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# Fluid Properties

CVEN 212
Spring 2015

Fluid Properties

## System, Extensive & Intensive Properties

Mass and Weight
Relationships between Pressure and volume

## Ideal Gas Law

Flow of Heat
Bulk Modulus of Elasticity

Viscosity
Vapor Pressure
Surface Tension

Definition of a Fluid

## a substance that deforms continuously

when subjected to a shear stress, no matter
how small that shear stress may be
- Streeter, Wylie, Bedford

System,
Extensive & Intensive Properties

## System: a given quantity of matter

Extensive properties

## related to the total

mass of the system
represented by uppercase letters
e.g., M: mass ; W:
weight

Intensive properties

independent of the
amount of fluid
designated by
lowercase letters
e.g., p: pressure; :
density

weight

Mass Density,

[mass/volume]
Appendix b and c

= g

Specific Weight,

volume
[force/volume]
Appendix b and c

## Properties involving mass &

weight

Physical Properties

## Properties involving mass &

weight

Specific Gravity, S

## ratio of specific weight

of a given fluid to the
specific weight of
water at a standard
reference temperature
[-]
independent of units!

Sgasoline= 0.75
water= 9810 N/m3

weight

weight

## Equation of State for Gases

(Ideal Gas Law)
Equation of state for an ideal gas
p= RT
P: absolute pressure
: mass density
R
T: absolute temp [K or R]

the

gas constant,
Tables give value of R for various gases

= p/RT

heat

Specific Heat, c

## describes the capacity

of a substance to store
thermal energy
for gases:
cv: specific volume
remains constant
cp: pressure held
constant
specific

Specific Internal
Energy, u

## energy that a substance

possesses because of the
state of the molecular
activity
for ideal gas, u is a
function of T only

enthalpy, h

h=u+p/
function

of T only

## Bulk Modulus of Elasticity

Relates the change in
volume to a change in
pressure
measures the
compressibility of
the fluid
pressure waves

dp
Ev
dV / V

## Ev: bulk modulus of elasticity

dp: incremental pressure
change
V: fluid volume
dV: the incremental volume
change

## Fluid Deformation between

Parallel Plates
F

U
y
Side view
Force F causes the top plate to have velocity U.
What other parameters control how much force is
required to get a desired velocity?

Fluid Viscosity

## Examples of highly viscous fluids

______________________(Run
molasses, tar, 20w-50 oil

a Video)

Fundamental mechanisms
Gases

## - transfer of molecular momentum

increases as temperature increases.
Viscosity __________
increases as pressure increases.
Viscosity __________
_______ and momentum transfer
Liquids - cohesion
decreases as temperature increases.
Viscosity ____________

## Relatively independent of pressure (incompressible)

Role of Viscosity

Statics
Fluids

## at rest have no relative motion between

layers of fluid and thus du/dy = 0
Therefore the shear stress is zero and is
independent of the fluid viscosity

Flows
Fluid

## viscosity is very important when the fluid

is moving

Shear Stress/Viscosity
Fy

AU

AU
F
y
F

U

y
du

dy

dimension of

## Tangential force per unit area

U
y

N s
2
m
N
m 2

1
Rate of angular deformation
s

## change in velocity with respect to distance

rate of shear

Shear Stress/Viscosity

Newtonian
Ideal Fluid
Ideal plastic

du
Rate of deformation dy

to shear stress
Ideal Fluid
Newtonian
Ideal plastic

Shear stress

du

dy

to shear stress

## Example: Measure the viscosity

of water
The inner cylinder is 10
cm in diameter and rotates
at 10 rpm. The fluid layer
is 2 mm thick and 10 cm
high. The power required
to turn the inner cylinder
is 50x10-6 watts. What is
the dynamic viscosity of
the fluid?

Outer
cylinder
Inner
cylinder

Solution
u

y

du

dy
AU
F A
t
U r

P Fr

A 2rh

Outer
cylinder
Inner
cylinder

2r 2 h
F
t

2 2 r 3h
P
t

Pt
2 2 r 3 h

## (50 x10-6 W) (0.002 m)

-3
2

1.16x10
N

s/m
2 (1.047/s) 2 (0.05 m) 3 (0.1 m)

Viscosity

## Kinematic viscosity is a fluid property

obtained by dividing the dynamic viscosity
by the fluid density

kg
m s

kg
3
m

[m2/s]

Surface Tension

## molecules below the surface act on each other through

forces that are equal in all directions
molecules near the surface have a greater attraction for each
other than they do for molecules below the surface

Rise

Rise

Fy W 0

d 2
0
d cos h
4
d 2
0
d h
4
4 cos(theta)
h
d

Rise

Run a Video

Surface Tension

pr2
2r
pr2

= 2r

2
p
r

Vapor Pressure

## Defn: pressure at which a liquid will boil

vapor pressure of water at 212 F is 14.7
psia (i.e., atmospheric pressure)
at 70 F, the vapor pressure is 0.363 psia
the

## Cavitation: boiling in flowing liquids;

e.g., suction side of a pump

Vapor Pressure
8000

liquid

7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

10

20

30

Temperature (C)

101 kPa

40