 + 0 mm using a feeder - scale (item 16) and reversible conveyor belt (item 17) is sent to the packing
unit for packing (item 22) or in carrying bunker with a telescope (item 18) from which the full trucks. In case you
need a production class -0.7 + 0 mm, which is used as a filler (filler) for asphalt mixture, then the reception bunker
(item 12) material, the class size was -2 + 0 mm, with bars (S) focuses on electromagnetic sieve (item 13). Sieved
material of electromagnetic screen (item 13), the class size was 0.7 mm -2 + goes to the electromagnetic screen
(item 14), where it performs an additional screening. sieved material electromagnetic screen (item 14) class -2 + 0.7
mm is sent using screw conveyors (item 19) in the bunker for the finished product (item 15) where it is mixed with
class 0 + -2 mm. Sifted material electromagnetic screen (item 13) and electromagnetic sieves (item 14) separately

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gravitationed sent to the bunker (item 20). From the bunker on the finished product (item 20) class size was -0.7 + 0
mm using a feeder - scale (item 21) and reversible conveyor belt (item 17) is sent to the packing unit for packing
(item 22), or in carrying bunker with a telescope (item 18) from which the full trucks. Packaged products using
conveyor belts which is part of a device for packing (item 22) to the pallet and shipped them packing.

3. CONCLUSION
The investigation of calcium carbonate raw material from the deposit Kraljeva Gora established the technological
process of preparing for valorisation these materials, namely: three levels of sieving and two-stage crushing. Drying
Crude raw materials would take place at the landfill, in the case of production-class -0.7 +0 mm (filler for asphalt)
must be kiln drying of suitable capacity. Defined h after the cooking is defined and described technological flows
which could be valorised these materials.
Acknowledgements
This work is the result of the project TR 34013 financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological
Development of Republic of Serbia in 2011-2014.

REFERENCES

[1]

Sekulic . at al.: Preliminary technological project to build a plant for the production of materials for liming acid soils and fillers for
asphalt mixtures based on material from the deposit "Kraljeva Gora" near Milici ITNMS, Belgrade, 2005.

[2]

Todorovic M.: Study on classification, categorization and calculation of tuf sand and tuf of deposit at the Kraljeva Gora near Milici
on 30.06.2005. year, AD"BOKSIT"-Milici, 2005.

[3]

Official journal 60/2000

[4]

SRPS B B3 100

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ANALYSIS OF THE OBTAINED STATISTICAL MEASUREMENT


VALUES OF SEISMICAL BLASTING TREMORS

ABSTRACT
Risto DAMBOV1
Todor DELIPETROV2
Marjan DELIPETROV3
Ilija DAMBOV4

Prof. d-r, University Goce Delcev,


FNTS, Insitute of Mining, Stip,
R. Macedonia
2
Prof. d-r, University Goce Delcev,
FNTS, Insitute of Geology, Stip,
R. Macedonia
3
Ass.prof., University Goce Delcev,
FNTS, Insitute of Geology, Stip,
R. Macedonia
4
MSc., Bucim Mine, Radovis, dambov2007@yahoo.com

The paper provided some measurements carried out by seismic shocks


caused when carrying out primary mining and appropriate parameters in
terms of safety of the surrounding buildings. In this paper one of the goals is
to analyze and define the criteria for assessment of shocks in terms of appropriate application for methods of mining, safety distances, especially for
different mining conditions.
With statistical analyses of the values we can determine the criteria for soil
oscillation law depending on reduced distance, seismic intensity of the protected facilities etc.
This gets a final conclusion on the assessment of shocks depending of the
parameters of mining, safety distances when performing the various methods of blasting and the formation of tabular presentation of evaluation criteria for the shocks and safety distances.
The calculation or dimensioning of parameters blasting are the step in setting the technique of drilling and blasting which later, in local conditions,
can be modified and yield the best possible results.

Keywords
Seismic Tremors, Criterion, Blasting, Safe Distance

1. INTRODUCTION
With the tightening of environmental requirements for environmental protection and respect for private property,
the application of blasting is limited in the strict framework of regulations.
Therefore there is a need for control, measurement and regulation (as possible) the oscillations of the ground and
seismic shocks caused by these oscillations occurred as the effect of sapping the blast.
In order to evaluate and control the effects of seismic blasting, it is necessary to determine the soil oscillation law
in direction and ground distance to the appropriate place or object that are to be protected.
One of the most commonly used theories and equations given by Professor Sadovski that define the law to change
the speed of soil particles, depending on distance, quantity and tipe of explosives, blasting conditions and
structural - geological characteristics of the surrounding rocks.
While determining the soil oscillation law depending on reduced distance, it is necessary, previously, to establish to
what level of seismic intensity the protected facilities can be exposed, taking into account their dimensions and
quality of material, construction value, the level of resistance to seismic shock wave effects etc. to prevent their
damaging on that occasion.
Seismic and other effects that are caused by the detonation of a quantity of explosives are dependent on many
factors, of which the most important among them are: the method of blasting, the distance from the place, the
quantity of explosives, the type of explosives, the method of initiating of series, explosives construction in the
drillholes, physical-mechanical characteristics of rocks, structural features of rocks etc.

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2. ANALYSIS CRITERIA
Law oscillation of the ground
The analysis and correlation between the size of the seismic tremors i.e. the speed of oscillation and the basic
parameters that have the greatest impact on the effects of seismic tremors. In the world are used and developed
several mathematical models.
The most commonly used model is the theory of prof. Sadovski which is expressed through a mathematical formula
(1) that reflects the speed of oscillation depending on the distance, the amount of explosives and the manner of
execution of blasting.
The dependence of the speed of oscillation of the ground is obtained based on the calculated peak velocities of
oscillations of the particles of soil (Vmax), distance from the blasting location of the measuring instrument (r), and
the amount of explosive that is used in blasting series. This speed is expressed in the following form:

V K v R n , [mm/s]

[1]

where is:

V speed of oscillation of the ground , mm/s


Kv coefficient which is dependent of the characteristics of the rocks and blasting conditions and are determined
by field measurements
n exponent which is dependent on the characteristics of the rocks and mining conditions and are determined by
field measurements
R reduced distance, R r , [m]
3

where is:
r - distance from the blasting site to the site of measurement, [m]
Q - amount of explosives used, [kg]
In the equation (1) appear two parameters (Kv) and (n), which should determine the specific work environment and
conditions of blasting. For their definition are used method of least squares which equation (1) gets the following
form:(with logarithm)
log v log K v n log R

[2]

With the introduction of substitute: v = y; Kv = a; R = x; n = b;


gets:
log a b log x log y

[3]

The system of equations for the parameters (a) and (b) in this case is:
N

n log a b log xi log yi


i 1

[4]

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

(log a) log xi b (log xi ) 2 log xi log yi

where is: N number of measurement (measuring points).


Important properties of the law of oscillation of the ground depending on Reduced slow distance that the change
of reduced distance (R), with reducing or by its increase by only 1%, the value for the speed of oscillation in proportion to the ground opposite applies i.e. increases or decreases by n%.
In brief, the aforementioned formula prof. Sadovski means the total amount of explosive that is used in the blasting
series.
The analysis of this parameter used provisions of the "Law for the Protection of blastings substances" (Official Gazette br.4/78) and "Regulation of technical norms for handling explosives and blasting in mining" (Official Gazette
of SFRY no. 26/88).

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In this regulation in Article 110 stated that under both individually considered initiating ignition of a quantity of
explosives which initiated simultaneously or during deceleration (retardation detonation) between intervals starting at millisecond initiation is no greater than 100ms (milliseconds).
In measuring these oscillations (in such initiation) the appropriate measurement points, the obtained velosigrams
(curves) of instruments, it is impossible to determine which pick the curve that shows the components of the oscillation corresponds to some interval or slowing in the certain amount of explosives given slowing because existing
modern instruments those individual pulses (for now) cannot separate.
For these reasons the calculations of oscillations and distances sapping adopted as values total quantity of explosives as it is initiated simultaneously.
This calculation method however keep in mind that the amount of explosives is separated by intervals and the values obtained are quite reliable and strict with the possibility of their (unintentionally) and increase reliability in
terms of security and safety distances to surrounding objects.
Defining the statistical criteria
Assessment and definition of criteria for the level of security when establishing correlation equations and ratios are
used mathematical- statistical methods. The assessment of the degree of reliability of these relations are calculated based on the results obtained by examining i.e. practical field measurements of certain blasting series. These
mathematical methods for processing the results depending on the data, the method of interpretation and the
required accuracy and reliability, allow defining the changes induced in the ground and the general law of behavior
change investigated.
Some of the basic statistical parameters used to analyze and define the individual criteria are:

- Arithmetic mean x

which is expressed as:

x1 x2 x3 ... x N xi

N
N

[5]

Where is: x1, x2...xN - values of the results of certain measurements (trials)
N - number of results (sample)
Intermediate arithmetic deviation 0

x x

[6]

Where is:

xi x - absolute magnitude of the deviation


-

Variance 2

2
1 2
xi x
N

[7]

Criteria for checking mathematical dependencies


To eliminate subjective decisions and impacts analysis of the dependencies and the resulting mathematical shape
of the curve y = y (x), which is approximated values obtained in the survey, use the linear correlation coefficient:

xi x yi y
11
,

2
2
x y
xi x yi y

[8]

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This route is used if the question assumed a linear functional relationship between xi and yi , as assessment of the
degree of linear relationship between two dependencies. If dependence between xi and yi , is with curves are used
relation for the index of this curve line dependence:

yi yxi

yi y

[9]

The assessment of the degree of association between two variables is given by the following relations given
descriptive:
0,0 < <0,2, no connection or very weak
0,2 < <0,4, weak links,
0,4 < <0,7, significant connection,
0,7 < <1,0, strong or very strong interconnection,
These relations also apply to the absolute value of the coefficient of linear correlation k.
To assess the degree of certainty (reliability) of the selected curve in mathematical statistics are used criterion
called 3S :

12 22 32 ... N2

[10]

Where is:
e1, e2, ..... squares of the difference between the measurement results and calculated by the method of
least squares to established addictions xi yi.
According to this criterion for assessing the degree of certainty or reliability of the resulting functional
dependency, use and apply the following ratios:
if |max| > 3S, the resulting functional dependency is rejected as unfavorable
if |max| < 3S, functional dependency (connection) is accepted as good.
This criterion is used in cases when the number of measurements is N 10th
Results of measurement
Measurements of ground oscillations are performed on Open Pit Bucim, the mine accident defense series,
preparation and blasted by standard procedures. When it is used 7 measuring instruments placed at different
distances from Blasting series S-35. Values read the parameters and derived values are presented in Table 1 and it is
used in the form [1].

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Table 1. Calculated values of maximum speeds of oscillation ground and reduced distances for separate measuring points

Blasting
series

S-35

Maximum speed of the


oscillation components,
mm/s
VV

VL

VT

Maximum
resultant speed
of oscillation,
mm/s

95

27,66

19,37

8,414

34,809

5,63

MM-2/
660,42

165

10,06

12,23

9,465

18,455

9,78

MM-3/
659,71

245

5,026

5,576

3,070

8,110

14,52

MM-4/
659,30

297

2,778

2,403

2,088

4,225

17,6

MM-5/
658,88

452

1,178

1,956

2,277

3,224

26,80

MM-6/
641,05

637

0,539

1,251

1,230

1,835

37,76

MM-7/
640,25

665

0,503

0,709

1,244

1,517

39,42

Measuring points,
MM / elevation of
the ground

Distance from
blasting series to
measuring point , m

MM-1/
659,43

Calculated
reduced
distance, R, m

Statistical analysis of the obtained values


The processing of the data obtained through field trials are used methods of mathematical statistics.
Their application and calculation allows defining the changes and laws - relations that are used in the calculations
and their behavior in terms of theoretical parameters.
Table 2. Parameters obtained from measurements and calculated derived values

Number of the measuring point

Reduced distance
R, (m)

Registered speeds
of oscillations, Vr,
(cm/s)

Calculated speed of oscillations,


Vpr, (cm/s)

Vr - Vpr

(Vr Vpr)2

5,63

28,57

34,8

-6,23

38,81

9,78

13,32

18,45

-5,13

26,32

14,52

6,7

8,1

-1,4

1,96

17,6

3,2

4,2

-1

26,8

2,8

3,2

-0,4

0,16

37,76

1,69

1,8

-0,11

0,0121

39,42

1,33

1,5

-0,17

0,0289

Rsr=21,64

=57,61

y = 10,29

14,44
sr

In Table 2 are obtained the following values for the parameters which are analyzed statistically:

- - Arithmetic mean x :
x

x1 x 2 x3 ... x N xi = 57,61 = 8,23

7
N
N

[11]

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- Intermediate arithmetic deviation: 0

- variance :

= 345,66 49,38
7

[12]

2
1
xi2 x = 17067,7
N

[13]

- Criterion "3S":

12 22 32 ... N2

38,812 26,32 2 1,96 12 0,16 2 0,01212 0,0289 2


7

N
S = 17,74 3S = 3 17,74 = 53,23

[14]

|max| = 38,81
In this case are given relation:
38,81 < 53,23
The resulting relationship that reflects the functional relationship between the dependent - changing can be
accepted as good.
- Index of curve line dependence:

yi y xi = = 0, 875
1
2
yi y
2

[15]

Based on the obtained value can be concluded that the two variables, reduced distance and speed of the
oscillations of the ground, there is a very close relationship and strong relationship and this value has a high
practical relevance (according to the empirical rule to evaluate the strength of ties, 0, 7 < <1,0, which means
strong or very strong interconnection).
Also, analyzing the criteria for blasting with statistical analysis, derived values are express level of connections and
correlations between predefined parameters which are analyzed and their interdependencies.

3. CONCLUSION
Based on these practical and scientific research and calculations derived directly or combined, it can be concluded
that the performance of massive blasting of any surface blasting, the application of the oscillation of the ground,
and application interdependencies and correlations obtained, practically allows the derivation of mass blasting
reduce negative effects primarily in terms of seismic impacts.
In this way you can increase the efficiency of blasting, to protect the surrounding accompanying buildings from
these impacts and in particular, to predict and pre-ensure all the surrounding buildings, machinery and people with
regard to the action of seismic waves and tremors caused from blasting.

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REFERENCES

[1]

Dambov R., (1995), Primena Nonel-sistema iniciranja na PK "Bucim", I Jugoslovenski simpozium "Buenje i miniranje", Zbornik radova,
Beograd, SRJ.

[2]

Dambov R., (1996), Metoda na miniranje vo funkcija na bezbednost na okolnite objekti na PK "Bucim", XXVIII Oktobarsko savetovanje
rudara i metalurga, Zbornik radova , Tehnicki fakultet Bor, SRJ.

[3]

R. Dambov, (2011), Mining Methods, textbook, UGD, FPTN, Institute of Mining, Stip.

[4]

Dambov I., (2011), Analiza na kriteriumite za ocenka potresi i bezbednosni rastojanija pri miniranje, Magisterski trud, UGD, FPTN, Stip.

[5]

Olofsson O. S., (1990), Applied explosives technology for construction and mining, monographic book, APPLEX , RLA, Sweden.

[6]

Rzhevsky V.V., (1985), Opencast mining unit operation, English translation, Mir Publishers, Moscow, SSSR.

[7]

., (2000), , , , , , .

[8]

Slimak, ., (1996), Inzenjerska geofizika, Ucebnik, RGF Beograd, Srbija.

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UNDERGROUND PIT EXPLORATION IN THE


RAJIEVA GORA NEAR BRUS, REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

ABSTRACT
Saa MITI
Dragan MILOJEVI
Nenad MAKAR
Jovica NIKOLI

Mining Institute, Belgrade, Serbia


podzemna@ribeograd.ac.rs

Detailed polymetallicexploration of Pb, Zn, and Sb ores, and trace elements


Ag, Fe and Ni at the Rajievagora area near Brus in the Republic of Serbia,
are being conducted in order to update the geological data about the basin.
Underground exploration operations allow immediate access to the basin,
more reliable geological sampling, more trustworthy prospection, sampling
for technological research etc.
Planned underground exploration operations encompass cleaning and rehabilitation of the existing and construction of new underground research areas. This paper contains a short display of the exploration well, rehabilitation
methodology of underground areas and construction methodology of the
new ones.

Keywords
Rajieva Gora, Poly-Metallic Ore, Underground Exploration Operations

1. INTRODUCTION
This paper displays pit exploration works which are predicted for research requirements, i.e. sampling for technological tests from the "Rajieva Gora" deposit. Detailed geological exploration is the result of objective needs to
continue exploration from the previous period, with the subject area explored in order for the Farmakom concern
MB and AD "Zajaa" to gain an important base for the production of antimony, lead and zinc. Technically, it is necessary to continue the exploration in the Rajieva Gora pit from the previous years, especially those terminated in
1988, and continued in the period from 2008 to 2011 in order to prepare the database for confirmation of ore reserves of Pb, Zn and Sb and complete the information on the mineral characteristics of the ores in order to project
the optimal production and processing capacities.
Sampling will be done with the purpose of geological research and testing which will be realized by the concern
"Farmakom MB" abac and Mines and the AD "Zajaa" smelter from Loznica. This company is the bearer of geological and mining exploration as well as the exploitation of antimony, lead, zinc and trace materials at the area i.e. at
the entire explored area.
In order to realize the exploration in the Rajieva Gora pit according to the plan, it is necessary to redefine the pit
exploration works in accordance with the present degree of exploration and estimated future prospects. The exploration will be conducted:
in the Rajieva Gora pit at the area north and southeast from the main transport drift 1175 m by exploration
wells (new level 1135m);
at the level 1205 by exploration wells, with the goal of connecting to the horizon 1,220 per drop of the mine
structure;
at the horizon 1220 and level 1240 by exploration wells with the goal of connecting to the level 1240 i.e.
horizon 1280 per drop of the mine structure;
Before the beginning of construction of the exploration pit objects, the existing pit objects must be rehabilitated,
and the pit must be made functional.

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The base goal and purpose of exploration is to define the continuation of the mining structure through the projected pit exploration wells at a depth below the horizon 1175 and re-categorize the mining reserves, from the C2
category reserves into C1 and B reserve category.
At the 1220 horizon, work will additionally define ore abundance and quality per drop of the ore structure in relation to the 1240 level, all for the purpose of re-categorizing the ore reserves of the C1 category to ore reserves of B
category.
Exploration at the 1205 level and 1240 level have the purpose of connecting these levels with horizons 1220 and
1280, with simultaneous quality tracking of ore abundance in the zone between serpentinite and quartz-latite.
The conceptual and methodological approach of the research is adjusted to the metal-genetic characteristics of
the area, taking into account all important factors for locating the ore. During the writing of this paper, all of the
results from research so far have been taken into account as well as experiences gained from the operations so far
in the pit Rajieva Gora [1 5].
The aforementioned area encompasses the north area of the mine field Kopori-Jelakce at the eastern slopes of
Kopaonik and stretches northeast from the Ravno Osoje, Rajieva Gora, to ardak in the south (figure 1).
By physical-mechanical qualities, silicon-carbonate rock, serpentite and quartz-latite present favorable environments for pit construction. The adverse environment is the so called "red series", tectonic zones, schistose zones in
the serpentite and hydro-thermal changes of quartz-latite and serpentite. Physical-mechanical qualities of the ore
depend on environment properties in which the ore is deposited. The total geological reserves of the "Rajieva Gora" deposit, ranging B+C1 categories, are 1,109,186 tons of lead-zinc ore, with the contents of Pb=3,20%, Zn=0,83%
and Ag=22,40 g/t [3], (table 1)
Table 1. Total ore reserves of the Rajieva Gora basin

Reserve category

Ore category
Q(t)

Metallic contents
Pb(%)

Zn(%)

Metallic quantities

Ag(g/t)

Pb(t)

Zn(t)

Ag(kg)

916.865

3,20

0,79

21,26

29.339,68

7.243,23

19.492,55

C1

192.321

3,18

1,03

27,81

6.115,81

1.980,91

5.348,45

1.109.186

3,20

0,83

22,40

35.455,49

9.224,14

24.840,00

B+C1

Based on the exploration degree, geological and metallic-genetic characteristics, and foremost the need for faster
realization, in order to restore the mining areas and increasing of ore reserves, the following research methods will
be applied:
Recovery and rehabilitation of the existing pit areas in the Pb-Zn-Sb basin of Rajieva Gora, in total length
of about 3.450m and
Construction of the new exploration wells in the Pb-Zn-Sb basin of Rajieva Gora in total length of about
1.930m.

Figure 1. Geographical position of the Rajieva Gora deposit

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2. PROJECTED EXPLORATION WELLS


The projected exploration works will be conducted in the basin of "Rajieva Gora", and are displayed according to
the horizons and levels:
1. Horizon 1175 with expansion and opening of the exploration level 1135,
2. Level 1205,
3. Horizon 1220
4. Level 1240 - alternative works,
5. Horizon 1280.
Cross sections of exploration rooms with timber support are displayed in figures 2 and 3 [4], longitudinal cross section through IN-1 in figure 4.
The reasons for projection of the exploration wells in the pit "Rajieva Gora" are as follows:
High degree of the conducted mining research works as a basis for confirmation of the ore reserves and a
need of continuity in exploring,
The requirement of the concern for opening the Pb-Zn-Sb ore mine, foremost of lead and zinc, from which
came the need to increase the existing ore reserves,
Contents of Pb, Zn, and Sb in the ore occurrences outside of the Rajieva Gora basin whose exploitation is
not economically justified
The necessity of increasing the ore reserves of higher categories,
The need to additionally explore and prepare the basin for full exploitation in the shortest time possible

3. REHABILITATION-RECOVERY OF THE EXISTING PIT AREAS


The condition to conduct the projected exploration wells is to rehabilitate and recover the existing underground
rooms, on all horizons and levels (level 1240 alternatively) in quantities of about 3.450 m:
3.245 m of recovery of transport and exploration rooms and,
205 m of recovering the exploitation sites
The predicted construction of new pit areas:
1. Circular drift (CD) collecting station
2. The winch chamber (WC),
3. Transient-ventilation exploitation raises (TVES),
4. Exploration dip heading EDH 1175 - 1135,
5. Exploration drifts
6. Directional exploration drifts (DEC)
7. Crossing exploration drifts (CEC)
8. Exploration raises (EES)
9. Connection drift 1(CC-1)
10. Ore pass (OP)
11. Waste rock pass (WRP)
12. Sump with an accumulator (SCA)
13. Pumping chamber (PC)
14. Loading chamber (LC)
15. Auxiliary raise (AR)

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Figure 2. Cross section of the horizontal underground room supported by the timber support

Construction of the exploration pit areas (corridors, exploitation sites, and inclines) for sampling for technological
trials, will be done through drilling-mining works technology, which encompasses the following work operations:
Drilling and blasting,
Ventilation,
Loading and transport of blasted materials,
Support construction
The total recovery of about 3.450 m encompasses the rehabilitation of 3.245 m of horizontal pit areas and recovery
of 205 m of vertical rooms-raises (blind shafts of different purposes). assumed based on experience, that out of
3.245 m, 3.045 m of lighter recovery is necessary with occasional sidewise support and cleaning and about 200 m of
recovery of completely collapsed underground rooms [1,4].
Total lengths of the underground rooms predicted for rehabilitation of horizons and levels are displayed in table 2.
Table 2. Total lengths of the underground rooms

Name

Horizontal drifts (m)

Vertical rooms (m)

Horizon 1175

1.010

107

Level 1205

670

15

Horizon 1220

880

20

Level 1240

210

48

Horizon 1280

475

15

Total:

3.245

205

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Figure 2. Cross section of the timber supported exploration raise (IU) and drift (IH)

Figure 3. Longitudinal cross section through the incline IN-1

Review of the new exploration romos which are necessary to construct is calculated according to the horizons and
levels and is displayed in table 3.
Table 3. Recapitulation of the underground exploration rooms in the "Rajieva Gora" mine

Br.

Horizons and levels

Horizontal(m)

Sloped(m)

Vertical(m)

1.

Horizon 1175/1135

770,10

258,00

61,60

2.

Horizon 1175

3.

Level 1205

120,00

70,00

4.

Horizon 1220

130,00

70,00

5.

Level 1240

100,00

150,00

6.

Horizon 1280/level 1292

100,00

TOTAL (1-6)

1.220,10

169

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648,00

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As can be seen from the table 3, in the pit "Rajieva Gora", according to plan, it is necessary to construct a total of
1.929,70 m, rounded up 1.930 m of underground exploration rooms. Out of those, 1.220 m of horizontal rooms (directional and cross research drifts), 648 m of sloped rooms (research incline, research exploitation sites) and about
62 m of vertical rooms (transient-ventilation exploitation site, ore and waste rock rose hip, auxiliary exploitation
site). In total it is necessary to construct 1.829,7 m of exploration rooms.

4. CONCLUSION
In exploration of the ores at the "Rajieva Gora" area near Brus, extensive research operations are planned, which
would prove the familiar and new ore reserves. In the goal of realization of this research, it is necessary to construct
numerous exploration pit areas, which will later serve as rooms, openings, developments, and mining preparations.
Considering the amount of pit exploration works, this paper accents the necessity of their construction in the goal
of research realization.
Acknowledgement

This paper is produced from the Project No. 33029 which is funded by means of the Ministry of Education, Science
and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.

REFERENCES

[1]

Project of detailed geological research of Pb-Zn-Sb ores and trace elements (Ag, Fe, Ni) at the Rajieva Gora area near Brus, for
the period 2012 - 2014 mines and smelter "Zajaa", 2012.

[2]

Main mining project of the first opening phase and exploitation of the antimony deposit "Rajieva Gora" - Kopaonik, Mining
institute, Belgrade 1976.

[3]

Paper on the lead and zinc reserves in the basin "Rajieva Gora" near Brus (status on the 31.12.2012.) - VK Mineral d.o.o. - Prijepolje, 2012.

[4]

Mining project on the research of Pb-Zn-Sb ores and trace elements (Ag, Fe, Ni) at the "Rajieva Gora" area near Brus, Mining
institute d.o.o. - Belgrade, 2013.

[5]

Existing technical documentation of the "Zajaa" mine

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DRILLING FLUIDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY

ABSTRACT
Branko LEKOVI1
Vesna KAROVI MARII2
Duan DANILOVI3

Rudarsko-geoloki fakultet, uina 7,


Beograd, Srbija
1
blekovic@rgf.bg.ac.rs 2
vesnakm@rgf.bg.ac.rs 3 danilovic@rgf.bg.ac.rs

The effects of human actions on the environment become more important, and Petroleum companies are joining with government officials
in finding ways to provide for us oil and gas without damaging the environment. The choices are not always easy ones, especially for oilfield
drilling and production. Diesel-based drilling muds are hazardous to the
environment and water based muds are not compatible with some formations.
Many years the best systems to cure wellbore instability have been oilbase muds because they provide superior shale inhibition characteristics
and lubricity. But synthetic drilling fluid give the right balance of environmental safety and performance - even under the toughest drilling
conditions. Since first-generation of drilling fluid known simply as synthetic or pseudo oil-based muds was introduced these products have
offered high performance, low-toxicity alternatives to diesel in oilfield
drilling applications.
Through the years, constant research and field testing lead to the introduction of synthetic muds - with even higher levels of environmental
safety and performance. This product has been successfully used
troughout the world as the preferred replacement for diesel and mineral
oils in drilling fluids applications.

Keywords
Drilling fluids, Environment, Synthetic muds, Toxicity

1. FUNCTION OF DRILLING FLUIDS


Drilling fluids are an essential part of the drilling operation. The composition of drilling fluids ranges from
simple Water-Based Muds (WBM) to complex non-aqueous-based muds. Geography, geology, and economics are
major considerations in selecting the fluid type used for any particular well. Additional factors considered
include drilling performance, anticipated well conditions, worker safety, fluid cost, and waste disposal costs.
While WBMs are usually the mud of choice, some situations require use of other systems to provide acceptable
drilling performance. Drilling fluid is an important component in the drilling process. A fluid is required in the
wellbore to:
Remove the rock fragments, or drill cuttings, from the drilling area and transport them to the surface,
Counterbalance formation pressure to prevent formation fluids (such as oil, gas, and water) from entering the well prematurely (which can lead to a blowout),
Reducing friction in the hole,
Sealing permeable formations,
Prevent the open (uncased) wellbore from caving in, and
Cooling the drill bit and drill-string.
Drilling fluids are formulated to minimize problems associated with geological formations, well chemistry,
depth, and other factors. A major challenge facing mud engineers is to stabilize and control mud properties to
optimize drilling performance as cost-effectively as possible.
A diverse array of mud additives is available to respond to most problems or significant changes in down-hole
conditions. Some mud additives, however, may increase mud toxicity; substantial research has yielded less
toxic alternatives.

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Drilling Fluid Types


There are several types of drilling fluids used depending on the drilling conditions encountered:
Water-based muds are used most frequently. The base may be either:
- fresh water, or
- salt water.
Oil-based muds.
Synthetic materials. The oil and gas extraction industry has developed many new oil-like base materials
from which to formulate high-performance drilling fluids.
Air and foam fluids may be used in drilling wells.
- These fluids are less dense than drilling muds.

2. WATER-BASED MUDS AND OIL-BASED MUDS


Water-Based Muds (WBM) are by far the most commonly used muds, These muds generally consist of more than
90% water by volume, with added amounts of barite, clays, lignosulfonate, lignite, caustic soda, and other
special additives for specific well conditions.
The performance of WBMs is deficient for some applications, and oil-based muds (OBM) have been developed
and refined to overcome these deficiencies. OBMs have traditionally been used to improve lubricity, minimize
problems associated with water-sensitive formations, and deal with other site-specific conditions (such as high
temperature) for which WBMs are not suited. OBMs are used where WBMs are dangerous, technically
impossible, or uneconomical to use. These muds generally consist of a base oil (usually diesel or mineral oil),
barite, clays, emulsifiers, water, calcium chloride, lignite, lime, and other additives.
Oil-based muds have been the drilling fluid of choice for a range of special situations, including high
temperatures, hydratable shales, high-angle, extended-reach wells, highdensity mud, and drilling through salt.
Because of their enhanced lubricity, oil-based "spotting fluids" (which may be chemically different from OBMs)
are also used as "spotting pills" during drilling operations with WBMs when the drill pipe becomes stuck in the
hole.
The inability of WBMs to effectively suppress the hydrational tendencies of some water-sensitive formations
can result in hole enlargement or collapse. This problem frequently can be controlled only with OBMs or
synthetic-based muds (SBM), which do not hydrate the shale and thus maintain hole stability.
Wells drilled with OBMs normally produce lower waste volumes than those drilled with WBMs because very little
slumping or caving in of the walls of the hole occurs, and the mud is reconditioned and reused rather than
discharged. In some cases, WBMs augmented with costly synthetic-based additives are also recycled, but most
WBMs are discharged along with the drill cuttings.

3. SYNTHETIC DRILLING FLUIDS


The range of synthetic drilling fluids has been expanded to help operators meet the variety of environmental
regulations found worlwide and hold down offshore drilling costs. Local knowledge improves fluids selection
and use.
The first synthetic drilling fluids developed for off-shore application were based on esters and polyalphaolefins
(PAOs), introduced in early 90. Esters and PAOs were first used in the Nort Sea as the external phase of invert
emulsion muds in response to ever-tightening restrictions on mineral oil-based fluids. PAOs came shortly
thereafter to the Gulf of Mexico and were first used to allow cuttings to be discharged, instead of reinjected or
hauled off for disposal at approved onshore sites.
These first synthetics went on to set drilling and performance records in both the North Sea and Gulf of
Mexico. They were quickly recognized and accepted as a viable category of drilling fluids, known simply as
synthetics, or pseudo oil-based muds.
Although a huge step forward on the environmental compliance side they usually met the most strict
environmental regulations the original esters and PAOs both had their drawbacks when compared to oilbased mud (OBM), including cost. Esters remain the most expensive synthetic-based fluid, which is a major

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consideration if lost circulation should occur. The technical limitations of esters include high viscosity, a low
tolerance for highly alkaline environments, and instability in temperatures over 150 C.
POAs, although somewhat less costly then esters, are still in the high-cost category. They also are similar in
viscosity to esters, and have high mud viscosities when compared to mineral oil fluids. However, they have a
greater tolerance than esters for highly alkaline environments and high temperatures.
The performance of synthetics excels in comparison to water-based fluids. Many wells have now been driiled
using synthetics due to their enhanced lubricity, hole cleaning characteristics and improved rate of penetration
(ROP). The increased ROP attributed to synthetic fluids is directly related to their enhanced lubricity and hole
cleaning characteristics, as well as overall system stability and lack of reaction with water-sensitive shales. For
example, in many cases, using synthetics has led to better hole cleaning and lubricity, which resulted in smaller
bit wear and fewer bit changes. In fact, both PAOs and esters have set North Sea drilling records.
In terms of downhole performance, synthetics have proven performance similar to that of conventional oilbased muds, and even better in extended reach and horizontal applications. They meet environmental
requirements better and may damage productive formations less than OBMs.
The environmental aspect is a key positive point. The alternative is to re-injected traditional oil mud into the
formation or transport the cuttings to shore. Compared to hauling or injecting OBM waste, sinthetics, reduce
air pollution and the potentional for oil spills associated with hauling and eliminate associated toxic organic
compounds.
As environmetal regulations proliferate around the globe, and each country create its own unique set of rules, a
need has arisen for more specially formulated synthetics. These new synthetic formulas allow operators to
choose the most cost-effective synthetic that meets a particular countrys environmental protocol and
provides excellent technical performance. Note that the same fluid may not pass the protocols of every
country.
With a broader spectrum of synthetic fluids to choose from, the decision making process for each well is now
expanded to include the following sequence of fluid-relate questions.
Which fluids meet the technical requirements of this well?
Of these, which meet the local environmental protocol?
And of these, which is most cost-effective?
The second generation of synthetics has been developed primarily from the olefin chemistry originally used in
the first generation PAO fluids. These are either linear alphaolefins (LAOs) or internal or isomerized olefins (IO),
which are very similar in chemistry and structure. IOs have o lower pour point and may biodegrade more rapidly
than LAOs. Both LAOs and IOs biodegrade more rapidly than PAOs.
Biodegradation rates are a key element in the various environmental protocols being dealt with by operators
today. Understanding these unique distinctions between the olefin-based synthetics can improve the selection
process.
Components Of Synthetic-Based Fluids
Synthetic-based fluids are manufactured by various chemical processes that synthesize larger molecules from
basic building blocks of relatively pure materials. The synthesis takes place within very controlled temperature
and pressure ranges and produces very uniform products. By varying the basic building blocks and
manufacturing conditions, manufacturers can create different synthetic fluids that exibit varyng rheological
properties and environmental performance parameters.

Olefins
Ethilene is the basic building block for the olefin-based synthetic fluids that include linear alpha olefins (LAO),
internal olefins (IO) and polyalphaolefins (PAO). LAOs are straight-chain moleculs formed from ethylene with a
double bond in each molecule at the end position. IOs are similar to LAOs with the double bond moved to an
internal position. PAOs are long, branched-chain molecules formed from oligermerization of LAOs with one
double bond distributed throughout each molecule. The double bond within PAOs can be saturated or
unsaturated.

Esters
Fatty acids and alcohols are the basic building blocks for esters. Vegetable oils are the source for fatty acid
building blocks used for drilling fluids. Esters are manufactured through a variety of chemical processes that

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are controlled to ensure end product purity. Properties of the ester are related to the chain lenght on either
side of the ester functionality.

Ethers
Alcohols are the basic building blocks for ethers. Ethers are manufactured from a combination of two organic
alcohols.
What is a Synthetic?
In basic terms, "synthetic" applies to the process by which the end product was manufactured, where the
ending molecules of the process are not normally found in nature. Fluids from chemical processes are defined
as being "synthetic", while fluids extracted from refinery streams are generally defined as being "oil-based."
In order to define "synthetic", as it applies to drilling fluids, there is list of the non-aqueous drilling fluid (NADF)
offshore disposal regulations as legislated in several parts of the world. This included NADF regulations from
Europe (OSPAR, 2000), the United States (USEPA, 2001), Canada (CNOSP, 2002), and Australia (DoIR, 1999). Also
is included a review of NADF by the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP, 2003).
Table 1. Non-aqueous drilling fluid (NADF) as legislated in several parts of the world.

Base Oil

Process

Europe
(2000)

Canada
(2002)

US
(2001)

Australia
(1999)

OGP
(2003)

Diesel

Refinery extraction

OBF1

OBF

OBF

OBF

OBF

Mineral
oils/paraffins

Refinery extraction

OBF

OBF

OBF

OBF

OBF

Mineral oils/ paraffins

Refinery extraction and severe hydrotreatment

SBF2

EMOBF3

EMOBF

NA4

EMOBF

Synthesised paraffins

Fischer - Tropsch or LAO hydroformylation

SBF

SBF

SBF

NA

SBF

Linear alpha olefins

Ethylene oligomerisation

SBF

SBF

SBF

SBF

SBF

Internal olefins

LAO isomerisation

SBF

SBF

SBF

SBF

SBF

Esters

Condensation of fatty acids and alcohol

SBF

SBF

SBF

SBF

SBF

Source: http://www.shell.com
OBF = oil base fluid;
SBF = synthetic base fluid;
EMOBF = enchanced mineral oil base fluid;
NA = not addressed

As the table 1 shows, all the regulatory bodies and organisations agree that diesel, mineral oil and paraffins
extracted from refineries are oil base fluids (OBF). They also agree that synthetic base fluids (SBF) include
paraffins produced via Fischer Tropsch (gas to liquids) or linear alpha olefin hydroformylation processes, linear
alpha olefins, internal olefins, and esters.
Controversy, however, continues over fluids extracted from refinery streams that are severely hydrotreated.
Hydrotreatment is a processing step used to convert aromatics in fluids to paraffins. In the process, some minor
chemical reactions occur as the aromatics are treated.
Europe's OSPAR classifies such fluids as "synthetic". The US EPA, CNOSP and OGP classify these products as
neither an SBF nor an OBF, but instead create an entirely new category known as
enhanced mineral oil base fluid (EMOBF).
There are differences between products labelled SBF, OBF, and EMOBF.
Even within a certain class of compounds (eg paraffins), some products may have less environmental impact
than others.

4. CONCLUSION
Sinthetic drilling fluids incorporate all of the drilling performance benefits of an oil-based mud (OBM) without
the environmental disadventages. Sinthetics do not contain the complex hydrocarbons and toxic compounds
that remain in even highly refined mineral oils.

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SBMs have a high cost compared to oil-based systems and this investment must be protected by evironmental
testing and an in-depth understanding of likely system contaminants.
Most offshore areas today allow discharge of cuttings from synthetic fluids. Not all types of SBMs can be
discharged in every offshore area.
The ability to discharge cuttings provides major cost savings and environmental benefits compared to oil-based
cuttings, which must be ground up and reinjected into disposal wells or transported back to shore for
treatment and disposal.
A thorough knowledge of worldwide environmental regulations and the variations in testing protocol from
country to country is necessary to ensure compliance.
After all, the key to use of synthetic drilling fluids is the proof of evironmental acceptability before the well
stars. Next comes the continued proof of noncontamination during and after the well is drilled.
Well-researched drilling fluids, back up by environmental support functions and onsite engineering, can provide
the operator with the tools and resources required to drill a successful, cost-efficient well.
Acknowledgments
This paper is the result of the project financed by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development in
Serbia (Project No 33001).

REFERENCES

[1]

Darley, H.C.H. and Gray, G.R.: Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids. Fifth Edition. Gulf Publishing Co.,
Houston, TX. 1988.

[2]

Environmental Protection Agency: Guidelines and Standards of Synthetic-Based Drilling Fluids and Other Non-Aqueous Drilling
Fluids in the Oil and Gas Extraction, Office of Water, Washington, DC. 1999.

[3]

Kenny, P.: Ester-based muds show promise for replacing some oil-based muds, Oil Gas J. November 8, 1993, pp 88-91.

[4]

U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service: Environmental Impacts of Synthetic Based Drilling Fluids, OCS
Study, New Orleans, 2000.

[5]

http://www.osha.gov

[6]

http://www.shell.com/chemicals/products-services/our-products/alpha-olefins-detergent-alcohols/neoflo/synthetic-drillingfluids-defined.html

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INCREASING THE SAFETY LEVEL IN HARD


COAL EXPLOITATION THROUGH INNOVATIVE RESEARCH

ABSTRACT
Ion TOTH1
Constantin LUPU2
Doru CIOCLEA3
Cristian TOMESCU4
Ion GHERGHE5

INCD INSEMEX, Petrosani, Romania


1
ion.toth @insemex.ro 2 constantin.lupu@insemex.ro 3
doru.cioclea@insemex.ro
4
cristian.tomescu@insemex.ro 5
ion.gherghe@insemex.ro

Following the atomic disaster from Fukushima-Japan, the energy strategies worldwide have changed.This change of strategy has also been
achieved in our country. Fossil raw materials like coal will still remain the
main energy source. For the efficient use of these raw materials, there
have been formed at country level the Oltenia and the Hunedoara energy complexes which are using lignite from the Oltenia coal field and hard
coal from the jiu Valley coal field.
The profitability of hard coal exploitation in Jiu Valley has been achieved
by dividing the National Hard Coal Company into two companies: National Hard Coal Society Petrosani (SNH) and the National Society for
Mine Closure Jiu Valley (SNIMVJ).
The SNH comprises Lonea, Livezeni, Vulcan and Lupeni mining units and
SNIMVJ comprises Petrila, Paroseni and Uricani mining units. For increasing the safety level in hard coal exploitation, there are applied for both
companies a series of methods for preventing/combating spontaneous
combustions, measures resulting from the research activities carried out
by a team from INCD INSEMEX Petrosani. Of these research activities,
the prevention of spontaneous combustion using inorganic inhibitors of
zinc chloride type has been patented, having the patent no. 126308, and
the framework methods for preventing/fighting against spontaneous
combustions and endogenous fires is pending a patent, having the patent request no. 2011-00357. The methods from the two patents/patent
requests have been implemented in the two companies.

Keywords
Coal, Spontaneous Combustion, Prevention, Combating, Technology

1. INTRODUCTION
Mineral resources sector in Romania can be a particularly important segment designed to actively support the
country's economic development by providing a wide range of mineral products, used as raw materials, to reduce dependence on imports, to ensure energy security. "Strategy of the Mining Industry for the period 20122035, is a document that takes into account the new mutations in the evolution of this field. Mineral resources
such as energy raw materials (coal, uranium, geothermal) represents a great challenge for the future economic
development of Europe, on energy security. Regarding the long-term role of coal, most independent experts
believe, however, that coal-based energy can ensure security of supply that is available and sustainable, as an
engine of economic growth which cannot be sidelined. It is estimated that the EU energy mix will still very
much be based on fossil fuels, including coal, and for the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, coal will be
the main pillar in energy security by 2035. European companies can rely on coal and lignite in their energy mix
for decades to come due to large resources. Domestic production (EU) of coal demonstrates best practices
worldwide operation, environmental protection and occupational safety. Fossil fuel security and access to resources must therefore remain a priority for future EU energy policy [7].

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2. RISKS DERIVED FROM THE EXPLOITATION OF COAL


Risk analysis of the level of exploitations of coal shows that the major risk is represented by: explosive mixture
in the active and inactive mine workings and appearance of endogenous fires due to spontaneous combustion
of coal mass [1]. To mitigate the risks caused by spontaneous combustion the specialists at INCD INSEMEX have
developed a number of devices and technologies that have been implemented in the extraction of coal.
Below are presented the innovative actions.
Preventive engineering method with inhibiting type sprayed particles

Description of the installation used to produce the inhibiting sprayed substance


The prevention of endogenous fires during hard coal mining relies on very fine (micron sized particles) of the
inhibiting solution spread all through the goaf and at the working face, depending on the location of the installation and in compliance with the air flow.[3]
The installation used to produce sprayed particles (figure 1) is made of a 200 ml tank (1), an air-water spraying
device (2) and the connection hoses (3) to the compressed air mains at the working place and to the tank with
the inhibiting substance (5). A tap (4) is mounted on the compressed air hose of the spraying device.[6]
The spraying device for spraying the inhibiting substance has got the following parameters:
the working pressure: 0,3 0,6 MPa;
consumption of compressed air: 0,8 1,05 m3/min;
consumption of inhibiting solution: 0,8 1 l/min;
sprayed solution ratio: 90 100 %.

Figure 1. The installation used to produce sprayed particles

Treatment method with sprayed particles of inhibiting substance


Due to the inhibiting characteristics displayed by the phosphate during the coal oxidation and self-ignition process, coal oxidation and self-ignition process, a suitable treatment with sprayed particles from the phosphate
group shall diminish the risk of spontaneous combustions.[5]
To treat adequately a goaf, this spraying device shall be located in the cross drift of the blasted pre-crushing
raise. The sprayed device shall also be mounted in front of the holes in goafs where high concentrations of CO
were previously detected (over 0,1 % vol).
The spraying device shall be placed at a height of 1 -1,5 m from the mine floor, being orientated towards the
area that is to be treated with the help of sprayed particles and shall operate in every point for approximately
one hour.

Results
The experiment was carried out between April May 2003.
The effects of the sprayed particles of substance were multiple and they consisted mainly in the following aspects:

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the sprayed particles conveyed inside goafs and covered the coal left in goafs;
the coal dust in suspension from the cross drift adhered the sprayed particles; accordingly the air from
inside the working area cleared up within minutes from the spraying of the substance;
when spraying the inhibiting substance during blastings or immediately after blasting operations, the resulting gases and especially the toxic ones adhered to these inhibiting particles within minutes. This
might be one way to diminish the ventilation period necessary after performing a blasting.
During its formation, the sprayed particle shall cool the area and thus it shall dissipate the heat that comes up
during spontaneous combustions.
Engineering method to prevent the occurrence of spontaneous combustion with the help of chemical foam
and inhibiting substances
The mixture of chemical substances used for the treatment of goofs is made of phosphate mixted with a Foaming agent with a large expansion rates. [2] These substances are mixted with water and are injected into goafs
with the help of the installation shown in figure 2.

Description of the installation used for the treatment of goafs


The installation shown in Figure 2 is made of the following parts:
water supply network;
line mixer;
100 l tank for the mixture;
foam generating pipe;
device for the chemical foam ASC-3; it is made up of a 15 kW electric motor, air-driven motor and a
SADU type centrifugal pump.

Figure 2. Installation used for the treatment of goafs

Operating principle of the installation


Before the commissioning of this installation, it is necessary to mount the installation shown in fig. 2 and to
connect the whole installation to the mine water supply network or to the mudding networking.
To connect the sub-assemblies among them, there shall be used B and C type connecters used by firemen and
type C hoses with a diameter of 50 mm.
When the supply valve is turned on, water goes into the line mixer (3). During this stage, water shall also cross
an ejection convergent-divergent nozzle and shall absorb the mixture that was previously formed in the tank
(4), this making a suitable dosing between the amount of water and the mixture made of the chemical
substance and a foaming agent.
Then, this mixture crosses the foam generating pipe (2) under pressure. Here a large amount of air is being
absorbed and this foam gets an expansion rate of around 10. Due to the fact that this mixture displays a low
pressure when it leaves the foam generating pipe so that this mixture is thrown up to 6 8 m distance, it is
necessary to use ASC-3 (6) device for injection into drill holes. This one vacuums the foam from the pipe and
discharges it at high pressure inside the pipe located in the goaf.
The foam jet is driven towards goaf by pipes of 50 mm in diameter. Foam shall be introduced in the caved rock
by interspersing ASC-3 connected to the holes dirlled toward (see Fig. 2).
His operation shall go on until the whole amount of foam is introduced inside the goaf.
The treatment can be carried out in several stages.

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Effects of the goaf treatment with chemical substances


The chemical substances (the foaming agent together with the inhibiting substance sent to the goaf) have
allowed the carrying on of mining operations with no underground fires by reactivation. The mining of the
deposit with SCRI shall create the prerequisite to go with the mining of the Power sub-level by longwall mining
with undermined bed.
The use of chemical substances in goafs have led to:
a cooling of the influence area that has been covered by mixture of chemical substances;;
a diminished tendency to oxidation of the coal left in goafs, thus reducing the possibility of occurrence
of spontaneous combustions;
a diminution in the carbon dioxide concentration that exists as a result of a previous underground fire.
Spraying devices

General
The air-driven spraying device is intended either for producing sprayed particles of liquids, or for spraying of
powder substances. It can be used both in the mining industry (to fight against spontaneous combustions and
coal dust) and in other industries.[4]
The spraying device is made up of two levels, supplied separately with compressed air. The first level comprises
two coaxial bodies connected by a screw, so that their screwing shall change the size of the first interstice
through which the compressed air, come from the first coupling, penetrates the primary expansion chamber;
the interstice shall be determined by the blocking nut; the first level is screwed on the second level and
between the two levels there is an intermediate expansion chamber that can also be adjusted. This one has
several circular orifices for ventilation purpose. The second level is also made up of two screwed bodies that are
being fastened by a blocking nut so as to adjust the size of a second interstice through which the compressed
air, come from the second coupling, penetrates the intermediate expansion chamber and from here the final
expansion chamber. From here on, the sprayed particles are exhausted into the surrounding environment.
This spraying device can use both watery substances and powder substances from open tanks and can create
sprayed particles or powder jet of long action range. Another advantage is the fact that it can provide a large
adjusting range; so, it can increase or decrease the sprayed particles flow rate and it can adjust the size of
sprayed particles. This device has a relatively simple construction that can be done with relatively low costs.

Description
The spraying device has one 1st level that performs the depression necessary to absorb the watery solutions or
the powder substances and one 2nd level that transforms the air-water mixture (1st level) into sprayed particles
(Figure 3).
1st level is made of two separate bodies (3 and 4) which, by screwing on, they can vary an interstice a; thus, it is
produced the depression necessary by the expansion of compressed air introduced through a supply coupling 5
into a primary expansion chamber b where there is being produced the water-air mixture during the 1st stage
(water arrives by coupling 6). In order to settle the interstice a to a determined value, there shall be used a
blocking nut 7.
2nd level is made of two distinct bodies (8 and 9) which, by screwing on, they can vary a second interstice c;
thus, it is produced the depression necessary both to increase the depression created by the 1st level and to
introduce additional air by circular orifices d. This operation is being accomplished by the depression of the
compressed air that penetrates through the 2nd supply coupling 10 into the intermediate expansion chamber
e.
In order to determine the interstice c, there shall be used a blocking nut.
The 1st level is common body with the 2nd level by screwing means between bodies 3 and 8. By this operation,
the volume of the intermediate expansion chamber e can vary in relation to the needs.
During the last stage, the sprayed particles are made by mixing the air and the liquid in an expansion chamber
f. From here on, these sprayed particles are discharged into the air.
The watery solution or the powder can penetrate the spraying device, for example, through a flexible pipe that
shall be attached to the coupling 6. The depression created by the expansion of the compressed air, suppressed
through the interstice a, in the primary expansion chamber b, as well the depression created by the expansion
of compressed air, suppressed through the interstice c, shall produce the admission and the movement of the
liquid or of the powder substance inside the flexible pipe up to the interior of the device.

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The 2nd stage expansion of the compressed air and the possibility to adjust the size of interstices a and c and
the intermediate expansion chamber e, this device can provide a large adjustment range with direct results
over the flow rate and the size of the sprayed particles

Figure 3. Spraying device

Use of device
The spraying device represents the basic component part of the installation used during the prevention of
spontaneous combustion, method applied during the mining of self-oxidizing useful mineral substances. It has
to be underlined the fact that the above-mentioned method is being used by all hard coal mines in the Jiu Valley. Consequently, there have been recorded lesser underground fires at the National Hard Coal Company in
Petrosani.

3. CONCLUSIONS

Coal shall remain the dominant source for power generation worldwide.
One of the most important risk factors in the coal mining are the spontaneous combustions;
The researches that have been carried out during the last 5 years have materialized into patents and in
pending applications for patent.
Patent no. 120531 B1 refers to the spraying device which is the basic element of the installation used to
prevent the spontaneous combustion with inhibiting sprayed particles.
Patent no. 121710 / 2007 refers to the method for the prevention of spontaneous combustion with the
help of chemical substances injected into goafs.
Patent no. 126308 Method for preventing the spontaneous combustion of coal
Application for patent a 2003 / 01009 refers to the method for the prevention of spontaneous combustion on self-oxidizing mineral substance with the help of inhibiting sprayed particles.
Application for patent a 2005 / 0003 refers to the method for additional sealing of mine daws.
The large scale implementation of the patents in CNH Petrosani has diminished the underground fires,
with an increment of the safety during mining operations.

REFERENCES

[1]

Matei, I., Toth, I., Cioclea, D., Purcaru, S.I., Vochioiu, H - Combustia spontan n minele de crbune, editura PRINTEVEREST Deva, 2003.

[2]

Matei, I., Cioclea, D., Toth, I., Gligor, C., Purcaru, S.I., Voinoiu, N. - Prevenirea combustiilor spontane la extragerea crbunilor prin
metoda de exploatare cu banc subminat, editura AGORA, Clrai, 2004.

[3]

Toth, I. - Tehnologie de prevenire a combustiilor spontane la extragerea crbunelui prin metode de exploatare cu banc subminat, Program MENER, 2002 2004.

[4]

Brevet de invenie nr. 120533 B1.

[5]

Brevet de invenie nr. 121710 / 2007.

[6]

Brevet de inventie nr. 126308/2012.

[7]

Iosif Andras Resurse Minerale si dezvoltarea durabila, Buletin CENTIREM nr. 6/2012

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EVALUATION OF THE EXTERNAL RISKS


IN THE COAL MINING COMPANY KOSTOLAC, SERBIA

ABSTRACT
Marija KUZMANOVI1
Aleksandar MILUTINOVI2
Mirko VUJOEVI1
Biljana PANI1

University of Belgrade, Faculty of


Organizational Sciences, Serbia,
marija.kuzmanovic@fon.bg.ac.rs
2
University of Belgrade, Faculty of
Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia

Majority of contemporary companies operate in a turbulent environment


and plenty of their decision problems involving risk and uncertainty. This
particularly applies to the mining companies. Namely, mining project
managers frequently face important decisions regarding the best allocation of limited resources among mining projects that are characterized
by substantial financial risk and uncertainty. Thus, the challenge of sustainable development requires the mining industry to adopt proactive
risk management approaches that recognize, integrate and implement
the three pillars of social, environmental and economic sustainability.
This paper deals with analysis of external risks in the Serbian mining
company Kostolac, which deals with surface mining of coal. Kostolac is a
part of the state power utilities system with the function of supplying
power plants with the required fuel.
Since Kostolac is mining company of national interest, the external risks
have been identified as economic, financial, market, regulatory, risks
with regards to expropriation, geopolitical, social and environmental
risks. Based on the preliminary list of potential hazards, risk assessment
is carried out using method known as Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
(FMEA). FMEA is a tool originally developed for risk and reliability analysis
of various technical systems, and there is relatively little research on
how it can be applied to non-technical areas. Risk analysis is performed
based on current conditions for few potential scenarios that predict different types of changes in the analyzed period.

Keywords
External Risks, Evaluation, FMEA, Coal Mining, Kostolac

1. INTRODUCTION
Mining operations represent an activity with plenty of decision problems involving risk and uncertainty. Mining
project managers frequently face important decisions regarding the best allocation of scarce resources among
mining ventures that are characterized by substantial financial risk and uncertainty. The challenge of
sustainable development requires the mining industry to adopt proactive risk management approaches that
recognize, integrate and implement the three pillars of social, environmental and economic sustainability.
Regardless of the project importance (national, economic, etc.), minerals industry requires great investments in
most cases, which according to the amount and importance fall into the domain of critical business decisionmaking. Before investing in such projects, an analysis should be conducted and main and alternative sources of
financing should be selected, as well as the method of financing and the scheduled start and financing dynamics.
This paper deals with analysis of external risks in the Serbian mining company Kostolac, which deals with surface mining of coal. Kostolac is a part of the state power utilities system with the function of supplying power
plants with the required fuel. Since Kostolac is mining company of national interest, the external risks have

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been identified as economic, financial, market, regulatory, risks with regards to expropriation, geopolitical,
social and environmental risks.
To manage risk effectively, uncertainty and unpredictability must be recognized and, where possible, key information gaps need to be filled to reduce uncertainty. Many techniques, ranging from simple qualitative
methods to advanced quantitative methods, are available to help identify and analyze hazards.
In this paper risk assessment is carried out using method known as Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA).
FMEA is a very powerful and effective analytical tool which is widely used in engineering projects to examine
possible failure modes and eliminate potential failure during system designs. In particular, it provides design
engineers with quantitative or qualitative measures necessary to guide the implementation of corrective actions by focusing on the main failure modes and its impact on the products (Chen, 2007). FMEA has been widely
adopted by reliability practitioners and has become standard practice in worldwide manufacturing companies
(Chen, 2007; Hung, 1999). The main objective of FMEA is to prioritize potential failures according to their risk
and drives actions to eliminate or reduce their likelihood of occurrence. FMEA was successfully applied in many
areas such as automobiles, electronics, consumer products, power plants, and telecommunications. It has proven to be effective especially in higher-risk industries such as nuclear power. A FMEA, extended with the fuzzy
identification of failure modes, was performed to determine the affects of the aging process to the overall nuclear plant (Guimaraes and Lapa, 2007). Tsuru et al. (2008) show another use of FMEA in the nuclear power industry to identify the event sequences that need to be evaluated for safety purposes. In contrast to the extensive study of technical systems and processes, there is relatively little research on how FMEA can be applied to
non-technical areas. Functional FMEA, which involves human factors in evaluation of different automation alternatives, has been used to highlight the potential risks in automation technologies (Almannai et al., 2008).
Makajic-Nikolic et al. (2011) used FMEA to perform qualitative risk assessment of the public enterprise, Electric
Power Industry of Serbia.

2. METHOD
FMEA Methodology
The FMEA process is a way to identify the failures, effects, and risks within a process or product, and then, eliminate or reduce them. The main idea of FMEA is to generate a risk priority number (RPN) for each failure mode.
In the RPN methodology the parameters used to determine the criticality of an item failure mode are, the
severity of its failure effects, its frequency of occurrence, and the probability of the failure being detected before the impact of the effect is realized. Tables 1, 2 and 3 show the adopted qualitative scales used for the severity (S), the occurrence (O) and the detectability (D) indexes (Makajic-Nikolic et al., 2011). The changes were
made to the category criteria definitions to emphasis their implications for a managers decision making process.
The severity rating is the importance of the risk on end-user requirements. It is driven by risk effects and criticality and applies only to the effect. The occurrence rating of a risk is the frequency with which a given risk
occurs during the observed period. It refers to the average probability that the risk cause will occur. The detection rating is a measure of the capability of current controls. A detection rating indicates the ability to detect
or predict the risk before causing effect.
Table 1. Severity rating evaluation criteria

Severity

Rating

Description

Minor

1-2

Risk is of such minor nature that the management will probably not detect risk.

Low

3-4

Risk will result in slight management annoyance and concernment.

Moderate

5-6

Risk will result in management dissatisfaction and concernment.

High

7-8

Risk will result in high degree of dissatisfaction and cause serious concernment.

Extreme

9-10

Risk will result in major management dissatisfaction and serious concernment.

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Table 2. Occurrence rating criteria

Occurrence

Rating

Description

Minor

1-2

No risk ever associated with almost identical situations.

Low

3-4

Only isolated risk associated with almost identical situations.

Moderate

5-6

Generally associated with similar situations that have experienced occasional risk, but not in major
proportions.

High

7-8

Generally associated with similar situations that have often had the same risk; decision is not in
control.

Extreme

9-10

Risk is almost inevitable during the observed period.

Table 3. Detection rating criteria

Detection

Rating

Description

Very high

1-2

Very high probability that the risk will be detected/predicted during the observed period. Verification
or controls will almost certainly detect the existence of risk.

High

3-4

Verification or controls have a good chance of detecting the existence of risk.

Moderate

5-6

Verification or controls are likely to detect the existence of risk.

Low

7-8

Verification or controls not likely to detect the existence of risk.

Very low

9-10

Verification or controls will not or cannot detect the existence of risk.

The RPN is a mathematical product of the severity, the occurrence and the detection (Figure 1). The number is
used to identify the most critical failure mode, leading to corrective action. The higher the risk number, the
more serious the failure could be. A rule of thumb is to take a serious look at RPNs greater than 125 (Ayyub,
2003).

Figure 1. Process of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis FMEA (FMEA Cycle)

The list of items that are considered critical for reliable and/or safe operation of the system (Critical item list CIL) is further generated based on FMEA RPN. When the critical components have been identified and ranked, a
concerted effort can be placed on reducing the criticality of the most critical components in the system. Corrective actions should first be directed at the highest ranking concerns and critical items where causes are not
well understood. The purpose is to reduce the RPN by applying two types of corrective actions (Puente et al.,
2002): eliminate or control the source of the failure; or reduce the ratings of severity, occurrence, and detection.
Those corrective actions will, in many cases, result in changes in the criticality of individual components. For
this reason, a FMEA must be accomplished each time a component or subsystem change is executed. The critically ranking list is to be correspondingly revised to reflect changes in component criticality (Kececioglu, 2002)
Therefore, FMEA can be observed as a two-stage technique; the first phase is to identify the potential risks,
decide the value of Severity, Occurrence, Detection and calculate RPN. In the second phase, recommendations
for correct actions should be made, and the RPN needs to be re-calculated after correct actions (see Figure 1).

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A list of identified external risks in the coal mining company Kostolac


Kostolac is mining company of national interest and it is a part of the state power utilities system with the
function of supplying power plants with the required energy substance. External risks which have a primary
influence on mines of national importance are: economic, financial, market, regulatory, risks with regards to
expropriation, geopolitical, social and environmental risks. Further, we briefly described each of the identified
external risks with particular reference to the situation in the mining company Kostolac. Table 4 provides classifications and risk evaluation results, as well as results obtained using FMEA methodology.
The economic and financial risk analysis is mostly based on assumptions and estimates, such as costs, prices,
demand etc., and risk assessment requires an analysis of capital investments made in the past period of at least
10 years.
Financial risks refer to economic conditions in Serbia, which indirectly influence mining business. The major
financial risk is faced with is decrease of capital inflow and fall in foreign loans, which can be explained by the
global financial crisis and significantly low rating due to the ruling of the International Court of Justice and anti
corruption laws (Makajic et al. 2011). Although the mining Company Kostolac has its own resources (accumulated net income) for the planned project to increase production from 9 to 12 million tons of coal annually, additional resources must be provided either from state funds or by taking loans from the banks. Therefore, particularly significant are investment, inflation and interest rate risks.
Investment risks are characteristic for developing countries, and are defined by political and financial instability. Management of these risks requires help from the Government of the country where the project is being
implemented. In Kostolac, this risk is associated with commitment and determination of the Government to
create a favorable investment climate, or to invest in the Company that is strategically important to the State.
The Government is making certain attempts in that direction, however, consequences of the economic crisis
have reflected upon decrease of foreign capital influx into Serbia. The presence of this risk is moderate, but
easily predicted through monitoring of legal regulations, economic analyses and reports.
In the past inflation was a serious problem in Serbia. The net inflow of foreign capital and domestic savings can
increase investments and growth, trigger monetary expansion and increased competition and may trigger inflation (EBRD, 2008). The inflation rate can be predicted and controlled by certain economic policies and
measures. The likelihood of the inflation rate increasing is low, easily predicted, and the severity is moderate.
Until the end of 2008, the loan market operated normally and the financial sector developed fast. The progressive loan growth, however, was characterized by unfavorable interest rates, while bond transactions and loans
to Serbia subsided with the global crisis becoming deeper and more severe. The reduction of loans led to the
reduction in investments, while an overvalued exchange rate of the dinar largely contributed to the fall in exports. Interest rate risk can be regulated by certain economic measures. The likelihood of an interest rate increase is low, possibility of its detection is very high, while the severity rate is moderate.
With regards to the economic aspect, according to financial reports, the Company has in recent years had a
favorable ratio of operating income compared to operating expenses. However, the amount of capital is not
consistent with the amount of the capital reported with the registrar of the Serbian Business Registers Agency.
There are significant uncertainties influencing financial reports, financial position and operations, including the
future development and outcome of issues related to significant amounts of liabilities arising from loans from
foreign creditors and domestic banks. Since the Company had greater short-term liabilities than current assets
in the previous period, it is questionable whether the Company will in future be able to settle current liabilities
due to suppliers, creditors and lenders. However, the likelihood of lack of liquidity is high, possibility of its detection is very high, while the severity rate is moderate.
Market risk analyzes refer to assessment of the price of natural resources, market competition, variability of
the prices of raw material, the expenses of placing raw material, etc.
The main consumers of coal exploited in open pits are Kostolac power plants; therefore market risks such as
mode of market supply, changes in prices of mineral raw materials in the market, placing materials of other
producers, changes in demand, the differences in the quality of raw materials, etc. are irrelevant in this case. A
minor part of the mined coal (coal pieces) is used for the consumer population in the immediate and wider region, which is not of great importance for the business of the Company.
When assessing legal and regulatory risks, an analysis of various documentations is conducted (related to the
legal regulations and Contracts on concessions, technical documentations, permits and agreements, safety of
employees and property, etc).

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The management of the Company is constantly improving its own integrated system of management by respecting the laws, standards and other regulations governing mining and power production, especially activities of general interest in accordance with the European Union regulations and other international legal documents in the field of mining, energy, environmental protection, energy efficiency and standards of health and
safety.
Risks with regards to expropriation are connected with legal and regulatory risks in the segment of the Law
referring to the purchase or lease of land.
On the basis of the Law on Expropriation and the Law on Administrative Procedure, as proposed by "Power
Plants and Mines Kostolac, the Government of the Republic of Serbia adopted a resolution establishing the
public interest for expropriation. In accordance with the Regulation on the establishment of the Spatial Plan of
the Special Purpose Area of Kostolac coal basin on property in cadastre municipalities Klievac and Kostolac
village, located in the city of Pozarevac, this resolution specifies public interest for the administrative transfer
of property - land and facilities on the land, which by law may be subject to expropriation, or administrative
transfer of property with the aim of expanding the Surface mine "Drmno". Severity and likelihood of this risk
are low, while detection possibility is high.
Another risk to consider is environment protection risk. Besides founding new regulatory institutions, Serbia
built a set of legal frameworks for environment protection. In this area, Serbia is about 40 years behind the
developed countries of the European Union. About 30% of all activities that need to be done in order for Serbia
to be integrated into the European Union are associated with introduction and implementation of ecological
regulations and standards. The Law on Environmental Protection, which was put into effect at the end of 2004,
obliges companies to harmonize their operations with their stipulations by 2015, as well as with EU regulations.
That requires significant financial means which Kostolac should provide from its own resources, through
donations and international institutions. However,
During the last decade, the company has invested significantly in facilities for environmental protection, and
has participated in the construction of important infrastructure in Kostolac and surrounding villages, which
further reduces environmental pollution and increases the standard of living of the local population. One of
those projects is the construction of heating network in the village Drmno (near the power plant "Kostolac B")
and renovation of network in Kostolac. Severity and likelihood of this risk are moderate, and detection
possibility is high.
Geopolitical risks are in most of the literature divided into four categories. The first category is defined in
terms of the political risks of political events (the change or fall of the government, adverse government actions, etc). The second category comprises the political constraints influencing the mining industry (expropriation or nationalization, arbitrary restrictions, taxation and competition from the public sector). The third category includes political risks arising from both the business and political environment (damage due to civil unrest, internal or external war damages, revocation or disrespect of the contract, the losses arising from the
process of deterioration). The fourth category considers political risk in the context of the overall environment
without a detailed search for the definition of the concept of political risk.
Geopolitical risks in terms of foreign influence and destabilization of coal production do not directly jeopardize
the Company, considering that the service life is forecast to approximately 2040, which is not a strategic interest of economically, politically and militarily developed countries in Europe and worldwide. Civil unrest, adverse
governmental actions, internal and external war damage are also negligible potential risks with regard to the
socio-political situation, domestic and foreign policy.
Regional risk analysis is mainly carried out for mines which are of importance to a particular region or area
within a country. The state may or may not support the development of minerals industry of local interest. In
most cases, support is gained on the basis of the regional projects capital, and the funds are provided through
placement of resources in a given region.
The significance of surface mines and power plants "Kostolac" and their geographic location, offers great
possibilities for the development of the entire region through regional economic cooperation and
implementation of the preliminary project "Danube Strategies". From the perspective of regional development
with regards to coal mining and survival of the Company, the risks are minimal and observable.
Social risks arise mainly due to environmental degradation, loss of resources, threats to the health and safety
of workers and the population living in the vicinity of the mine, the increased influx of foreigners in the area of
mining, misuse of resources, loss of land, uneven distribution of benefits, changes in values, unequal participation in decision-making, etc. The above causes can lead to opposite views on industrial minerals, difficulties in

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financing mining operations, share price decline, the erosion of credibility, creation of a negative image for the
mining company, etc.
The Company supports projects in the fields of science, education, culture, health, humanitarian activities, religious organizations and sports through various forms of sponsorship and donations. Since the "Kostolac" Company is the only major company in Kostolac and the wider area, a large number of people and organizations
have been involved in coal mining and electricity production for a number of years. The open pit mining field
"Drmno" is the location of the well-known archaeological site "Viminacium" and its rapid development during
recent years is connected with the significant technical and financial assistance from the Company, including
the harmonization of mutual actions in order to simultaneously preserve the cultural heritage and enable the
uninterrupted production of coal and electricity.
Natural risks are impossible to predict or prevent. However, the mining field of Kostolac mines is located in an
area which is not jeopardized in terms of natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, stormy winds and
floods. The geological structure and geomorphology of the area is set out in the geological elaborates that
preceded the exploitation of coal, therefore adverse occurrences are not expected in this aspect. While severity
of this risk is high, likelihood of occurrence is minor and detection possibility is moderate.

3. RESULTS
The results of FMEA are shown in Table 4. Column RPN is the product of the values in columns O, D and C, while
the column Rank ranks failure modes. It is obvious that the most critical failure mode is Mass strikes of employees, because it is estimated that they can have severe impact on performance, and Occurrence is estimated to
be relatively high (from moderate to high). The second place is occupied by the financial risks which are estimated to have a moderate impact on performance but low Occurrence and Detectability. They are followed by
economic risks that are more likely to occur and have a moderate impact, but are easier to note. Market risks
are in last place, as expected, since Kostolac mining company is of national interest and has no competition,
therefore changes in the market have little impact.
Table 4.Extarnal risks in the coal mining company Kostolac, Serbia

Possible
effects

Failure mode

Possible mode of detection

Local

System

Yes

No

Economic analyses. A priori business predictions

RPN

Rank

70

Economic
Liquidity risks
Financial
Inflation risks

Yes

No

Macroeconomics predictions

96

Interest rate risks

Yes

No

Macroeconomics predictions

96

Investment risks

Yes

No

Monitoring of legal regulations. Macroeconomics


predictions

96

market price risk

No

No

Monitoring of local/regional market conditions

10

competition risk

No

No

Monitoring of local/regional market conditions

12

demand changes

Yes

No

Monitoring of local/regional market conditions

11

Regulatory

No

No

European standards implementation

18

Expropriation

Yes

No

Contact with local communities and analysis of


social and demographic causes and consequences

Environmental

Yes

No

Monitoring of legal regulations

48

Geopolitical

No

No

Monitoring of political environment

50

opposite attitudes
about the project

No

No

Monitoring of public opinion and stakeholders


attitudes

12

mass strikes of employees

Yes

Yes

European standards implementation

144

Natural

No

Yes

30

Market risks

Social

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4. DISCUSSION
An assessment of external risks was done according to the scenario of current events in terms of economic and
socio-political situation in the country and the region. For the open pit "Kostolac", external risks are easy to
identify and verify and on this grounds carry out assessment of both current risks and risks that would pose a
potential threat in the future. The gathered information and assessment provide the basis for developing a risk
control plan and management responses to certain scenarios that are not shown here.
The applied FMEA method for risk assessment in a non-technical field proved to be applicable in both qualitative and the quantitative aspects. Risk severity assessment, event probability and risk detection are sufficient
parameters for a relevant assessment of external risks.
According to the results of the analysis, Table 4, the occurence of external risks would cause adverse events
that could in part endanger the exploitation of the lignite open pit "Kostolac". Risks can generally be assessed
as medium, and such an assessment is contributed to by the difficult economic and financial situation in the
country which could lead to unplanned production stoppages or dissatisfaction with the social situation and
the standard of employees. On the other hand, the open pit "Kostolac" belongs to the state power system
which is one of the generators of external risks, in addtition to the natural ones, and it is expected that the
state itself will in the future minimize these risks. The decrease in the level of external risks will certainly be
influenced by the global economic and political situation in the region and in Europe.

REFERENCES

[1]

Chen J.K.: Utility priority number evaluation for FMEA. J Fail Anal Prev 2007, 7(5), pp 321328.

[2]

Hung G.Q., Nie M., Mar K.L.: Web-based failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). Comput Ind Eng, 1999, 37(12), pp 177180.

[3]

Guimaraes, A.C.F., Lapa, C.M.F.: Fuzzy inference to risk assessment on nuclear engineering systems, Applied Soft Computing, 7,
2007, pp 1728.

[4]

Tsuru, D., Enoeda, M., Akiba, M.: Recent progress in safety assessments of Japanese water-cooled solid breeder test blanket
module, Fusion Engineering and Design, 83, 2008, pp 17471752.

[5]

Almannai, B., Greenough, R., Kay, J.: A decision support tool based on QFD and FMEA for the selection of manufacturing automation technologies. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 24, 2008, 501507.

[6]

Makajic-Nikolic D., Jednak S., Benkovic S., Poznanic V.: Project finance risk evaluation of the Electric power industry of Serbia,
Energy Policy, 39(10), 2011, pp 6168-6177

[7]

Ayyub, B.M.: Risk Analysis in Engineering and Economics, Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2003.

[8]

Puente, J., Pino, R., Priore, P., Fuente, D.: A decision support system for applying failure mode and effects analysis, International
Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 19(2), 2002, pp 137150.

[9]

Kececioglu, D.B.: Reliability Engineering Handbook. DEStech Publications Inc, 2002.

[10]

EBRD, Transition Report 2008: Growth in Transition. EBRD, London, 2008.

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ASSESSMENT OF BLAST EFFECT OPEN PIT,,RANCI OF SHOCK


WAVES ON CONSTRUCTED FACILITIES AND ENVIRONMENT

ABSTRACT
Slobodan TRAJKOVI1
Suzana LUTOVAC1
Marina RAVILI1
Nikolinka DONEVA2

University of Belgrade, Faculty


of Mining and Geology, Belgrade,
R. Serbia
2
University Goce Delev, Faculty
of Natural and Technical Sciences,
Mining Institute, tip, R. Macedonia

The blast effect problem of shock waves is growing in the area surrounding blasting activities. In addition to damage shock waves may cause on
buildings and mining site facilities, they also impact badly human force
there, namely the environment. Lately considerable research in the
world has been dedicated to the examination and numeric modelling of
this phenomenon. Specific standards have been established defining the
blast effect margin level of shock waves on facilities and human force
there.
Numerous numerical and empirical models have been developed to predict and monitor them. In Serbia, there are no standards for the assessment of blast effect of shock waves. This paper deals with the assessment of blast effect of an open pit mine and specific conclusions that
have been drawn.

Keywords
Blasting, Shock wave, Measurement, Assessment, Margin level, Standard

1. INTRODUCTION
While carrying out mass blasts or blasting in urban environments where there are at the same time activated
explosive amounts from several to several thousand kilograms, adverse effects of blasting can occur. At a particular moment those adverse effects can be a problem for safe and secure blasting operations, especially if
people, varied constructed facilities, both on the surface and underground, are in the vicinity. Adverse effects
occurring while blasting are shock waves, seismic effects, fumes, flyrock, etc. [1]
Needs for the growing production of mineral raw materials have conditioned the use of a large quantity of explosives, which leads to the improvement of technical-economical indicators and, on the other hand, to the
increase of adverse effects accompanying blasting activities. Growing presence of blasting techniques in mining results from the fact that single blasting can replace the work of a large number of workers and machines
for a several month period.[1]
By carrying out blasting activities potential explosive energy is transferred into mechanical work. That energy
destroys and crushes a rock mass in the vicinity of a blast site further causing fractures and permanent
deformations in a rock mass, and, even further, is transferred into elastic deformations. Seismic waves
spreading through a rock mass cause the oscillation of soil and facilities, impact on the environment, etc.[1]

2. EFFECTS OF BLASTING ON CONSTRUCTED FACILITIES


The intensity assessment of shock waves induced by blast work breaking a rock mass and its impact on
construction facilities and an environment will be carried out on the basis of the following criteria: [3]
A. Effects of blasting on constructed and mine facilities
a) Criterion according to the Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPERAS) scale
b) Criterion according to the standard DIN- 4150 and
B. Effects of blasting on environment
a) Criterion according to the standard DIN- 4150. [3]

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A. Effects of blasting on constructed and mine facilities


* The criterion according to the IPERAS scale. One of the most commonly used criteria with us for the
assessment of shock wave intensity induced by blasting has been established by the Institute of Physics of the
Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences. The Russian scale (Table 1.) is of a descriptive type related to the
ocsillation velocity of soil particles and the degree of seismic intensity and is given in the form of 12 seismic
degrees. [3]
Table 1. IPERAS scale

Oscillation
Velocity v
[mm/s]

Level of
seismic
intensity

DESCRIPTION OF ACTIONS

To 2.0

Action is revealed only by instruments

2.0 4.0

II

Action is felt only in some cases when there is a complete silence

4.0 8.0

III

Action is felt by very few people or only those who are expecting it

8.0 15.0

IV

Action is felt by many people, the clink of the windowpane is heard

15.0 30.0

Plaster fall, damage on buildings in poor condition

15.0 30.0

Plaster fall, damage on buildings in poor condition

30.0 60.0

VI

Air cracks in plaster, damage, damage to buildings that already have developed
deformations

60.0 120.0

VII

Damage to buildings in good condition, cracks in plaster, parts of the plaster fall
down, air cracks in walls, cracks in tile stoves, chimney wrecking

120.0 40.0

VIII

Considerable deformations on buildings, cracks in bearing structure and walls,


bigger cracks in partition walls, wrecking of factory chimneys, fall of the ceiling

240.0 480.0

IX

Wrecking of buildings, bigger cracks in walls, exfoliation of walls, collapse of some


parts of the walls

Bigger than
480.0

X - XII

Bigger destruction, collapse of complete structures etc.

Deformations on the facilities, as it can be seen in Table 1., occur if oscillation velocity owing to blasting
exceeds the fourth degree of the seismic scale. The state of the facilities, soil charscteristics, as well as the
number and kinds of blasting activities should be taken into account for the assessment of blasting seismic
effects on buildings and other constructed facilities. [3]
* Criterion according to standard DIN-4150 In the Federal Republicof Germany, maximal tolerable limits for
the values of soil oscillation velocity are regulated in dependence on the significance and the state of facilities
for the frequency span from 5 to 100 Hz. Tolerable limits for the values of the soil oscillation velocity according
to DIN- 4150 are presented in Table 2. [3]
Table 2. Standard DIN-4150

Approximate values of
vibration velocity (v) mm/s
Row

Top floor
ceilings

Foundation

Type of the structure

Frequency, HZ
10

10-50

50-100

All
frequencies

Structures used for craftsmanship, industrial and similar structural structures

20

2040

4050

40

Dwelling buildings and structures similar in construction or function.

515

1520

15

Structures that because of their particular sensitivity to vibrations


do not fall into groups 1 and 2 and are essential for conservation
(for inst. as cultural-historical monuments)

38

810

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B. Effects of blasting on environment


* Effects on people in constructed facilities (buildings) according to DIN criteria data on vibration assessment
in the frequency span from 1 to 80 Hz are given by this standard. It is possible to evaluate any periodical and aperiodical oscillations by the assessment procedure. In the standard, there are stated requirements and approximate stress values of people in flats and rooms used for similar purposes. [3]
Jeopardizing of people by shock waves depends on the following factors: shock wave intensity (strength), frequency, duration of shock waves, frequent recurrence and the period of a day when they occur, the sort and
way of work of a shock wave source, individual characteristics and situational circumstances, health state
(physical psychical), activity during shock wave stress, the level of becoming used to them.
The assessment procedure of vibrations is taken on the basis of unweighted signals expressed by the vibration
intensity KBF. During assessment the maximal weighted vibration intensity KBFmax, is determined and if necessary the vibration intensity during assessment KBFTr which are compared with approximate values.
An unweighted vibration signal is a signal limited by the span and proportional to the vibration velocity in the
operating frequency range from 1 to 80 Hz.
A frequently weighted signal of vibrations is obtained from an unweighted vibration signal by filtration. The
obtained signal is weighted by the calculating procedure according to the relation:
HKB (f )

1
f
1 0
f

(1)

where there is: f frequency in Hz; f0 = 5.6 Hz (threshold frequency of high permeability filter).
On the basis of the obtained weighted signal, the KB value with time constant = 125 ms is calculated based on
the relation:
t

KB (t)

1
e
0

KB2 d

(2)
While determining weighted KB values, as experience shows, the aberration of 15% occurs.
The measurement of oscillation values must be carried out in the vertical direction (z) with two horizontal directions being at the right angle (x and y).
The assessment of obtained results according to DIN 4150 is carried out on the basis of two KB values:
KBFmax - maximal weighted vibration intensity (maximal KBt value),
KBFTr - maximal effective value in time interval.
The effective value of maximal values in time intervals KBFTr is determined via the relation:
KBFTm

1
N

KB

FTr

i 1

(3)
Both values (KBFmax, and KBFTr) are determined separately for all three components in x, y (horizontal) and z (vertical) directions. The assessment is carried out on the basis of that component which is the highest.
Values for assessment should be compared with approximate values: Au- lower margin, Ao-upper margin and ARresulting value, in Table 3. under the following conditions:
Table 3. Approximate values

Day

Night

Row

Workplace

Au

Ao

Ar

Au

Ao

Ar

A workplace where, in the vicinity, there are only industrial plants and
possibly flats for owners, managers and monitorial staff and workers on
duty (see industrial regions Article 9 Bau NVO, (Land Use Ordinance).

0,40

6,0

0,20

0,30

0,60

0,15

A workplace where, in the vicinity, there are predominantly located handicraft facilities (see craft fields Article 8. Bau NVO-(Land Use Ordinance).

0,30

6,0

0,15

0,20

0,40

0,10

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A workplace where, in the vicinity, there are neither predominantly located industrial plants nor flats (see central areas Article 6. Bau NVO, rural
areas Article 5. Bau NVO- Land Use Ordinance).

0,20

5,0

0,10

0,15

0,30

0,07

A workplace where, in the vicinity, there are predominantly or exclusively


residential areas (see pure residential areas Article 3 Bau NVO, general
residential areas Article 4. Bau NVO, small settlement areas Article.2. Bau
NVO).

0,15

3,0

0,07

0,10

0,20

0,05

A workplace work requiring special protection, for example in hospitals,


spa resorts, as well as special areas denoted for that purpose.

0,10

3,0

0,05

0,10

0,15

0,05

* if KBFmax value is lower than (upper) approximate value Ao or the same, then requirements according to this standard are met.
* if KBFmax is higher than (upper) approximate value Ao then requirements according to this standard are not met.
* for momentary activities which rarely occur, the requirement according to the standard is met if KBFmax is lower than Ao.
* for more frequent activities, where KBFmax is higher than Au but lower than Ao, another step of investigation is required in special cases,
namely the determination of the vibration intensity for the assessment of KBFTr. If KBFTr. is not higher than the approximate value Ar, according to the Table 3., then the requirements according to the standard are also met.
* the criterion Ar serves for the assessment of highly variable or only momentarily acting variations whose value KBFmax is higher than Au, but
lower than Ao.

3. CONDITIONS OF BLASTING AND MEASUREMENT CONDUCTING


The deposit location - The Ranci limestone deposit is situated on the farthest east slopes of the Suvobor
mountain massif. The deposit is situated northeast of the town of Gornji Milanovac and south of the town of
Ljig. The study area belongs administratively to the municipality of Gornji Milanovac and the land registry of
the village of Boljkovci. [2]
Geological setting - The deposit belongs to the group of exogenetic deposits. According to the genetic classification, the deposit belongs to a sedimentary type. The form of the ore body according to inner contours, defined by the research work is generally parallelepiped where the parallelepiped length along the NE-SW strike is
for about 210.0 m greater than the width along the NW-SE strike and about 22 times greater than the average
thickness of the productive deposit series.
On the basis of laboratory analyses of dolomite from the open pit Ranci- in the vicinity of the town of Ljig, the
following values of the most essential physico-mechanical properties have been determined:
* Comprehensive strength (mean values)
- in dry state
- in water saturated state

156 MPa
135 MPa

* Volume mass with interstices

2.82 g/cm3

* Volume mass without interstices

2.85 g/cm3

* water suction

0.217 %

* Velocity of longitudinal waves

5633,2

* Velocity of transversal waves

2659,2

The measuring of seismic effects, namely the oscillation velocity of soil particles (v) induced by blasting was
carried out by a measuring device of Vibralok type, a product of the Swedish Company ABEM. Basic characteristics of the seismograph Vibraloc are the following: [3]
- Manufacturer
- Measurement possibilities
- Number of components
- Frequency range
- Sampling
- Trigger levels
- Trigger levels of the canal A (air)
- Recording length
- Site location possibilities
- Data transfer and analysis

ABEM, Sweden
velocity, acceleration, motion and air impacts
lateral, vertical, longitudinal
2 - 250 Hz
1000; 2000 or 4000 Hz
0.1 200 mm/s
2 150 Pa
1 100 s or automatic length
flat floors, plates, foundations, soil etc.
UVSZ software; UVSZA software

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Measurement points were located at the following locations:


- Measurement point MM-1

constructed facility a house

- Measurement point MM-2

constructed facility a house

- Measurement point MM-3

constructed facility a house

- Measurement point MM-4

constructed facility a house

Data on conducted blasting and measuring No. I


Data on blasting: - The following means were used for this blasting: [1]
- Overall number of boreholes

Nuk

= 11

- Overall depth of boreholes

Luk

= 135,0 m

- Amount of explosive Riogel 60/1785

Q1

= 98,17 kg

- Amount of explosive Anfo-J

Q2

= 186,0 kg

- Overall amount of explosive

Quk

= 284,17 kg

- Max. amount of explosive per one interval

Qi

= 25,92 kg

- Length of intermediary stemming

Lms

= 1,0 1,2 m

- Length of stemming

Ls

= 3,6 4,2 m

- Rudnel detonators, 25/4500 ms

Nu

= 22 piece

- Amount of slow-burning fuse

Lsf

= 1,0 m

- Delay action cap, DK-8

NDK

= 1 piece

Instrumental observations The recording of seismic waves was carried out with four to five instruments. In Table 4. there are presented results of measuring for each measurement point. [1]

Table 4. Instrumental observations

Dist. from
blasting
field to
measuring
point, m

Max.
quantity
per one
inter. kg.

MM-1

321,0

25,92

MM-2

282,0

25,92

MM-3

200,0

MM-4

342,0

Measu
ring
poi.
M.P.

Overall
quantity
of exp. in
kg.

Max. oscillation velocity per comp. mm/s

VV

VT

VL

284,17

2,013

2,759

1,839

284,17

2,999

2,971

2,227

25,92

284,17

4,411

7,192

2,697

25,92

284,17

1,528

1,485

1,348

Max.
oscilla.
velocity
per
comp. vr,

mm/s
3,879
4,773
8,857
2,521

Real result. max.


oscilla.
velocity

Evaluation
of measurement
results Hz

vst, mm/s

3,120
3,630
7,390
1,990

30,2

22,3

31,2

48,8

52,8

55,8

37,9

37,5

40,0

44,1

48,1

40,0

Data on conducted blasting and measuring No. II

Data on blasting: - The following means were used for this blasting: [1]
- Overall number of boreholes

Nuk

= 24

- Overall depth of boreholes

Luk

= 292,0 m

- Amount of explosive Riogel 60/1785

Q1

= 208,84 kg

- Amount of explosive Anfo-J

Q2

= 384,00 kg

- Overall amount of explosive

Quk

= 592,84 kg

- Max. amount of explosive per one interval

Qi

- Length of intermediary stemming

Lms

= 1,0 1,2 m

= 26,71 kg

- Length of stemming

Ls

= 3,5 4,5 m

- Rudnel detonators, 17/4500 ms

Nu

= 48 piece

- Amount of slow-burning fuse

Lsf

= 1,0 m

- Delay action cap, DK-8

NDK

= 1 piece

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Instrumental observations The recording of seismic waves was carried out with four to five
instruments. In Table 5. there are presented results of measuring for each measurement point. [1]

Table 5. Instrumental observations

Dist. from
blastin field
to
measuring
point, m

Max.
quantity
per one
inter. kg.

MM-1

330,0

26,71

MM-2

290,0

26,71

MM-3

210,0

MM-4

331,0

Measu
ring
poi.
M.P.

Max. oscilation
velocity per comp.

Overall
quantity
of exp. in
kg.

mm/s
VV

VT

VL

592,84

1,425

1,501

1,570

592,84

1,250

1,131

1,035

26,71

592,84

2,602

6,177

2,233

26,71

592,84

1,638

1,395

0,840

Max.
oscila.
velocity
per comp.

vr, mm/s
2,597
1,978
7,065
2,309

Real
result.
max.
oscilla.
velocity

vst, mm/s
1,920
1,550
6,600
1,950

Evaluation
of measurement
results Hz

27,5

19,0

30,2

50,6

50,2

57,7

37,4

35,9

27,7

48,5

37,5

47,7

Data on conducted blasting and measuring No. III


Data on blasting: - The following means were used for this blasting: [1]
- Overall number of boreholes

Nuk

- Overall depth of boreholes

Luk

= 28
= 285,0 m

- Amount of explosive Riogel 60/1785

Q1

= 282,03 kg

- Amount of explosive Anfo-J

Q2

= 560,00 kg

- Overall amount of explosive

Quk

= 842,03 kg

- Max. amount of explosive per one interval

Qi

- Length of intermediary stemming

Lms

= 1,0 1,2 m

= 30,71 kg

- Length of stemming

Ls

= 3,5 4,5 m

- Rudnel detonators, 25/4500 ms

Nu

= 56 piece

- Amount of slow-burning fuse

Lsf

= 1,0 m

- Delay action cap, DK-8

NDK

= 1 piece

Instrumental observations The recording of seismic waves was carried out with four to five
instruments. In Table 6. there are presented results of measuring for each measurement point.

Table 6. Instrumental observations [1]

Measu
ring
poi.
M.P.

Dist. from
blastin field
to
measuring
point, m

Max.
quantity
per one
inter. kg.

346,0

30,71

Max. oscilation
velocity per comp.

Overall
quantity
of exp. in
kg.

mm/s
VV

VT

VL

1,741

2,384

1,727

Max.
oscila.
velocity
per
comp. vr,

Real
result.
max.
oscilla.
velocity

vst, mm/s
2,530
2,240
6,140
1,870

MM-2

307,0

30,71

842,03

1,908

1,286

1,372

MM-3

225,0

30,71

842,03

3,948

5,559

2,918

mm/s
3,420
2,679
7,416

MM-4

320,0

30,71

842,03

1,233

1,522

1,009

2,203

MM-1

842,03

Evaluation
of measurement
results Hz

23,9

18,7

39,1

17,4

17,7

21,9

19,4

34,9

20,9

40,0

41,0

37,0

Data on conducted blasting and measuring No. IV


Data on blasting: - The following means were used for this blasting: [1]

- Overall number of boreholes

Nuk

= 36

- Overall depth of boreholes

Luk

= 420,0 m

- Amount of explosive Riogel 60/1785

Q1

= 374,85 kg

- Amount of explosive Anfo-J

Q2

= 720,00 kg

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- Overall amount of explosive

Quk

- Max. amount of explosive per one interval

Qi

- Length of intermediary stemming

Lms

= 1.094,85 kg
= 32,49 kg
= 1,0 1,2 m

- Length of stemming

Ls

= 3,5 4,5 m

- Rudnel detonators, 25/4500 ms

Nu

= 74 piece

- Amount of slow-burning fuse

Lsf

- Delay action cap, DK-8

NDK

= 1,0 m
= 1 piece

Instrumental observations The recording of seismic waves was carried out with four to five
instruments. In Table 7. there are presented results of measuring for each measurement point. [1]

Table 7. Instrumental observations

Measu
ring
poi.
M.P.

Dist. from
blastin field
to
measuring
point, m

Max.
quantity
per one
inter. kg.

360,0

32,49

Max. oscilation
velocity per comp.

Overall
quantity
of exp. in
kg.

mm/s
VV

VT

VL

2,148

4,083

2,355

Max.
oscila.
velocity
per comp.

vr, mm/s

MM-2

320,0

32,49

1.094,85

1,727

1,596

2,340

MM-3

238,0

32,49

1.094,85

4,543

5,758

3,714

5,179
3,317
8,221

MM-4

306,0

32,49

1.094,85

1,616

3,960

1,525

4,540

MM-1

1.094,85

Real
result.
max.
oscilla.
velocity

vst, mm/s
4,210
2,480
5,830
4,020

Evaluation of
measurement
results Hz

28,9

23,7

27,4

22,2

26,1

54,2

31,6

41,8

30,8

39,1

37,7

33,8

Data on conducted blasting and measuring No. V

Data on blasting: - The following means were used for this blasting: [1]
- Overall number of boreholes

Nuk

= 43

- Overall depth of boreholes

Luk

= 480,0 m

- Amount of explosive Riogel 60/1785

Q1

= 399,84 kg

- Amount of explosive Anfo-J

Q2

= 1.075,00 kg

- Overall amount of explosive

Quk

= 1.474,84 kg

- Max. amount of explosive per one interval

Qi

- Length of intermediary stemming

Lms

= 1,0 1,2 m

- Length of stemming

Ls

= 3,5 4,5 m

- Rudnel detonators, 17/500 ms

Nu

= 86 piece

- Amount of slow-burning fuse

Lsf

= 1,0 m

- Delay action cap, DK-8

NDK

= 33,92 kg

= 1 piece

Instrumental observations The recording of seismic waves was carried out with four to five
instruments. In Table 8. there are presented results of measuring for each measurement point. [1]

Table 8. Instrumental observations

Measu
ring
poi.
M.P.

Max.
quantity
per one
inter. kg.

370,0

33,92

Max. oscilation
velocity per comp.

Overall
quantity
of exp. in
kg.

mm/s
VV

VT

VL

0,927

2,075

1,211

Max.
oscila.
velocity
per
comp. vr,

Real
result.
max.
oscilla.
velocity

vst, mm/s
2,080
1,860
4,160
6,580

MM-2

332,0

33,92

1.474,84

1,091

1,354

1,430

MM-3

250,0

33,92

1.474,84

2,249

4,037

2,476

mm/s
2,575
2,251
5,242

MM-4

292,0

33,92

1.474,84

3,564

6,165

3,867

8,103

MM-1

Dist. from
blastin field
to
measuring
point, m

1.474,84

195

Evaluation of
measurement
results Hz

29,0

13,1

17,0

13,6

18,3

18,7

29,3

14,0

32,6

50,2

41,5

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Data on conducted blasting and measuring No. VI

Data on blasting: - The following means were used for this blasting: [1]
- Overall number of boreholes

Nuk

= 66

- Overall depth of boreholes

Luk

= 515,0 m

- Amount of explosive Riogel 60/1785

Q1

= 487,30 kg

- Amount of explosive Anfo-J

Q2

= 1.950,00 kg
= 2.437,30 kg

- Overall amount of explosive

Quk

- Max. amount of explosive per one interval

Qi

- Length of intermediary stemming

Lms

= 1,0 1,2 m

- Length of stemming

Ls

= 3,0 4,0 m

- Rudnel detonators, 17/500 ms

Nu

= 132 piece

- Amount of slow-burning fuse

Lsf

- Delay action cap, DK-8

NDK

= 38,92 kg

= 1,0 m
= 1 piece

Instrumental observations The recording of seismic waves was carried out with four to five instruments. In Table 9. there are presented results of measuring for each measurement point. [1]

Table 9. Instrumental observations

Max.
oscila.
velocity
per comp.

Real result. max.


oscilla.
velocity

1,901

vr, mm/s
2,732
1,865
4,549

4,066

9,633

vst, mm/s
2,110
1,370
3,930
7,270

Measu
ring
poi.
M.P.

Dist. from
blastin field
to measuring point, m

Max.
quantity
per one
inter. kg.

Overall
quantity
of exp. in
kg.

Max. oscilation velocity per comp. mm/s

VV

VT

VL

MM-1

384,0

38,92

2.437,30

1,402

1,920

1,346

MM-2

346,0

38,92

2.437,30

1,114

1,128

0,983

MM-3

263,0

38,92

2.437,30

1,786

3,728

MM-4

278,0

38,92

2.437,30

5,977

6,367

Evaluation of
measurement results Hz

31,6

26,6

26,5

20,6

41,5

21,4

30,0

11,2

16,5

53,7

37,9

44,2

4. ASSESMENT OF MEASUREMENT RESULTS


The assesment of intensity of shock waves induced by blasting on breaking rock mass and its impact on
surrounding facilities and environment, will be conducted on the basis of the following criteria:
A. Effects of blasting on constructed and mine facilities:
a) Criterion according to Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPERAS) scale.
b) Criterion according to the standard DIN-4150
B. Effects of blasting on environment
a) Criterion according to the standard DIN-4150.
In order to conduct the assessment of induced shock waves by these three criteria, in Table 10., there have
been given recorded values of velocity by components, resulting maximal oscillation velocity, frequency by
components, as well as the KB calculated value whose values will be compared with the values presented in
Tables 1. 2. and 3.
To assess the shock wave intensity the following marks were used to fill in Table 10.:
A. Effects of blasting on constructed and mine facilities
The criterion according to the IPERAS scale (facilities of the third class according to Table 1. taken into
account)

A it meets requirements within thresholds of oscillation velocity


B it does not meet requirements, above thresholds of oscillation velocity

The criterion according to DIN 4150 standard (facilities of the second class according to Table 2. taken
into account)

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C it meets requirements within thresholds of oscillation velocity


D it does not meet requirements, above thresholds of oscillation velocity
B. Effects of blasting on environment according to DIN standard (Table 3.)

E it meets requirements within threshold values


F it does not meet requirements, above threshold values
In Figure 1 4. there is shown the value of wave component as well as the KBfm. value.

Figure 1. Velosity shot for blasting No. I, measurement point MM-1

2.5

KBfm = 2.6947

1.5
-2

-4

0.5

-6
-8

Figure 2. Value of the vertical component Vv and KBfm. Blasting number II, measuring MM-3

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1.5

0.7

0.6

KBfm = 0.58843

0.5

0.5

0.4
0
0.3
-0.5

0.2

-1
-1.5

0.1

0.5

1.5

2.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

2.5

Figure 3. Value of the vertical component Vv and KBfm. Blasting number III, measuring MM-4

1
KBfm = 0.87224

0.8

0.6

-1

0.4

-2

0.2

-3

0.5

1.5

2.5

0.5

1.5

Figure 4. Value of the vertical component Vv and KBfm. Blasting number V, measuring MM-1
Table 10. Results of blasting and measuring conducted at the open pit ,,Ranci in the vicinity of the town of Ljiga.

Blasting
No.

II

III

IV

Max.
quantity
per one
inter. kg.

MM-1

321,0

25,92

284,17

2,013

2,759

MM-2

282,0

25,92

284,17

2,999

2,971

MM-3

200,0

25,92

284,17

4,411

7,192

Measuring
point M.P.

Overall
quantity
of exp. in
kg.

Maximum oscilation
velocity per comp.
mm/s

Dist. from
blastin field
to measuring point

VV

VT

Frequency per components,


Hz

Res. max.
oscilation
velocity
mm/s

KBfm

1,839

3,879

1,139

30,2

22,3

31,2

2,227

4,773

0,971

48,8

52,8

55,8

2,697

8,857

0,830

37,9

37,5

VL

Evaluation of measurement results


By
DIN

By
DIN
(KBfm
)

40,0

By
IFZA

MM-4

342,0

25,92

284,17

1,528

1,485

1,348

2,521

0,583

44,1

48,1

40,0

MM-1

330,0

26,71

592,84

1,425

1,501

1,570

2,597

0,499

27,5

19,0

30,2

MM-2

290,0

26,71

592,84

1,250

1,131

1,035

1,978

0,445

50,6

50,2

57,7

MM-3

210,0

26,71

592,84

2,602

6,177

2,233

7,065

2,694

37,4

35,9

27,7

MM-4

331,0

26,71

592,84

1,638

1,395

0,840

2,309

0,316

48,5

37,5

47,7

MM-1

346,0

30,71

842,03

1,741

2,384

1,727

3,420

0,805

23,9

18,7

39,1

MM-2

302,0

30,71

842,03

1,908

1,286

1,372

2,679

0,579

17,4

17,7

21,9

MM-3

225,0

30,71

842,03

3,948

5,559

2,918

7,416

0,912

19,4

34,9

20,9

MM-4

320,0

30,71

842,03

1,233

1,522

1,009

2,203

0,588

40,0

41,0

37,0

MM-1

360,0

32,49

1.094,85

2,148

4,083

2,355

5,179

1,062

28,9

23,7

27,4

MM-2

320,0

32,49

1.094,85

1,727

1,596

2,340

3,317

0,608

22,2

26,1

54,2

MM-3

238,0

32,49

1.094,85

4,543

5,758

3,714

8,221

1,886

31,6

41,8

30,8

MM-4

306,0

32,49

1.094,85

1,616

3,960

1,525

4,540

1,424

39,1

37,7

33,8

MM-1

370,0

33,92

1.474,84

0,927

2,075

1,211

2,575

0,872

29,0

13,1

17,0

MM-2

332,0

33,92

1.474,84

1,091

1,354

1,430

2,251

0,446

13,6

18,3

18,7

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VI

MM-3

250,0

33,92

1.474,84

2,249

4,037

2,476

5,242

1,589

29,3

14,0

32,6

MM-4

292,0

33,92

1.474,84

3,564

6,165

3,867

8,103

2,143

50,2

41,5

42,1

MM-1

384,0

38,92

2.437,30

1,402

1,920

1,346

2,732

0,784

31,6

26,6

26,5

MM-2

346,0

38,92

2.437,30

1,114

1,128

0,983

1,865

0,407

20,6

41,5

21,4

MM-3

263,0

38,92

2.437,30

1,786

3,728

1,901

4,549

1,511

30,0

11,2

16,5

MM-4

278,0

38,92

2.437,30

5,977

6,367

4,066

9,633

2,502

53,7

37,9

44,2

5. CONCLUSION
The estimate of shock wave effects on constructed facilities and the environment, while carrying out blasting
activities at the open pit Ranci, was made at surrounding constructed facilities according to the criteria of IPERAS, Russian standards for mine facilities and DIN-4150. On the basis of the carried out measurements it can
be concluded:
the recorded values of oscillation velocity in the vicinity of the mine (the measurement points: MM-1,
MM-2; MM-3 and MM-4), meet requirements within threshold values, thus do not affect constructed facil-

ities.

predominant frequencies range from 25,5 35,5 Hz, thus do not affect people in the surrounding facilities.
for more detailed perception of blasting effects on constructed facilities, it is necessary to establish the
state of constructed facilities (the way of constructing, the resistance of facilities, the age of facilities,
etc.), as well as to monitor occasionally shock waves in the vicinity of the mine.
in addition to determining of blasting effects on constructed facilities, the KBfm values, namely the impact of rock mass oscillation velocity on environment, were also determined. The KBfm values according
to the results presented in Table 10. with constructed facilities where measurements were conducted do
not exceed threshold values according to.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This paper is produced from the Project No.33029 which is funded by means of the Ministry of Education and
Science of the Republic of Serbia, realized by Faculty for Mining and Geology, Belgrade.

REFERENCES
[1]

Marina R.: Analiza uticaja miniranja na ivotnu sredinu i graevinske objekte, Master rad, RGF Beograd, 2012

[2]

Slobodan T., Suzana L., Marina R.: Studija seizmikih uticaja na okolne graevinske objekte kao posledica izvoenja miniranja na
PK ,,RANCI kod Ljiga, RGF Beograd, 2012

[3]

Slobodan T., Slimak, ., Suzana L.: Tehnika miniranja i potresi, Knjiga, RGF Beograd, 2005 4 Medvedev S.V.: Seizmika gornih
vzrivov, Nedra, Moskva, 1964

[4]

Fokin V.A., Tarasov G.E., Togunov M.B., Danilkin A.A., itov Y.A.: Soverenstvovanie tehnologii burovzrwvnwh rabot na predelxnom konture karxerov, Apatitw: Izd-vo Kolxskogo naunogo centra RAN, Moskva, 2008

[5]

Slobodan T.: Oblast primene zakona brzine oscilovanja stenske mase izazvane miniranjem sa posebnim osvrtom na rudarske radove, Doktorska disertacija, RGF Beograd, 1993

[6]

Milenko S.: miniranje na povrinskim kopovima, Monografija, RTB Bor Institut za bakar Bor, Indok centar, Bor, 2000

[7]

Slimak .: Inenjerska geofizika , RGF Beograd, 1996

[8]

adeev A.B.: drobee i sejsmieskoe deistvie vzrwvov na karqerah, Nedra - Moskva, 1972

[9]

Langefors U., Kichistrom B.: The modern tehnique of rock blasting, 1967

[10] Aleksandar R.: Seizmika miniranja, Drutvo inenjera i tehniara, NIS Naftagas, Novi Sad, 2005.

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MINERS` EXPOSURE TO GASEOUS CONTAMINATES


CURRENT SITUATION AND LEGISLATION

ABSTRACT
Dejan MIRAKOVSKI1
Marija HADZI-NIKOLOVA1
Nikolinka DONEVA1
Stojance MIJALKOVSKI1
Gorgi VEZENKOVSKI2
1

Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, University Goce Delcev Stip,


Republic of Macedonia
2
SASA Mine, Makedonska Kamenica,
Republic of Macedonia

In a light of ever increasing public sensitivity to professional illnesses and


accidents, regulators start to strength TLVs for most of gaseous contaminants present especially in mining industry. This face new challenges for operators, now forced to implement better control, as much as to
seek new tools and means in order to achieve the strengthened limits.
This paper gives overview of current industry best practices and regulations, concerning workplace exposure limits to gaseous pollutants and
also presents some experiences about current level of miners exposure
in some Macedonian mines. Also a brief description of exposure assessment and control techniques are given.

Keywords
Exposure, Gaseous Pollutants, Regulations, Control

1. INTRODUCTION
Environment created by dynamic modern mining industry and due to an ever increasing intensity of production
processes, including more powerful diesel equipment and increased blasting frequency and power, significantly
increased risk of miners` exposure to potentially harmful gases such as CO, CO2, NO and NO2. Taking this into
account, and the lack of specific data that would reflect the actual exposure of miners to these contaminants,
determination of miners exposure and better workplace control is a challenging task.
Diesel equipment and blasting are the most significant sources of gaseous contaminants in underground as well
as surface mines. The type and quantity of gases evolved from mining are directly dependent of the type and
amount of explosives that used, while the type, quantity and characteristics of exhaust gases and particulate
matters from diesel equipment primarily depend on the fuel quality, oxygen content in working atmosphere,
vehicles quality and equipment for filtration (catalysts).
The best method for dealing with gaseous contaminants in mines is a quality ventilation system that will provide enough oxygen and freshness, dilute gases and their removal from workplaces. The efficiency of underground ventilation system plays a significant role in miners`exposure to gaseous contaminants.

2. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS


Indicative Occupational Exposure Limit Values (IOELVs) are health-based limits set under the Chemical Agents
Directive (98/24/EC). The Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) advise the European
Commission on limits. This committee evaluates the scientific information available on hazardous substances
and makes recommendations for the establishment of an IOELV.
IOELVs are listed in Directives which Member States are obliged to implement by introducing national limits for
the substances listed.
IOELV Directives require Member States to establish national occupational exposure limits for the chemical
agents in question, taking into account the European values. In Republic of Macedonia as a candidate Member
States on EU occupational exposure limits are identical, or very close to the IOELV.
Occupational exposure limits (OEL) are set in order to help protect the health of workers. OELs are concentrations of hazardous substances in the air, averaged over a specified period of time, referred to as a timeweighted average (TWA). Two time periods are used:

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Long-term exposure limit (8-hours TWA reference)


Short-term exposure limit (STEL) (15 minutes)
Effects of exposure to substances hazardous to health vary considerably depending on the nature of the substance and the pattern of exposure. Some effects require prolonged or accumulated exposure.
The long-term (8-hour TWA) exposure limit is intended to control such effects by restricting the total intake by
inhalation over one or more workshifts, depending on the length of the shift. Other effects may be seen after
brief exposures.
Short-term exposure limits (usually 15 minutes) may be applied to control these effects. For those substances
for which no short-term limit is specified, it is recommended that a figure of three times the long-term limit be
used as a guideline for controlling short-term peaks in exposure. Some workplace activities give rise to frequent
short (less than 15 minutes) periods of high exposure which, if averaged over time, do not exceed either an 8hour TWA or a 15-minute TWA. Such exposures have the potential to cause harm and should be subject to reasonably practicable means of control unless a suitable and sufficient risk assessment shows no risk to health
from such exposures.
Short-term exposure limits (STELs) are set to help prevent effects such as eye irritation, which may occur following exposure for a few minutes.
Occupational exposure limits on gases commonly occur in underground mines such as CO2, CO, NO2, and NO
according to Recommendations of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and
the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), European (EOEL) and Macedonian occupational exposure limits (MOEL) are given in Table 1.
Table 1. OEL on mining gases according to Recommendations of the ACGIH and NIOSH, EOEL and MOEL

Substance

Carbon
dioxide
(CO2)

Density
at 20C
and 100
kPA
[kg/m3]

1.805

Carbon
monoxide
(CO)

1.149

Nitrous
monoxide
(NO)

1.231

Nitrous
dioxide
(NO2)

1.888

Occupational exposure limits (ppm)


Relative
density
of dry air

Main sources
in mines

1.519

Oxidation of
carbon, fires,
explosions,
diesel engines,
detonations

0.967

Fires, explosions, diesel


engines, not
complete
combustion of
explosives

No

Diesel engines,
blasting,
welding

Acidic
smell and
taste

Diesel engines,
blasting,
welding

Reddishbrown,
acidic
smell and
taste

1.036

1.588

Odor,
color,
taste

No

Hazards

Rapid
breathing

ACGIH and
NIOSH

EOEL

MOEL

Methods of
detection

TWA

STEL

TWA

STEL

TWA

STEL

5000

30000

5000

15000

5000

Optical,
infrared,
colorimetric

50

200

30

200

30

Electro chemical, catalytic


oxidation,
infrared,
colorimetric

Rapidly
oxidized to
NO2

25

25

Electro chemical, infrared,


colorimetric

Very toxic,
lungs and
throat
irritation,
lung infections

Electro chemical,
colorimetric

Highly
toxic,
explosive

3. METHODS OF PERSONAL EXPOSURE DETECTION


Due to the specific conditions that exist in underground mines determination of personal exposure to gaseous
contaminants presents very complex procedure. One of the possible methods that proved as a relatively good
and practical is colorimetric measurement with GASTEC dosimetric tubes because of following reasons:
Ease of use;
Resistant to mining environment impact (humidity, dust, temperature, etc.);
No additional equipment for use (chargers, batteries, laboratory tests) is required;
No calibration is required.
Colorimetric measurements with GASTEC dosimetric tubes, were used for determination of miners` exposure to
CO and NO2 in largest national mining companies as a joint effort of MMA - Macedonian Mining Association in

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collaboration with Mining Engineering Department at Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences University
Goce Delcev in Stip. The measurement campaign includes two hard rock metallic mines, one underground
operation (A) with 750.000 tons per year output and surface mine (B) with more than 8.000.000 tons per year
total output. In mine A (underground operation with 6 active production areas) indicated group of exposed
workers involved operators of diesel powered equipment, blasting specialist and production supervisors. Due to
a difference of working conditions and suspected level of exposure two sub-groups where formed, workers from
production areas under the general ventilation system and workers from development areas where auxiliary
ventilation is usually applied. The group of workers from production areas included two 2 diesel loader drivers,
2 drill jumbo operators and 2 blasting specialists, while group of workers from underground construction areas
was consisted of 1 diesel loader driver, 1 jumbo drill operator and 1 blasting specialist. Supervisor of each of
the groups was also included in the assessment.
Compiled assessment data including 36 readings for each pollutant from Mine A, are given in the Table 2.
Table 2. 8 hours TWA exposure in Mine A

Shift I
Working position

CO ppm

Shift II

NO2 ppm

CO ppm

NO2 ppm

Shift III
CO ppm

NO2 ppm

Production Group
LHD driver 1

11,85

1,325

15,5

1,425

13,25

1,55

LHD driver 2

9,75

1,075

12,25

1,05

11,53

0,95

Drilling operator 1

10,55

0,75

9,25

0,75

8,51

0,25

Drilling operator 2

7,50

0,25

8,50

0,50

6,52

0,25

Blasting operator 1

8,20

0,55

8,75

0,95

11,25

2,15

Blasting operator 2

4,50

0,25

7,325

0,75

9,75

1,85

Supervisor 1

10,25

0,87

7,85

0,25

7,85

0,50

Supervisor 2

9,25

0,55

5,25

0,25

5,55

0,25

Development group
22,5

2,50

25,80

2,25

19,85

1,55

Drilling operator

16,37

1,85

14,75

2,15

12,25

1,25

Blasting operator

11,25

1,55

10,05

1,85

11,85

2,05

Supervisor

12,50

1,25

12,5

1,50

9,85

1,15

LHD driver

Average exposure of working positions in different groups are given in Table 3.


Table 3. Average exposure of working positions in different groups

Average exposure (8 hours TWA)


Production Group

Development Group

Working position

CO ppm

NO2 ppm

CO ppm

NO2 ppm

LHD drivers

12,41

1,23

15,84

1,52

Drilling operator

8,47

0,46

10,47

0,89

Blasting operator

8,30

1,08

9,21

1,33

Supervisor

7,67

0,45

8,98

0,73

Average exposures of different working positions obtained in Macedonian study are generally higher, compared
to data from the extensive study in German potash mines (Dahman, Monz, Snksen 2007) as shown on Figure 1.
Although the results obtained are below the regulation limits and atmosphere could be regarded as safe, this
data indicates that more effort on workplace atmosphere control should take place.
This study also concluded that efficiency of ventilation underground play a significant role in overall exposures,
which is clearly indicated for all working positions in development group usually operating under local exhaust
ventilation systems. Workers in development group are in average 10 to 48 % more exposed compared to corresponding positions in production group.

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Figure 1. Average exposure of LHD drivers

4. CONCLUSION
The strengthened TLVs for most of gaseous contaminants present especially in mining industry, put a new challenges for operators, now forced to implement better control, as much as to seek new tools and means in order
to achieve the strengthened limits. Control measures are focused to determine miners exposure to gaseous
contaminants, aiming to provide solid exposure data for risk assessment, as much as to develop efficient, cost
efficient and easily applicable assessment programs and recommend additional protection/control measures as
needed.

REFERENCES

[1]

Coble, J. B., Stewart, P. A., Vermeulen, R., Yerebm, D., Stanevich, R., Blair, A., Silverman, D. T., Attfield, M.: The Diesel Exhaust in
Miners Study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 54
(7):747-61, 2010

[2]

Dahmann, D., Monz, C., Snksen, H.: Exposure assessment in German potash mining International Archives of Occupational and
Environmental Health, 81(1):95-107, 2007

[3]

Dahmann, D., Morfeld, P., Monz, C., Noll, B., Gast, F.: Exposure assessment for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in German
hard coal mining. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health: 82(10):1267-79, 2009

[4]

EH40/2005 Workplace exposure limits, Health and Safety Executive, Second Edition, 2011

[5]

Gastec Environmental Analysis Technology Handbook (12th ed.). Japan: Gastec Corporation, 2012

[6]

Macedonian Regulation of minimum requirements for Occupational Safety and Health of employees from risks associated with
exposure of chemical substances, Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia, No.46/2010

[7]

Stewart, P. A., Coble, J. B., Vermeulen, R., Schleiff, P., Blair, A., Lubin, J., Attfield, M., Silverman, D. T.: The diesel exhaust in miners study: I. Overview of the exposure assessment process. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene: 54 (7): 728-46, 2010

[8]

Stewart P.A, Vermeulen R, Coble JB et al. The diesel exhaust in miners study: V. Evaluation of the exposure assessment methods.
The Annals of Occuptional Hygene: 56: 389400, 2012

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EXPLOITATION

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CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES AT PREMOGOVNIK VELENJE


ABSTRACT
Simon ZAVEK1
Sergej JAMNIKAR2
Jerneja LAZAR3
Ludvik GOLOB4

Coal Mine Velenje, Velenje, Slovenia


1
simon.zavsek@rlv.si 2
sergej.jamnikar@rlv.si 3
jerneja.lazar@rlv.si 4 ludvik.golob@rlv.si

For a rather long period, coal was non-competitive as an energy product in


comparison to oil and natural gas and because of that less interesting. In the
last time it is rising again. Major reasons for that are: energy price per unit,
abundant and geographically dispersed fossil fuel, and relationship between
worldwide supplies and consumption.
Competitive against rivals is development of new coal technologies which
are ecologically friendlier. We called it CCT (Clean Coal Technologies). In
spite of higher use of renewable sources and increasing energy efficiency
and new best available technologies (BAT) it will be possible to keep a considerable share of electrical supply from coal power plants.
CCT will be in future a key submission at assuring sufficient amount of produced electrical energy worldwide, in European Union, and locally. At
Premogovnik Velenje (Coal Mine Velenje) we are aware that greenhouse gases emissions are a problem. Therefore we established research project in
2007.
Its target is the use of best technologies that will contribute to rationalization of processes of production of coal, to assuring of higher safety and humanism, and solving of environmental problems. This paper presents activities for the cleaner production, preparation and utilization of coal. In the
framework of power generation, these actions enable the conditions for the
transfer of knowledge, research results and technologies into working practice. Concept of CCT is much wider in its definition. The research project in
Premogovnik Velenje contains three more important round-off components
in this phase of its development: Lignite Degasification; the CO2 Capture and
Storage (CCS); and Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). We want to reach
our targets with realization of these measures that comprise CCT: improvement of efficiencies and environmental acceptability of production of lignite, its processing, and utilizing.

Keywords
Coal, Degasification, Capture, Storage, CO2, Underground Gasification of Coal

1. INTRODUCTION
Irrespective of growing use of renewable energy resources and better energy efficiency, oil, gas and coal will represent a substantial part in the power supply for the foreseeable future. The importance of coal is growing again after
a rather long period in which it was not competitive against oil and natural gas as an energy resource. There are
some important reasons for this: price per energy unit, the dispersion of global resources and the relation between
global resources and consumption. Clean Coal Technologies are friendlier to environment and their development
also enables the coal consumption for future power generation. Coal-based power generation still represents more
than 40% of global energy production [1]. The author cites many reasons for that. Among these, is the fact that the
coal is often a state's own energy resource, thereby enabling energy security and independence. Another advantage
of the coal lies with the fact that it is a resource widely and more evenly distributed across the globe [2]. The next
reason relates to global coal production and consumption, bearing in mind that, contrary to other primary energy
resources, coal resources are abundant.

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Figure 1. Share of global energy demand till 2035


(IEA, 2012)

Figure 1 shows the global energy demand


rises by over on-third in the period to
2035. Coal accounted for nearly half of
the increase, driven mainly by surging demand in Chinas and Indias power and
industrial sector. Stronger uptake of existing clean coal technologies and carbon
capture and storage could boost the longterm prospects for coal use [3].

2. CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES


Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) are tied to technological progress leading to more efficient and environmentally
friendly coal consumption. The plan and explanation of Clean Coal Technologies follow the DTI/IEA standard [4]. As
seen in Fig. 2, the concept is very wide and includes:
Coal production, preparation, transport and coal yard;
Unconventional coal production through Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) or extracting methane from
underground coal seams, i.e., Coal Bed Methane Extraction (CBME);
Power generation through combustion of pulverised coal, i.e., Pulverised Fuel Combustion (PC);
Power generation through coal gasification, i.e., Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC);
Other possible advanced technologies, such as hybrid combined cycles, heat engines, fuel cells;
Industrial and domestic use of coal in steel production, cement industry, heating plants;
Other technologies that turn coal into energy, such as liquefaction or briquetting;
Combustion remains use: fly ash, clinker, gasification remains, gas cleaning remains (gypsum);
other clean CCT possibilities including co-combustion of natural gas, biomass, co-generation and capture,
transport and storage of CO2, i.e., Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS).

Figure 2. Diagram of CCT (adapted after methodology of DTI/IEA


1999)

The process of lignite production at the Velenje


Coal Mine includes the activities of coal extraction,
coal preparation, coal transport, coal yard (A), combustion remains use; in the nearby thermal power
plant TE-otanj the process of power generation
with pulverized coal combustion is mastered (C). According to the Clean Coal Technologies Project, we
are incorporating some other fields, including underground coal gasification possibilities and coal
bed methane (B), power generation through coal
gasification (D) additional clean possibilities (I).

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3. DEVELOPMENT PROJECT CCT AT VELENJE COAL MINE


According to long-term production plan of lignite in Velenje Coal Mine, projected to 2054 and presently assuring a
30% share of Slovenia's power production, we decided to follow global trends and founded a project group to deal
with these problems at the end of 2007. Fig. 3 shows the Clean Coal Technologies project's three sections: Lignite
Degasification, CO2 capture and Storage and Underground Coal Gasification [5].

Figure 3. Scheme of Clean Coal Technologies Project (Zavek, 2009)

Lignite degasification
Lignite degasification is obtaining methane in the process of lignite degasification. As the coal gas of the Velenje
mine contains methane in addition to CO2, we plan to capture both and therefore the part section of the project is
referring also to activity I, i.e., other clean possibilities (CO2 capture and storage). Regarding the fact that degasification of thin coal seams has long been an understood and practiced procedure, the Velenje Coal Mine will focus on
the degasification development of a very thick coal seam. We plan to degasify the excavation pillars before coal
excavation with the longwall method.
One of the goals of the degasification project should be the development of a statement on the development and
application of the best technologies that contribute to the rationalization of the coal extraction process. Degasification diminishes the amount of gas at the active longwall face and positively affects production. Reduction of gas
amounts in the excavation pillar contributes to better safety and working conditions, as the reduced gas concentrations allow reduced air volumes and, in consequence, ventilation that is more rational and has fewer problems
with coal dust.
Lignite degasification started three years ago with the R&D project launch named as CoGasOUT. Project that will
be finished in the middle of the year 2013 was funded by the European Commission Research Fund for Coal and
Steel. Project group combines multiple scientific and industrial partners from UK, Poland, Germany, Slovakia and
Spain. Key aspect of CoGasOUT project is design and development of novel techniques for safer underground mining concerning coal gas hazards. Project work is divided into theoretical background set-up and revision of existing
data, followed by experimental design, digital model creation and its calibration. Over projects three years duration time, several research campaigns, experiments, tests, analyses and revision have been performed. Coal Mine
Velenje was the key partner for the field work and underground in-situ measurements. On the basis of preliminary
and preparation activities we are focused on a final deliverable of Coal Mine Velenjes part of CoGasOUT project
underground gas drainage of excavation pillar [6].
Through the coordination of research projects such as gas component tracking, Velenje lignite petrography, and
the structural model, and through doctoral study education, the research results of other projects were also incorporated into the gas drainage activities.

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CO2 capture and storage


In general, the CO2 gas from power plants and industrial units must be captured, compressed and transported to
the areas where sufficiently deep storage is possible. The CO2 source is coal, gas, oil and biomass combustion. The
major part of the CO2 results from power and heat production, from chemical plants, steel and cement production.
CCS technology represents the key to safe fossil fuel use, and therefore remains a real option for transitioning beyond the period of intensive fossil fuel use [1].
The known fossil fuel resources in the world contain a huge amount of carbon that will threaten the atmosphere.
The described technology can help to realize plans for diminished increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. However,
technologies available to employ coal for energy have to deal with in controlling CO2 emissions. This applies both
to new plants and to improving or retrofitting existing power plants [2].
CO2 Capture and Storage technologies are placed at Coal Mine Velenje into the second part of the Clean Coal
Technologies Project complex. Coal Mine Velenje got acquainted with CCS during the execution of the project
called Implementation of the Climate-Energy Package in Slovenian Thermal Energy (ZETe-PO) with the goal of reducing green-house gases (GHG). Project was coordinated by the Holding of Slovenian power plants (HSE).
Further, more specific steps have been done with the application of R&D project called Pilot Methodology Fixation of CO2 using the Fly Ash to public call for raising funds from Slovene Government and EU funds for regional
development which was announced by the ministry of Economy in 2010 [7]. Project started on February 2011 and
will be finished in the end of 2014 [8]. Project is running by the Coal Mine Velenje, other project partners are: RO
GEORIS (Research organisation), IJS (Institute Joef Stefan), NTF (Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering), Esotech, HGEM, and TE (Power plant otanj). Design of the project based on preliminary laboratory tests performed
in 2009 in the laboratory of the Coal Mine Velenje [9].
Methodology is based on generally known chemical processes by using materials within the extraction and utilisation of coal. Fixation is based on chemical reaction of CO2 in a basic solution with very high pH value, respectively
the lye. Using the fly ash from the thermo power plant otanj seem to be the most appropriate, the ash being a
waste product of the power generating process, available in large amounts, and its chemical properties makes it an
efficient reactant [10].
Technology will enable CO2 capture from return mine air that blows out of ventilation shafts as a result of the mine
ventilation. It will be upgraded for the use on gas drainage system and for the use of CO2 sequestration from the
power plant exhaust. After coal extraction and energy utilisation the geogenic organic carbon from coal should be
directly and permanently returned back to the geosphere as carbonate [11].
Project plan is divided into preparatory phase, research and development phase, execution phase and pilot testing
phase of the technology. R&D phase is practically finished and we are heading to perform execution phase, therefore it is possible to show some details from the research work that started at the beginning of 2012 in the Laboratory of mechanical processing technics at the University of Natural Science (NTF), at the department of Geotechnology and Mining in Ljubljana.

A) flotation blow cell (NTF)

B) reaction cell testing (IJS)

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A1) upgraded fixation cell at NTF

B1) upgraded fixation system at IJS

Figure 4. Execution of laboratory fixation tests during R&D phase at the A-NTF and B-IJS

Figure 4 shows the reaction cell-RC (A) for blowing the CO2 into the lye. Lye was prepared of CaO or fly ash as a mixture with water. Reaction cell needed to be rearranged and additionally equipped with measuring system (A1). Research of the methodology was continued at the IJS at the beginning of 2013, because of better technology conditions (B). We were focused on testing the reaction cells, defying the flow rates, intake gas pressure, preparation of
gas mixture and lye, extraction of carbonate fine grained mud (B1).
During the Execution phase that is going to run till the end of the year 2013, technical solution will be verified and
basic module construction (LabMod) will be finished. Modules testing will enable to define full fixation capacity,
using the full flow of exhaust air and optimizing its efficiency. Construction of second module was planned in order
to test CO2 fixation with modular system as it was designed for pilot testing. Testing site will be moved at the end
of the year to the location of the ventilation shaft otanj that real exhaust mine air could be used.
Execution of CCS activities at the Coal Mine Velenje leads to development and implementation of best available
technologies (BAT) which will contribute to solve environmental problems regarding the mine gases. In the field of
production and conventional and unconventional utilisation of coal, running such R&D project ensures the condition of transference the knowledge, results and new technologies into every day practise. Implementation of R&D
phase of different project parts ensures new knowledge and marketing opportunity.
Underground coal gasification
The underground coal gasification, representing the third part of our project, is an unconventional type of coal
utilization. In general, the procedure is quite simple, as only two boreholes (or two wells) are needed (Fig. 5).
Through the injection well, air and steam are brought under pressure into the coal seam where the combustion
begins. The production well is used to obtain the gas, called synthetic gas or syngas. The main components of
syngas are hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is very complex
and demanding as the most successful tests in the world have shown. UCG needs a multidisciplinary approach of
geology, hydrogeology, chemical engineering, chemistry and thermodynamics.
The most interesting advantage of the UCG will be economic, because minor operative and investment costs are
foreseen. The next advantage should be the flexible use of syngas. Even the environmental view is considered advantageous, as most combustion products remain underground, including heavy metals SOx, and NOx [12]. The
costs for CO2 separation are minor; there may be possibilities for carbon storage in the cavities or adjacent rocks.
The disadvantages of the UCG are the operational risks due to the lack of tested large-scale UCG trials and the frequent problems that have occurred during tests in the USA and Europe. The process can be uncertain considering
environmental impacts and public acceptability. The possible disadvantages may be the ground water pollution
(contamination) and surface subsidence. The UCG product can be used in different ways: co-generation, gas turbine, from coal to liquids etc.
Regarding UCG, the Velenje Coal Mine has a longer history. In the late 1950s, a study on UCG possibilities in the
lignite deposits of former Yugoslavia was completed at the Chemical Institute in Ljubljana (Kemijski intitutu Borisa
Kidria). In the 1980s, some laboratory testing was done on smaller samples as well as bigger samples of Velenje
lignite [13]. In 2002, a feasibility study of UCG in Velenje Coal Mine was not entirely completed, but the finished
component parts comprise the preliminary deposit evaluation, deposit evaluation with analysis of existent data
(general data, geology, hydro-geology), additional resource characterization, technological difficulties of the process, and technological difficulties of deposit preparation. The study did not examine the issues of process product
use, environmental susceptibility, economy and final evaluation [14].

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Figure 5. Sketch of the underground coal gasification procedure (UCG)

Through the third section of the Clean Coal Technologies Project at


Velenje Coal Mine, the task force has been revived and the feasibility
study continued with the missing parts. Important factors are discussed include process product use (quantity and quality of the product, product quality oscillation, size of the energetic structure, and
energetic use of the product), economy and final evaluation. In continuation the activities will run to prepare the proposal of project task
for pilot UCG test in Velenje and gain the concession for research of
coal in Goriko (Slovenia)[15].

4. CONCLUSION
Through realization of the goals of the Clean Coal Technologies Project, the way to development and application of
best available technologies is paved. This will contribute to more rational coal extraction, better safety at work,
better working place condition and solving the environmental problems regarding coal gases.
In the fields of coal production and conventional or unconventional coal utilization, the Clean Coal Technologies
Project brings conditions for transfer of knowledge, research results and technologies into practical work. Based on
the realization of the research and development phases of the technologies discussed, we can continue to follow
innovation; the task force's work is aimed at the acquisition of national and European research funds and the opening of market possibilities.

REFERENCES

th

[1]

J. Kessels, 2009. Emission trading; incentive or obstacle to funding of carbon capture and storage demonstration projects, 4
International Conference on Clean Coal Technologies CCT 2009, 18-21 May 2009 Dresden, Germany.

[2]

I. Gulyurtlu, 2013. CCT What roadmap for R&D, 6 International Conference on Clean Coal Technologies, CCT2013, 12-16 May
2013, Thessaloniki Greece.

th

[3]

IEA (2012). World energy outlook 2012: Presentation to the press. International Energy Agency, London, 12 November 2012.

[4]

DTI/IEA 1999. Cleaner Coal Technologies: Options. Department of Trade and Industry. London, England (1999). International
Energy Agency, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris, France (1999).

[5]

S. Zavek, 2009. iste premogovne tehnologije na Premogovniku Velenje, 1. mednarodna konferenca:ENERGETIKA IN


KLIMATSKE SPREMEMBE , 1.7.3.7.2009 Velenje, Slovenija.

[6]

S. Jamnikar, J. Lazar, S. Zavek, L. Golob, 2013. Implementation and results of research fund for coal and steel funded project
rd
CoGasOUT at Coal mine Velenje, 3 International Conference Energy Technology and Climate Changes (EnRe), 20-21 June 2013,
Velenje, Slovenija

[7]

Ministrstvo za gospodarstvo, 2010. Javni razpis za pridobitev sredstev EU sklada za regionalni razvoj-ESRR, Razvojni centri,
2010, Ljubljana RS, 9 str., Razpis

[8]

S. Zavek, 2011. Podrobneji nart projekta. Metodologija fiksacije CO2 na elektrofiltrskem pepelu, Razvojno podroje,
Premogovnik Velenje, Velenje, september 2011, 8 strani

[9]

J. Pezdi s sodelavci, 2009. Pilotska metodologija fiksacije CO2 na EF pepelu (RO Georis), CCT in vpliv na zmanjevanje emisij
TGP- rezultati za prihodnost, int. Workshop Velenje, 2009, str.13-19, referat.

[10]

S. Zavek, J. Pezdi, L. Petrinjak, B. Jelen, L. Golob, 2013. CCS aktivnosti na Premogovniku Velenje, 3 International Conference
Energy Technology and Climate Changes (EnRe), 20-21 June 2013, Velenje, Slovenija

[11]

J. Pezdi, S. Zavek, J. ula, J. Uhan.,2010. Geogenic organic carbon after energy extraction permanently back to geosphere as
carbonate, 22nd int.Congress Energy and the Environment Engineering for a Loc Carbon Future, Opatija, roatia, October
2010, 10p., paper

[12]

G. R. Couch, 2009. Progress with underground coal gasification (UCG), IEA Clean Coal Centre, London, 2009. UK.

[13]

E. Eberl, 1986. Nova tehnologija pridobivanja in predelave premoga podzemeljsko uplinjanje, Rudarsko metalurki zbornik, Vol.
33 No. 1-2, str. 7388.

[14]

A. Zapuek, G. Beri, S. Zavek, I. Veber, L. Golob, D. Konovek, 2009. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Velenje Coal Mine
Experience. Journal of Energy Technology (JET), Volume 1, Issue 1, October 2009, p.p.1-10.

[15]

D. Konovek, 2013. A preliminary determination of energy utilization process of underground gasification in Velenje Coal Mine,
rd
3 International Conference Energy Technology and Climate Changes (EnRe), 20-21 June 2013, Velenje, Slovenija

rd

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USAGE OF EMULSION EXPLOSIVES


ON SURFACE MINE ZELENIKOVEC - SKOPJE

ABSTRACT
MSc Trajche BOSHEVSKI1
Prof. D-r Risto R. DAMBOV2

BSc. Mining engineer, Manager at


Rudproekt, Skopje, R. Macedonia
2
UGD - FTNS, Institute of Mining,
R. Macedonia

This paper describes the advantages of using emulsion explosives on the surface mine Zelenikovec.
A comparison has been made with the other types of explosives regarding
the cost of drilling, blasting, environmental protection and the safety while
using them.
In the estimates, the criteria for using this type of emulsion explosives on the
surface mine Zelenikovec have been met.

Keywords
Explosives, Emulsion, Open Pit Mine, Zelenikovec, Blasting

1. INTRODUCTION
In recent years the emulsion explosives have had a large increase in the usage on surface and underground mines.
The reason for this are the great advantages that emulsion explosives offer compared to other types of explosives
on the market. The advantages of emulsion explosive include safety and security, excellent resistance to water,
increased velocity of detonation, transport, handling and storage, savings in drilling operations and low gas emissions.
From the beginning, the surface mine Zelenikovec uses Ammonium nitrate cartridge explosives with combination
of ANFO, but due to constant growth on gas price, which is an important feature of the final price of the product, a
solution for decreasing the price costs for drilling and blasting is inevitable.
The purpose of this study is to present the theoretical and practical experience reached here and abroad, in order
to use emulsion explosives on the surface mine Zelenikovec, and to present the possibilities for using emulsion
explosives on other surface mines in our country.

2. BASIC FEATURES OF EMULSION EXPLOSIVES


The usage of emulsion explosives has numerous advantages. After the price of the explosive, most important parameter that directly affects for its usage are its blasting characteristics. We will mention the safety, high velocity
of detonation, water resistance, low gas emissions, transport, storage, fast charging time and etc.
Safety
The emulsion is stable and does not explode in the standard striking tests. The emulsion does not explode while
burning, but there is a possibility of an explosion if it is in contact with materials as detonators, dynamites or aluminum powder.
Velocity of detonation
The velocity of the detonation increases by decreasing the size of the particles which are contained in explosives.
Emulsion particles are small, therefore the velocity of blasting is high. Bulk emulsion explosives detonate with a
higher VOD than Ammonium nitrate cartridge and ANFO under the same conditions.
Water resistance
The emulsion has excellent water resistance. Boreholes can be successfully filled with emulsion even if there is water inside.

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Gas emission
The structure of the emulsion allows optimal oxygen balance, thus significantly lowers the emissions of carbon and
nitrogen gases.
Transport and storage
The emulsion is classified as an oxidizer, so transport and storage does not lead to danger of explosion. The emulsion becomes an explosive when it is pumped in the borehole. The emulsion can be stored at temperatures between
-20 C to 50 C.

3. COMPARISON BETWEEN AMMONIUM AND NITRAT EMULSIVE EXPLOSIVES


A techno - economic comparison is made on blasting series and blasting 10.000 m3 of material from the surface
mine "Zelenikovec". In the comparison it is only the cost that has been taken into consideration required for the
procurement of explosives and the fuel needed for drilling boreholes. In Table 1 the input parameters required for
the calculation has been shown.
Table 1. Entry parameters

Rock characteristics (limestone)

Value

Seismic wave velocity

4000 (m'/s)

Density

2730 (kg/m3)

Charging parameters

Value

Blast hole diameter

0,089 (m')

Explosive diameter

0,07 (m')

Other blasting parameters

Value

Max. fragmented rock size

0,8 (m')

Bench height

10 (m')

Drill angle

75 (0)

Fuel consumption

1,5 (l/m')

Fuel price

1,14 (/l)

The calculation of drilling and blasting parameters are based on the energy distribution from the explosion in the
rocky massif, thus defining the specific explosive consumption as a basic parameter of the fragmentation degree of
the material that has been blasted.
The calculations of drilling and blasting parameters for ammonium nitrate cartridge explosives are given in Table 2,
and for emulsion explosives in Table 3.
Table 2. Calculated values on drilling and blasting parameters for Ammonium nitrate cartridge explosives

Explosive characteristics

Value

Velocity of detonation (VOD)

3600 (m'/s)

Density

1100 (kg/m3)

Specific energy

4,24 (MJ/kg)

Explosive price

1 (/kg)

Obtained results

Value

Hole depth

11,0 (m')

Sub-drilling

1,0 (m')

Stemming

3,0 (m')

Length of the charge

8,0 (m')

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Burden

Spacing

2,8 (m')
3,5 (m')
'

5,0 (kg/m')

Charge for 1 m

Total charge / borehole

40,0 (kg/b.h.)

10

Specific consumption of explosive

0,38 (kg/m3)

11

Blasted volume / borehole

98,0 (m3/b.h.)

12

Number of boreholes

102

13

Fuel consumption / borehole

16.5 (l/b.h.)

14

Fuel price / borehole

18,81 (/b.h.)

15

Total fuel prices / blasting field

1.919 ()

16

Explosive costs / borehole

40,0 (/b.h.)

17

Total explosive costs / blasting field

4.080,0()

18

Total costs / blasting field

5.999,0 ()

Table 3. Calculated values on drilling and blasting parameters Emulsion explosives

Explosive characteristics

Value

Velocity of detonation (VOD)

4200 (m'/s)

Density

1250 (kg/m3)

Specific energy

4,9 (MJ/kg)

Explosive price

1,4 (/kg)

Obtained results

Value

Hole depth

11,0 (m')

Sub-drilling

1,0 (m')

Stemming

3,0 (m')

Length of the charge

8,0 (m')

Burden

4,0 (m')

Spacing

4,5 (m')

Charge for 1 m'

6,0 (kg/m')

Total charge / borehole

48,0 (kg/M.D.)

10

Specific consumption of explosive

0,28 (kg/m3)

11

Blasted volume / borehole

180,0 (m3/M.D.)

12

Number of boreholes

56

13

Fuel consumption / borehole

16,5 (l/M.D.)

14

Fuel price / borehole

18,81 (/M.D.)

15

Total fuel prices /blasting field

1.053,0 (/M.P.)

16

Explosive costs / borehole

67,2 (/M.D.)

17

Total explosive costs /blasting field

3.763,0 (/M.P.)

18

Total costs / blasting field

4.816,0 (/M.P.)

From these calculations, we can see the difference in the geometry of drilling, which is a clear indication for the
potential savings in drilling and blasting. The calculated geometry of drilling Ammonium nitrate is 3,5 x 2,8 m, and
the emulsion is 4,5 x 4,0 m.
Figure 1 graphicaly shows the drilling geometry using Amonium nitrage cartrige and Emulsion explosives.

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Figure 1. Comparison between the drilling geometry using Amonium nitrage cartrige
and Emulsion explosives (m)

According to the obtained results, we can see that although the price for 1kg emulsion is 40% more expensive, the
overall cost required to procure explosives is 8% lower, or 317 euros.
The biggest savings are obtained in the fuel consumption for drilling the boreholes. If you use ammonium nitrate
cartridge explosives, it requires drilling 102 boreholes. The required fuel for drilling costs 1.913 euros. If you use
emulsion explosives, we need less than half boreholes otherwise 56, and the price for the fuel costs 1.053 euros.
When you add up the costs for fuel and explosives, the total price of mined material for getting 10.000 m3 of limestone from the mine "Zelenikovec" using Ammonium nitrate cartridge is 5.999 euros, while by using the emulsion
explosives the total price is 4.816 euros. In percentage, the savings using emulsion is about 25%, or in our case
1,183 euros.

Figure 2 . Graphically shows the comparison between the


total costs () with using ammonium nitrate cartridge and
emulsion explosives

The price of the final product will be a few percents cheaper if we take into consideration all the parameters (e.g.,
labor, time, initial funds, etc...).

Figure 3. Blasted material from the blasting field using emulsion explosives on surface mine Zelenikovec.

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4. CONCLUSION
The usage of emulsion explosives in mining industry is increasing, especially in surface mines. The features as well
as the advantages, which emulsion explosives have compared to the other explosives on the market, are the reason
for the usage of emulsion explosives in mining.
The usage of emulsion explosives provides better technical and economic indicators of mine surface "Zelenikovec",
which results in increasing the work efficiency.
The usage of emulsion explosives on the surface mine "Zelenikovec", due to increased drilling geometry, allows considerable fuel savings in the drilling process and its duration.
In addition, emulsion explosives meet all criteria for the protection of the environment which is a requirement for
implementing the ISO 14000 standard.
In the estimates, the criteria for using this type of emulsion explosives on the surface mine Zelenikovec are met
and saving a minimum of 25% of the final product is the main reason for its usage.

REFERENCES

[1]

Major mine project for exploitation of limestone on the open pit Zalenikovec, (2012) RUDPROEKT, Skopje, R.

[2]

R. Dambov, (2011) Methods of blasting, Book, University Goce Delcev, FTNS, Institute of mining, Stip, R. Macedonia

[3]

R. Dambov, S. Bosevski (2011) Blasting technique in special conditions, Monograf, SRGIM, Skopje, R. Macedonia

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ANALYSIS OF OSCILLATIONS IN THE SLEWABLE SUPERSTRUCTURE


OF THE Sch Rs 1200M BUCKET WHEEL EXCAVATOR

ABSTRACT
Diana TASHEVA1
Zdravko ILIEV2

University of Mining and Geology


St. Ivan Rilski, Sofia, Bulgaria
1
decheva@mgu.bg 2 iliev@mgu.bg

The article introduces an approach for determining the operating conditions


and the state of bucket wheel excavators. The approach is based on the assessment of oscillations that occur in the steel construction during operation.
A series of experimental measurements of acceleration along three axes at
six characteristic points in the slewable superstructure of the bucket wheel
excavator have been carried out. The results of the statistical processing of
experimental data are included.

Keywords
Bucket Wheel Excavators, Diagnostic Systems

1. INTRODUCTION
Information about the conditions under which mining equipment operates, if available in real time, is of paramount
importance for the development of diagnostic and control systems. Its deficiency, however, is the fact that it can
not be obtained through direct measurements; instead, it is assessed on the basis of one or several indirect indices.
Measuring the oscillations in the steel construction of bucket wheel excavators is a promising indirect method both
for assessing the conditions under which they operate and for diagnostics of their technical state [1]. This method
is characterised by:
good correlation between measurements and assessed parameters;
the use of relatively simple technical means;
the lack of need to interfere in the electrical and information circuits within the existing control systems.
The use of oscillations in the steel construction of bucket wheel excavators within the control and diagnostic systems of these excavators is connected with the following stages:
special measuring blocks are developed;
characteristic points in the metal construction are determined where it is relevant to install the measuring
equipment;
a database is created that contains the statistical parameters of the oscillations in the steel construction in
the characteristic points of measurement under various modes of work and under various conditions of excavation;
a system is built up that interprets the occurrence of non-characteristic statistical deviations and peaks in
the frequency spectrum of oscillations during the operation of bucket wheel excavators.
The team work within the first two stages has been described in [2] and [3]. This article introduces the results of
examining the variations in the statistical parameters of the measured acceleration in the course of work of a
bucket wheel excavator during mining of a single cut. Analysis is carried out and the trends are determined that
that concern the variations of the slewing angle of the wheel boom during coal excavation.

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF OSCILLATIONS IN THE SLEWABLE SUPERSTRUCTURE

2.

The preliminary research has made it possible to define the following five points in the metal construction of the
bucket wheel excavator that have a very high degree of informativeness and are suitable for fitting the measuring
equipment (Fig.1):
Point 1 receiving gantry of the lower boom tackle of the hoisting;
Point 2 half way along the structure of the receiving gantry;
Point 3 next to the hinge joining the receiving gantry to the slewable platform;
Point 4 mast to the upper boom tackle of the hoisting;
Point 5 switchgear house;
Point 6 operators cabin.

Figure 1. Check Points

These are the points where a series of measurements have been made to check acceleration arising in three directions: along the direction of the lateral slewing of the wheel boom (conditionally marked as axis X), vertically (along
axis Y), and along the direction of wheel boom (axis Z).
In order to examine the characteristic parameters of the oscillations of the metal construction of the bucket wheel
excavator, three parameters have been studied [4]: the mean value of acceleration during excavation in both directions; the mean value of the absolute deflection (through which the dynamics of oscillations can be evaluated); and
the most common value of acceleration at all of the measuring points represented.
The results obtained are presented in the form of tables (Tables 1, 2, and 3), as well as in the form of charts (Figures
2, 3, and 4).
Table 1. Mean value of acceleration during excavation in both directions

Mean value [m/s2]


point

left slewing

right slewing

0.1364

-0.0562

-0.0189

-0.0305

-0.0207

0.1911

-0.0258

-0.0313

-0.1326

-0.0032

-0.0176

-0.1179

0.4578

0.0189

0.0715

0.4581

0.0351

0.1846

-0.1925

-0.0216

0.0113

-0.1442

-0.0121

-0.0263

-0.0236

0.0094

0.1806

0.0340

-0.0017

0.2113

-0.0245

-0.0013

-0.0860

-0.0590

-0.0013

-0.1185

[m/s ] left slewing right slewing

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XYZXYZ
Figure 2. Mean value of acceleration during operation at points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Table 2. Mean value of the absolute deflection

Mean value of the absolute deflection /measure of variability/ [m/s2]


point

without motion
X

left slewing

right slewing

0.1015

0.0931

0.0716

0.3718

0.4652

0.2273

0.3870

0.4933

0.2373

0.0856

0.0858

0.0631

0.7428

0.4131

0.2784

0.7644

0.4553

0.2799

0.0814

0.0784

0.0624

0.1447

0.1126

0.1128

0.1319

0.1238

0.1718

0.0756

0.0831

0.0569

0.1600

0.1672

0.2079

0.1670

0.1788

0.2114

0.1056

0.1035

0.0826

0.1152

0.1335

0.0771

0.1521

0.1786

0.0921

0.0936

0.0938

0.0708

0.3160

0.7109

0.4046

0.4351

0.9629

0.5239

[m/s ] without motion left slewing right slewing

XYZXYZXYZ
Figure 3. Mean value of absolute deflection at points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Table 3. The most common value of acceleration at all of the measuring points

The most common value [m/s2]


point

without motion

left slewing

right slewing

-0.025

0.0173

0.0201

-0.025

0.0173

0.0201

0.1041

0.2135

0.0201

-0.019

-0.0271

-0.0129

0.2391

0.0383

-0.0810

0.3036

0.1691

-0.0810

-0.024

0.0146

0.0310

0.4276

0.0146

0.0992

0.4276

0.0146

0.0992

-0.001

-0.0206

-0.0080

-0.195

-0.020

-0.0761

-0.1304

0.0448

-0.0080

-0.005

-0.0290

-0.0225

-0.005

0.0364

0.1819

-0.0053

0.0364

0.1819

10

0.0017

-0.0233

0.0149

0.0662

0.0421

0.0149

-0.0629

0.1729

-0.0532

[m/s ] without motion left slewing right slewing

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XYZXYZXYZ
Figure 4. The most common value of acceleration at points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

Data analysis shows that the mean values of acceleration during excavation to the left and to he right do not differ
substantially. The measure of variability does not display any significant variations either (except at check point 6).
At the same time, however, the most common values of acceleration with oscillation in the vertical plane during
the left and right slewing of the superstructure of the bucket wheel excavator differ substantially, within the range
of several times.
When determining the excavators conditions of work by employing acceleration, check points 1, 2, and 6 are of the
utmost interest as they are characterised by the largest variation of indices with respect to the dynamics of the
processes involved. Those points have been studied thoroughly. The variation of the statistical parameters of oscillations has been determined as a function of time during operation of the bucket wheel excavator within the
framework of a single coal strip [4].
Figures 5, 6, and 7 illustrate the variation of the mathematical expectation, the variance, and the maximum values
of acceleration along axis X at measuring point 2 in operation mode of the excavator during left and right slewing
of the superstructure. Data processing has been carried out through determining the average values within time
periods of one second each. The B-spline function from Libre Office [5] has been used. The coordinate studied is X
(along the direction of the lateral slewing of the superstructure of the excavator).
Figures 8, 9, and 10 introduce the results reflecting the variation of mathematical expectation, the variance, and
the maximum values of acceleration along axis Y (the vertical plane).
Special attention is paid to the trend of the examined parameters since it takes into consideration all relevant and
regular factors during the operation of a bucket wheel excavator. It has been proved that all measuring points are
characterised by stable processes of rise or fall of mathematical expectations, variance, and maximum values of
impact loading that depend on the excavation direction of the bucket wheel excavator. This fact can be employed
successfully while predicting the loading of the excavation and slewing mechanisms of the bucket wheel excavator
by carrying out a sufficient number of observations, as well as by determining a trend variation zone that is permissible from the point of view of the loading and that is also indicative of the zone of normal operation of the excavating mechanisms.
Tables 4 and 5 show the variations, in times, of the dispersion and maximum values of acceleration at points 1, 2,
and 6 during excavation with left and right slewing. The symbol + indicates the increase, whereas the symbol indicates the decrease.
The results obtained can be employed to form the boundary conditions for determining the safe mode of operation
of the excavator.

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left slewing

right slewing

Figure 5. Variation of the mathematical expectation at point 2


left slewing

right slewing

Figure 6. Variation of dispersion at point 2


left slewing

right slewing

Figure 7. Variation of maximum values of acceleration at point 2


left slewing

right slewing

Figure 8. Variation of the mathematical expectation at point 2

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left slewing

right slewing

Figure 9. Variation of dispersion at point 2


left slewing

right slewing

Figure 10. Variation of maximum values of acceleration at point 2

Table 4. The most common value of acceleration at all of the measuring points

Variance

point 1

point 2

point 6

Excavation left, coordinate

+ 1,30

- 1,36

+ 3,86

Excavation left, coordinate Y

+ 1,08

+ 1,20

+ 3,11

Excavation right, coordinate

- 1,17

+ 1,38

- 1,48

Excavation right, coordinate Y

+1,04

- 1,48

- 1,61

Table 5. The most common value of acceleration at all of the measuring points

Maximum values

point 1

point 2

point 6

Excavation left, coordinate

+ 1,16

- 1,19

+1,91

Excavation left, coordinate Y

+ 1,09

+ 1,05

+1,93

Excavation right, coordinate

+ 1,17

+ 1,22

- 1,20

Excavation right, coordinate Y

+ 1,10

- 1,07

- 1,25

3. CONCLUSION
The indirect assessment of the operating conditions of excavation machines makes it possible to obtain complex
information about the loading of the whole structure. Thus, the action of a number of factors can be considered
that are determined not only by the characteristics of the excavated land mass but also by the technical state of
the separate units of the machine. The applicability of this approach has been proved by the research work carried
out on the Sch Rs 1200M bucket wheel excavator.
The general conclusions that can be drawn from the research carried out are as follows:
there are clearly visible dependencies of the variations of the examined parameters during left and right excavation;
a stable tendency is observed towards an increase and decrease of the maximum values of acceleration during the slewing of the superstructure of the excavator;

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analogous to the maximum values, a marked increase of variance of acceleration in the process of slewing
left is observed at point 6;
at point 2, the variation in oscillations along axes X and Y are mutually counter-directional (during left slewing, acceleration along axis Y increases while at the same time it decreases along axis X, and conversely, during right slewing the increase is along axis X, whereas the decrease is along axis Y).
The research made constitutes one stage in the formation of a system for analyzing the loading and the operating
conditions of bucket wheel excavators. This system is based on measuring the acceleration that arises in their metal structures. In future, we expect to carry out further experimental studies and to bind the obtained statistical
results with the variation of the frequency spectrum of oscillations in the course of operation. This will create opportunities for an efficient analysis of the conditions for excavation, for limiting of the loading of the major mechanisms, and for giving recommendations as to the change of the parameters that determine the characteristics of
mining of the slope.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1]

. , , . ,
54, , , 2012 ., ISSN: 1312-1820.

[2]

. , , SchRs 1200M,
12, . 224227, , 3-5 , 2012 . , ISSN 1313-1869.

[3]

. , ., ., SchRs 1200M,
12, . 167170, , 3-5 , 2012 . , ISSN 1313-1869.

[4]

. , . , , , , 1979 .

[5]

www.libreoffice.org

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THE WORLDS LARGEST COMPACT


BUCKET WHEEL EXCAVATOR BY SANDVIK

ABSTRACT
Dr. Stefan HINTERHOLZER

SANDVIK MINING SYSTEMS,


Leoben, Austria
stefan.hinterholzer@sandvik.com

The PE100-1600/1.5x20 Bucket Wheel Excavator made by Sandvik - by virtue


of its design and size the worlds largest compact bucket wheel excavator to
date - with an overall weight of 1,650 tons, is designed to handle 6,700 lm/h
or an annual capacity of 12.0 million fm+t.
The complete supply for Bkkbrny (Hungary) consisted of a bucket wheel
excavator and a belt wagon, as shown in Figure 1.

Keywords
Bucket Wheel Excavator, Mining System, Lignite Mine

1. INTRODUCTION

Figure 1. Sandvik Bucket Wheel Excavator PE100-1600/1.5x20

Sandvik is a global industrial group with advanced products and world-leading positions in selected areas tools for
metal cutting, equipment and tools for the mining and construction industries, stainless materials, special alloys,
metallic and ceramic resistance materials as well as process systems. In 2012 the Group had about 50,000 employees and representation in 130 countries. Sandvik Mining is a business area within the Sandvik Group and a leading
global supplier of equipment and tools, service and technical solutions for the mining industry. The offering covers
rock drilling, rock cutting, rock crushing, loading and hauling and materials handling. Sandvik Mining and Construction Materials Handling GmbH & Co KG is a company within the business area Mining of the Sandvik Group and a
leading global supplier of equipment for bulk materials handling industry mainly in the areas of mining, stockyards
and ports - specializing in open pit mining and handling of bulk materials, offering a wide range of equipment for
mechanical excavation, stacking, reclaiming, loading and unloading as well as conveying.

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2. HISTORY AND PROJECT PROGRESS


With some 10 million inhabitants and an area of 93,000 km, Hungary is relatively small European state. With regard
to energy, it is highly dependent on imports. About 70 % of Hungarys primary energy requirements are covered by
imports. Natural gas, mostly imported from Russia, comprises the largest share in primary energy consumption.
Thats why great importance is attached to the extraction and utilization of domestic energy carriers not least for
reasons of security of supply. Mtra Kraftwerk G.AG is currently making a significant contribution to this. Mtra
Kraftwerk G.AG mines some 8 to 8,5 mill. T of lignite each year, most of which is used to generate electricity in the
companys own power plant at the Visonta location. Mtra covers more than 10% of Hungarian electricity requirements, making it the second largest power producer behind the Paks nuclear power plant.
To meet power plant coal requirements, Mtra Kraftwerk G.AG is operating two opencast mine and the Visonta
opencast mine (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Location of Bkkbrny and Visonta open-cast mining sites

The initial plans for expanding the capacities of the Bkkbrny open-cast mining sites were already drawn up in
2005. The overburden equipment used in the mine at that time (3 x SRs/H/-401) was not able to excavate the
required quantities of overburden on its own despite continuous increases in capacity and maximum utilization and
had to be assisted by cost-intensive shovel and truck operation with an annual capacity of 4 to 5 mill. m. The
Bkkbrny Compact Excavator project was initiated to ensure the long-term handling of overburden in all
anticipated coal requirement scenarios, to reduce the costly shovel-and-truck-operation to a technically required
minimum and, finally, significantly improve the productivity of its own large-scale equipment capacities.

3. OPERATING CONDITIONS
Following a work-intensive phase of detailed studies, technical specifications, profitability analyses and contract
negotiations the order for supplying a compact excavator unit (excavator and belt wagon) was awarded to Sandvik
Mining and Construction Materials Handling GmbH in the summer of 2007.
The equipment unit is to be used on the first bench of the Bkkbrny opencast mine. It will have to implement cut
heights of up to 50 m. The compact bucket wheel excavator will implement these cut heights in high cut, in places
on a high bench and low bench, and in exceptional cases in low cut operation. It should be able to implement the
following operating modes: excavator directly onto feed hopper car, excavator via belt wagon onto feed hopper car
dumping operation with/without belt wagon. The device geometry will be dimensioned based on this. Figure 3
shows an example of when the equipment is in use.

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Figire 3. Equipment in use

The equipment unit is to achieve a capacity of 6700 Im3/h and an annual effective output of 12 mill. bcm+t. This
output is required to reduce the cost-intensive overburden stripping by subcontractors used in the Bkkbrny
opencast mine today to the technologically required minimum. The compact bucket wheel excavator will mainly be
used in abrasive and partly cohesive materials. Transfer substations, buckets and teeth had to be designed
accordingly to protect them against wear. Optionally, temporary coal extraction is to be possible; this had to be
taken into account as well in designing the excavator. Depending on the future coal need scenarios, the unit is to
be operated for up to 40 years. Thus its fatigue strength was designed according to DIN 22261 specifications.

4. TECHNICAL DATA AND DIMENSIONS


Its design and dimensions make this compact bucket wheel excavator the largest one in the world to date. The
excavators used in the Bkkbrny so far achieve an annual output of approx. 6 mill. bm/a, meaning that the new
device has about double their capacity. With respect to operating weight, driving power at the bucket wheel and
travel gear load, this device enters new, challenging dimensions.
The most important technical data of the compact bucket wheel excavator and belt wagon is listed in Figure 4 and
5.

Figure 4. Compact excavator data

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Figure 5. Belt wagon data

The compete calculation of the equipment unit was carried out in accordance with DIN 22261 specifications for the
calculation, design and manufacture of excavators, spreaders and ancillary equipment used in lignite opencast
mines. These specifications were systematically implemented for the first time when constructing compact
excavators. Finite element models (FEM) were used for all supporting structural steel components and main
mechanical components (e.g. the bucket wheel gear). To evaluate fatigue strength, we calculated the
corresponding utilization rates (the ratio between the actual and the admissible stress repetition). As a result, we
were able to prove the required fatigue strength for a service life of 50 years for the most important components.

5. DESCRIPTION OF INDIVIDUAL MAIN COMPONENTS


Bucket wheel
In the course of the design meetings we had to decide on the design of the bucket wheel. A single-disk type bucket
wheel or an open spooked wheel was up for discussion. After all pros and cons had been weighed up, we decided in
favour of the single-disk wheel. Among other things, the main reasons for this decision were higher fatigue
strength, better stress distribution in the bucket wheel body with lower stress peaks, a more defined and improved
connection to the bucket wheel shaft, less danger of spillage and easier access for inspections. In addition, the
calculations showed that about the same weights and deformation of the wheels are to be expected for both
designs, so that they were not crucial in making the decisions. In view of its primary deployment in abrasive
overburden material, tiles were cemented into the discharge chute as wear protection. The Bkkbrny opencast
mine has gathered vary positive operating experience with this kind of wear protection in the past. The bucket
wheel is fitted with sixteen 1.83-m buckets. A striking feature is the design of the buckets with open backs/rubber
strip lining. This design is particularly suitable for the extraction of the material to be worked in the planned mining
field, which in places is cohesive to strongly cohesive. The buckets are equipped with 8 cutting teeth each that
ensure the required high cutting force of at least 1000 N/cm. To ensure the high capacity of the compact bucket
wheel excavator, the bucket wheel drive was designed with a rating of 1100 kW and a variable speed range of
between 600 and 1000 rpm. The resulting high static and dynamic loads were a special challenge. Against this
background, we performed extensive calculations and FEM modelling of the gearbox casing including torque
bracket during the design phase. The drive train consists of a motor, a safety clutch (multiple-disc slip clutch), a
planetary gearing with bevel gear stage and a planetary stage, including load diversion. The wheel of the bucket
wheel gearing is connected to the bucket wheel shaft by an overhung coupling flange. The bearings of the bucket
wheel shaft are arranged directly next to the bucket wheel on both sides if the bucket wheel boom. The bucket
wheel bearings are designed such that either split or unsplit bearings can be used.
Travel gears
The dimensioning of the travel components posed a special challenge due to the overall weight of the compact
bucket wheel excavator of approx. 1650 t, the two-crawler design and the resulting travel gear load. The substructures of the excavator and belt wagon are supported by two crawler frames with one pendulum bogie each. The
travel gear of the excavator consists of two crawlers with two eight-wheel bogies, four four-wheel bogies, eight

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twin-wheel bogies and 16 track wheels each. We also used a finite element model for all crawler travel gear calculations. The load case combinations on which the model is based cover all static load situations required by DIN
22261 part 2. The travel gears of the excavator are equipped with two drives each that act on a drive sprocket. The
motors have an installed capacity of 2 x 132 kW per travel gear. We use three-phase squirrel care rotors driven by
frequency converters. Braking is accomplished electrically by braking resistors. Due to the site-specific requirements regarding an admissible soil pressure of 12.1 N/cm max., the crawler pads were designed taking operating
weight, crawler length and travel gear design into account. Thus, the excavator crawler pads were designed with a
width of 4300 mm.
Hoisting gear hydraulic system
On the excavator, both the bucket wheel boom and the discharge boom are lifted into the desired hoisting position
hydraulically by cylinders. Two synchronized cylinders working in parallel are mounted on the bucket wheel boom.
Two axial piston pumps, each driven by 132-kW electric motor, are installed on the bucked wheel boom to generate
the required hydraulic pressure. The discharge boom is fitted with a separate axial piston pump equipped with 30kW motor. Should one of the hydraulic systems of the bucket wheel boom break down, the boom can still be operated by the other system at a lower speed. If the smaller system of the discharge boom fails, it can be operated
with the aid of the large systems of the bucket wheel boom. The hydraulic system is supplied by an oil tank with a
nominal volume 5000 litres. The belt wagon is also fitted with two hydraulic systems for the adjustment movements of the receiving boom and the discharge boom. To ensure emergency operation in case one of the systems
fails, both are equipped with a separate motor/axial piston pump unit. Each system has a motor rating of 45 kW.
The oil storage tank on the belt wagon has a volume of 1200 litres. Redundantly designed pressure sensors serve as
safety devices to allow the booms to be set down and prevent overloading.
Details about other assemblies
The main slewing gear of the excavator has a slewing angle of +290 to -110. The ball bearing slewing rim, which is
equipped with a lifting protector, has a diameter of 7200 mm. The slewing gear has an installed capacity of 2 x 110
kW and enabled a maximum slewing speed of 45 m/min, measured at the middle of the bucket wheel. Independent
of this, the discharge boom of the excavator can be slewed at an angle of 95 degrees, measured at the excavators
superstructure. Both boom of the belt wagon are mounted on the superstructure of the belt wagon and cannot be
slewed separately. The superstructure may be slewed at a 270 angle to the substructure. The superstructure of
the excavator consists of a frame with a firmly attached counterweight boom. The bucket wheel boom is linked
directly to the C frame and discharge boom in connected to it via a revolving platform. The C frame is designed as a
closed case and most parts of it are accessible from the inside for inspection purposes. The main control station of
the excavator is connected to the upper part of the C frame by a jib. Each piece of equipment has two standardized
conveyor belts. The belts are 2 m wide (St 1600) and each belt has a motor rating of 500 kW and speed of 5.0 m/s.
Three-phase slip ring motors, which are started dependent on time and load, are used as drives. The equipment unit
is supplied by a 6-kV trailing cable, which in normal operation is wound on the cable drum of the belt wagon. The
maximum cable length is 475 m at a cross-section of 3 x 240 mm. The excavator has a separate small cable drum
with a winding length of 150 m. The drives for the bucket wheel, the travel gears and the slewing gears are activated by frequency converters. The design of the electrical equipment focused on standardizing it. The excavator and
the belt wagon are linked and controlled by a redundant wireless LAN connection.

6. CONCLUSION
The PE100-1600/1.5x20 Bucket Wheel Excavator made by Sandvik with an overall weight of 1,650 tons is designed
to handle 6, 700 lm/h or an annual capacity of 12.0 million fm+t. This project was of great significance to Sandvik.
It has enabled the company to take another important step into the European open pit mining sector and once
again demonstrated its competence as one of the world's leading suppliers of open pit mining equipment.

REFERENCES

[1]

Hinterholzer, St.: Weltweit grter Kompakt-Schaufelradbagger von Sandvik, 16. Fachtagung Schttgutfrdertechnik 2011,
Magdeburg 2011

[2]

Hinterholzer, St.: SANDVIK PE100-1600/1.5x2.0 Largest Compact Bucket Wheel Excavator in the world, 8th International Symposia
Maren 2010

[3]

Krber, Thomas; Anno, Look; Jrgen Friebe.: The worlds largest compact bucket wheel excavator, World of Mining, Surface & Underground 61(2009) No. 1

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PHENOMENON OF STONE THROWING


IN OPEN CAST MINING AND QUARRIES

ABSTRACT
Shaip LATIFI1
Ahmet TMAVA
Ibush JONUZI

Independent Commission for Mines


and Minerals, Prishtina, Kosovo
1
shlatifi@kosovo-mining.org

Kosovo has a dense population, so the facilities starting for housing to the
industrials facilities are in general very near to the mining activities starting
from open pits, metal minerals, construction minerals, extraction site of
rocks for their processing in aggregates for production of concrete, concrete
asphalt, gravel for building the roads, extraction of chrome, bauxite, ferronickel, magnesia.
During the blasting, there is possibility of throwing the stones so the functions are done for reviewing the throwing distance of the pieces caused by
explosive during blasting.

Keywords
Asphalt, Blasting, Function, Magnesia, Mineral

1. INTRODUCTION
Land with high density of the dwellers and the high requests for civil materials within Kosova markets created the
need for the quarrys opening in producing that materials, which are necessary for creating of concrete, asphalt
concrete, gravel and the materials for the upper road construction and houses.
The best smaller class of aggregates till 4mm are usually from the river, but, in this case Kosovo with the 10 000 km2
has the rivers with length of 120 km which dont enable the sand production capacity of such civil material which it
is required in the market after the war of 1999. But the markets value of the produced aggregate doesnt have the
economical power to recover the costs of expropriation of land with houses and other objects in order to create a
security zone in which pieces caused by blasting can be fallen in the quarry. Because we have rivers with totally 417
km length with the average water flowing 8700 lit/sec, we have the lack of sands of the small fractures.

Figure 1. Experimental quarry for the phenomenon rock fracture throwing

Within mines activity in the open cast there are the possibilities of the pieces throwing from the mined places with
the explosives. From that it is dangerous for people to get injured and the objects to be damaged. Many houses are
near vicinity of mine. In those areas where people are living, working, it is necessary to create securities zone for
the people, and civil objects.

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From the government was requested to be solved the security zone from the mines activities.
For this solution it is necessary to know the security zone and to predict that zone by the legislation.
We as independent commission response to the Parliament of Kosova, our status is independent, that means we
have only to prepare ourselves to work by the law.
To give such an answer it is necessary to find a solution which is based on the scientific conclusion.

Figure 2. Graph of the throwing stones (Inclined throw )

Using the function of the inclined throw in the mines and the quarries we calculated the horizontally and vertically
oriented components of the starting velocity specified as V0, in the x direction as VX and in the y direction as VY.

Figure 3. Graph of the Angle of the throwing stones, launching angle

Figure 4. Graph of the launching angle

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In the above graph the sinus function is approximated in the linear function

Figure 5. Graph of the velocity

Table 1. The falling plato in the function of the throwing distance and the starting velocity oft the stones from blasted material

Y=X*tang
(g/(2Vo*cos^2))*X^2
20
15
10
5
0
5 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

10
15
20
25
30
Figure 6. Inclined throw, launching point in higher level than falling point

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Figure 7. Graph with the numerical values of the throwing distance

2. CONCLUSION
The security zone by the opencast mines is necessary; the pieces of the stones are surveyed from the observing
place. The first is designed the blasting geometry of the quarrys bench, which many times is changed, starting from
3 m of the resistance line toward the free face till the 0.17 m and surveying the distance of stones shooting from 21
m to the line of 3 m and free face within 3m and 376 m to the free with of 0.17 m. The distance from surveying
station to the falling place measured geodetically and the time of the sound reaching from stones falling place to
the surveying station is calculated sound velocity in the air. The starting velocity of the throwing stones is 164 m/s,
but the mid velocity is 82 m/sec. The time for distance passing is 4.65 m/sec. From the video covering is taking the
time of 5.61 cm. The time of arriving from the place of falling stones is 0.975 sec. The geodetically distance from
falling place of the throwing stones to the observation station is 328, 571 m. The knocking force hangs from
elasticity of falling stones and earth body. If the bodys disfiguration is 0 then the knocking force is unlimited, if the
deformation is 0,001 mm the knocking force is 137548 kg. 1 mm the knocking force of the falling body of the 396 gr
is 137 kg. From this case it can be concluded that in the knocking bodies in the earth or with the other body will be
crash or elastics deformation.

REFERENCES

[1]

Orell Fssli Verlag Zrich 4. Auflage 1988, Formeln und Tafeln Mathematik- Physik

[2]

W.Hustrulid and M. Kuchta 2nd Edition 1998, Taylor& Francis Group , Open Pit Mine planning &Design, 2. Software Pckage.

[3]

22nd World MINING CONGRESS 11-16 September Istambull 2011; Hydro Filling Hajvalia mine with waste from the flotation of Mines
and Minerals Prishtina Kosova. Breznica, Latifi, Tmava Indipendent Commision for Mines and Minerals, Kosovo

[4]

10th SGM 2010, Source of explosives force and the projection Methodology of the underground storge. Shaip Latifi, Enver Breznica,
Ibush Jonuzi, Ahmet Tmava, Indipendent Commision for Mines and Minerals, Kosovo

[5]

Taylor & Francis Group 2006, Londom / Leiden/New York / Philadelphia/ Singapore William G. Pa Pariseau, Design Analysis in Rock
Mechanics

[6]

SGEM 2012; The Stability of Sopa slope in the Kaanik Valley; Mr.sc. dipl.eng. Shaip Latifi Dr. Ahmet Tmava ICMM- Prishtin, Mr.sc.
Adil Januzi1 KEK- Prishtin Jahir Gashi, Ibush Januzi ICMM- Prishtin, Republic of Kosova Republic of Kosova;, Republic of Kosova

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FGD GYPSUM TRANSPORT AND DISPOSAL


ALTERNATIVES AT SERBIAN THERMAL POWER PLANTS

ABSTRACT
Ivana SIMOVI
Neboja KOSTOVI
Mirko SAVI
Dijana VLAJI

Rudarski institute d.o.o,


Belgrade, Serbia
pms@ribeograd.ac.rs

The paper outlines technological solutions for transport and disposal of the
gypsum generated in the wet limestone flue gas desulphurization process
that will be implemented in the existing thermal power plants Kostolac B,
Nikola Tesla A and B.
As FGD gypsum utilization is presently undefined, it was necessary to evaluate the possibilities of efficient, reliable and safe handling and disposal of
gypsum. In this paper two main alternatives are reviewed and described:
transport and disposal of dry gypsum with 10% of moisture, and gypsum
suspension with roughly 50% of solids.

Keywords
Disposal, FGD Gypsum, Transport

1. INTRODUCTION
One of the most important segments in the ongoing process of harmonization of national legislation with EU directions is environmental protection and overall pollution reduction. Environmental considerations became a restraining factor especially with using fossil fuels, as it is the case in Serbia, where more then 60% of total installed power
generation capacity is coal based [1]. Within the activities carried out to minimize the impact of increased air, water, and solid waste pollutants is implementation of technologies in Serbian thermal power plants (TPP) aimed to
control emissions, especially the generation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) during the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to
meet the new stringent SO2 emission limits, The Electric Power Industry of Serbia (EPS) decided to introduce the
wet limestone flue gas desulphurization (FGD) process in its largest TPPs [2].
In the anticipated wet limestone FGD process, SO2 reacts with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) forming calcium sulfite
(CaSO3), which is being transformed into the hydrated calcium sulfate (CaSO4 x 2H2O) or gypsum, by additional oxidization. Generated gypsum suspension, with approximately 15-20% of solids, is sent to the primary dewatering in
hydrocyclones up to the mass concentration of 50% of solids by weight. Hydrocyclone underflow represents gypsum suspension that can be transported via pipeline to previously prepared disposal site. Gypsum suspension can be
additionally treated by washing and secondary dewatering using belt vacuum filter. "Dry" gypsum, with less then
10% of moisture, can be temporary or permanently stored.
Despite the fact that over 80% of FGD gypsum production in EU-15 countries and 60% in USA is utilized [3], the use
of FGD gypsum in Serbia is presently undetermined and it was necessary to evaluate the possible alternatives for
FGD gypsum disposal covering technical, technological, environmental and economical aspects. Commonly, there
are several possibilities for FGD gypsum disposal that are applied world-wide, briefly described below:
(1)
Mixing of gypsum and ash in different forms (such as "dry" gypsum and ash slurry or gypsum slurry and
ash slurry)
(2)
Disposal of "dry" gypsum (with less then 10% of moisture) on a separate disposal site
(3)
Disposal of gypsum slurry (with concentration of solids 30-60%) in separate disposal site
Serbian legislation in force considers FGD gypsum a secondary raw material that can not be mixed with other waste
or secondary raw materials due to potential utilization [4]. Therefore, the alternative of disposal of FGD gypsum in
mixture with ash is not taken into evaluation at the moment.

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Disposal of "dry" gypsum is in practice in some TPPs in Europe. There are no relevant environmental impacts of
waste waters and leachate from the disposal site is mainly from precipitation if the disposal site is prepared according to related legislation.
There is limited experience with disposal of gypsum suspension, but in case the disposal site is in vicinity of TPP this
mean of transportation is relatively feasible as gypsum suspension is conveyed after primary dewatering via pipeline. Waste waters must be either recycled or treated.

2. TECHNICAL APPROACH
The general approach to designing of FGD gypsum transport and disposal was the same for existing and planed
thermal power plants, therefore this paper provides the key issues considered and description of the two possible
alternatives proposed in project documentation prepared for TPP Kostolac B3. Design assessment was based on the
following activities carried out during preparation of general and basic design of FGD process for the new 350 MW
unit [5, 6]:
Reviewing of basic principles and guidelines defined in related Serbian and EU legislation relevant to FGD
gypsum
Setting up FGD inputs and process requirements on the basis of coal quality and consumption, raw flue gas
characteristics, minimal limestone quality, desulphurization performance and FGD gypsum quality
Calculating FGD gypsum production, transport capacity and required disposal site volume
Evaluating FGD gypsum transport and disposal technology with mass balance flow sheets
Evaluating disposal site location, geometry and construction methodology
Environmental impact assessment

3. TECHNICAL DESCIPTION
FGD gypsum production and required quality
FGD gypsum production from TPP Kostolac B3 was determined based on the inputs and proposed FGD process requirements and performances. Basic parameters of gypsum production calculated according to the estimated content of 0.80% of combustible sulfur for equivalent 6800 hours of annual operation are presented in Table 1 for 350
MW unit.
Table 1. Basic parameters of gypsum production

Parameter
Removed sulfur, t/h

6.6 t/h

Limestone consumption

11.0 t/h
36.7 t/h

Quantity of FGD gypsum suspension with 50% of solids

25.8 m3/h
175.440 m3/yr

FGD gypsum density

2.45 t/m3

Density of FGD gypsum suspension with 50%of solids

1.42 t/m3
20.4 t/h

Quantity of FGD gypsum with 10% of moisture

138.720 t/god

Required volume of disposal site

115.600 m3/god

Bulk density of FGD gypsum with 10% of moisture

1.0 t/m3

Volume density of FGD gypsum with 10% of moisture

1.2 t/m3

Source: General design and pre-feasibility study for new TPP unit Kostolac B3 (EP-Entel and Rudarski institute, 2012)

Required quality of FGD gypsum necessary for consideration of gypsum needs and gypsum placement possibilities
to potential manufacturers of gypsum products in Serbian market is presented in Table 2.

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Table 2. Required quality of FGD gypsum

Parameter

Limit

Moisture

10 % max.

CaSO4 x 2H2O

95% min.

CaSO3 x H2O

0.50% max.

Chlorides

100 mg/kg max.

Na water soluble salts

100 mg/kg max.

Mg water soluble salts

75 mg/kg max.

pH

5 to 9 max.

Min. particle size

<10 microns 20% max.

Avg. particle size

30 75 microns

Max. particle size

<100 microns 90% min.

Source: Quality Criteria of FGD Gypsum, Eurogypsum, Brussels, Belgium. (www.eurogypsum.org)

Transport and disposal technology of FGD gypsum


Two evaluated alternatives for further handling of the FGD gypsum are illustrated schematically in Figure 1.
Thermal Power Plant Kostolac B3
FGD plant
low density suspension
recirculating water

Primary
dewatering
(hydrociclone)
high density suspension

Filtration

additional water

Covered
gypsum storage
mechanical transport

hydraulic transport

Market
Gypsum
disposal site

Gypsum
suspension
disposal site

open pit Drmno


Figure 1. Schematic illustration of alternatives for FGD gypsum transport and disposal

Alternative I: Transport and disposal of gypsum with 10% of moisture


As presented in Figure 2, "dry" gypsum, as filter cake after dewatering in belt filter with less then 10% of total moisture, gravitationally falls onto the conveyer belt that transports gypsum to the covered daily storage shed designed
to synchronize the continuous operation of the filter unit with the gypsum transport. From this storage, gypsum
will be loaded into the trucks either for consumers or for transport to the disposal site, where it is transferred to
the surge hopper. From the surge hopper, it is disposed at previously prepared disposal area by the belt conveyer
system.

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hydrocyclone battery

overflow

hydrocyclone battery

overflow

belt filter

belt filter

filter cake - gypsum with less then 10% of moisture

covered gypsum storage

belt conveyor

Figure 2. Technological process of "dry" gypsum stacking at covered storage

As illustrated in figure 3, the surge hopper and ramp for trucks unloading will be installed on the rim of the disposal
site. Further transport and disposal will be maintained by the belt conveyer system. Gypsum disposal starts from
the higher level of surrounding terrain in front of the stacking system. Stacking conveyer will be frontally moved,
successively with the gypsum disposal dynamics.
surg e
hopper
with belt transfering
feeder conveyer

stationary
conveyer

ramp
linking
conveyer
transfering
conveyer

disposal site

stacking
conveyer

Figure 3. Technological process of "dry" gypsum disposal

Alternative II: Transport and disposal of gypsum suspension with 50% of solids
Gypsum suspension, as hydrocyclone underflow, will be collected from the each unit into the pump sump with agitator, as it is presented in Figure 4. Gypsum suspension transport will be provided by the centrifugal slurry pump
through the pipeline to the disposal site, where distribution pipeline will be mounted on the brim of the disposal
site. Suspension disposal will be from the single discharge pipe. There will be a drainage system at disposal site,
which will collect surplus water that will be returned via separate pipeline to the plant.
Hydrocyclones
transport to
dispoal site
feed

feed

overflow
open pit Drmno

recirculating
water

safty valve

back to process
or
to wastewater
treatment

underflow

centrifugal slurry
pump sump

recirculating water
drainage system

gyspum disposal site

Figure 4. Technological process of gypsum suspension transport and disposal

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Disposal site
The selection of the location for FGD disposal was performed considering the following general conditions and criteria [7]:
main characteristics of material to be disposed,
terrain topography;
geological, geotechnical, hydro-geological and seismic conditions,
climate, hydrological and hydrographic characteristics,
land zone, level of land protection and future land use,
traffic and technical infrastructure,
volume and landfill capacity.
Figure 5. Location of FGD gypsum disposal site

In accordance to stated criteria, the disposal site for FGD gypsum suspension is located in the inner overburden dump site at open pit mine
Drmno, as shown in Figure 5. It will be formed during mining works using
overburden excavator conveyer spreader system. Inner slopes will be
inclined with the ratio 1:2.5 and will be constructed with the benches
necessary for anchoring of watertight foil. After terrain leveling, the
bottom and slopes of disposal area will be covered with watertight geomembrane. In case of gypsum suspension, the appropriate drainage system will be installed for collecting excess water and returning to the
FGD process via pump station.

4. CONCLUDING REMARKS
Although beneficial use of FGD gypsum is environmentally and economically preferable over disposal, it is inevitable that disposal will continue to be required in case there is no need for this by-product. Consequently, the best
management practice must be incorporated in all phases, from designing and construction, operation and monitoring, to re-cultivation and post-closure supervision.
FGD gypsum is a by-product generated in the process of removing SO2, which significantly reduces emissions of
harmful environmental pollutants into the atmosphere. Produced FGD gypsum has properties identical to natural
gypsum, it is completely safe for further utilization and can be directly used as natural gypsum substitute in various
areas of application. On the assumption that FGD gypsum can not be utilized, disposal is the only option. Evaluation of the possible options for transport and disposal of FGD gypsum from the future TE Kostolac B3 included all
relevant aspects for environmentally safe transport and disposal, especially to prevent pollution of soil, air, ground
and surface waters.
Both means of FGD gypsum transport and disposal, reviewed in this paper, are environmentally harmless if properly
managed and regularly monitored. Selected location of disposal site is within degraded area of the open pit mine
and designed hydro-technical construction is fully in compliance with environmental protection legislation.

REFERENCES

[1]

Technical report for 2012, EPS

[2]

Strategic and development projects of the Electric Power Industry of Serbia, EPS 2011

[3]

Statistics on Production and Utilisation of CCPs in Europe (EU 15) in 2009, ECOBA, 2009

[4]

Rulebook on conditions and means for separation, packaging and storing of secondary raw materials (Serbian Gazette No.
55/2001, 72/2009, 56/2010)

[5]

General design and pre-feasibility study for new TPP unit Kostolac B3, EP-Entel and Rudarski institut, 2011

[6]

Basic design and feasibility study for new TPP unit Kostolac B3, EP-Entel and Rudarski institut, 2012

[7]

Waste disposal sites directive (Serbian Gazette No. 925/2010)

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SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF MINING MECHANIZATION DELAYS


IN SURFACE MINE DEPARTMENT OF BLACK COAL MINE BANOVICI

ABSTRACT
Misad BEI1
Rua ELIKOVI2

RMU Banovii, Banovii, Bosnia and


Herzegivina, mirsadbecic@gmail.com
2
RGGF, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegivina,
ruza.celikovic@untz.ba

This paper contains outlook of spatial distribution of mining mechanization


flaws determined from data collected in process of GPS monitoring of mining mechanization which provide selection of information on working locations and mining mechanization flaws for any moment in time or period.
The aim of this data processing collected with GPS in process of mining
mechanization monitoring is receiving of all relevant information on mechanization process. This includes gaining of information on working time and
setbacks according to location for each day or selected periods.
In order to get information on mechanization labour from collected data it is
necessary to adjust source data for extraction of needed information i.e.
determiner of mechanization labour. In that context the short outlook of
characteristics of source data regarding monitoring of mechanization is given as well as model of data processing for getting of information on structure of truck setbacks.

Keywords
GPS Data, Data Processing, Structure Delays

1. INTRODUCTION
Large quantities of data with spacial and time dimension are collected in process of monitoring of mining
mechanisation supported by satelite systems. These systems provide information on mashines operation in realistic
time frame which provides possibility of production process control with purpose of increasment of production
effects. The most important advantage of this system is determination of location in time which can provide
complete information on working space of each mining mechanisation unit.
Continious monitoring of mobile objects gives monitoring oportunity of spacial angagement of certain mashines in
time. Known location can be saved or memorised for every moment in time. This gives opportunity for reconstruction (in space and time) of each mashine operation. This type of data provides both, spacial and time locating of
different operation regime or mashine failour for certain mashines. Since there is continuous log entry of motion,
these type of collected monitoring data can provide new set of information. New data continuouslly collected must
be processed with purpose of receiving of necessary information.

2. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF MECHANISATION IN COAL MINE BANOVICI


Since september 2009 implementation of ALV equipment for continuous monitoring of mechanisation in surface
mining department of Banovici coal mine is in process. This project involves, in first stage, monitoring of dumpers,
buldozers and graders. ALV units are implemented in these units which use GPS sensors for position tracking. According to producer prospect, implemented GPS sensors have ability of tridimensional position determination and
positioning accuracy is within 2,5 m, and with usage of SBAS corrections accuracy is within 2 meters.
Density of position registering depends on surface characteristics on which vehicles operate. Monitoring data are
saved and storaged on server. The producer of equipment is also creator of monitoring information data base. This
data base containd four related tables. Tabel t_data contains GPS monitoring information of all mashines in this
data base. Structure of data collected by GPS unit and stored in table t_data are shown in tabel 1.

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Table 1: Source data collected in mecnanisation monitoring process


id

log_
date

Ugovor_id

utc_datetime

latitude

ns

longitude

ew

Brzina

pravac

inputs

outputs

analog
1

analog
2

15933336

19.11.2009
5:36:54

19

18.11.2009
20:38:10

44,4248

18,4523

35

1000000

0000000

2,08

15933338

19.11.2009
5:36:54

19

18.11.2009
20:38:56

44,4261

18,4559

56

1000000

0000000

2,24

15933340

19.11.2009
5:36:54

19

18.11.2009
20:39:22

44,4266

18,4578

14

1000000

0000000

2,08

Where
Id
log_date
ugovor_id
utc_datetime
latitude
ns
longitude
ew
brzina
pravac
inputs
outputs
analog1
analog2

the number of logged data


date of sending of data from GPS unit on server
the number of mashine &device which collects data
date and time of position registering of mashine/device
geographic latitude (decimal degrees)
direction marking for north and south (north/south)
geographic longitude(decimal degrees)
direction marking for east and west(east/west)
soeed of motion in moment of position registering
motion direction given by azimuth
condition of gigital inputs and outputs (contact)
option for remote controling of certain devices
analog sensor for fuel consumption displaying

According to this structure, each mashine operates undr its unique ID which enables extraction of data for selected
mashine. Encription for time of position registering is given through time frame displayed as date. Position in certain moment of time is encripted as geographic coordinates: latitude i longitude in decimal degrees. Each coordinate is marked in individual colone and hemisphere.
Apart from these data, each encription contains data on direction of motion in given route as well as speed of motion. In egzisting data base of source information values of direction and speed are not realistic and these values
sholuld be calculated from data of coordinates and time interval. However, in table data _t in source data base,
values are displayed for each encription or position registerd by two analogue sensors. Measuring scales of these
sensors are not calibrated according to realistic scale and can not be used for this analysis. Certain fields from described data structure are not necessary in this phase for further analysis. Those fields contain data on hemisphere,
log_date, inputs and outputs as well as speed and direction becouse of nonrealistic values (Bei, 2011).
Data adaptation
Source data from server are updated i.e. adjusted for further processing with purpose of fedback of needed/possible information.
Along with data processing unnecessary colons are eliminated, (log_date, ns, ew, direction, inputs, outputs). Data
adjustment requires adding of new fields that will contain new attributes needed for futher analysis, as well as
calculating of new values for these fields in table. In this way, for each encryption/point he number of data is
increased.
Registered position in source data (data located on server) is described by geographic coordinates in WGS84
system. Since the area of surface mine is presented in flat coordinates (x,y) in Gauss-Kruger projection i.e. in local
geodetic date, transformation in geodetic date was performed and conversion of coordinates on flat coordinate
system in Gauss-Kruger projection. For calculating of new data, it is necessary to chronologicaly organise data/encriptions for each mashine individualy, becouse in this phase data taken from server arent organised. In this
conotation, each collection of encriptions in certain mashine is sorted by date and time.
Regardless the type of myshine/vehicle it is necessary to add the fields/colons necessary for creating of model
which will be used for extraction of important information on mechanisation operation, as follows:
xds, yds - flat coordinates in state coordinate system
dt (dt_s) - the lenght of time interval between two encriptions/points for given vehicle
dd_m - the lenght of rout between two encriptions/points for certain vehicle
brzina_kmh - the speed of vehicle motion on given rout (dd/dt),
sd_km - total path lenght from the beggining of monitoringu (total dd) ,

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number of points per day the number of point/encription for each day (in chronological order),
After processing of source data it is possible to do the filtration for elimination with unreal positions /speeds. For
needs of dividing per days, new encriptions/pionts were adaded as necessary, where time momet 23:59:59 was added as final moment for foolowing date i.e. 00:00:00 as new time moment for new following day (Bei, 2011). Data
prepared in this way represent imput data for extraction and analysis of parameters of labour indicators of mechanisation according to model defined for certain type of mechanisation. Structure of data after adjustment is given
in table 2.
Table 2. Structure of data after adjustment
id

utc
datetime

datum

time

dt
s

Y_ds

X_ds

dd

speed

Sd

sum_dt

Number

Points

km/h

km

per day

of days

per day

15937032

40136

19.11.09.

00:00:00

4919877

6535727

0,0

0,000

15937033

40136

19.11.09.

00:01:30

90

4919998

6535487

268

10,7

0,268

0,001042

15937034

40136

19.11.09.

00:02:19

49

4920152

6535263

272

20,0

0,540

0,001609

Data processed in this way along with complexed spatial questionaires, information on truck delays were extracted.
Modelling of data requires information on quality/reliability of data which have imput size of model. Geographic
coordinates are given in form of decimal degrees with four decimals. Decimal number of geographic coordinates
provides accuracy/inaccuracy of given values i.e. 0,99995 degrees.
In linear longitiude units
for geographical latitude (latituda) the value is 5,5 m
for geographical longitude (longituda) the value is 4,0 m
or, total position inaccuracy 6,8 m
This shows that encription of coordiantes should be increased for one decimal what would be compatible with possition accuracy (elikovi et al., 2010).
Since the speed was calculated from distance between two points and time interval from one point to anpther,
such determination of speed would be inaccurate in certain degree. Speed inaccuracy depending on time interval
for mentioned inaccuracy of 6,8 m route is given on graphic in picture 1. As graphic shows, inaccuracy for 1 minute
time interval is 0,41 km/h.
Because of inaccuracy in position determination (positioning accuracy) as well as speed inaccuracy, it is adopted
that each encryption represents encryption/point of machine labour if the speed is higher than 1,0 km/h and time
interval between two positions registering is higher than 5 minutes (300 s). In other words, each encryption
represents the point of machine delay if the speed is less than 1,0 km/h and time interval between two positions
registering is higher than 5 minutes (300 s).

3. DETERMINATION OF DELAYS FROM GPS MONITORING DATA


In this case, the important is the fact that any vehicle can, if needed, be angaged on any surface mine department
of coal mine Banovici, what is of great importance for data modeling. Area of certain surface mining departments
is defined by border coordinate values. Encriptions, i.e. points that are outside of given values are undergoing the
monitoring of vehicles outside those surface mining departments. Regardles to this fact, four locations are defined
surface mine Turija
surface mine Grivice
surface mineubri
others
Regardless the mashine type, delays are being defined according to same principle, and are determined according
to same model for all mashines
Separation on laobor and delay is conducted on term basis
delays:
dt_s > 300 i brzina_kmh < 1
labour (work):
dt_s < 300

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where:
dt_s - actual time interval (s) for individual encription/point,
speed_kmh - actual speed (km/h) for individual encription/point.
According to earlier research on surface mine epartment of coal mine Banovici, the time of mashine upload of cargo on dumper is less than 300 s in average so delays aren also included in cycles longer than 300 s (Mai et al.,
2010). For location delay determination GIS programme package MapInfo (licence RGGF) is used. Locations of delay
for every mashine are determined by spatial questionaires according to criteria of speed and time interval /1/ and
in this way each mashine gets new table that contains information on all delays for observed time priod.
Delays were extracted according to two basis :
The first criteria for analysis is the lenght of delay no matter the location, i.e. all extracted delays make one set of
data, which is shared in subcategories of data depending on lenght of delay, i.e. artribute values dt_s.
According to lenght delays are grouped in six classes:
5-10 minutes delays (class 1)
10-20 minutes delays (class 2)
20-40 minutes delays (class 3)
40-50 minutes delays (class 4)
50-90 minutes delays (class 5)
Delays larger than 90 minuta (class 6)
Dividing of delays according to lenght is included in model in a way that structure of delay is determined on daily
basis (according to number and lenght). According to this model, the number and time of delay from each class will
be determined on daily basis. In this way data from delay will be displayed as time series from which periodicity or
cyclicity in variation of time or number of delays in cetain time periods.
For determination of delays according to periods, based on data extracted on daily basis, total and average values
of number and time of delays for each class of delay are determined.
Other criteria for extraction of delays according to delay type. This criteria as well is diveded in three groups:
Service
Repairing
Other
Delays that regards repairment and service are related to preciselly defined location. All delays, except for service
anf repairment are grouped in group others. Service and repairment are locationallt defined by coordinates of
ground positions of field where service and repairment locations are predetermined. Exception of these groups
from data base is conducted on basis of coordinate values, time interval and speed. Since repairment and service
locations are permanent for all mashines, dividing model for delay type is the same for all mashines.
According to this cryteria, precise information on number and time of delays from group of service and repairment
are gained. Location for the most common and the longest delays from group other can be determined.
Determination of delays for speciffic period
Source data are based in access data base. Data adjustment were performed in Access and Excell. In Mapinfo, data
were converted into MapINfo format (tab). After creating of geometrical primitives (points), these data can undergo
spatial questionaires. The result of spatial questionaire is the new table i.e. layer or topic, which can be further processed or combined with other spacial data.
Based on location, date/time, time interval or speed condition, spatial questionaires extract information on labour
and delays with purpose of creation of thematic map (8). From mechanisation monitoring data delays for four
trucks in four periods during the year 2009/10 were determined. Table 3 displays number of memorised encriptions/points, time of monitoring and total path values for these trucks.
Picture 1 displays realised routs of these trucks in given time periods. This picture evidently shows the network of
surfce mine routs as well as routes between surface mines.
This map also shows evident places of trucks cargo upload and download as fields with disproper shape. Picture 2.
displays all locations of these dumper trucks delays during these periods as well as locations of excavator labour for
given periods. Working areas of excavator were taken from measuring service department of coal mine Banovici.
This picture evidently shows that the concetration of delays is on location of upload, service and repairment. Under

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the same model locations of buldozer delay with marking 1 were extracted. Picture 3. displays thematic map of
delays location according to time lenght.

Picture 1. Realised dumping truck routes during monitoring period

Picture 2. Dumping trucks delays locations during monitoring time

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Picture 3. Bulldozer 1 delay locations during monitoring period

If delays for specific mashines are analysed individualy, than delays according to number and continuum can be
extracted in another table on daily basis. Delays data on daily basis from data base can be statisticaly processed
with purpose of gaining parameters for longer period of time as it is displayed by cyrcle diagram on picture 4. Picture 5. diplays spacial distribution of delays on time continuum basis for dumper truck that was mostly engaged on
surface mine Cubric in form of thematic map.
Table 3: Outlook of dumper truck monitoring data

Truck

Number of points

hours

path_km

path/hour

Belaz8

155377

1824

15119

8,29

Belaz9

170594

1988

16426

8,26

Belaz9

148547

2016

17158

8,51

Terex2

140515

1920

12964

6,75

b)

BELAZ10_NiD- vrijeme zastoja (sati,%)


20,36; 6%
118,64;
37%

BELAZ10_NiD- broj zastoja po klasama (%)


48; 9%

30,98;
10%

69; 12%
163; 29%

56,62;
17%

28; 5%

20,90; 6%

115; 21%
130; 24%

78,19;
24%
5_10 min

10_20 min

20_40 min

5_10 min

10_20 min

20_40 min

40_50 min

50_90 min

vece_90min

40_50 min

50_90 min

vece_90min

Picture 4. Number and continuum of Belaz 10 dumper truck delays

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B10_ zastoji > 5 min


19.11. - 21.12.2009.
90 do 448

(48)

50 do 90

(69)

40
20
10
5

do
do
do
do

50 (28)
40 (115)
20 (132)
10 (161)

Picture 5. Spacial distribution of Belaz 10 dumper truck delays according to time continuum

Spatial questionnaires extract all location delays (longer than 5 minutes) in area of certain excavators for all
considered periods. Time distribution of excavator delays is displayed graphically on picture 6. According to type
i.e. location, the structure of delays is displayed in table 4 on basis of considered periods (76 days). Total number of
delays for each dumper truck individually is given along with the delay time continuum for each location. Final raw
of this table displays involvement of delay in total working time of dumper truck in percentage values.
Table 4. Number and time of dumper truck delays according to locations

Location

B10_number

B10_hours

B9_number

B9_hours

B8_number

B8_hours

T2_number

T2_hours

Total

1541

702,9344

1497

689,6744

1396

705,114

1336

723,516

Excavator code

1131

484,1622

876

244,81

649

171,03

642

135,899

Repairment

138

61,401

234

120,808

207

141,81

71

56,2266

Service

167

103,3939

216

158,0747

318

239,826

520

489,902

Other

105

54,36083

171

128,7789

222

149,164

103

41,4883

% of delays

38,54

37,81

38,66

39,67

vrijeme zastoja (sati)

Zastoji kod bagera za 76 dana


20
15
10
5
0
1

10

13 16

19 22

25 28

31 34

B8

37 40

43 46

B9

B10

49 52

55 58

61 64

67 70

T2

73 76

Broj dana

Picture 6. Time distribution of dumper truck delays on excavators location

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4. DISSCUSSION
According to official archive and monitoring data basis, contrastive displaying of delays time continuum is given
with purpose of verification of delays gained in process of GPS monitoring data processing.
Table 5 displays working data and delays for all dumper trucks in total period (76 days) as well as differences in time
of delays gained from GPS data and official archive.
Table 5. difference in time of working and delays in total period (76 days).
Dumper truck

Effective hours officialy

Delay_hours
officialy

work_hours
GPS data

Delay_hours
GPS data

Difference in delays (hours)

Difference in delays %

terex2

1319,5

696,5

1139,02

804,74

108,24

15,54

belaz8

1263

555

1121,21

699,1

144,1

25,96

belaz9

1429

584

1227,82

785,21

201,21

34,45

belaz10

1352

664

1215,14

798,79

134,79

20,30

This table evidently shows differences in time continuum delays archive that goes from 15 to 34%.
The largest differences in delays archive are for dumper trucks Belaz 8 and 9 which were engaged mostly on one
surface mine area. This data displaying evidently shows that classic way of archiving does not offer reliable
information on delays.
Processing of data collected in process of monitoring of mining mechanisation based on GPS can provide information on work as well as delays for each unit of mechanisation. Here is goven a short display of information
recieved from GPS data without further analysis. The adventage of usage of GPS data is primarly in fact of possibility of deterimination of delays as well as locations ofa delays i.e. effective working time diring one shift and based
on capacity and achieved results the parameters of mashine usage in real condition can be gained.
The most iportant is the possibility of number determination as well as time continuum of delays along with delay
location. In this way spacial parameters are gained that can be included in spacial analysis in planing and
organisation of technological process.
Information on number and time continuum of delays on certain location help in planning and removimg of causes
of delays with purpose of increasment of effects in mashines work and economy in production.

REFERENCES

[1]

M. Bei: Modeliranje prostorno-vremenskih podataka tehnolokog pocesa i karakteristika radnog prostora PK RMU Banovii, Tuzla
2011.

[2]

M. Bei, S. Mai, R. elikovi: Baza podataka praenja kamionskog transporta, Meunarodna konferencija 'Trendovi u savremenom
rudarstvu', monografija zbornika radova, Tuzla 2006.

[3]

R. elikovi, S. Mai, M. Bei: Prednosti primjene GPS za prikupljanje prostornih podataka na povrinskim kopovima, Zbornik radova
RGGF-a, broj XXXIV, Tuzla 2007.

[4]

R.elikovi, M.Bei, S.Mai: Isitivanje tanosti pozicioniranja runim GPS ureajem GPSV, Zbornik radova RGGF-a, broj XXXV, Tuzla
2010.

[5]

Peter A.Barrough and Rachael A.Mc Donnelli: Principi Geografskih informacionih sistema, Beograd 2006,

[6]

S. Mai, M. Bei, R. elikovi:''Odreivanje pojedinih parametara kamionskog transporta na osnovu podataka prikupljenih runim
GPS prijemnikom''Zbornik radova '38th International October Conference on Mining and Metallurgy'ISBN 86-7827-019-5, strana 147151, Donji Milanovac 2006.

[7]

G. enborn, G. Radivojevi, B. Lazi, M. Ostoji: Primena GPS na povrinskim kopovima: dispeerski centar, RINT, Prijedor 2001.

[8]

User Guide Mapinfo Professional 9.5

[9]

Tehnika dokumentacija RMU Banoviid.d. Banovii

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SHAFT SINKING AT VELENJE COAL MINE

ABSTRACT
Duan IMEK1
mag. Ludvik GOLOB
mag. Bojan LAJLAR

Premogovnik Velenje,d.d., Velenje,


Slovenia
1
dusan.cizmek@rlv.si

Velenje coal mine is an underground mine with average annual production


around 4 million tons of lignite coal. Our main conveyance system which
brings whole mine production to the surface is a system of several consecutive belt conveyors. Due to mine development active production fields are
moving to west part of coal deposit and existing conveyance system became
widely spread and distant. In 2009 we started technical and economic studies for new production shaft equipped with skips. After exploration drilling
and geologic research in 2010, we started with operational activities for
shaft sinking in 2011.
In first and second phase of preliminary works we prepared infrastructures
for construction site, we constructed shaft collar and we sank shaft to depth
of 37 m, then we assembled and installed hanging platforms, top cover, temporary headframe and winch hall with nine winches.
Complete set of shaft sinking equipment was ready in September 2012 when
we started with shaft sinking. In first 100 m we crossed several different geologic layers; we had difficult geologic conditions, water and mud irruptions,
gas outburst, but we manage to break through. For such complex and difficult underground construction we implemented extensive geological and
geotechnical surveillance.
Constant monitoring gave us very useful information, which were daily used
th
to make decisions for operative activities. At the moment (12 of July 2013)
we are at depth of 150 m and shaft sinking is in progress. Final shaft depth
will be 505 m and according to our plan we will finish shaft sinking till March
2015. After equipment assembly and commissioning we are planning to start
with regular skip hoisting in February 2016.

Keywords
Production Shaft, Shaft Sinking, Skip, Hoisting, Underground Mining

1. NEW PRODUCTION SHAFT NOP II


Premogovnik Velenje Velenje Coal Mine is an underground coal mine with average annual production around 4
million tons of lignite coal. Existing main conveyance system, which brings whole mine production to the surface, is
a system of several consecutive belt conveyors. Galleries and equipment are well maintained, system runs well and
it suits its need. Despite all this, conveyance system has some weaknesses and disadvantages. It is widely spread
and distant to other mine facilities; it is difficult to ensure its operational reliability; high operating costs, many
kilometres of open underground galleries presents also some safety risks [3].
These were the main reasons for us to start thinking about new transportation system, new technical solution,
which can also be more cost efficient. In 2009 we started technical and economic studies for new production shaft
equipped with skips. New production shaft NOP II is located closer to active production panels underground,
closer to stock deposits and closer to power plant on the surface. Studies [1] [2] confirmed technical feasibility and
return on investment for this project was proven [4]. We continue with engineering, project designing and we made
an investment program. After exhaustive study and revision, at the end of 2010, we got allowance for investment
and approval to start operative activities on our project.

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Through technical studies [1] [2] we determined shaft dimensions and we chose double compartment skip with friction hoist (Koepe) as adequate hoisting system. You can find some basic technical characteristic for our new production shaft and hoisting system in Table 1.
Table 1. Technical characteristics for new production shaft and hoisting system

Shaft inner diameter

6,15 m

Shaft depth

505 m

Hoisting distance

490 m

Max. hoisting speed

12 m/s

Payload

23,0 t

Hoisting capacity/hour

964,9 t/h

Hoisting capacity/year

4.081.503 t/year

Preliminary-works have started in January 2011. In first and second phase of pre - works we prepared infrastructures for construction site, we constructed shaft collar and we sank shaft to depth of 37 m using crane at open
shaft collar [5]. In April 2012 we started with assembly and installation of hanging platforms, top cover, temporary
headframe and winch hall with nine winches. Complete set of shaft sinking equipment [6] was ready in September
2012 when we started with shaft sinking.

2. EQUIPMENT AND SHAFT SINKING TECHNOLOGY


On location of new shaft detailed geologic exploration was done and we had some experience information from
shafts which were sunk in the same area years ago. Therefore we knew exactly what will be geological and hydrological conditions for shaft sinking. We decided to