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Fluid Properties

CVEN 212
Spring 2015
Riyadh Al-Raoush, PhD, PE

Fluid Properties

System, Extensive & Intensive Properties


Mass and Weight
Relationships between Pressure and volume

Ideal Gas Law


Flow of Heat
Bulk Modulus of Elasticity

Viscosity
Vapor Pressure
Surface Tension

Definition of a Fluid

a substance that deforms continuously


when subjected to a shear stress, no matter
how small that shear stress may be
- Streeter, Wylie, Bedford

System,
Extensive & Intensive Properties

System: a given quantity of matter

Extensive properties

related to the total


mass of the system
represented by uppercase letters
e.g., M: mass ; W:
weight

Intensive properties

independent of the
amount of fluid
designated by
lowercase letters
e.g., p: pressure; :
density

Properties involving mass &


weight

Mass Density,

mass per unit volume


[mass/volume]
Appendix b and c

= g

Specific Weight,

weight per unit


volume
[force/volume]
Appendix b and c

Properties involving mass &


weight

Physical Properties

Properties involving mass &


weight

Specific Gravity, S

ratio of specific weight


of a given fluid to the
specific weight of
water at a standard
reference temperature
[-]
independent of units!

Find gasoline, given

Sgasoline= 0.75
water= 9810 N/m3

Sgasoline = gasoline /water

gasoline= 7357.5 N/m3

Properties involving mass &


weight

Properties involving mass &


weight

Equation of State for Gases


(Ideal Gas Law)
Equation of state for an ideal gas
p= RT
P: absolute pressure
: mass density
R
T: absolute temp [K or R]

the

gas constant,
Tables give value of R for various gases

to determine the mass density of the gas

= p/RT

Properties involving the flow of


heat

Specific Heat, c

describes the capacity


of a substance to store
thermal energy
for gases:
cv: specific volume
remains constant
cp: pressure held
constant
specific

Specific Internal
Energy, u

energy that a substance


possesses because of the
state of the molecular
activity
for ideal gas, u is a
function of T only

enthalpy, h

h=u+p/
function

of T only

Bulk Modulus of Elasticity


Relates the change in
volume to a change in
pressure
measures the
compressibility of
the fluid
pressure waves

dp
Ev
dV / V

Ev: bulk modulus of elasticity


dp: incremental pressure
change
V: fluid volume
dV: the incremental volume
change

Fluid Deformation between


Parallel Plates
F

U
y
Side view
Force F causes the top plate to have velocity U.
What other parameters control how much force is
required to get a desired velocity?

Fluid Viscosity

Examples of highly viscous fluids


______________________(Run
molasses, tar, 20w-50 oil

a Video)

Fundamental mechanisms
Gases

- transfer of molecular momentum


increases as temperature increases.
Viscosity __________
increases as pressure increases.
Viscosity __________
_______ and momentum transfer
Liquids - cohesion
decreases as temperature increases.
Viscosity ____________

Relatively independent of pressure (incompressible)

Role of Viscosity

Statics
Fluids

at rest have no relative motion between


layers of fluid and thus du/dy = 0
Therefore the shear stress is zero and is
independent of the fluid viscosity

Flows
Fluid

viscosity is very important when the fluid


is moving

Shear Stress/Viscosity
Fy

AU

AU
F
y
F

U

y
du

dy

dimension of

Tangential force per unit area


U
y

N s
2
m
N
m 2

1
Rate of angular deformation
s

change in velocity with respect to distance

rate of shear

Shear Stress/Viscosity

Newtonian
Ideal Fluid
Ideal plastic

du
Rate of deformation dy

Fluid classification by response


to shear stress
Ideal Fluid
Newtonian
Ideal plastic

Shear stress

du

dy

Fluid classification by response


to shear stress

Example: Measure the viscosity


of water
The inner cylinder is 10
cm in diameter and rotates
at 10 rpm. The fluid layer
is 2 mm thick and 10 cm
high. The power required
to turn the inner cylinder
is 50x10-6 watts. What is
the dynamic viscosity of
the fluid?

Outer
cylinder
Inner
cylinder

Thin layer of water

Solution
u

y

du

dy
AU
F A
t
U r

P Fr

A 2rh

Outer
cylinder
Inner
cylinder

2r 2 h
F
t

2 2 r 3h
P
t

Thin layer of water

Pt
2 2 r 3 h

(50 x10-6 W) (0.002 m)


-3
2

1.16x10
N

s/m
2 (1.047/s) 2 (0.05 m) 3 (0.1 m)

Dynamic and Kinematic


Viscosity

Kinematic viscosity is a fluid property


obtained by dividing the dynamic viscosity
by the fluid density

kg
m s

kg
3
m

[m2/s]

Surface Tension

molecules below the surface act on each other through


forces that are equal in all directions
molecules near the surface have a greater attraction for each
other than they do for molecules below the surface

Surface Tension and Capillary


Rise

Surface Tension and Capillary


Rise

Fy W 0

d 2
0
d cos h
4
d 2
0
d h
4
4 cos(theta)
h
d

Surface Tension and Capillary


Rise

Run a Video

Surface Tension

Pressure increase in a spherical droplet

pr2
2r
pr2

= 2r

2
p
r

Surface Tension - Examples

Vapor Pressure

Defn: pressure at which a liquid will boil


vapor pressure of water at 212 F is 14.7
psia (i.e., atmospheric pressure)
at 70 F, the vapor pressure is 0.363 psia
the

Cavitation: boiling in flowing liquids;


e.g., suction side of a pump

Vapor Pressure
8000

liquid

Vapor pressure (Pa)

7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

10

20

30

Temperature (C)

What is vapor pressure of water at 100C?

101 kPa

40