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grammar translation

An approach to second language teaching characterized by


audio-lingual
the explicit teaching
Stimulus,
of grammar
response,rules
reinforcement.
and the useEveryone
of translation
learns exercises.
the same thin
g at the same approach
communicative
time, in the
Student
same way
centered,
(Earlylanguage
ESL Levelis1)learned
(Skinner-Behaviorist)
for communication,
teacher's role is to provide a context for authentic communication. Teaching ma
terials used with this approach teach the language needed to express and underst
and different kinds of functions, such as requesting, describing. Emphasis is on
task-based
the processes
learning
of communication.
An approach in which learners do a task, using such lang
uage as they can naturally, possibly having previously seen or heard the task pe
rformed previously by native speakers. Language focus can be made, before or aft
er, though
total
physical
thisresponse
is not always
A way of
feltteaching
to be essential.
in which the teacher presents language
items as instructions and the students have to do exactly what the teacher tell
s them. OR A language teaching method in which items are presented in the foreig
n language
the
direct method
as orders, commands
A methodandofinstructions.
foreign language teaching which has the foll
owing features: only the target language should be used in class and there is a
firmsilent
the
emphasis
wayonAspeaking.
method of FL teaching which makes use of gesture, mime, visual
aids and in particular Cuisenaire Rods that the teacher uses to help the learne
rs tolexical
the
talk. approach
An aspect of communicative language teaching which focus
es more onlanguage
community
languagelearning
as lexical units
It uses
rather
techniques
than grammatical
developed structures.
in group counsellin
g. The method makes use of group learning. Learners say things they want to talk
about, in their native language, the teacher translates the learner's sentences
into the foreign language, and the learner then repeats this to other members o
f the group.approaches Methods in which the following principles are considered
humanistic
important: the development of human values, active learner involvement in learn
ing natural
the
and in the
approach
way learning
A term
takes
forplace
an approach proposed by Terrell and Krashen w
hich emphasizes the informal acquisition of language rules, tolerance of learner
s' errors and natural
suggestopaedia
A method
communication
of FL teaching developed by the Bulgarian, Lozanov. It
makes use of dialogues, situations, and translation to present and practise lang
uage, and ineclecticism
principled
particular,Anmakes
approach
use ofthat
music.
encourages the teacher to pick and choo
se judiciously
the
listening approach
from a wide
A listening-based
range of methodologies.
application of the ideas of Krashen to
comprehensible
the classroom.input
way of speaking and explaining that the students can und
erstand (modeling, visuals, hands-on activities, demonstrations, gestures,body l
unnecessary
anguage
quality
second
first
test
presentation
teach
language
language
teacher
test
teacher
practice
acquisition
talkTask
acquisition
(or
talk
production
QTT
Teach Task)
UTT
SLA
FLA
TTT
PPP