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Machine Design, by U. C. Jindal, Pearson Education, India.

1. Conceptual design is the description of how a new product will work and meet
its performance requirements. In conceptual design, product is created instead of a visual
representationwhich would directly be used in a final product, e.g. a film, animation or
video game.
2. Tolerance is a valuable tool for reducing manufacturing costs by improving productivity.
Tolerance specification is an important link between engineering and manufacturing. It
can become a common ground on which to build an interface between the two, to open a
dialog based on common interests and competing requirements.
3. A key is device, which is used for connecting two machine parts for preventing relative
motion of rotation with respect to each other.
4. Shafts are rotating members which are subjected to bending moments and twisting
moments and sometimes to axial loads. It twists and transmits power.
Axles are rotating or non-rotating members which are subjected to only bending moments
due to members supported by it. It does not transmit torque. In other words, an axle is not
twisted it only bends.
5.

6.

11a.

PART B - 16 Marks

11a.

Importance and types of theories of failure - 8 Marks


Explanation of any 2 types of theories

- 8 Marks

11b.

Diameter of bar-8 Marks,

Diameter of pin 8 Marks

12a.

Advantages of shaft couplings - 4 Marks


Problem

- 12 Marks

Solution:

The torque transmitted by the shaft, T = 60P


2 N
= 60x35x103
2 x400

= 835.563 N-m = 835563 N-mm

And also ,

Torque , T = (T1 - T2) R

(T1 - T2) = T/R = 835563/450 = 1856.807 N ----(1)

W.K.T, Ratio of tensions, T1/T2 = e

Assume, = radians and = 0.25

T1/T2 = 2.1932

T1 = 2.1932 T2

-------(2)

By solving (1) and (2), we get T1 = 1556.15 N, T2 = 3407.9 N


Total load on the shaft , W = T1+ T2 + weight of pulley = 5764.05 N

B.M due to the above load, M

= WL =5764.05 x 250 = 1441012.5 N-mm

Equivalent Torque, Te = (Kb x M)2+(Kt x T)2

Assume, Kb = 2 Kt = 1.5

Te = 3142760.003 N-mm

And also w.k.t

Te =

s ( 1- k4 )do3

N-mm

16

K = di / do = 0.5

By substituting, we get, do = 44.03 mm = 45 mm (R20 series)

And

di = 22.5 mm = 25 mm (R20 series)

12 b.

Design Calculation - 12 Marks


Drawing

- 6 Marks

Solution: Power (P) = 12000W, N = 300 rpm,

Ks= 1.25,

N/mm2
Shear stress for shaft & key (sh or k = 50N/mm2 ,
Shear stress for sleeve(s = 10 MPa =10N/mm2

Torque, T = 60P
2 N
=381.97 N-m = 381970 N-mm

(i)

Design of Shaft:

c = 100

We know that, Torque, T =

sh d3

N-mm

16
Diameter of shaft (d) = 33.88 mm say d = 34 mm.

(ii)

Design of sleeve:

Diameter of sleeve = D = 2d +13 = 81 mm

Length of Sleeve = L = 3.5d=119 mm

Check for induced shear stress in muff

Torque, T =

s ( D4- d4 ) N-mm
16D

s = 3.77 N/mm2

which is less than the permissible value (10 N/mm2). Hence the design is safe.

(iii)

Design for keys:

From the PSG DDB for the shaft diameter d = 34 mm,

Width of the key , b = 10 mm

Height of the key, h = 8 mm

Length of each key, l = L/2 = 119/2 = 59.5 mm.

Check for shearing:


Torque, T = l b k d/2
We get

by substituting the values

k = 37.76 N/mm2

which is less than the allowable value (50 N/mm2). Hence the design is safe.

Check for crushing:


Torque, T = c l h/2 d/2
We get

by substituting the values

= 94.40 N/mm2

which is less than the allowable value (100 N/mm2). Hence the design is safe.

14a.

Given data: N= 300 rpm, n = 2, = 0.28, d1 = 220 mm, r1 = 110 mm, d2 = 140 mm,
r2 = 70 mm, Pmax = 0.1 MPa = 10000 N/m2 , I = 7.2 kg-m2
Solution:
(i)

The time to attain the full speed by the machine ( with uniform wear)

Since the intensity of pressure(p) is maximum at the inner radius (r2),


Pmax r2 = C or C= 7000 N/m
Axial thrust exerted, W = 2C (r1-r2) = 1759.29 N
Torque , T = n W ( r1 + r2 )/2 = 88.6682 N-m
Power, P = 2 N T / 60 =2785.59 Watts
w.k.t

Torque , T = I

Angular acceleration, = T / I = 12.315 rad/s2

And also w.k.t

= /t

Time , t = / = 2.55 sec

(ii)

The energy lost in slipping of the clutch


Energy lost in friction = T ( 1- 2)
Where

1 = t = 80.108 rad
2 = o t + t2 = 0 + 40.039 = 40.039 rad

Energy lost in friction = 88.6682 ( 80.108 40.039 )


= 3552.846 N-m
14b.
Given data:

TB = 30 N-m = 30 x 103 N-mm, d = 300 mm, r = 150 mm,


2 = 90 = 90 x /180 = 1.57 rad, = 0.4 , p = 0.3 N / mm2

Solution:

(i) To find the spring force (S)


Torque, TB = ( Ft1 + Ft2 ) r --------(1)
Ft1, Ft2 ---- Braking force on the R.H.S, L.H.S of shoe.
RN1, RN2 -----Normal reaction on the R.H.S, L.H.S of shoe.

Taking moment about fulcrum on R.H.S,


S x 475 = RN1 x 225 + Ft1 x 150
Where

RN1 = Ft1 / and


= 4 sin / (2 +sin 2) = 0.4402

By substituting we get,

Ft1 = 0.718 S

Taking moment about fulcrum on L.H.S,


S x 475 + Ft2 x 150 = RN2 x 225

Where

RN2 = Ft2/ and


= 4 sin / (2 +sin 2) = 0.4402

By substituting we get,

Ft2 = 1.315 S

From equation (1), i.e 30 x103 = (0.718 S + 1.315 S) 150


Spring force (S) = 98.376 N
(iii)

To find the width of the shoe (b)

Let, the projected bearing area of shoe , Ab = b (2r sin) = 212.132 b mm2
w.k.t

RN1 = Ft1 / = 0.718 S/ = 160.458 N and


RN2 = Ft2 / = 1.315 S/ = 293.876 N (max)
take pb = RN2 / Ab

Therefore,

Ab = 1049.55
212.132b = 1049.55
Width, b= 4.947 mm
15a.
Given data: For centrifugal pump journal bearing, Load W =13.25 x 103 N, D = 80mm,
n = 1440 rpm, p = 0.7- 1.4 N/mm2, Atm.temp = 30C
Solution:
Step-1
From PSG DDB

Select L/D ratio = 1 to 2

Let us take
Length of journal,

L/D = 1.5
L = 1.5 D = 120 mm

Step-2
Pressure developed ,

p = W/ LD = 1.380 N/mm2

This pressure is within the safe limit (0.7- 1.4 N/mm2).

Step-3
Selection of lubricating oil
The minimum value of Zn/p from PSGDDB is,
(Zn/p)min = 2844.5
Zmin= 2844.5x13.8/1440 = 27.638 Centipoise say 30CP
From PSGDDB, for 30CP and 60C, Select SAE 30 oil
Step-4
Calculation of coefficient of friction,

= 33.25/1010 (Zn/p)(D/C) + k

Where C = Diameteral Clearance = 150 microns (assume) = 150x10-3mm


And

k = 0.002

for 0.75<L/D<2.8

= 0.00255
Step-5
Heat Calculation,
Heat generated Hg = W v
Where ,

v = D n/60 = x 0.08 x1440/ 60 = 6.03 m/sec


Hg = 203.801 watts

Heat dissipated, Hd = (t + 18)2LD/K


Where,

and
Therefore,

t = (to ta) = (60 -30) = 15


K = 0.484 (medium construction)
Hd = 21.6 watts

Since Hg > Hd , artificial cooling arrangement must be provided by using cooling fans
or by circulating water.

Diameter of bearing, Db = D + C = 80.15 mm


Material: From PSGDDB select, Rubber or Modulated plastic laminate.

15 b.
Solution:
Load on the spring = 2P =140 x 103
But, 2P = 140 x 103 / Number of springs
P = 17500 N
Permissible stress, = 6PL/nbt2
600= 6x17500x500 / 10xbt2
bt2= 8750

-------------(1)

Deflection of the spring, y = 6PL3/Enbt3


80 = 6x17500x5003 / 200x103x10xbt3
bt3= 82031.25
bt2.t= 82031.25

-------------(2)

From equations (1) & (2),


8750 t = 82031.25
t = 82031.25/8750 = 9.375mm
Say thickness of the leaves, t = 10mm
b = 8750/t2 = 8750/102 = 87.5mm
Width of the leaves,

b = 87.5mm

The nearest standard size, b = 90mm