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1

Basic Arithmetic
TERMINOLOGY
Absolute value: The distance of a number from zero on
the number line. Hence it is the magnitude or value of a
number without the sign
Directed numbers: The set of integers or whole
numbers f -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, f
Exponent: Power or index of a number. For example 23
has a base number of 2 and an exponent of 3
Index: The power of a base number showing how
many times this number is multiplied by itself
e.g. 2 3 = 2 # 2 # 2. The index is 3

Indices: More than one index (plural)


Recurring decimal: A repeating decimal that does not
terminate e.g. 0.777777 is a recurring decimal that can
be written as a fraction. More than one digit can recur
e.g. 0.14141414 ...
Scientic notation: Sometimes called standard notation.
A standard form to write very large or very small numbers
as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power
of 10 e.g. 765 000 000 is 7.65 # 10 8 in scientific notation

Algebra and
Surds
TERMINOLOGY
Binomial: A mathematical expression consisting of
two terms such as x + 3 or 3x - 1
Binomial product: The product of two binomial
expressions such as (x + 3) (2x - 4)
Expression: A mathematical statement involving numbers,
pronumerals and symbols e.g. 2x - 3
Factorise: The process of writing an expression as a
product of its factors. It is the reverse operation of
expanding brackets i.e. take out the highest common
factor in an expression and place the rest in brackets
e.g. 2y - 8 = 2 (y - 4)
Pronumeral: A letter or symbol that stands for a number

Rationalising the denominator: A process for replacing a


surd in the denominator by a rational number without
altering its value
Surd: From absurd. The root of a number that has an
irrational value e.g. 3 . It cannot be expressed as a
rational number
Term: An element of an expression containing
pronumerals and/or numbers separated by an operation
such as + , - , # or ' e.g. 2x, - 3
Trinomial: An expression with three terms such as
3x 2 - 2x + 1

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

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INTRODUCTION
THIS CHAPTER REVIEWS ALGEBRA skills, including simplifying expressions,
removing grouping symbols, factorising, completing the square and
simplifying algebraic fractions. Operations with surds, including rationalising
the denominator, are also studied in this chapter.

DID YOU KNOW?


One of the earliest mathematicians to use algebra was Diophantus of Alexandria. It is not known
when he lived, but it is thought this may have been around 250 AD.
In Baghdad around 700800 AD a mathematician named Mohammed Un-Musa
Al-Khowarezmi wrote books on algebra and Hindu numerals. One of his books was named
Al-Jabr wal Migabaloh, and the word algebra comes from the first word in this title.

Simplifying Expressions
Addition and subtraction

EXAMPLES
DID YOU KNOW?
Simplify

7x
Box 1.
text...

-x

Solution

Here x is called a
pronumeral.

7x - x = 7x - 1 x
= 6x
2. 4x 2 - 3x 2 + 6x 2

Solution
4x 2 - 3x 2 + 6x 2 = x 2 + 6 x 2
= 7x 2

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

3. x 3 - 3x - 5x + 4
Only add or subtract like
terms. These have the
same pronumeral (for
example, 3x and 5x).

Solution
x 3 - 3 x - 5x + 4 = x 3 - 8 x + 4
4. 3a - 4b - 5a - b

Solution
3a - 4b - 5a - b = 3a - 5a - 4b - b
= - 2a - 5b

2.1 Exercises
Simplify
1.

2x + 5x

16. 7b + b - 3b

2.

9a - 6a

17. 3b - 5b + 4b + 9b

3.

5z - 4z

18. - 5x + 3x - x - 7x

4.

5a + a

19. 6x - 5y - y

5.

4b - b

20. 8a + b - 4b - 7a

6.

2r - 5r

21. xy + 2y + 3xy

7.

- 4y + 3y

22. 2ab 2 - 5ab 2 - 3ab 2

8.

- 2x - 3x

23. m 2 - 5m - m + 12

9.

2a - 2a

24. p 2 - 7p + 5p - 6

10. - 4k + 7k

25. 3x + 7y + 5x - 4y

11. 3t + 4t + 2t

26. ab + 2b - 3ab + 8b

12. 8w - w + 3w

27. ab + bc - ab - ac + bc

13. 4m - 3m - 2m

28. a 5 - 7x 3 + a 5 - 2x 3 + 1

14. x + 3x - 5x

29. x 3 - 3xy 2 + 4x 2 y - x 2 y + xy 2 + 2y 3

15. 8h - h - 7h

30. 3x 3 - 4x 2 - 3x + 5x 2 - 4x - 6

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

47

Multiplication
EXAMPLES
Simplify
1. - 5x # 3y # 2x

Solution
- 5x # 3y # 2x = - 30xyx
= - 30x 2 y
2. - 3x 3 y 2 # - 4xy 5

Solution

Use index laws


to simplify this
question.

- 3x 3 y 2 # - 4xy 5 = 12x 4 y 7

2.2 Exercises
Simplify
1.

5 # 2b

5
11. ^ 2x 2h

2.

2x # 4y

12. 2ab 3 # 3a

3.

5p # 2p

13. 5a 2 b # - 2ab

4.

- 3z # 2w

14. 7pq 2 # 3p 2 q 2

5.

- 5a # - 3b

15. 5ab # a 2 b 2

6.

x # 2y # 7z

16. 4h 3 # - 2h 7

7.

8ab # 6c

17. k 3 p # p 2

8.

4d # 3d

4
18. ^ - 3t 3 h

9.

3a # 4a # a

19. 7m 6 # - 2m 5

10. ^ - 3y h3

20. - 2x 2 # 3x 3 y # - 4xy 2

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Division
Use cancelling or index laws to simplify divisions.

EXAMPLES
Simplify
1. 6v 2 y ' 2vy

Solution
By cancelling,
6v 2 y ' 2vy =
=

6v 2 y
2vy
63 # v # v1 # y1
21 # v # y1

= 3v
Using index laws,
6v 2 y ' 2vy = 3v 2 - 1 y 1 - 1
= 3v 1 y 0
= 3v
2.

5a 3 b
15ab 2

Solution
5a 3 b
= 1 a3 -1 b1- 2
3
15ab 2
= 1 a 2 b -1
3
a2
=
3b

2.3 Exercises
Simplify
1.

30x ' 5

2.

2y ' y

3.
4.
5.

8a
2

6.

xy
2x

7.

12p 3 ' 4p 2

8.

3a 2 b 2
6ab

9.

20x
15xy

10.

- 9x 7
3x 4

8a 2
a
8a 2
2a

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

11. -15ab ' - 5b


12.

2ab
6a 2 b 3

13.

- 8p
4pqs

16.

7pq 3

17. 5a 9 b 4 c - 2 ' 20a 5 b -3 c -1


2 ^ a -5 h b 4
2

18.

14. 14cd 2 ' 21c 3 d 3


15.

42p 5 q 4

4a - 9 ^ b 2 h

-1

19. - 5x 4 y 7 z ' 15xy 8 z - 2

2xy 2 z 3

20. - 9 ^ a 4 b -1 h ' -18a -1 b 3


3

4x 3 y 2 z

Removing grouping symbols


The distributive law of numbers is given by
a ] b + c g = ab + ac

EXAMPLE
7 # (9 + 11) = 7 # 20
= 140
Using the distributive law,
7 # (9 + 11) = 7 # 9 + 7 # 11
= 63 + 77
= 140

This rule is used in algebra to help remove grouping symbols.

EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify.
1. 2 ] a + 3 g

Solution
2 (a + 3) = 2 # a + 2 # 3
= 2a + 6

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. - ] 2x - 5 g

Solution
-(2x - 5) = -1 (2x - 5)
= -1 # 2x - 1 # - 5
= - 2x + 5
3. 5a 2]4 + 3ab - c g

Solution
5a 2 (4 + 3ab - c) = 5a 2 # 4 + 5a 2 # 3ab - 5a 2 # c
= 20a 2 + 15a 3 b - 5a 2 c
4. 5 - 2 ^ y + 3 h

Solution
5 - 2 (y + 3 ) = 5 - 2 # y - 2 # 3
= 5 - 2y - 6
= - 2y - 1
5. 2 ] b - 5 g - ] b + 1 g

Solution
2 (b - 5) - (b + 1) = 2 # b + 2 # - 5 - 1 # b -1 # 1
= 2b - 10 - b - 1
= b - 11

2.4 Exercises
Expand and simplify
1.

2]x - 4 g

7.

ab ] 2a + b g

2.

3 ] 2h + 3 g

8.

5n ] n - 4 g

3.

-5 ] a - 2 g

9.

3x 2 y _ xy + 2y 2 i

4.

x ^ 2y + 3 h

10. 3 + 4 ] k + 1 g

5.

x]x - 2 g

11. 2 ] t - 7 g - 3

6.

2a ] 3a - 8 b g

12. y ^ 4y + 3 h + 8y

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

13. 9 - 5 ] b + 3 g

20. 2ab ] 3 - a g - b ] 4a - 1 g

14. 3 - ] 2x - 5 g

21. 5x - ] x - 2 g - 3

15. 5] 3 - 2m g + 7 ] m - 2 g

22. 8 - 4 ^ 2y + 1 h + y

16. 2 ] h + 4 g + 3 ] 2h - 9 g

23. ] a + b g - ] a - b g

17. 3 ] 2d - 3 g - ] 5d - 3 g

24. 2 ] 3t - 4 g - ] t + 1 g + 3

18. a ] 2a + 1 g - ^ a 2 + 3a - 4 h

25. 4 + 3 ] a + 5 g - ] a - 7 g

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19. x ] 3x - 4 g - 5 ] x + 1 g

Binomial Products
A binomial expression consists of two numbers, for example x + 3.
A set of two binomial expressions multiplied together is called a binomial
product.
Example: ] x + 3 g ] x - 2 g.
Each term in the rst bracket is multiplied by each term in the second
bracket.

] a + b g ^ x + y h = ax + ay + bx + by

Proof
]a + bg]c + d g = a ]c + d g + b ]c + d g
= ac + ad + bc + bd

EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify
1. ^ p + 3h^ q - 4h

Solution
^ p + 3 h ^ q - 4 h = pq - 4p + 3q - 12
2. ]a + 5g2

Solution
] a + 5 g2 = (a + 5)(a + 5)
= a 2 + 5a + 5a + 25
= a 2 + 10a + 25

Can you see a quick


way of doing this?

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

The rule below is not a binomial product (one expression is a trinomial), but it
works the same way.

] a + b g ^ x + y + z h = ax + ay + az + bx + by + bz

EXAMPLE
Expand and simplify ] x + 4 g ^ 2x - 3y - 1 h .

Solution
(x + 4) (2x - 3y - 1) = 2x 2 - 3xy - x + 8x - 12y - 4
= 2x 2 - 3xy + 7x - 12y - 4

2.5 Exercises
Expand and simplify
1.

]a + 5g]a + 2g

17. ]a + 2bg]a - 2bg

2.

]x + 3g]x - 1g

18. ^ 3x - 4y h^ 3x + 4y h

3.

^ 2y - 3h^ y + 5h

19. ]x + 3g]x - 3g

4.

]m - 4g]m - 2g

20. ^ y - 6h^ y + 6h

5.

]x + 4g]x + 3g

21. ] 3a + 1 g ] 3a - 1 g

6.

^ y + 2h^ y - 5h

22. ]2z - 7g]2z + 7g

7.

]2x - 3g]x + 2g

23. ]x + 9g^ x - 2y + 2h

8.

]h - 7g]h - 3g

24. ] b - 3 g ] 2a + 2b - 1 g

9.

]x + 5g]x - 5g

25. ]x + 2g^ x 2 - 2x + 4h

10. ] 5a - 4 g ] 3a - 1 g

26. ]a - 3g^ a 2 + 3a + 9h

11. ^ 2y + 3h^ 4y - 3h

27. ]a + 9g2

12. ]x - 4g^ y + 7h

28. ]k - 4g2

13. ^ x 2 + 3h]x - 2g

29. ]x + 2g2

14. ]n + 2g]n - 2g

30. ^ y - 7h2

15. ]2x + 3g]2x - 3g

31. ]2x + 3g2

16. ^ 4 - 7y h^ 4 + 7y h

32. ]2t - 1g2

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

33. ]3a + 4bg2

37. ] a + b g2

34. ^ x - 5y h2

38. ] a - b g2

35. ]2a + bg2

39. ] a + b g ^ a 2 - ab + b 2 h

36. ] a - b g ] a + b g

40. ] a - b g ^ a 2 + ab + b 2 h

Some binomial products have special results and can be simplified quickly
using their special properties. Binomial products involving perfect squares
and the difference of two squares occur in many topics in mathematics. Their
expansions are given below.

Difference of 2 squares
] a + b g ] a - b g = a2 - b2

Proof
(a + b) (a - b) = a 2 - ab + ab - b 2
= a2 - b2

Perfect squares

] a + b g2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

Proof
] a + b g2 = (a + b) (a + b)
= a 2 + ab + ab + b 2
= a 2 + 2ab + b 2

]a - bg2 = a 2 - 2ab + b 2

Proof
] a - b g2 = (a - b) (a - b)
= a 2 - ab - ab + b 2
= a 2 - 2ab + b 2

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify
1. ]2x - 3g2

Solution
] 2x - 3 g2 = ] 2x g2 - 2 (2x) 3 + 3 2
= 4x 2 - 12x + 9
2. ^ 3y - 4h^ 3y + 4h

Solution
(3y - 4) (3y + 4) = ^ 3y h2 - 4 2
= 9y 2 - 16

2.6 Exercises
Expand and simplify
1.

]t + 4g2

16. ^ p + 1 h ^ p - 1 h

2.

]z - 6g2

17. ]r + 6g]r - 6g

3.

] x - 1 g2

18. ] x - 10 g ] x + 10 g

4.

^ y + 8h2

19. ]2a + 3g]2a - 3g

5.

^ q + 3h2

20. ^ x - 5y h^ x + 5y h

6.

]k - 7g2

21. ] 4a + 1 g ] 4a - 1 g

7.

] n + 1 g2

22. ]7 - 3xg]7 + 3xg

8.

]2b + 5g2

23. ^ x 2 + 2h^ x 2 - 2h

9.

]3 - xg2

2
24. ^ x 2 + 5h

10. ^ 3y - 1 h2
11. ^ x + y h2
12. ] 3a - b g2

25. ]3ab - 4cg]3ab + 4c g


2 2
26. b x + x l

13. ]4d + 5eg2

1
1
27. b a - a lb a + a l

14. ]t + 4g]t - 4g

28. _ x + 6 y - 2 @ i _ x - 6 y - 2 @ i

15. ] x - 3 g ] x + 3 g

29. 6]a + bg + c @2

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

30. 7 ] x + 1 g - y A

36. ] x - 4 g3

55

Expand (x - 4) (x - 4) 2 .

1 2
1 2
37. b x - x l - b x l + 2

31. ] a + 3 g2 - ] a - 3 g2
32. 16 - ]z - 4g]z + 4g

38. _ x 2 + y 2 i - 4x 2 y 2

33. 2x + ]3x + 1g2 - 4

39. ]2a + 5g3

34. ^ x + y h2 - x ^ 2 - y h

40. ] 2x - 1 g ] 2x + 1 g ] x + 2 g2

35. ] 4n - 3 g ] 4n + 3 g - 2n 2 + 5

PROBLEM
Find values of all pronumerals that make this true.
a b
d
f e
i i i h
i i c c

c
e
b
g
b

Try c = 9.

Factorisation
Simple factors
Factors are numbers that exactly divide or go into an equal or larger number,
without leaving a remainder.

EXAMPLES
The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 are all the factors of 24.
Factors of 5x are 1, 5, x and 5x.

To factorise an expression, we use the distributive law.


ax + bx = x ] a + b g

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. 3x + 12

Solution
Divide each term by 3 to
find the terms inside the
brackets.

The highest common factor is 3.


3x + 12 = 3 ] x + 4 g
2. y 2 - 2y

Solution
Check answers by
expanding brackets.

The highest common factor is y.


y 2 - 2y = y ^ y - 2 h
3. x 3 - 2x 2

Solution
x and x2 are both common factors. We take out the highest common
factor which is x2.
x 3 - 2x 2 = x 2 ] x - 2 g
4. 5] x + 3 g + 2y ] x + 3 g

Solution
The highest common factor is x + 3.
5 ] x + 3 g + 2y ] x + 3 g = ] x + 3 g ^ 5 + 2 y h
5. 8a 3 b 2 - 2ab 3

Solution
There are several common factors here. The highest common
factor is 2ab2.
8a 3 b 2 - 2ab 3 = 2ab 2 ^ 4a 2 - bh

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

2.7 Exercises
Factorise
1.

2y + 6

19. x ] m + 5 g + 7 ] m + 5 g

2.

5x - 10

20. 2 ^ y - 1 h - y ^ y - 1 h

3.

3m - 9

21. 4^ 7 + y h - 3x ^ 7 + y h

4.

8x + 2

22. 6x ]a - 2g + 5]a - 2g

5.

24 - 18y

23. x ] 2t + 1 g - y ] 2t + 1 g

6.

x 2 + 2x

7.

m 2 - 3m

24. a ] 3x - 2 g + 2b ] 3x - 2 g
- 3c ] 3x - 2 g

8.

2y 2 + 4y

9.

15a - 3a 2

25. 6x 3 + 9x 2
26. 3pq 5 - 6q 3
27. 15a 4 b 3 + 3ab

10. ab 2 + ab

28. 4x 3 - 24x 2

11. 4x 2 y - 2xy

29. 35m 3 n 4 - 25m 2 n

12. 3mn 3 + 9mn

30. 24a 2 b 5 + 16ab 2

13. 8x 2 z - 2xz 2
14. 6ab + 3a - 2a

31. 2rr 2 + 2rrh

32. ]x - 3g2 + 5]x - 3g

15. 5x 2 - 2x + xy

33. y 2 ]x + 4g + 2]x + 4g

16. 3q 5 - 2q 2

34. a ] a + 1 g - ] a + 1 g2

17. 5b 3 + 15b 2

35. 4ab ^ a 2 + 1 h - 3 ^ a 2 + 1 h

18. 6a 2 b 3 - 3a 3 b 2

Grouping in pairs
If an expression has 4 terms, it may be factorised in pairs.

ax + bx + ay + by = x(a + b) + y (a + b)
= ( a + b) ( x + y)

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EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. x 2 - 2x + 3x - 6

Solution
x 2 - 2x + 3x - 6 = x (x - 2) + 3 (x - 2)
= (x - 2) (x + 3)
2. 2x - 4 + 6y - 3xy

Solution
2x - 4 + 6y - 3xy = 2 (x - 2) + 3y (2 - x)
= 2 ( x - 2) - 3y ( x - 2 )
= (x - 2) (2 - 3y)
or 2x - 4 + 6y - 3xy = 2 (x - 2) - 3y (- 2 + x)
= 2 ( x - 2) - 3y ( x - 2 )
= (x - 2) (2 - 3y)

2.8 Exercises
Factorise
1.

2x + 8 + bx + 4b

12. m - 2 + 4y - 2my

2.

ay - 3a + by - 3b

13. 2x 2 + 10xy - 3xy - 15y 2

3.

x 2 + 5x + 2x + 10

14. a 2 b + ab 3 - 4a - 4b 2

4.

m 2 - 2m + 3m - 6

15. 5x - x 2 - 3x + 15

5.

ad - ac + bd - bc

16. x 4 + 7x 3 - 4x - 28

6.

x 3 + x 2 + 3x + 3

17. 7x - 21 - xy + 3y

7.

5ab - 3b + 10a - 6

18. 4d + 12 - de - 3e

8.

2xy - x 2 + 2y 2 - xy

19. 3x - 12 + xy - 4y

9.

ay + a + y + 1

20. 2a + 6 - ab - 3b

10. x 2 + 5x - x - 5

21. x 3 - 3x 2 + 6x - 18

11. y + 3 + ay + 3a

22. pq - 3p + q 2 - 3q

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

23. 3x 3 - 6x 2 - 5x + 10

27. 4x 3 - 6x 2 + 8x - 12

24. 4a - 12b + ac - 3bc

28. 3a 2 + 9a + 6ab + 18b

25. xy + 7x - 4y - 28

29. 5y - 15 + 10xy - 30x

26. x 4 - 4x 3 - 5x + 20

30. rr 2 + 2rr - 3r - 6

59

Trinomials
A trinomial is an expression with three terms, for example x 2 - 4x + 3.
Factorising a trinomial usually gives a binomial product.
x 2 + ] a + b g x + ab = ] x + a g ] x + b g

Proof
x 2 + (a + b) x + ab = x 2 + ax + bx + ab
= x(x + a) + b(x + a)
= (x + a) (x + b)

EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. m 2 - 5m + 6

Solution
a + b = - 5 and ab = + 6
-2
+6 '
-3
-5
Numbers with sum - 5 and product + 6 are - 2 and - 3.
` m 2 - 5m + 6 = [m + ] - 2 g] [m + ] - 3 g]
= ]m - 2g]m - 3g

Guess and check by


trying - 2 and - 3
or -1 and - 6.

2. y 2 + y - 2

Solution
a + b = + 1 and ab = - 2
+2
-2 '
-1
+1
Two numbers with sum + 1 and product - 2 are + 2 and -1.
` y2 + y - 2 = ^ y + 2 h ^ y - 1 h

Guess and check by


trying 2 and -1 or
- 2 and 1.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2.9 Exercises
Factorise
1.

x 2 + 4x + 3

14. a 2 - 4a + 4

2.

y 2 + 7y + 12

15. x 2 + 14x - 32

3.

m 2 + 2m + 1

16. y 2 - 5y - 36

4.

t 2 + 8t + 16

17. n 2 - 10n + 24

5.

z2 + z - 6

18. x 2 - 10x + 25

6.

x 2 - 5x - 6

19. p 2 + 8p - 9

7.

v 2 - 8v + 15

20. k 2 - 7k + 10

8.

t 2 - 6t + 9

21. x 2 + x - 12

9.

x 2 + 9x - 10

22. m 2 - 6m - 7

10. y 2 - 10y + 21

23. q 2 + 12q + 20

11. m 2 - 9m + 18

24. d 2 - 4d - 5

12. y 2 + 9y - 36

25. l 2 - 11l + 18

13. x 2 - 5x - 24
The result x 2 + ] a + b g x + ab = ] x + a g ] x + b g only works when the coefficient
of x 2 (the number in front of x 2) is 1. When the coefficient of x 2 is not 1, for
example in the expression 5x 2 - 2x + 4, we need to use a different method to
factorise the trinomial.
There are different ways of factorising these trinomials. One method is
the cross method. Another is called the PSF method. Or you can simply guess
and check.

EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. 5y 2 - 13y + 6

Solutionguess and check


For 5y2, one bracket will have 5y and the other y:
^ 5y h ^ y h .
Now look at the constant (term without y in it): + 6.

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

The two numbers inside the brackets must multiply to give + 6.


To get a positive answer, they must both have the same signs.
But there is a negative sign in front of 13y so the numbers cannot be both
positive. They must both be negative.
^ 5y - h ^ y - h
To get a product of 6, the numbers must be 2 and 3 or 1 and 6.
Guess 2 and 3 and check:
^ 5y - 2 h ^ y - 3 h = 5y 2 - 15y - 2y + 6
= 5y 2 - 17y + 6
This is not correct.
Notice that we are mainly interested in checking the middle two terms,
-15y and - 2y.
Try 2 and 3 the other way around:
^ 5y - 3 h ^ y - 2 h .
Checking the middle terms: -10y - 3y = -13y
This is correct, so the answer is ^ 5y - 3 h ^ y - 2 h .
Note: If this did not check out, do the same with 1 and 6.

Solutioncross method
Factors of 5y 2 are 5y and y.
Factors of 6 are -1 and - 6 or - 2 and - 3.
Possible combinations that give a middle term of -13y are
5y

-2

5y

-3

5y

-1

5y

-6

-3

-2

-6

-1

By guessing and checking, we choose the correct combination.


5y

-3

-2

5y # - 2 = -10y
y # - 3 = - 3y
-13y

` 5y 2 - 13y + 6 = ^ 5y - 3 h ^ y - 2 h

SolutionPSF method
P: Product of first and last terms
S: Sum or middle term
F: Factors of P that give S
- 3y
30y 2 )
-10y
-13y

30y 2
-13y
- 3y, -10y

` 5y 2 - 13y + 6 = 5y 2 - 3y - 10y + 6
= y ^ 5y - 3 h - 2 ^ 5 y - 3 h
= ^ 5y - 3 h ^ y - 2 h

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. 4y 2 + 4y - 3

Solutionguess and check


For 4y2, both brackets will have 2y or one bracket will have 4y and the
other y.
Try 2y in each bracket:
^ 2y h ^ 2y h .
Now look at the constant: - 3.
The two numbers inside the brackets must multiply to give - 3.
To get a negative answer, they must have different signs.
^ 2y - h ^ 2y + h
To get a product of 3, the numbers must be 1 and 3.
Guess and check:
^ 2y - 3 h ^ 2 y + 1 h
Checking the middle terms: 2y - 6y = - 4y
This is almost correct, as the sign is wrong but the coefcient is right
(the number in front of y).
Swap the signs around:
^ 2y - 1 h ^ 2 y + 3 h = 4y 2 + 6 y - 2 y - 3
= 4y 2 + 4y - 3
This is correct, so the answer is ^ 2y - 1 h ^ 2y + 3 h .

Solutioncross method
Factors of 4y 2 are 4y and y or 2y and 2y.
Factors of 3 are -1 and 3 or - 3 and 1.
Trying combinations of these factors gives
3
2y
2y #- 1 = - 2y
2y # 3 = 6y
4y
` 4y 2 + 4y - 3 = ^ 2 y + 3 h ^ 2 y - 1 h
2y

-1

SolutionPSF method
P: Product of rst and last terms
-12y 2
S: Sum or middle term
4y
F: Factors of P that give S
+ 6y, - 2y
2 + 6y
-12y )
-2y
+ 4y
` 4y 2 + 4y - 3 = 4 y 2 + 6 y - 2 y - 3
= 2y ^ 2y + 3 h - 1 ^ 2 y + 3 h
= ^ 2y + 3 h ^ 2y - 1 h

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

2.10

Exercises

Factorise
1.

2a 2 + 11a + 5

16. 4n 2 - 11n + 6

2.

5y 2 + 7y + 2

17. 8t 2 + 18t - 5

3.

3x 2 + 10x + 7

18. 12q 2 + 23q + 10

4.

3x 2 + 8x + 4

19. 8r 2 + 22r - 6

5.

2b 2 - 5b + 3

20. 4x 2 - 4x - 15

6.

7x 2 - 9x + 2

21. 6y 2 - 13y + 2

7.

3y 2 + 5y - 2

22. 6p 2 - 5p - 6

8.

2x 2 + 11x + 12

23. 8x 2 + 31x + 21

9.

5p 2 + 13p - 6

24. 12b 2 - 43b + 36

10. 6x 2 + 13x + 5

25. 6x 2 - 53x - 9

11. 2y 2 - 11y - 6

26. 9x 2 + 30x + 25

12. 10x 2 + 3x - 1

27. 16y 2 + 24y + 9

13. 8t 2 - 14t + 3

28. 25k 2 - 20k + 4

14. 6x 2 - x - 12

29. 36a 2 - 12a + 1

15. 6y 2 + 47y - 8

30. 49m 2 + 84m + 36

Perfect squares
You have looked at some special binomial products, including
]a + bg2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 and ]a - bg2 = a 2 - 2ab + b 2 .
When factorising, use these results the other way around.

a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = ] a + b g2
a 2 - 2ab + b 2 = ] a - b g2

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EXAMPLES
In a perfect square, the
constant term is always a
square number.

Factorise
1. x 2 - 8x + 16

Solution
x 2 - 8x + 16 = x 2 - 2 (4) x + 4 2
= ] x - 4 g2
2. 4a 2 + 20a + 25

Solution
4a 2 + 20a + 25 = ] 2a g2 + 2 (2a) (5) + 5 2
= ] 2a + 5 g2

2.11

Exercises

Factorise
1.

y 2 - 2y + 1

12. 16k 2 - 24k + 9

2.

x 2 + 6x + 9

13. 25x 2 + 10x + 1

3.

m 2 + 10m + 25

14. 81a 2 - 36a + 4

4.

t 2 - 4t + 4

15. 49m 2 + 84m + 36

5.

x 2 - 12x + 36

16. t 2 + t +

6.

4x 2 + 12x + 9

7.

16b 2 - 8b + 1

8.

9a 2 + 12a + 4

4x
4
+
3
9
6y
1
18. 9y 2 +
+
5
25

9.

25x 2 - 40x + 16

19. x 2 + 2 +

10. 49y 2 + 14y + 1


11. 9y 2 - 30y + 25

1
4

17. x 2 -

1
x2

20. 25k 2 - 20 +

4
k2

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

Difference of 2 squares
A special case of binomial products is ] a + b g ] a - b g = a 2 - b 2.
a2 - b2 = ] a + b g ] a - b g

EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. d 2 - 36

Solution
d 2 - 36 = d 2 - 6 2
= ]d + 6 g]d - 6 g
2. 9b 2 - 1

Solution
9b 2 - 1 = ] 3b g2 - 1 2
= ( 3 b + 1) ( 3 b - 1 )
3. (a + 3) 2 - (b - 1) 2

Solution
] a + 3 g2 - ] b - 1 g2 = [(a + 3) + (b - 1)] [(a + 3) - (b - 1)]
= (a + 3 + b - 1) ( a + 3 - b + 1)

= ( a + b + 2 ) (a - b + 4 )

2.12

Exercises

Factorise
1.

a2 - 4

7.

1 - 4z 2

2.

x2 - 9

8.

25t 2 - 1

3.

y2 - 1

9.

9t 2 - 4

4.

x 2 - 25

10. 9 - 16x 2

5.

4x 2 - 49

11. x 2 - 4y 2

6.

16y 2 - 9

12. 36x 2 - y 2

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

13. 4a 2 - 9b 2

20.

14. x 2 - 100y 2
15. 4a - 81b
2

21. ] x + 2 g2 - ^ 2y + 1 h2

22. x 4 - 1

16. ]x + 2g2 - y 2
17. ] a - 1 g - ] b - 2 g
2

18. z - ] 1 + w g
2

19. x 2 -

y2
-1
9

1
4

23. 9x 6 - 4y 2
24. x 4 - 16y 4
25. a 8 - 1

Sums and differences of 2 cubes


a 3 + b 3 = ] a + b g ^ a 2 - ab + b 2 h

Proof
(a + b) (a 2 - ab + b 2) = a 3 - a 2 b + ab 2 + a 2 b - ab 2 + b 3
= a3 + b3
a 3 - b 3 = ] a - b g ^ a 2 + ab + b 2 h

Proof
(a - b) (a 2 + ab + b 2) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 - a 2 b - ab 2 - b 3
= a3 - b3

EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. 8x 3 + 1

Solution
8x 3 + 1 = ] 2x g3 + 1 3
= (2x + 1) [] 2x g2 - (2x) (1) + 1 2]
= (2x + 1 ) (4 x 2 - 2 x + 1 )

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

2. 27a 3 - 64b 3

Solution
27a 3 - 64b 3 = ] 3a g3 - ] 4b g3
= (3a - 4b) [] 3a g2 + (3a) (4b) + ] 4b g2]
= (3a - 4b) (9a 2 + 12ab + 16b 2)

2.13

Exercises

Factorise
1.

b3 - 8

2.

x 3 + 27

3.

12.

x3
- 27
8

t3 + 1

13.

1000
1
+ 3
3
a
b

4.

a 3 - 64

14. ] x + 1 g3 - y 3

5.

1 - x3

15. 125x 3 y 3 + 216z 3

6.

8 + 27y 3

16. ]a - 2g3 - ]a + 1g3

7.

y 3 + 8z 3

8.

x 3 - 125y 3

9.

8x 3 + 27y 3

10. a 3 b 3 - 1
11. 1000 + 8t 3

17. 1 -

x3
27

18. y 3 + ]3 + xg3
19. ] x + 1 g3 + ^ y - 2 h3
20. 8]a + 3g3 - b 3

Mixed factors
Sometimes more than one method of factorising is needed to completely
factorise an expression.

EXAMPLE
Factorise 5x 2 - 45.

Solution
5x 2 - 45 = 5 (x 2 - 9)
= 5 (x + 3) (x - 3)

(using simple factors)


(the difference of two squares)

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2.14

Exercises

Factorise
1.

2x 2 - 18

16. x 3 - 3x 2 - 10x

2.

3p 2 - 3p - 36

17. x 3 - 3x 2 - 9x + 27

3.

5y 3 - 5

18. 4x 2 y 3 - y

4.

4a 3 b + 8a 2 b 2 - 4ab 2 - 2a 2 b

19. 24 - 3b 3

5.

5a 2 - 10a + 5

20. 18x 2 + 33x - 30

6.

- 2x 2 + 11x - 12

21. 3x 2 - 6x + 3

7.

3z 3 + 27z 2 + 60z

22. x 3 + 2x 2 - 25x - 50

8.

9ab - 4a 3 b 3

23. z 3 + 6z 2 + 9z

9.

x3 - x

24. 4x 4 - 13x 2 + 9

10. 6x 2 + 8x - 8

25. 2x 5 + 2x 2 y 3 - 8x 3 - 8y 3

11. 3m - 15 - 5n + mn

26. 4a 3 - 36a

12. ] x - 3 g2 - ] x + 4 g2

27. 40x - 5x 4

13. y 2 ^ y + 5 h - 16 ^ y + 5 h

28. a 4 - 13a 2 + 36

14. x 4 - x 3 + 8x - 8

29. 4k 3 + 40k 2 + 100k

15. x 6 - 1

30. 3x 3 + 9x 2 - 3x - 9

DID YOU KNOW?


Long division can be used to find factors of an expression. For example, x - 1 is a factor of
x 3 + 4x - 5. We can find the other factor by dividing x 3 + 4x - 5 by x - 1.
x2 + x + 5
x - 1 x3
+ 4x - 5

x3

x2
x 2 + 4x
x2

x
5x - 5
5x - 5

0
So the other factor of x 3 + 4x - 5 is x 2 + x + 5
` x 3 + 4x - 5 = (x - 1) (x 2 + x + 5)

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

69

Completing the Square


Factorising a perfect square uses the results
a 2 ! 2ab + b 2 = ] a ! b g2

EXAMPLES
1. Complete the square on x 2 + 6x.

Solution
Using a 2 + 2ab + b 2:
a=x
2ab = 6x
Substituting a = x:
2xb = 6x
b=3

Notice that 3 is half of 6.

To complete the square:


a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = ] a + b g2
2
x + 2x ] 3 g + 3 2 = ] x + 3 g2
x 2 + 6x + 9 = ] x + 3 g2
2. Complete the square on n 2 - 10n.

Solution
Using a 2 - 2ab + b 2:
a=n
2ab = 10x
Substituting a = n:
2nb = 10n
b=5

Notice that 5 is half of 10.

To complete the square:


a 2 - 2ab + b 2 = ] a - b g2
n 2 - 2n ] 5 g + 5 2 = ] n - 5 g2
n 2 - 10n + 25 = ] n - 5 g2

To complete the square on a 2 + pa, divide p by 2 and square it.


p 2
p 2
a 2 + pa + d n = d a + n
2
2

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
1. Complete the square on x 2 + 12x.

Solution
Divide 12 by 2 and square it:
x 2 + 12x + c

12 2
m = x 2 + 12x + 6 2
2
= x 2 + 12x + 36
= ]x + 6g2

2. Complete the square on y 2 - 2y.

Solution
Divide 2 by 2 and square it:
2 2
y 2 - 2y + c m = y 2 - 2 y + 1 2
2
= y 2 - 2y + 1
= ^ y - 1 h2

2.15

Exercises

Complete the square on


1.

x 2 + 4x

12. y 2 + 3y

2.

b 2 - 6b

13. x 2 - 7x

3.

x 2 - 10x

14. a 2 + a

4.

y 2 + 8y

15. x 2 + 9x

5.

m 2 - 14m

16. y 2 -

6.

q 2 + 18q

5y
2

7.

x 2 + 2x

17. k 2 -

11k
2

8.

t 2 - 16t

18. x 2 + 6xy

9.

x 2 - 20x

19. a 2 - 4ab

10. w 2 + 44w
11. x 2 - 32x

20. p 2 - 8pq

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

71

Algebraic Fractions
Simplifying fractions
EXAMPLES
Simplify
4x + 2
2

1.

Solution
2 ] 2x + 1 g
4x + 2
=
2
2
= 2x + 1

Factorise first, then cancel.

2x 2 - 3x - 2
x3 - 8

2.

Solution
] 2x + 1 g ] x - 2 g
2x 2 - 3x - 2
=
3
] x - 2 g ^ x 2 + 2x + 4 h
x -8
2x + 1
= 2
x + 2x + 4

2.16

Exercises

Simplify
1.

5a + 10
5

2.
3.
4.

9.

b3 - 1
b2 - 1

6t - 3
3

10.

8y + 2
6

2p 2 + 7p - 15
6p - 9

11.

a2 - 1
a + 2a - 3

8
4d - 2
2

5.

6.

x
5x 2 - 2x
y-4

12.

13.

y - 8y + 16

3 ]x - 2g + y ]x - 2g
x3 - 8
x 3 + 3x 2 - 9x - 27
x 2 + 6x + 9

7.

2ab - 4a 2
a 2 - 3a

8.

s2 + s - 2
s 2 + 5s + 6

14.

15.

2p 2 - 3p - 2
8p 3 + 1
ay - ax + by - bx
2ay - by - 2ax + bx

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Operations with algebraic fractions

EXAMPLES
Simplify
1.

x+3
x-1
5
4

Solution
Do algebraic fractions
the same way as ordinary
fractions.

4 ]x - 1 g - 5 ]x + 3 g
x -1 x +3
=
5
4
20
4x - 4 - 5x - 15
=
20
- x - 19
=
20

2.

2a 2 b + 10ab
a 2 - 25
'
3
4b + 12
b + 27

Solution
2a 2 b + 10ab
a 2 - 25
2a 2 b + 10ab 4b + 12
'
=
# 2
4b + 12
b 3 + 27
b 3 + 27
a - 25
2ab ] a + 5 g
4 ]b + 3 g
=
#
2
]
a + 5 g]a - 5 g
] b + 3 g ^ b - 3b + 9 h
8ab
=
] a - 5 g ^ b 2 - 3b + 9 h

3.

2
1
+
x-5 x+2

Solution
2 ]x + 2g + 1 ]x - 5g
2
1
+
=
x-5 x+2
]x - 5g]x + 2g
2x + 4 + x - 5
=
]x - 5g]x + 2g
3x - 1
=
]x - 5g]x + 2g

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

2.17
1.

2.

Exercises

Simplify
x 3x
(a) +
4
2
y + 1 2y
(b)
+
5
3
a+2 a
(c)
4
3
p-3 p+2
(d)
+
6
2
x-5 x-1
(e)
2
3
4.

Simplify
3
b 2 + 2b
#
(a)
b + 2 6a - 3

1
1
+
x+1 x-3

(g)

3
2
x
2
+
x -4

(h)

1
1
+
a 2 + 2a + 1 a + 1

(i)

5
2
1
+
y+2 y+3 y-1

(j)

2
7
x 2 - 16 x 2 - x - 12

Simplify
(a)

y2 - 9
3x 2
x 2 - 2x - 8
#
#
4y - 12 6x - 24
y 3 + 27

q3 + 1
(b) 2
#
q + 2q + 1 p + 2

(b)

2
a 2 - 5a
3a - 15 y - y - 2
'
#
5ay
y 2 - 4y + 4
y2 - 4

3ab 2
12ab - 6a
(c)
' 2
5xy
x y + 2xy 2

(c)

3
x 2 + 3x
2x + 8
+ 2
#
x-3
4x - 16
x -9

(d)

5b
b2
b
' 2
2b + 6
b
1
+
b +b-6

(e)

x 2 - 8x + 15
x 2 - 9 x 2 + 5x + 6
'
#
2
2x - 10
5x + 10x
10x 2

p2 - 4

(d)

ax - ay + bx - by
x2 - y2

x3 + y3
ab 2 + a 2 b

x 2 - 6x + 9
x 2 - 5x + 6
(e)
'
x 2 - 25
x 2 + 4x - 5
3.

(f)

5.

Simplify
2 3
(a) x + x

Simplify
(a)

1
2
4
+
x 2 - 7x + 10 x 2 - 2x - 15 x 2 + x - 6

1
2
x-1 x

(b)

3
5
2
+
2
2
x
x
x -4

(c) 1 +

3
a+b

(c)

3
2
+
p 2 + pq pq - q 2

(d) x -

x2
x+2

(d)

a
b
1
+
a + b a - b a2 - b2

(b)

(e) p - q +

1
p+q

x+y
y
x
(e) x - y + y - x - 2
y - x2

Substitution
Algebra is used in writing general formulae or rules. For example, the formula
A = lb is used to find the area of a rectangle with length l and breadth b. We
can substitute any values for l and b to find the area of different rectangles.

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EXAMPLES
1. P = 2l + 2b is the formula for finding the perimeter of a rectangle
with length l and breadth b. Find P when l = 1.3 and b = 3.2.

Solution
P = 2 l + 2b
= 2 ] 1 . 3 g + 2 ] 3 .2 g
= 2 .6 + 6 . 4
=9
2. V = rr 2 h is the formula for finding the volume of a cylinder with
radius r and height h. Find V (correct to 1 decimal place) when r = 2.1
and h = 8.7.

Solution
V = rr 2 h
= r ] 2.1 g2 (8.7)
= 120.5 correct to 1 decimal place

9C
+ 32 is the formula for changing degrees Celsius ] C g into
5
degrees Fahrenheit ] F g find F when C = 25.
3. If F =

Solution
9C
+ 32
5
9 ] 25 g
=
+ 32
5
225
=
+ 32
5
225 + 160
=
5
385
=
5
= 77
This means that 25C is the same as 77F.
F=

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

2.18
1.

Exercises

Given a = 3.1 and b = - 2.3 find,


correct to 1 decimal place.
(a) ab
(b) 3b
(c) 5a 2
(d) ab 3
(e) ]a + bg2
(f)

a-b

(g) - b 2
2.

T = a + ] n - 1 g d is the formula
for finding the term of an
arithmetic series. Find T when
a = - 4, n = 18 and d = 3.

3.

Given y = mx + b, the equation


of a straight line, find y if
m = 3, x = - 2 and b = - 1.

4.

If h = 100t - 5t 2 is the height of


a particle at time t, find h when
t = 5.

5.

Given vertical velocity v = - gt,


find v when g = 9.8 and t = 20.

6.

If y = 2 x + 3 is the equation of
a function, find y when x = 1.3,
correct to 1 decimal place.

7.

S = 2r r ] r + h g is the formula for


the surface area of a cylinder.
Find S when r = 5 and h = 7,
correct to the nearest whole
number.

8.

A = rr 2 is the area of a circle with


radius r. Find A when r = 9.5,
correct to 3 significant figures.

9.

n-1

Given u n = ar
is the nth term
of a geometric series, find u n if
a = 5, r = - 2 and n = 4.

10. Given V = 1 lbh is the volume


3
formula for a rectangular
pyramid, find V if l = 4.7, b = 5.1
and h = 6.5.
11. The gradient of a straight line is
y2 - y1
given by m = x - x . Find m
2
1
if x 1 = 3, x 2 = -1, y 1 = - 2 and
y 2 = 5.
12. If A = 1 h ] a + b g gives the area
2
of a trapezium, find A when
h = 7, a = 2.5 and b = 3.9.
13. Find V if V = 4 rr 3 is the volume
3
formula for a sphere with radius r
and r = 7.6, to 1 decimal place.

14. The velocity of an object at a


certain time t is given by the
formula v = u + at. Find v when
u = 1 , a = 3 and t = 5 .
4
5
6
a
15. Given S =
, find S if a = 5
1-r
and r = 2 . S is the sum to infinity
3
of a geometric series.
16. c = a 2 + b 2 , according to
Pythagoras theorem. Find the
value of c if a = 6 and b = 8.
17. Given y = 16 - x 2 is the
equation of a semicircle, find the
exact value of y when x = 2.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

18. Find the value of E in the energy


equation E = mc 2 if m = 8.3 and
c = 1.7.
19. A = P c 1 +

20. If S =

a geometric series, find S if


a = 3, r = 2 and n = 5.

r n
m is the formula
100

for finding compound interest.


Find A when P = 200, r = 12 and
n = 5, correct to 2 decimal places.

a ^rn - 1h
is the sum of
r -1

21. Find the value of

a3 b2
if
c2

2
3
1 4
a = c 3 m , b = c 2 m and c = c m .
4
3
2

Surds
An irrational number is a number that cannot be written as a ratio or fraction
(rational). Surds are special types of irrational numbers, such as 2, 3 and 5 .
Some surds give rational values: for example, 9 = 3. Others, like 2 , do
not have an exact decimal value. If a question involving surds asks for an exact
answer, then leave it as a surd rather than giving a decimal approximation.

Simplifying surds

Class Investigations
1. Is there an exact decimal equivalent for 2 ?
2. Can you draw a line of length exactly 2 ?
3. Do these calculations give the same results?
(a) 9 # 4 and 9 # 4
(b)

and

4
9

(c)

9
9 + 4 and

9 +

(d)

9 - 4 and

9 -

Here are some basic properties of surds.

a# b =

ab

a' b =

^ x h2 =

x2 = x

a
b

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

77

EXAMPLES
1. Express in simplest surd form

45 .

45 also equals
3 # 15 but this will
not simplify. We look
for a number that is a
perfect square.

Solution
45 = 9 # 5
= 9 # 5
=3# 5
=3 5
2. Simplify 3 40 .

Solution

Find a factor of 40 that


is a perfect square.

3 40 = 3 4 # 10
= 3 # 4 # 10
= 3 # 2 # 10
= 6 10
3. Write 5 2 as a single surd.

Solution
5 2 =
=

2.19
1.

25 # 2
50

Exercises

Express these surds in simplest


surd form.

(k)

112

(l)

300

(a)

12

(b)

63

(c)

24

(d)

50

(e)

72

(f)

200

(g)

48

(h)

75

(i)

32

(a) 2 27

(j)

54

(b) 5 80

(m) 128

2.

(n)

243

(o)

245

(p)

108

(q)

99

(r)

125

Simplify

78

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

(c) 4 98

(g) 3 13

(d) 2 28

(h) 7 2

(e) 8 20

(i) 11 3

(f) 4 56

(j) 12 7

(g) 8 405

4.

(h) 15 8

(a)

(i) 7 40

x =3 5

(b) 2 3 =

(c) 3 7 =

Write as a single surd.

(d) 5 2 =

(a) 3 2

(e) 2 11 =

(b) 2 5

(f)

(c) 4 11

(g) 4 19 =

(d) 8 2

(h)

(e) 5 3

(i) 5 31 =

(f) 4 10

(j)

(j) 8 45
3.

Evaluate x if

x =7 3
x

x = 6 23
x

x = 8 15

Addition and subtraction


Calculations with surds are similar to calculations in algebra. We can only add
or subtract like terms with algebraic expressions. This is the same with surds.

EXAMPLES
1. Simplify 3 2 + 4 2 .

Solution
3 2+4 2 =7 2
2. Simplify

3 - 12 .

Solution
First, change into like surds.
3 - 12 = 3 - 4 # 3
= 3 -2 3
=- 3
3. Simplify 2 2 - 2 + 3 .

Solution
2 2- 2+ 3=

2+ 3

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

2.20

79

Exercises

Simplify
1.

5 +2 5

14.

50 -

32

2.

3 2 -2 2

15.

28 +

63

3.

3 +5 3

16. 2 8 -

18

4.

7 3 -4 3

5.

5 -4 5
4 6 -

6.

17. 3 54 + 2 24
18.

90 - 5 40 - 2 10

19. 4 48 + 3 147 + 5 12

7.

2 -8 2

20. 3 2 + 8 - 12

8.

5 +4 5 +3 5

21.

63 - 28 - 50

9.

2 -2 2 -3 2

22.

12 - 45 - 48 - 5

10.

5 +

45

23.

150 + 45 + 24

11.

8 -

24.

32 - 243 - 50 + 147

12.

3 +

48

25.

80 - 3 245 + 2 50

13.

12 -

27

Multiplication and division


To get a b # c d = ac bd ,
multiply surds with surds and
rationals with rationals.

a # b = ab
a b # c d = ac bd
a# a =

a
b

a2 = a

a
b

EXAMPLES
Simplify
1. 2 2 #- 5 7

Solution
2 2 #- 5 7 = -10 14

CONTINUED

80

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. 4 2 # 5 18

Solution
4 2 # 5 18 = 20 36
= 20 # 6
= 120

3.

2 14
4 2

Solution
2 14
4 2

2 2 #
7
2

4.

4 2

3 10
15 2

Solution
3 10
15 2

3# 5 # 2
15 2

5
=
5
5. d

10 n
3

Solution
2
^ 10 h
10 n
=
3
^ 3 h2
10
=
3
=31
3

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

2.21

Exercises

Simplify
1.

7 #

2.

3# 5

3.

2 #3 3

4.

5 7 #2 2

5.

-3 3 #2 2

6.

5 3 #2 3

7.

- 4 5 # 3 11

8.

2 7# 7

9.

2 3 # 5 12

10.

6# 2

11.

8 #2 6

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

5 8
10 2
16 2
2 12
10 30
5 10
2 2
6 20
4 2
8 10
3
3 15
2

29.

12. 3 2 # 5 14
13.

10 # 2 2

14. 2 6 #-7 6
15. ^ 2 h

2
16. ^ 2 7 h

17.

31.

32.

3 15
6 10
5 12
5 8
15 18
10 10

3# 5# 2

18. 2 3 # 7 #- 5
19.

30.

2 # 6 #3 3

33.

15
2 6
2n
3

35. d

5n
7

20. 2 5 # - 3 2 # - 5 5
21.

22.

4 12
2 2

34. d

12 18
3 6

Expanding brackets
The same rules for expanding brackets and binomial products that you use in
algebra also apply to surds.

81

82

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Simplifying surds by removing grouping symbols uses these general rules.


a^ b + ch=

ab + ac

Proof
a^ b + ch =
=

a# b +
ab + ac

a# c

Binomial product:

^ a + b h^ c + d h =

ac +

ad +

bc +

bd

Proof
^ a + b h^ c + d h = a # c + a # d + b # c + b # d
= ac + ad + bc + bd
Perfect squares:

^ a + b h2 = a + 2 ab + b

Proof
^ a + b h2 = ^ a + b h ^ a + b h
= a 2 + ab + ab + b 2
= a + 2 ab + b
^ a - b h2 = a - 2 ab + b

Proof
^ a - b h2 = ^ a - b h ^ a - b h
= a 2 - ab - ab + b 2
= a - 2 ab + b
Difference of two squares:

^ a + b h^ a - b h = a - b

Proof
^ a + b h ^ a - b h = a 2 - ab + ab - b 2
=a-b

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

83

EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify
1. 2 ^ 5 + 2 h

Solution
2( 5 +

2) =
=
=

2# 5 +
10 + 4
10 + 2

2# 2

2. 3 7 ^ 2 3 - 3 2 h

Solution
3 7 (2 3 - 3 2 ) = 3 7 # 2 3 - 3 7 # 3 2
= 6 21 - 9 14
3. ^ 2 + 3 5 h ^ 3 -

2h

Solution
( 2 + 3 5)( 3 -

2) =
=

2# 3 - 2# 2 +3 5# 3 -3 5# 2
6 - 2 + 3 15 - 3 10

4. ^ 5 + 2 3 h ^ 5 - 2 3 h

Solution
( 5 + 2 3 ) ( 5 - 2 3 ) = 5 # 5 - 5 #2 3 + 2 3 # 5 - 2 3 #2 3
= 5 - 2 15 + 2 15 - 4#3
= 5 - 12
= -7
Another way to do this question is by using the difference of two squares.
2
2
( 5 + 2 3)( 5 - 2 3) = ^ 5 h - ^2 3 h
= 5 - 4#3
= -7

Notice that using the


difference of two
squares gives a rational
answer.

84

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2.22
1.

Exercises
(m)^ 2 11 + 5 2 h^ 2 11 - 5 2 h

Expand and simplify


(a)

2^ 5 + 3h

(b)

3 ^2 2 - 5 h

2
(o) ^ 2 2 - 3 h

7 ^5 2 - 2 3 h

2
(q) ^ 2 3 + 3 5 h

(n) ^ 5 + 2 h

(c) 4 3 ^ 3 + 2 5 h
(d)

2
(p) ^ 3 2 + 7 h

(e) - 3 ^ 2 - 4 6 h
(f)

2
(r) ^ 7 - 2 5 h

3 ^ 5 11 + 3 7 h

2
(s) ^ 2 8 - 3 5 h

(g) - 3 2 ^ 2 + 4 3 h

(h)
(i)

5^ 5 - 5 3h

3 ^ 12 + 10 h

2
(t) ^ 3 5 + 2 2 h

3.

If a = 3 2 , simplify
(a) a2
(b) 2a3
(c) (2a)3
(d) ]a + 1g2
(e) ] a + 3 g ] a 3 g

4.

Evaluate a and b if
2
(a) ^ 2 5 + 1h = a + b

(j) 2 3 ^ 18 + 3 h

(k) - 4 2 ^ 2 - 3 6 h

(l) - 7 5 ^ - 3 20 + 2 3 h

(m) 10 3 ^ 2 - 2 12 h
(n) - 2 ^ 5 + 2 h

(o) 2 3 ^ 2 - 12 h
2.

(b) ^ 2 2 - 5 h ^ 2 - 3 5 h
= a + b 10

Expand and simplify

(a) ^ 2 + 3h^ 5 + 3 3 h

5.

Expand and simplify


(a) ^ a + 3 - 2 h ^ a + 3 + 2 h
2
(b) _ p - 1 - p i

(e) ^ 2 5 - 7 2 h^ 5 - 3 2 h

6.

Evaluate k if
^ 2 7 - 3 h ^ 2 7 + 3 h = k.

(g) ^ 7 + 3 h^ 7 - 3 h

7.

Simplify _ 2 x + y i _ x - 3 y i .

(h) ^ 2 - 3 h^ 2 + 3 h

8.

If ^ 2 3 - 5 h = a - b , evaluate
a and b.

(j) ^ 3 5 + 2 h^ 3 5 - 2 h

9.

(b) ^ 5 - 2 h^ 2 - 7 h

(c) ^ 2 + 5 3 h^ 2 5 - 3 2 h

(d) ^ 3 10 - 2 5 h^ 4 2 + 6 6 h
(f) ^ 5 + 6 2 h^ 3 5 - 3 h

(i) ^ 6 + 3 2 h^ 6 - 3 2 h
(k) ^ 8 - 5 h^ 8 + 5 h

(l) ^ 2 + 9 3 h^ 2 - 9 3 h

Evaluate a and b if
^ 7 2 - 3 h2 = a + b 2 .

10. A rectangle has sides 5 + 1 and


2 5 - 1. Find its exact area.

Rationalising the denominator


Rationalising the denominator of a fractional surd means writing it with a
rational number (not a surd) in the denominator. For example, after
3 5
3
rationalising the denominator,
becomes
.
5
5

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

85

DID YOU KNOW?


A major reason for rationalising the denominator used to be to make it easier to evaluate the
fraction (before calculators were available). It is easier to divide by a rational number than an
irrational one; for example,
3
= 3 ' 2.236
5
3

5
5

This is hard to do
without a calculator.

This is easier to calculate.

= 3 # 2.236 ' 5

Squaring a surd in the denominator will rationalise it since ^ x h = x.


2

Multiplying by

b
a b
a
#
=
b
b
b

b
is the same as
multiplying by 1.

Proof
b
a b
a
#
=
b
b
b2
a b
=
b

EXAMPLES
1. Rationalise the denominator of

Solution

3
.
5

5
3 5
3
#
=
5
5
5
2. Rationalise the denominator of

Solution

2
5 3

.
Dont multiply by
5

2
5 3

3
3

2 3

5 9
2 3
=
5# 3
2 3
=
15

as it takes
5 3
longer to simplify.

86

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

When there is a binomial denominator, we use the difference of two


squares to rationalise it, as the result is always a rational number.

To rationalise the denominator of

a+ b
c+ d

, multiply by

Proof
a+ b
c+ d

^ a + b h^ c - d h
c- d
^ c + d h^ c - d h
^ a + b h^ c - d h
=
^ c h2 - ^ d h2
^ a + b h^ c - d h
=
c-d
c- d

EXAMPLES
1. Write with a rational denominator
5
2 -3
Multiply by the conjugate
surd 2 + 3.

Solution
5
2 -3

2 +3

2 +3

5 ^ 2 + 3h

^ 2 h2 - 3 2
10 + 3 5
=
2-9
10 + 3 5
=
-7
10 + 3 5
=7

2. Write with a rational denominator


2 3+ 5
3+4 2

Solution
2 3 +

3 +4 2

3 -4 2
3 -4 2

^2 3 + 5 h^ 3 - 4 2 h

^ 3 h2 - ^ 4 2 h2
2 # 3 - 8 6 + 15 - 4 10
=
3 - 16 # 2

c- d
c- d

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

6 - 8 6 + 15 - 4 10
- 29
- 6 + 8 6 - 15 + 4 10
=
29
=

3. Evaluate a and b if

3 3
3- 2

= a + b.

Solution
3 3
3- 2

3+ 2
3+ 2

3 3^ 3 + 2h

^ 3 - 2 h^ 3 + 2 h
3 9+3 6
=
^ 3 h2 - ^ 2 h2
3#3+3 6
3-2
9+3 6
=
1
=9+3 6
=

=9+ 9# 6
= 9 + 54
So a = 9 and b = 54.
4. Evaluate as a fraction with rational denominator
2
+
3+2

5
3-2

Solution
2
+
3+2

5
3 -2

2^ 3 - 2h + 5 ^ 3 + 2h

^ 3 + 2h ^ 3 - 2h
2 3 - 4 + 15 + 2 5
=
^ 3 h2 - 2 2
2 3 - 4 + 15 + 2 5
3-4
2 3 - 4 + 15 + 2 5
=
-1
= - 2 3 + 4 - 15 - 2 5
=

87

88

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2.23
1.

Express with rational


denominator
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

2.

Exercises
3.

1
7

(a)

(b)

2 2
2 3

(c)

5
6 7

(d)

5 2
1+

2
3

6 -5

(g)

5 +2 2

8+3 2

(j)

4 3 -2 2

(f)

1
5 +

2 -

2 +

2 +3

4 5
(j)

7 5
(k)

4
3 +

(l)
2

4.

2 -7
5 +2 6
3 -4
3 +4
3 3 3 +

(b)
(c)

2 +5
2
2

2 5 +3 2

3
2 +

3
3 2 -

6 -

2
3
2 +3
5
6 +2
2 +7
4+

2 3 +

3 -2

6 +

1
3

3 -

(d)
(e)

2 5
3
4 2

2 -1

5 -

3
5 3
2
4-

2+

3 +1

Find a and b if
(a)

2 3

1
where z = 1 +
z2

(h)
(i)

1
2 -1

1
where t =
t

3 2 +4

2 7

Express with rational


denominator

(e)

(g)

(i)

(d)

2 -

3 2 -4

(c)

(f) z 2 -

(h)

(b)

1
+
2 +1

(e) t +

(f)

(a)

Express as a single fraction with


rational denominator

a
b

a 6
b

2
=a+b 5
5 +1
2 7
7 -4
2 +3
2 -1

=a+b 7
=a+

2
-

2
6 -1

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

5.

2 -1

Show that

2 +1

4
is
2

7.

If x =

(b) x 2 +

8.

1
x2

1
5 -

as a single fraction with


3
rational denominator.

3 + 2, simplify

1
(a) x + x

2
5 +

5 +1

rational.
6.

Write

Show that

8
2
+
is
3+2 2
2

rational.

1
(c) b x + x l

9.

1
If 2 + x = 3 , where x ! 0,
find x as a surd with rational
denominator.

10. Rationalise the denominator of


b +2
]b ! 4 g
b -2

89

90

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Test Yourself 2
1.

2.

3.

4.

Simplify
(a) 5y - 7y
3a + 12
(b)
3
(c) - 2k 3 # 3k 2
y
x
(d) +
5
3
(e) 4a - 3b - a - 5b
(f) 8 + 32
(g) 3 5 - 20 + 45
Factorise
(a) x 2 - 36
(b) a 2 + 2a - 3
(c) 4ab 2 - 8ab
(d) 5y - 15 + xy - 3x
(e) 4n - 2p + 6
(f) 8 - x 3
Expand and simplify
(a) b + 3 ] b - 2 g
(b) ] 2x - 1 g ] x + 3 g
(c) 5 ] m + 3 g - ] m - 2 g
(d) ]4x - 3g2
(e) ^ p - 5h^ p + 5h
(f) 7 - 2 ] a + 4 g - 5a
(g) 3 ^ 2 2 - 5 h
(h) ^ 3 + 7 h^ 3 - 2h
Simplify
4a - 12
10b
(a)
# 3
5b 3
a - 27
(b)

5.

5m + 10
m2 - 4
'
2
m - m - 2 3m + 3

The volume of a cube is V = s 3.


Evaluate V when s = 5.4.

6.

(a) Expand and simplify


^ 2 5 + 3 h ^ 2 5 - 3 h.
(b) Rationalise the denominator of
3 3
.
2 5+ 3

7.

Simplify

8.

If a = 4, b = - 3 and c = - 2, nd the
value of
(a) ab 2
(b) a - bc
(c) a
(d) ]bcg3
(e) c ] 2a + 3b g

9.

Simplify
3 12
(a)
6 15
(b)

3
1
2
+
- 2
.
x-2
x+3
x +x-6

4 32
2 2

10. The formula for the distance an object


falls is given by d = 5t 2 . Find d when
t = 1.5.
11. Rationalise the denominator of
2
(a)
5 3
(b)

1+ 3
2

12. Expand and simplify


(a) ^ 3 2 - 4h^ 3 - 2 h
2
(b) ^ 7 + 2h
13. Factorise fully
(a) 3x 2 - 27
(b) 6x 2 - 12x - 18
(c) 5y 3 + 40

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

14. Simplify
3x 4 y
(a)
9xy 5
(b)

5
15x - 5

15. Simplify
2
(a) ^ 3 11 h
3
(b) ^ 2 3 h
16. Expand and simplify
(a) ] a + b g ] a - b g
(b) ] a + b g 2
(c) ] a - b g 2
17. Factorise
(a) a 2 - 2ab + b 2
(b) a 3 - b 3
1
18. If x = 3 + 1, simplify x + x and
give your answer with a rational
denominator.
19. Simplify
4 3
(a) a +
b
(b)

x-3 x-2
5
2

20. Simplify

2
3
, writing
5+2 2 2-1

your answer with a rational denominator.


21. Simplify
(a) 3 8
(b) - 2 2 # 4 3
(c) 108 - 48
(d)

23. Rationalise the denominator of


3
(a)
7
(b)

5 3
2
(c)
5 -1
(d)
(e)

2 2
3 2+ 3
5+ 2
4 5-3 3

24. Simplify
3x
x-2
(a)
5
2
a+2
2a - 3
(b)
+
7
3
1
2
(c) 2
1
x
+
x -1
4
1
(d) 2
+
k + 2k - 3 k + 3
(e)

3
2+ 5

5
3- 2

25. Evaluate n if
(a) 108 - 12 =
(b)

112 + 7 =

n
n

8 6

(c) 2 8 + 200 =

2 18

(d) 4 147 + 3 75 = n
180
(e) 2 245 +
= n
2

(e) 5a # - 3b # - 2a
(f)

22. Expand and simplify


(a) 2 2 ^ 3 + 2 h
(b) ^ 5 7 - 3 5 h^ 2 2 - 3 h
(c) ^ 3 + 2 h^ 3 - 2 h
(d) ^ 4 3 - 5 h^ 4 3 + 5 h
2
(e) ^ 3 7 - 2 h

2m 3 n
6m 2 n 5

(g) 3x - 2y - x - y

91

92

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

26. Evaluate x 2 +

1+2 3
1
if x =
2
x
1-2 3

27. Rationalise the denominator of

2 7
(there may be more than one answer).
21
(a)
28
2 21
(b)
28
21
(c)
14
21
(d)
7
x-3
x +1
.
5
4
-]x + 7 g
20
x+7
20
x + 17
20
- ] x + 17 g
20

28. Simplify
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

32. Simplify 5ab - 2a 2 - 7ab - 3a 2 .


(a) 2ab + a 2
(b) - 2ab - 5a 2
(c) - 13a 3 b
(d) - 2ab + 5a 2
33. Simplify
(a)
(b)
(c)

29. Factorise x 3 - 4x 2 - x + 4 (there may be


more than one answer).
(a) ^ x 2 - 1 h ] x - 4 g
(b) ^ x 2 + 1 h ] x - 4 g
(c) x 2 ] x - 4 g
(d) ] x - 4 g ] x + 1 g ] x - 1 g
30. Simplify 3 2 + 2 98 .
(a) 5 2
(b) 5 10
(c) 17 2
(d) 10 2

3
2
1
+
.
x-2
x+2
x2 - 4
x+5
]x + 2g]x - 2g
x+1
]x + 2g]x - 2g
x+9
]x + 2g]x - 2g
x-3
]x + 2g]x - 2g

31. Simplify

(d)

80
.
27

4 5
3 3
4 5
9 3
8 5
9 3
8 5
3 3

34. Expand and simplify ^ 3x - 2y h2 .


(a) 3x 2 - 12xy - 2y 2
(b) 9x 2 - 12xy - 4y 2
(c) 3x 2 - 6xy + 2y 2
(d) 9x 2 - 12xy + 4y 2
35. Complete the square on a 2 - 16a.
(a) a 2 - 16a + 16 = ^ a - 4 h2
(b) a 2 - 16a + 64 = ^ a - 8 h2
(c) a 2 - 16a + 8 = ^ a - 4 h2
(d) a 2 - 16a + 4 = ^ a - 2 h2

Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds

Challenge Exercise 2
1.

2.

Expand and simplify


(a) 4ab ] a - 2b g - 2a 2 ] b - 3a g
(b) _ y 2 - 2 i_ y 2 + 2 i
(c) ] 2x - 5 g3
Find the value of x + y with rational
denominator if x = 3 + 1 and
1
y=
.
2 5-3
2 3

2x + y
x-y
3x + 2y
.
+
- 2
x-3
x+3
x +x-6

12. (a) Expand ^ 2x - 1 h3.


6x 2 + 5x - 4
(b) Simplify
.
8x 3 - 12x 2 + 6x - 1
13. Expand and simplify ] x - 1 g ^ x - 3 h2.
14. Simplify and express with rational
2 +

5 3

3.

Simplify

4.

b
Complete the square on x 2 + a x.

15. Complete the square on x 2 + 2 x.


3

Factorise
(a) (x + 4)2 + 5 (x + 4)
(b) x 4 - x 2 y - 6y 2
(c) 125x 3 + 343
(d) a 2 b - 2a 2 - 4b + 8

16. If x =

5.

6.
7.

8.

9.

7 6 - 54

11. Simplify

denominator

Simplify

d=

4x 2 - 16x + 12

| ax 1 + by 1 + c |

Simplify

10. Factorise

^a + 1h
a3 + 1

a2
4
- 2.
2
x
b

lx 1 + kx 2

17. Find the exact value with rational


1
denominator of 2x 2 - 3x + x if x = 2 5 .
18. Find the exact value of
1+2 3
1
(a) x 2 + 2 if x =
x
1-2 3
(b) a and b if

is the formula for

a2 + b2
the perpendicular distance from a
point to a line. Find the exact value
of d with a rational denominator if
a = 2, b = -1, c = 3, x 1 = - 4 and y 1 = 5.
3

2 -1

, find the value of x when


k+l
k = 3, l = - 2, x 1 = 5 and x 2 = 4.

Complete the square on 4x 2 + 12x.


2xy + 2x - 6 - 6y

3 +4

3 -4
2+3 3

=a+b 3

19. A = 1 r 2 i is the area of a sector of a


2
circle. Find the value of i when A = 12
and r = 4.
20. If V = rr 2 h is the volume of a cylinder,
find the exact value of r when V = 9 and
h = 16.
21. If s = u + 1 at 2, find the exact value of s
2
when u = 2, a = 3 and t = 2 3 .

93

Equations
TERMINOLOGY
Absolute value: the distance of a number from zero on a
number line

pronumeral that is solved to find values that make the


statement true e.g. 2x - 3 2 4

Equation: A mathematical statement that has a


pronumeral or unknown number and an equal sign.
An equation can be solved to find the value of the
unknown number e.g. 2x - 3 = 5

Quadratic equation: An equation involving x 2 as the


highest power of x that may have two, one or no
solutions

Exponential equation: Equation where the unknown


pronumeral is the power or index e.g. 2 x = 8
Inequation: A mathematical statement involving an
inequality sign, 1, 2, # or $ that has an unknown

Simultaneous equations: Two or more independent


equations that can be solved together to produce a
solution that makes each equation true at the same time.
The number of equations required is the same as the
number of unknowns

Chapter 3 Equations

95

INTRODUCTION
EQUATIONS ARE FOUND IN most branches of mathematics. They are also

important in many other elds, such as science, economics, statistics and


engineering. In this chapter you will revise basic equations and inequations.
Equations involving absolute values, exponential equations, quadratic
equations and simultaneous equations are also covered here.

DID YOU KNOW?


Algebra was known in ancient civilisations. Many equations were known in Babylonia, although
general solutions were difficult because symbols were not used in those times.
Diophantus, around 250 AD, first used algebraic notation and symbols (e.g. the minus sign).
He wrote a treatise on algebra in his Arithmetica, comprising 13 books. Only six of these books
survived. About 400 AD, Hypatia of Alexandria wrote a commentary on them.
Hypatia was the daughter of Theon, a mathematician who ensured that she had the best
education. She was the first female mathematician on record, and was a philosopher and teacher.
She was murdered for her philosophical views by a fanatical Christian sect.
In 1799 Carl Friedrich Gauss proved the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra: that every
algebraic equation has a solution.

PROBLEM
The age of Diophantus at his death can be calculated from this epitaph:
Diophantus passed one-sixth of his life in childhood, one-twelfth in youth, and
one-seventh
as a bachelor; ve years after his marriage a son was born
DID
YOU more
KNOW?
who died four years before his father at half his fathers nal age. How old
Diophantus?
Boxwas
text...

Simple Equations
Here are the four rules for changing numbers or pronumerals from one side of
an equation to the other.

If a number is added, subtract it from both sides


If a number is subtracted, add it to both sides
If a number is multiplied, divide both sides by the number
If a number is divided, multiply both sides by the number

Do the opposite operation


to take a number to the
other side of an equation.

96

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
Solve
1. 3x + 5 = 17

Solution
3x + 5 = 17
3x + 5 - 5 = 17 - 5
3x = 12
3x
12
=
3
3
x=4
You can check the solution by substituting the value into the equation.
LHS = 3x + 5
= 3 ( 4) + 5
= 12 + 5
= 17
= RHS
Since LHS = RHS, x = 4 is the correct solution.
2. 4y - 3 = 8y + 21

Solution
4y - 3
4 y - 4y - 3
-3
- 3 - 21
- 24

= 8y + 21
= 8y - 4y + 21
= 4y + 21
= 4y + 21 - 21
= 4y
4y
- 24
=
4
4
-6 = y
y = -6

3. 2 ] 3x + 7 g = 6 - ] x - 1 g
Check these solutions
by substituting them
into the equation.

Solution
2 (3 x + 7 ) = 6 - ( x - 1 )
6x + 14 = 6 - x + 1
=7-x
6x + x + 14 = 7 - x + x
7x + 14 = 7

Chapter 3 Equations

7x + 14 - 14
7x
7x
7
x

= 7 - 14
= -7
-7
7
= -1
=

3.1 Exercises
Solve
1.

t + 4 = -1

2.

z + 1.7 = -3.9

3.

y - 3 = -2

4.

w - 2 .6 = 4 .1

18. 3x + 5 = 17

5.

5 = x -7

19. 4a + 7 = - 21

6.

1.5x = 6

20. 7y - 1 = 20

7.

5y = 1
3

8.

b
=5
7

9.

-2 =

10.

r
2
=
6
3

16.

x
-3 =7
2

17.

m
+ 7 = 11
5

21. 8b - 4 = - 36
22. 3 (x + 2) = 15
23. -2 (3a + 1) = 8

n
8

11. 2y + 1 = 19
12. 33 = 4k + 9
13. 7d - 2 = 12
14. -2 = 5x - 27
y
15.
+4=9
3

24. 7t + 4 = 3t - 12
25. x - 3 = 6x - 9
26. 2 (a - 2) = 4 - 3a
27. 5b + 2 = - 3(b - 1)
28. 3 (t + 7) = 2 (2t - 9)
29. 2 + 5( p - 1) = 5p - ( p - 2)
30. 3.7x + 1.2 = 5.4x - 6.3

A S TA R T L I N G FA C T !
Half full = half empty
`
full = empty

97

98

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Equations involving fractions


There are different ways to solve this type of equation. One way is to multiply
both sides of the equation by the common denominator of the fractions.

EXAMPLES
Solve
m
1
1.
-4=
3
2

Solution
Multiply by
the common
denominator, 6.

m
1
-4 =
3
2
m
m - 6 (4) = 6 c 1 m
2
3
2m - 24 = 3
2m - 24 + 24 = 3 + 24
2m = 27
6c

2m
27
=
2
2
27
m=
2
= 13 1
2
2.

x+1
x
+ =5
4
3

Solution
The common
denominator of
3 and 4 is 12.

x +1 x
+ =5
4
3
x +1
x
m + 12 c m = 12 (5)
12 c
4
3
4 (x + 1) + 3x = 60
4x + 4 + 3x = 60
7x + 4 = 60
7x + 4 - 4 = 60 - 4
7x = 56
7x
56
=
7
7
x=8

Chapter 3 Equations

3.

99

y +1
y-2
5
=
5
3
6

Solution
y +1
y-2
5
=
5
3
6
y +1
y -2
o - 30 e
o = 30 c 5 m
30 e
5
3
6
6 (y + 1) - 10 (y - 2) = 25
6y + 6 - 10y + 20 = 25
- 4y + 26 = 25
- 4y + 26 - 26 = 25 - 26
- 4y = -1
- 4y
-1
=
-4
-4
y=1
4
When there is a fraction on either side of the equation, multiplying by
the common denominator is the same as cross multiplying.

EXAMPLES
5
8
1. Solve x =
(x ! 0 )
3

Solution
5
8
x =3
8x = 15
8x
15
=
8
8
7
x=1
8
2. Solve

3
8
^n ! 0h
=
5
2n

Solution
3
8
=
5
2n
16n = 15
16n
15
=
16
16
15
n=
16

The common
denominator of 5, 3
and 6 is 30.

100

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

3.2 Exercises
Solve
1.

b
2
=
5
3

14.

3
x
x
- =
5
2
10

2.

7
1
x = 5 (x ! 0 )

15.

x+4 x
+ =1
3
2

3.

9
4
y = 10 (y ! 0)

16.

p-3
2p
+
=2
2
3

4.

5x
11
=
4
7

17.

t +3 t -1
+
=4
7
3

5.

9
4
=
( k ! 0)
5
2k

18.

x+5
x+2
=1
5
9

6.

x
-4=8
3

19.

q-1
q-2
=2
4
3

7.

3
5t
=
4
4

20.

x+3
x +7
+2=
5
2

8.

5+x
2
=
7
7

21.

3b
1
b
- =
4
5
2

9.

y
3
=5
2

22.

a
3
5
+ =
4
3
8

10.

x
2
- =7
9
3

23.

3
5
=x
x+2

^ x ! 0, -2 h

11.

w-3
=5
2

24.

1
1
=
y +1
3y - 1

c y ! -1,

12.

2t
t
- =2
5
3

25.

2
1
+
= 0 ^ t ! 3, - 4 h
t-3 t+4

13.

x
1
+ =4
4
2

1
m
3

Substitution
Sometimes substituting values into a formula involves solving an equation.

Investigation
Body mass index (BMI) is a formula that is used to measure body fatness
and is used by health professionals to screen for weight categories that
may lead to health problems.

Chapter 3 Equations

This is not the only measure that is used when looking for health
problems, however. For example, there are other factors in cardiac (heart)
disease. Research these to find out what other things doctors look for.
The BMI is used in a different way with children and teens, and is taken
in relation to the childs age.
w
The formula for BMI is BMI = 2 where w is weight in kg and h is height
h
in metres.
For adults over 20, a BMI under
18.5 means that the person
is underweight and over 25 is
overweight. Over 30 is obese.
The BMI may not always be
reliable in measuring body fat. Can
you think of some reasons?
Is it important where the body fat
is stored? Does it make a difference if it is on the hips or the stomach?
Research these questions and find out more about BMI generally.

EXAMPLES
1. The formula for the surface area of a rectangular prism is given by
S = 2 (lb + bh + lh) . Find the value of b when S = 180, l = 9 and h = 6.

Solution
S = 2 (lb + bh + lh)
180 = 2 (9b + 6b + 9 # 6)
= 2 (15b + 54)
= 30b + 108
180 - 108 = 30b + 108 - 108
72 = 30b
30b
72
=
30
30
2. 4 = b

Another way of doing


this would be to change
the subject of the
formula first.

CONTINUED

101

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. The volume of a cylinder is given by V = rr 2 h. Evaluate the radius r,


correct to 2 decimal places, when V = 350 and h = 6.5.

Solution
V = rr 2 h
350 = rr 2 (6.5)
r r 2 ( 6 .5 )
350
=
6 .5 r
6.5r
350
= r2
6 .5 r
350
= r2
6 .5 r
350
=r
6 .5 r
4.14 = r

3.3 Exercises
1.

Given that v = u + at is the


formula for the velocity of
a particle at time t, find the
value of t when u = 17.3,
v = 100.6 and a = 9.8.

7.

The area of a rhombus is given by


the formula A = 1 xy where x and
2
y are its diagonals. Find the value
of x correct to 2 decimal places
when y = 7.8 and A = 25.1.

2.

The sum of an arithmetic series is


n
given by S = (a + l ) . Find l if
2
a = 3, n = 26 and S = 1625.

8.

The simple interest formula is


Pr n
. Find n if r = 14.5,
I=
100
P = 150 and I = 326.25.

3.

The formula for finding the area


of a triangle is A = 1 bh. Find b
2
when A = 36 and h = 9.

9.

The gradient of a straight


y2 - y1
line is given by m = x - x .
2
1

4.

The area of a trapezium is given


by A = 1 h (a + b) . Find
2
the value of a when A = 120,
h = 5 and b = 7.

5.

Find the value of y when x = 3,


given the straight line equation
5x - 2y - 7 = 0.

6.

The area of a circle is given


by A = rr 2 . Find r correct to 3
significant figures if A = 140.

Find y 1 when m = - 5 ,
6
y 2 = 7, x 2 = - 3 and x 1 = 1.
10. The surface area of a cylinder
is given by the formula
S = 2rr ] r + h g . Evaluate h
correct to 1 decimal place if
S = 232 and r = 4.5.

Chapter 3 Equations

11. The formula for body mass index


w
is BMI = 2 . Evaluate
h
(a) the BMI when w = 65 and
h = 1.6
(b) w when BMI = 21.5 and
h = 1.8
(c) h when BMI = 19.7 and
w = 73.8.

16. If the surface area of a sphere


is S = 4rr 2, evaluate r to 3
significant figures when S = 56.3.

12. A formula for depreciation


is D = P ] 1 - r g n . Find r if
D = 12 000, P = 15 000 and n = 3.

18. If y =

13. The x-value of the midpoint is


x1 + x2
given by x =
. Find x1
2
when x = - 2 and x 2 = 5.

19. Given y = 2x + 5 , evaluate x


when y = 4.

14. Given the height of a particle at


time t is h = 5t 2, evaluate t when
h = 23.

15. If y = x 2 + 1, evaluate x when


y = 5.

17. The area of a sector of a circle


1
is A = r 2 i. Evaluate r when
2
A = 24.6 and i = 0.45.
2
, find the value of x
x3 - 1
when y = 3.

20. The volume of a sphere is


4
V = rr 3. Evaluate r to 1 decimal
3
place when V = 150.

Inequations

2 means greater than


1 means less than
$ means greater than or equal to
# means less than or equal to

In order to solve inequations, we need to see what effect one operation applied
to both sides has on the inequality sign.

If a 2 b then a + c 2 b + c for all c

For example, 3 2 2 and 3 + 1 2 2 + 1 are both true.

If a 2 b then a - c 2 b - c for all c

For example, 3 2 2 and 3 - 1 2 2 - 1 are both true.

103

There are two solutions to


this question.

104

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

If a 2 b then ac 2 bc for all c 2 0

For example, 3 2 2 and 3 # 2 2 2 # 2 are both true.

If a 2 b then ac 1 bc for all c 1 0

For example, 3 2 2 but 3 # -2 1 2 # -2.

If a 2 b then a ' c 2 b ' c for all c 2 0

For example, 6 2 4 and 6 ' 2 2 4 ' 2 are both true.

If a 2 b then a ' c 1 b ' c for all c 1 0

For example, 6 2 4 but 6 ' -2 1 4 ' -2.

1
1
If a 2 b then a 1 for all positive numbers a and b
b

For example, 3 2 2 but

1
1
1 .
3
2

The inequality sign reverses when:


multiplying by a negative
dividing by a negative
taking the reciprocal of both sides

On the number plane, we graph inequalities using arrows and circles


(open for greater than and less than and closed in for greater than or
equal to and less than or equal to)
1
2
#
$

Chapter 3 Equations

105

EXAMPLES
Solve and show the solutions on a number line
1. 5x + 7 $ 17

Solution
5x + 7 $ 17
5x + 7 - 7 $ 17 - 7
5x $ 10
5x
10
$
5
5
x$2
-4

-3

-2

-1

2. 3t - 2 2 5t + 4

Solution
3t - 2 2 5t +
3t - 3t - 2 2 5t -2 2 2t +
- 2 - 4 2 2t +
-6 2 2t
2t
-6
2
2
2
-3 2 t

4
3t + 4
4
4-4

or
3t - 2
3t - 5t - 2
-2t - 2
- 2t - 2 + 2
-2t
-2t
-2
t
-4

2 5t + 4
2 5t - 5t + 4
24
24+2
26
6
2
-2
1 -3
-3

-2

Remember to change
the inequality sign when
dividing by -2.

-1

CONTINUED

106

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

3. Solve 1 1 2z + 7 # 11.

Solution
Method 1: Separate into two separate questions.
1 1 2z + 7
(i)
1 - 7 1 2z + 7 - 7
- 6 1 2z
-6
2z
1
2
2
-3 1 z
(ii)

2z + 7 # 11
2z + 7 - 7 # 11 - 7
2z # 4
2z
4
#
2
2
z #2

Putting these together gives the solution -3 1 z # 2.


Method 2: Do as a single question.
1 1 2z + 7 # 11
1 - 7 1 2z + 7 - 7 # 11 - 7
-6 1 2z # 4
-6
2z
4
#
1
2
2
2
-3 1 z # 2

Solving this inequation as a


single question is quicker than
splitting it into two parts.
Notice that the circle is not
filled in for 1 and filled in
for #.

-4

-3

-2

-1

3.4 Exercises
1.

Solve and plot the solution on a


number line
(a) x + 4 2 7
(b) y - 3 # 1

2.

Solve
(a) 5t 2 35
(b) 3x - 7 $ 2
(c) 2 (p + 5) 2 8
(d) 4 - (x - 1) # 7
(e) 3y + 5 2 2y - 4
(f) 2a - 6 # 5a - 3
(g) 3 + 4y $ - 2 (1 - y)

(h) 2x + 9 1 1 - 4 (x + 1)
a
(i) # - 3
2
2y
(j) 8 2
3
b
(k) + 5 1 - 4
2
x
(l) - 4 2 6
3
x
1
(m) + # 1
4
5
(n)

m
2
-3 2
4
3

Chapter 3 Equations

2b 1
- $6
5
2
r-3
(p)
# -6
2
z+1
(q)
+223
9
w
2w + 5
(r)
+
14
6
3
(o)

(s)

x+1
x-2
$7
2
3

(t)

t+3
t+2
#2
7
2

(u)

q-2
3q
12+
4
3

3.

(v)

2x
x -1
2
2
3
2
9

(w)

2b - 5
b+6
+3#
8
12

Solve and plot the solutions on a


number line
(a) 3 1 x + 2 1 9
(b) -4 # 2p 1 10
(c) 2 1 3x - 1 1 11
(d) -6 # 5y + 9 # 34
(e) -2 1 3 (2y - 1) 1 7

PROBLEM
Find a solution for this sum. Is it a unique solution?
CR OS S
+RO A DS
DANGE R

Equations and Inequations Involving Absolute Values


On a number line, x means the distance of x from zero in either direction.

EXAMPLES
Plot on a number line and evaluate x
1. x = 2

Solution
x = 2 means the distance of x from zero is 2 (in either direction).
2

-4

-3

-2

-1

x = !2

CONTINUED

107

108

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. x # 2

Solution
x # 2 means the distance of x from zero is less than or equal to 2 (in
either direction).

-4
The solution of
| x | 1 2 would be
- 2 1 x 1 2.

-3

-1

-2

Notice that there is one region on the number line. We can write this as
the single statement - 2 # x # 2.
3. x 2 2

Solution
x 2 2 means the distance of x from zero is greater than 2 (in either
direction).
2

-4
The solution of
| x | $ 2 would be
x # - 2, x $ 2.

-3

-1

-2

There are two regions on the number line, so we write two separate
inequalities x 1 - 2, x 2 2.

x = a means x = ! a
x 1 a means -a 1 x 1 a
x 2 a means x 2 a, x 1 -a

Class Discussion
What does a - b mean as a distance along the number line?
Select different values of a and b to help with this discussion.

We use absolute value as a distance on a number line to solve equations


and inequations involving absolute values.

Chapter 3 Equations

109

EXAMPLES
Solve
1. x + 4 = 7

Solution
This means that the distance from x + 4 to zero is 7 in either direction.
So x + 4 = ! 7.
x+4 =7
x+4=7
or
x + 4 = -7
x+4-4=7-4
x + 4 - 4 = -7 - 4
x=3
x = -11
2. 2y - 1 1 5

Solution
This means that the distance from 2y - 1 to zero is less than 5 in either
direction. So it means - 5 1 2y - 1 1 5.
- 5 1 2y - 1 1 5
- 5 + 1 1 2y - 1 + 1 1 5 + 1
2y
6
-4
1
1
2
2
2
-2 1 y 1 3

You could solve these as


two separate inequations.

3. 5b - 7 $ 3

Solution
5b - 7 $ 3 means that the distance from 5b - 7 to zero is greater than
or equal to 3 in either direction.
5b - 7 # - 3

5b - 7 $ 3

5b - 7 + 7 # -3 + 7
5b # 4
5b
4
#
5
5
4
b #
5
4
So b # , b $ 2.
5

5b - 7 + 7 $ 3 + 7
5b $ 10
5b
10
$
5
5
b$2

These must be solved


and written as two
separate inequations.

110

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

While it is always a good habit to check solutions to equations and


inequations by substituting in values, in these next examples it is essential to
check, as some of the solutions are impossible!

EXAMPLES
Solve
1. 2x + 1 = 3x - 2

Solution
2x + 1 = 3x - 2 means that 2x + 1 is at a distance of 3x - 2 from zero.

2x + 1 = ! ] 3x - 2 g
This question is impossible if 3x - 2 is negative. Can you see why? If
2x + 1 is equal to a negative number, this is impossible as the absolute
value is always positive.
Case (i)
2x + 1 = 3x - 2
2x - 2x + 1 = 3x - 2x - 2
1=x-2
1+2=x-2+2
3=x
Check solution is possible:
Substitute x = 3 into 2x + 1 = 3x - 2.
LHS = 2 # 3 + 1
= 7
=7
RHS = 3 # 3 - 2
=9-2
=7
Since LHS = RHS, x = 3 is a solution.
Case (ii)
2 x + 1 = - ( 3x - 2 )
= - 3x + 2
2x + 3x + 1 = - 3 x + 3x + 2
5x + 1 = 2
5x + 1 - 1 = 2 - 1
5x = 1
5x
1
=
5
5
1
x=
5

Chapter 3 Equations

Check:
1
Substitute x = into 2x + 1 = 3x - 2.
5
1
LHS = 2 # + 1
5
2
= 1
5
2
=1
5
1
RHS = 3 # - 2
5
3
= -2
5
2
= -1
5
1
Since LHS ! RHS, x = is not a solution.
5
So the only solution is x = 3.

It is often easier to solve


these harder equations
graphically. You will do
this in Chapter 5.

2. 2x - 3 + x + 1 = 9

Solution
In this question it is difficult to use distances on the number line, so we
use the definition of absolute value.
2x - 3
2x - 3 = ' - (2
x - 3)
+1
x + 1 = ' -(xx +
1)

when 2x - 3 $ 0
when 2x - 3 1 0
when x + 1 $ 0
when x + 1 1 0

This gives 4 cases:


(i) (2x - 3) + (x + 1) = 9
(ii) (2x - 3) - (x + 1) = 9
(iii) -(2x - 3) + (x + 1) = 9
(iv) -(2x - 3) - (x + 1) = 9
Case (i)
( 2x - 3 ) + ( x + 1 ) = 9
2x - 3 + x + 1 = 9
3x - 2 = 9
3x - 2 + 2 = 9 + 2
3x = 11
3x
11
=
3
3
2
x=3
3
Check by substituting x = 3

111

2
into 2x - 3 + x + 1 = 9.
3
CONTINUED

112

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2
2
-3 + 3 +1
3
3
1
2
= 4 + 4
3
3
1
2
=4 +4
3
3
=9
= RHS
2
So x = 3 is a solution.
3
Case (ii)
( 2 x - 3 ) - (x + 1 ) = 9
2x - 3 - x - 1 = 9
x-4=9
x-4+4=9+4
x = 13
Check by substituting x = 13 into 2x - 3 + x + 1 = 9.
LHS = 2 # 13 - 3 + 13 + 1
= 23 + 14
= 23 + 14
= 37
! RHS
So x = 13 is not a solution.
Case (iii)
-(2x - 3) + (x + 1) = 9
- 2x + 3 + x + 1 = 9
-x + 4 = 9
-x + 4 - 4 = 9 - 4
-x = 5
-x
5
=
-1
-1
x = -5
LHS = 2 # 3

Check by substituting x = - 5 into 2x - 3 + x + 1 = 9.


LHS = 2 # - 5 - 3 + - 5 + 1
= - 13 + - 4
= 13 + 4
= 17
! RHS
So x = - 5 is not a solution.
Case (iv)
- (2x - 3) - (x + 1) = 9
- 2x + 3 - x - 1 = 9
- 3x + 2 = 9
- 3x + 2 - 2 = 9 - 2
- 3x = 7

Chapter 3 Equations

113

- 3x
7
=
-3
-3
1
3
1
Check by substituting x = - 2 into 2x - 3 + x + 1 = 9.
3
1
1
LHS = 2 # - 2 - 3 + - 2 + 1
3
3
2
1
= -7 + -1
3
3
2
1
= 7 +1
3
3
=9
= RHS
1
So x = - 2 is a solution.
3
2
1
So solutions are x = 3 , - 2 .
3
3
x = -2

While you should always check solutions, you can see that there are some
cases where this is really important.

You will learn how to


solve equations involving
absolute values graphically
in Chapter 5. With
graphical solutions it is
easy to see how many
solutions there are.

3.5 Exercises
1.

Solve

3.

Solve
(a) x + 2 = 5x - 3
(b) 2a - 1 = a + 2
(c) b - 3 = 2b - 4
(d) 3k - 2 = k - 4
(e) 6y + 23 = y - 7
(f) 4x + 3 = 5x - 4
(g) 2m - 5 = m
(h) 3d + 1 = d + 6
(i) 5 - y = 4y + 1
(j) 2t - 7 = 3 - t

4.

Solve

(a) x = 5
(b) y = 8
(c) a 1 4
(d) k $ 1
(e) x 2 6
(f) p # 10
(g) x = 0
(h) a 2 14
(i) y 1 12
(j) b $ 20
2.

Solve

(a) x + 3 = 3x - 1

(a) x + 2 = 7

(b) 2y - 5 = y - 2
(c) 3a + 1 = 2a - 9

(b) n - 1 = 3

(d) 2x + 5 + x = 17

(c) 2a 2 4

(e) 3d - 2 + d + 4 = 18

(d) x - 5 # 1
(e) 9 = 2x + 3
(f) 7x - 1 = 34
(g) 4y + 3 1 11
(h) 2x - 3 $ 15
x
(i)
=4
3
a
(j)
-3 #2
2

5.

(a) Solve 4t - 3 + t - 1 = 11.


(b) By plotting the solutions on
a number line and looking at
values in between the solutions,
solve 4t - 3 + t - 1 1 11.

Remember to check solutions


in questions 3, 4 and 5.

114

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Exponential Equations
An exponential equation involves an unknown index or power e.g. 2 x = 8.
We can also solve other equations involving indices. In order to solve
these, you need to understand their relationship. For example, squares and
square roots are the reverse of each other (we call them inverse operations).
Similarly cubes and cube roots are inverses, and this extends to all indices.
To solve equations, use inverse operations:
For squares, take the square root
For cubes, take the cube root
For square roots, take the square
For cube roots, take the cube
You have previously used these rules when substituting into formulae
involving squares and cubes.

EXAMPLES
Solve
1. x 2 = 9
There are two possible
solutions for x one
positive and one
negative since 3 2 = 9
and (- 3) 2 = 9.

Solution
x2 = 9
x2 = ! 9
` x= !3
2. 5n 3 = 40

Solution

There is only one


answer for this
question since 2 3 = 8
but (- 2) 3 = -8.

5n 3 = 40
5n 3
40
=
5
5
3
n =8
3

n3 = 3 8
n=2

Chapter 3 Equations

3. a 3 = 4

Solution
3
2

2
3

We use the fact that ` a j = ` a j = a.


2
3

3
2

a3 = 4
3
2

`a j = 4 2
2
3

3
3

a= 42
3
a = ^ 4h
= 23
=8

Investigation
Investigate equations of the type x n = k where k is a constant, for
example, x n = 9.
Look at these questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What is the solution when n = 0?


What is the solution when n = 1?
How many solutions are there when n = 2?
How many solutions are there when n = 3?
How many solutions are there when n is even?
How many solutions are there when n is odd?

In other types of equations, the pronumeral (or unknown variable) is in


the index. We call these exponential equations, and we use the fact that
if the base numbers are equal, then the powers (or indices or exponents)
must be equal.

EXAMPLES
Solve
1. 3 x = 81

Solution
3 x = 81
Equating indices:
3x = 34
`x=4
CONTINUED

115

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. 5 2k - 1 = 25

Solution
5 2k - 1 = 25
5 2k - 1 = 5 2
` 2k - 1 = 2
2k - 1 + 1 = 2 + 1
2k = 3
3
2k
=
2
2
1
k=1
2

We can check this solution


1
by substituting k = 1
into
2
the equation 5 2k -1 = 25.

3. 8 n = 4

Solution
It is hard to write 8 as a power of 4 or 4 as a power of 8, but both can be
written as powers of 2.
8n = 4
(2 ) = 2 2
2 3n = 2 2
` 3n = 2
3n
2
=
3
3
2
n=
3
3 n

3.6 Exercises
1.

Solve
(a) x 3 = 27
(b) y 2 = 64
(c) n 4 = 16
(d) x 2 = 20 (give the exact answer)
(e) p 3 = 1000
(f) 2x 2 = 50
(g) 6y 4 = 486
(h) w 3 + 7 = 15
(i) 6n 2 - 4 = 92
(j) 3q 3 + 20 = - 4

2.

Solve and give the answer correct


to 2 decimal places.
(a) p 2 = 45
(b) x 3 = 100
(c) n 5 = 240
(d) 2x 2 = 70
(e) 4y 3 + 7 = 34
d4
(f)
= 14
3
k2
(g)
-3=7
2
x3 - 1
(h)
=2
5
(i) 2y 2 - 9 = 20
(j) 7y 3 + 9 = 200

Chapter 3 Equations

3.

Solve

6.

Solve
(a) 2 n = 16
(b) 3 y = 243
(c) 2 m = 512
(d) 10 x = 100 000
(e) 6 m = 1
(f) 4 x = 64
(g) 4 x + 3 = 19
(h) 5 (3 x ) = 45
(i) 4 x = 4
6k
(j)
= 18
2

7.

Solve
(a) 3 2x = 81
(b) 2 5x - 1 = 16
(c) 4 x + 3 = 4
(d) 3 n - 2 = 1
(e) 7 2x + 1 = 7
(f) 3 x - 3 = 27
(g) 5 3y + 2 = 125
(h) 7 3x - 4 = 49
(i) 2 4x = 256
(j) 9 3a + 1 = 9

8.

Solve
(a) 4 m = 2
(b) 27 x = 3
(c) 125 x = 5

2
3

(a) n = 9
3

(b) t 4 = 8
2

(c) x 5 = 4
4

(d) t 3 = 16
3

(e) p 5 = 27
3

(f) 2m 4 = 250
2

(g) b 3 + 3 = 39
4

(h) 5y 3 = 405
2

(i) 3a 7 - 2 = 10
3
4

(j)
4.

5.

t
=9
3

Solve (all pronumerals ! 0)


(a) x - 1 = 5
(b) a - 3 = 8
(c) y - 5 = 32
(d) x - 2 + 1 = 50
(e) 2n - 1 = 3
1
(f) a - 3 =
8
1
-2
(g) x =
4
1
(h) b - 1 =
9
1
(i) x - 2 = 2
4
16
(j) b - 4 =
81

(d) c

1 k
m =7
49
1 k
m = 100
(e) c
1000
(f) 16 n = 8
(g) 25 x = 125
(h) 64 n = 16

Solve (all pronumerals ! 0)


(a) x

1
3

3
2

1
4

3
4

(b) x
(c) a

(d) k

(e) 3x

3
2

=8
=

8
125

=3
= 125
2
3

= 12

1
8
2
1
3
(g) y =
4
2
4
(h) n 5 =
9
(f) x

(i) b

(j) m

5
3

2
3

1 3k
(i) c m = 2
4
(j) 8 x - 1 = 4

=
=

1
32
36
49

9.

Solve
(a) 2 4x + 1 = 8 x
(b) 3 5x = 9 x - 2
(c) 7 2k + 3 = 7 k - 1
(d) 4 3n = 8 n + 3
(e) 6 x - 5 = 216 x
(f) 16 2x - 1 = 4 x - 4
(g) 27 x + 3 = 3 x
1 x
1 2x + 3
m
(h) c m = c
2
64

117

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

3 x
27 2x - 3
m
(i) c m = c
4
64
1 x-9
m
(j) ] 5 g- x = c
25
10. Solve
(a) 4 m =

9 k+3
m
(b) c
=
25
1
(c)
= 4 2x - 5
2

3
5

(d) 3 k = 3 3
(e) c

3
1 3n + 1
m
=
27
81

5 -n
2 3n + 1
(f) c m
=c m
5
2
1
(g) 32 - x =
16
(h) 9 2b + 5 = 3 b 3
(i) 81 x + 1 =

3x

1 3m - 5
(j) 25 - m = c m
5

PUZZLE
Test your logical thinking and that of your friends.
1. How many months have 28 days?
2. If I have 128 sheep and take away all but 10, how many
do I have left?
3. A bottle and its cork cost $1.10 to make. If the bottle costs $1 more
than the cork, how much does each cost?
4. What do you get if you add 1 to 15 four times?
5. On what day of the week does Good Friday fall in 2016?

Quadratic Equations
A quadratic equation is an equation involving a square. For example, x 2 - 4 = 0.

Solving by factorisation
When solving quadratic equations by factorising, we use a property of zero.

For any real numbers a and b, if ab = 0 then a = 0 or b = 0

EXAMPLES
Solve
1. x 2 + x - 6 = 0

Solution
x2 + x - 6 = 0
(x + 3) (x - 2) = 0

Chapter 3 Equations

x+3=0
or
x-2=0
x+3-3=0-3
x-2+2 =0 +2
x = -3
or
x= 2

So the solution is x = - 3 or 2.
2. y 2 - 7y = 0

Solution
y 2 - 7y = 0
y ( y - 7) = 0
`
y=0

or

y-7=0

y-7+7=0+7
y=7
So the solution is y = 0 or 7.
3. 3a 2 - 14a = - 8

Solution
3a 2 - 14a = - 8
3a 2 - 14a + 8 = - 8 + 8
3a 2 - 14a + 8 = 0
(3a - 2) (a - 4) = 0
`
3a - 2 = 0
or
3a - 2 + 2 = 0
or
3a = 2
3a
2
=
3
3
2
a=
3
2
So the solution is a = or 4.
3

a-4 =0
a-4+4 =0+4
a=4

3.7 Exercises
Solve
1.

y2 + y = 0

4.

t 2 - 5t = 0

2.

b2 - b - 2 = 0

5.

x 2 + 9x + 14 = 0

3.

p 2 + 2p - 15 = 0

6.

q2 - 9 = 0

119

120

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

7.

x2 - 1 = 0

17. 5x - x 2 = 0

8.

a 2 + 3a = 0

18. y 2 = y + 2

9.

2x 2 + 8x = 0

19. 8n = n 2 + 15

10. 4x 2 - 1 = 0

20. 12 = 7x - x 2

11. 3x 2 + 7x + 4 = 0

21. m 2 = 6 - 5m

12. 2y 2 + y - 3 = 0

22. x (x + 1) (x + 2) = 0

13. 8b 2 - 10b + 3 = 0

23. (y - 1) (y + 5) (y + 2) = 0

14. x 2 - 3x = 10

24. (x + 3) (x - 1) = 32

15. 3x 2 = 2x

25. (m - 3) (m - 4) = 20

16. 2x 2 = 7x - 5

Application
1 2
at where u is the
2
initial velocity and a is the acceleration. Find the time when the displacement will
be zero, given u = - 12 and a = 10.
A formula for displacement s at time t is given by s = ut +

2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
0 = -12t + 1 (10) t
2

= -12t + 5t

= t (-12 + 5t )
` t = 0 or

-12 + 5t = 0

-12 + 12 + 5t = 0 + 12
5t = 12
5t
12
=
5
5
t = 2.4
So displacement will be zero when t = 0 or 2.4.

Solving by completing the square


Not all trinomials will factorise, so other methods need to be used to solve
quadratic equations.

Chapter 3 Equations

121

EXAMPLES
Solve
1. x 2 = 7

Solution
x2 = 7
x=! 7
= ! 2.6
2. ] x + 3 g2 = 11

Solution
] x + 3 g2 = 11

Take the square root of


both sides.

x + 3 = ! 11
x + 3 - 3 = ! 11 - 3
x = ! 11 - 3
= 0.3, - 6.3
3. ^ y - 2 h2 = 7

Solution
^ y - 2 h2 = 7
y-2=! 7
y-2+2=! 7+2
y=! 7+2
= 4.6, - 0.6

To solve a quadratic equation like x 2 - 6x + 3 = 0, which will not factorise, we


can use the method of completing the square.

You learnt how to


complete the square in
Chapter 2.

EXAMPLES
Solve by completing the square
1. x 2 - 6x + 3 = 0 (give exact answer)

Solution
x 2 - 6x + 3 = 0
x 2 - 6x = - 3

Halve 6, square it and


add to both sides of the
equation.

c 6 m = 32 = 9
2
CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

x 2 - 6x + 9 = - 3 + 9
] x - 3 g2 = 6
`

x-3=! 6
x-3+3=! 6+3
x=! 6+3

2. y 2 + 2y - 7 = 0 (correct to 3 significant figures)

Solution
y 2 + 2y - 7 = 0
y 2 + 2y = 7

c 2 m = 12 = 1
2

y 2 + 2y + 1 = 7 + 1
^ y + 1 h2 = 8
`

y+1=! 8
y + 1 - 1 = ! 8 -1
y = ! 8 -1
= !2 2 - 1
y = 1.83 or - 3.83

3.8 Exercises
1.

Solve by completing the square,


giving exact answers in simplest
surd form
(a) x 2 + 4x - 1 = 0
(b) a 2 - 6a + 2 = 0
(c) y 2 - 8y - 7 = 0
(d) x 2 + 2x - 12 = 0
(e) p 2 + 14p + 5 = 0
(f) x 2 - 10x - 3 = 0
(g) y 2 + 20y + 12 = 0
(h) x 2 - 2x - 1 = 0
(i) n 2 + 24n + 7 = 0
(j) y 2 - 3y + 1 = 0

2.

Solve by completing the square


and write your answers correct to
3 significant figures
(a) x 2 - 2x - 5 = 0
(b) x 2 + 12x + 34 = 0
(c) q 2 + 18q - 1 = 0
(d) x 2 - 4x - 2 = 0
(e) b 2 + 16b + 50 = 0
(f) x 2 - 24x + 112 = 0
(g) r 2 - 22r - 7 = 0
(h) x 2 + 8x + 5 = 0
(i) a 2 + 6a - 1 = 0
(j) y 2 - 40y - 3 = 0

Solving by formula
Completing the square is difficult with harder quadratic equations, for
example 2x 2 - x - 5 = 0. Completing the square on a general quadratic
equation gives the following formula.

Chapter 3 Equations

For the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0


x=

-b !

b 2 - 4ac
2a

Proof
Solve ax 2 + b + c = 0 by completing the square.
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
ax 2 bx c
0
a + a +a=a
bx c
x2 + a + a = 0
c
c
bx c
x2 + a + a - a = 0 - a
bx
c
x2 + a = - a

2
2
2
b b ' 2l = c b m = b 2
a
2a
4a

bx
c
b2
b2
x2 + a + 2 = - a + 2
4a
4a
c
b2
b 2
cx +
m = -a + 2
2a
4a
- 4ac + b 2
=
4a 2
- 4ac + b 2
b
x+
=!
2a
4a 2
2
b - 4ac
=!
2a
b 2 - 4ac
b
b
b
x+
=!
2a
2a 2a
2a
b 2 - 4ac
-b
x=
!
2a
2a
2
- b ! b - 4ac
=
2a

EXAMPLES
1. Solve x 2 - x - 2 = 0 by using the quadratic formula.

Solution
a = 1, b = -1, c = - 2
b 2 - 4ac
2a
- (-1) ! (-1) 2 - 4 (1) (-2)
=
2 (1 )
1! 1+8
=
2

x=

-b !

CONTINUED

123

124

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

1! 9
2
1!3
=
2
= 2 or - 1

1! 3
gives two
2
1+ 3
separate solutions,
2
1- 3
and
.
2

x =

2. Solve 2y 2 - 9y + 3 = 0 by formula and give your answer correct to


2 decimal places.

Solution
a = 2, b = -9, c = 3
-b ! b 2 - 4ac
2a
- ] -9 g ! ] -9 g2 - 4 ] 2 g ] 3 g
y=
2] 2 g
9 ! 81 - 24
=
4
9 ! 57
=
4
Z 4.14 or 0.36

x=

These solutions are


irrational.

3.9
1.

Exercises

Solve by formula, correct to 3


significant figures where necessary
(a) y 2 + 6y + 2 = 0
(b) 2x 2 - 5x + 3 = 0
(c) b 2 - b - 9 = 0
(d) 2x 2 - x - 1 = 0
(e) - 8x 2 + x + 3 = 0
(f) n 2 + 8n - 2 = 0
(g) m 2 + 7m + 10 = 0
(h) x 2 - 7x = 0
(i) x 2 + 5x = 6
(j) y 2 = 3y - 1

2.

Solve by formula, leaving the


answer in simplest surd form
(a) x 2 + x - 4 = 0
(b) 3x 2 - 5x + 1 = 0
(c) q 2 - 4q - 3 = 0
(d) 4h 2 + 12h + 1 = 0
(e) 3s 2 - 8s + 2 = 0
(f) x 2 + 11x - 3 = 0
(g) 6d 2 + 5d - 2 = 0
(h) x 2 - 2x = 7
(i) t 2 = t + 1
(j) 2x 2 + 1 = 7x

Class Investigation
Here is a proof that 1 = 2. Can you see the fault in the proof?
x2 - x2 = x2 - x2
x(x - x) = (x + x) (x - x)
x=x+x
x = 2x
1=2
`

Chapter 3 Equations

125

Quadratic Inequations
Solving quadratic inequations is similar to solving quadratic equations, but
you need to do this in two stages. The rst is to solve the equation and then
the second step is to look at either the number line or the number plane for
the inequality.

To solve a quadratic inequation:


1. Factorise and solve the quadratic equation
2. Test values in the inequality

In Chapter 9 you will look at how to use the number plane to solve these
quadratic inequations. Here are some examples of solving quadratic
inequations using the number line.

EXAMPLES
Solve
1. x 2 + x - 6 2 0

Solution
Be careful: x 2 + x - 6 2 0
does not mean x - 2 2 0
and x + 3 2 0.

First solve x + x - 6 = 0
(x - 2 ) (x + 3 ) = 0
`
x = 2 or -3
2

Now look at the number line.


-4

-3

-2

-1

Choose a number between - 3 and 2, say x = 0.


Substitute x = 0 into the inequation.
x2 + x - 6 2 0
02 + 0 - 6 2 0
-6 2 0

(false)

So the solution is not between -3 and 2.


` the solution lies either side of -3 and 2.
Check by choosing a number on either side of the two numbers.
Choose a number on the RHS of 2, say x = 3.
CONTINUED

126

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Substitute x = 3 into the inequation.


32 + 3 - 6 2 0
620
So the solution is on the RHS of 2.
Choose a number on the LHS of -3, say x = -4
Substitute x = -4 into the inequation

(true)

( - 4) 2 + ( -4) - 6 2 0
620
So the solution is on the LHS of -3.
-4

-3

-2

-1

(true)

This gives the solution x 1 -3, x 2 2.


2. 9 - x 2 $ 0

Solution
First solve 9 - x 2 = 0
(3 - x) (3 + x) = 0
`
x = !3
-4

-3

-2

-1

Choose a number between -3 and 3, say x = 0.


Substitute x = 0 into the inequation.
Check numbers on the
RHS and LHS to verify this.

9 - x2 $ 0
9 - 02 $ 0
9$0

(true)

So the solution is between -3 and 3, that is -3 # x # 3.


On the number line:
-4

-3

-2

-1

Chapter 3 Equations

3.10

Exercises

Solve
1.

x 2 + 3x 1 0

14. 6 - 13b - 5b 2 1 0

2.

y 2 - 4y 1 0

15. 6x 2 + 11x + 3 # 0

3.

n2 - n $ 0

16. y 2 + y # 12

4.

x2 - 4 $ 0

17. x 2 2 16

5.

1 - n2 1 0

18. a 2 # 1

6.

n 2 + 2n - 15 # 0

19. x 2 1 x + 6

7.

c2 - c - 2 2 0

20. x 2 $ 2x + 3

8.

x 2 + 6x + 8 # 0

21. x 2 1 2x

9.

x 2 - 9x + 20 1 0

22. 2a 2 - 5a + 3 # 0

10. 4b 2 + 10b + 4 $ 0

23. 5y 2 + 6y $ 8

11. 1 - 2a - 3a 2 1 0

24. 6m 2 2 15 - m

12. 2y 2 - y - 6 2 0

25. 3x 2 # 7x - 4

13. 3x 2 - 5x + 2 $ 0

Simultaneous Equations
Two equations, each with two unknown pronumerals, can be solved together
to nd one solution that satises both equations.
There are different ways of solving simultaneous equations. The
elimination method adds or subtracts the equations. The substitution
method substitutes one equation into the other.

Linear equations
These equations can be solved by either method. Many students prefer the
elimination method.

127

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
Solve simultaneously
1. 3a + 2b = 5 and 2a - b = -6

Solution

] 2 g # 2:
] 1 g + (3):

3a + 2b = 5
2a - b = -6

(1 )
(2 )

4a - 2b = -12
3 a + 2b = 5
7a = - 7
a = -1

(3 )
(1 )

Substitute a = -1 in (1)
3 (-1) + 2b = 5
-3 + 2b = 5
2b = 8
b=4
` solution is a = -1, b = 4
2. 5x - 3y = 19 and 2x - 4y = 16

Solution

(1) # 4:
( 2 ) # 3:
(3) - (4):

5x - 3y = 19
2x - 4y = 16
20x - 12y = 76
6x - 12y = 48
14x = 28
x=2

Substitute x = 2 in (2)
2 ( 2) - 4 y
4 - 4y
- 4y
y

= 16
= 16
= 12
= -3

( 1)
( 2)
(3 )
(4 )

Chapter 3 Equations

3.11

Exercises

Solve simultaneously
1.

a - b = -2 and a + b = 4

12. 3a - 4b = -16 and 2a + 3b = 12

2.

5x + 2y = 12 and 3x - 2y = 4

3.

4p - 3q = 11 and 5p + 3q = 7

13. 5p + 2q + 18 = 0 and
2p - 3q + 11 = 0

4.

y = 3x - 1 and y = 2x + 5

5.

2x + 3y = -14 and x + 3y = -4

6.

7t + v = 22 and 4t + v = 13

16. 5s - 3t - 13 = 0 and
3s - 7t - 13 = 0

7.

4x + 5y + 2 = 0 and
4x + y + 10 = 0

17. 3a - 2b = - 6 and a - 3b = - 2

8.

2x - 4y = 28 and 2x - 3y = -11

18. 3k - 2h = -14 and


2k - 5h = -13

9.

5x - y = 19 and 2x + 5y = -14

10. 5m + 4n = 22 and m - 5n = -13


11. 4w 1 + 3w 2 = 11 and 3w 1 + w 2 = 2

14. 7x 1 + 3x 2 = 4 and 3x 1 + 5x 2 = - 2
15. 9x - 2y = -1 and 7x - 4y = 9

19. 2v 1 + 5v 2 - 16 = 0 and
7v 1 + 2v 2 + 6 = 0
20. 1.5x + 3.4y = 7.8 and
2 . 1 x - 1 . 7y = 1 . 8

PROBLEM
A group of 39 people went to see a play. There were both adults and
children in the group. The total cost of the tickets was $939, with
children paying $17 each and adults paying $29 each. How many in
the group were adults and how many were children? (Hint: let x be the
number of adults and y the number of children.)

Non-linear equations
In questions involving non-linear equations there may be more than one set
of solutions. In some of these, the elimination method cannot be used. Here
are some examples using the substitution method.

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EXAMPLES
Solve simultaneously
1. xy = 6 and x + y = 5

Solution
xy = 6
x+y=5
From (2):
y=5-x
Substitute (3) in (1)
x (5 - x) = 6

( 1)
(2 )
(3 )

5x - x 2 = 6
0 = x 2 - 5x + 6
0 = (x - 2 ) (x - 3 )
`
x - 2 = 0 or x - 3 = 0
x = 2 or x = 3
Substitute x = 2 in (3)
y=5-2=3
Substitute x = 3 in (3)
y=5-3=2
` solutions are x = 2, y = 3 and x = 3, y = 2
2. x 2 + y 2 = 16 and 3x - 4y - 20 = 0

Solution
x 2 + y 2 = 16
3x - 4y - 20 = 0
From ] 2 g: 3x - 20 = 4y
3x - 20
=y
4
Substitute (3) into (1)
3x - 20 2
m = 16
x2 + c
4
9x 2 - 120x + 400 n
= 16
x2 + d
16
16x 2 + 9x 2 - 120x + 400 = 256
25x 2 - 120x + 144 = 0
(5x - 12)2 = 0
`
5x - 12 = 0
5x = 12
x = 2.4
Substitute x = 2.4 into ] 3 g
3 (2.4) - 20
4
= -3.2
So the solution is x = 2.4, y = -3.2.
y=

(1)
(2 )

(3)

Chapter 3 Equations

3.12

131

Exercises

Solve the simultaneous equations.


1.

y = x 2 and y = x

11. y = x - 1 and y = x 2 - 3

2.

y = x 2 and 2x + y = 0

12. y = x 2 + 1 and y = 1 - x 2

3.

x 2 + y 2 = 9 and x + y = 3

13. y = x 2 - 3x + 7 and y = 2x + 3

4.

x - y = 7 and xy = -12

14. xy = 1 and 4x - y + 3 = 0

5.

y = x 2 + 4x and 2x - y - 1 = 0

15. h = t 2 and h = ] t + 1 g2

6.

y = x 2 and 6x - y - 9 = 0

16. x + y = 2 and 2x 2 + xy - y 2 = 8

7.

x = t 2 and x + t - 2 = 0

17. y = x 3 and y = x 2 + 6x

8.

m 2 + n 2 = 16 and m + n + 4 = 0

18. y = | x | and y = x 2

9.

xy = 2 and y = 2x

19. y = x 2 - 7x + 6 and
24x + 4y - 23 = 0

10. y = x 3 and y = x 2

20. x 2 + y 2 = 1 and 5x + 12y + 13 = 0

Equations with 3 unknown variables


Three equations can be solved simultaneously to nd 3 unknown
pronumerals.

EXAMPLE
Solve simultaneously a - b + c = 7, a + 2b - c = -4 and 3a - b - c = 3.

Solution
a-b +c=7
a + 2b - c = - 4
3a - b - c = 3
(1) + (2):
a-b+c=7
a + 2b - c = - 4
2a + b
=3
(1) + (3):
a- b+c=7
3a - b - c = 3
4a - 2b
= 10
or
2a - b
=5
(4) + (5): 2a + b
=3
4a
=8
a=2

(1 )
(2)
(3)

( 4)

(5)

Four unknowns need 4


equations, and so on.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Substitute a = 2 in (4)
2 ( 2) + b = 3
4+b=3
b = -1
Substitute a = 2 and b = -1 in (1)
2 - (-1) + c = 7
2 +1 + c = 7
3+c=7
c=4
` solution is a = 2, b = -1, c = 4

You will solve 3


simultaneous equations in
later topics (for example,
in Chapter 9).

3.13

Exercises

Solve the simultaneous equations.


1.

x = - 2, 2x - y = 4 and
x - y + 6z = 0

2.

a = - 2, 2a - 3b = -1 and
a - b + 5c = 9

3.

2a + b + c = 1, a + b = - 2
and c = 7

4.

a + b + c = 0, a - b + c = - 4 and
2a - 3b - c = -1

5.

x + y - z = 7, x + y + 2z = 1 and
3x + y - 2z = 19

6.

x - y - z = 1 , 2x + y - z = - 9
and 2x - 3y - 2z = 7

7.

2p + 5q - r = 25,
2p - 2q - r = -24 and
3p - q + 5r = 4

8.

2x - y + 3 z = 9 ,
3x + y - 2z = -2 and
3x - y + 5z = 14

9.

3h + j - k = -3,
h + 2j + k = -3 and
5h - 3j - 2k = -13

10. 2a - 7b + 3c = 7,
a + 3b + 2c = -4 and
4a + 5b - c = 9

Chapter 3 Equations

Test Yourself 3
1.

Solve
(a) 8 = 3b - 22
a a+2
(b) =9
4
3
(c) 4 (3x + 1) = 11x - 3
(d) 3p + 1 # p + 9

2.

3.

The compound interest formula is


r n
m . Find correct to 2
A = P c1 +
100
decimal places.
(a) A when P = 1000, r = 6 and n = 4
(b) P when A = 12 450, r = 5.5 and n = 7
Complete the square on
(a) x 2 - 8x
(b) k 2 + 4k

4.

Solve these simultaneous equations.


(a) x - y + 7 = 0 and 3x - 4y + 26 = 0
(b) xy = 4 and 2x - y - 7 = 0

5.

Solve
(a) 3 x + 2 = 81
(b) 16 y = 2

6.

Solve
(a) 3b - 1 = 5
(b) 5g - 3 = 3g + 1
(c) 2x - 7 $ 1

7.

8.

The area of a trapezium is given by


A = 1 h (a + b). Find
2
(a) A when h = 6, a = 5 and b = 7
(b) b when A = 40, h = 5 and a = 4.
Solve 2x 2 - 3x + 1 = 0 by
(a) factorisation
(b) quadratic formula.

9.

Solve -2 1 3y + 1 # 10, and plot your


solution on a number line.

10. Solve correct to 3 signicant gures


(a) x 2 + 7x + 2 = 0
(b) y 2 - 2y - 9 = 0
(c) 3n 2 + 2n - 4 = 0
11. The surface area of a sphere is given by
A = 4rr 2 . Evaluate to 1 decimal place
(a) A when r = 7.8
(b) r when A = 102.9
12. Solve

x-3 3
- 2 9.
7
4

13. Solve x 2 - 11x + 18 2 0.


14. Solve the simultaneous equations
x 2 + y 2 = 16 and 3x + 4y - 20 = 0.
4 3
rr .
3
Evaluate to 2 signicant gures
(a) V when r = 8
(b) r when V = 250

15. The volume of a sphere is V =

16. Which of the following equations has


(i) 2 solutions (ii) 1 solution
(iii) no solutions?
(a) x 2 - 6x + 9 = 0
(b) 2x - 3 = 7
(c) x - 2 = 7 - x
(d) x 2 - x + 4 = 0
(e) 2x + 1 = x - 2
17. Solve simultaneously
a + b = 5, 2 a + b + c = 4, a - b - c = 5.
18. Solve 3n + 5 2 5, and plot the solution
on a number line.
19. Solve

3
4
=x
x+1

^ x ! 0, -1 h .

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20. Solve 9 2x + 1 = 27 x .

(h) 8 x + 1 = 4 x
(i) y 2 - 4 2 0
(j) 1 - x 2 # 0
(k) 27 2x - 1 = 9
(l) 4b - 3 # 5
(m) 3x + 2 = 2x - 3
(n) 4t - 5 = t + 2
(o) x 2 1 2x + 3
(p) m 2 + m $ 6

21. Solve
(a) 2 ^ 3y - 5 h 2 y + 5
(b) n 2 + 3n # 0
(c) 3 2x - 1 = 27
(d) 5x 3 - 1 = 39
(e) 5x - 4 = 11
(f) 2t + 1 $ 3
(g) x 2 + 2x - 8 # 0

Challenge Exercise 3
1
.
a2

1.

Find the value of y if a 3y - 5 =

2.

Solve x 2 2 a 2 .

10. Solve ] x - 4 g ] x - 1 g # 28.

3.

The solutions of x 2 - 6x - 3 = 0 are in


the form a + b 3 . Find the values of
a and b.

11. Solve x 2 =

4.

Solve

9. Solve t + 2 + 3t - 1 1 5.

12. The volume of a sphere is given by


4
V = rr 3 . Find the value of r when
3
V = 51.8 (correct to three signicant
gures).

2
1
= 1 correct to 3
x-1 x+1

signicant gures. (x ! ! 1)
5.

Factorise x 5 - 9x 3 - 8x 2 + 72. Hence


solve x 5 - 9x 3 - 8x 2 + 72 = 0.

6.

Solve simultaneous equations y = x + x


and y = x + 1.

7.

Find the value of b if x - 8x + b


is a perfect square. Hence solve
x 2 - 8x - 1 = 0 by completing the
square.

8.

Considering the denition of absolute


x-3
value, solve
= x, where x ! 3.
3-x

1
.
8

13. Solve x - 3 + x + 4 = x - 2 .
2

14. Find the solutions of x 2 - 2ax - b = 0 by


completing the square.
r n
m , nd P
100
correct to 2 decimal places when
A = 3281.69, r = 1.27 and n = 30.

15. Given A = P c 1 +

16. Solve 3x 2 = 8 (2x - 1) and write the


solution in the simplest surd form.
17. Solve 3y - 1 + 2y + 3 2 5.

Geometry 1
TERMINOLOGY
Altitude: Height. Any line segment from a vertex to the
opposite side of a polygon that is perpendicular to that side

Polygon: General term for a many sided plane figure. A


closed plane (two dimensional) figure with straight sides

Congruent triangles: Identical triangles that are the same


shape and size. Corresponding sides and angles are
equal. The symbol is /

Quadrilateral: A four-sided closed figure such as a square,


rectangle, trapezium etc.

Interval: Part of a line including the endpoints

Similar triangles: Triangles that are the same shape but


different sizes. The symbol is zy

Median: A line segment that joins a vertex to the


opposite side of a triangle that bisects that side

Vertex: The point where three planes meet. The corner of


a figure

Perpendicular: A line that is at right angles to another


line. The symbol is =

Vertically opposite angles: Angles that are formed


opposite each other when two lines intersect

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

INTRODUCTION
GEOMETRY IS USED IN many areas, including surveying, building and graphics.

These elds all require a knowledge of angles, parallel lines and so on, and
how to measure them. In this chapter, you will study angles, parallel lines,
triangles, types of quadrilaterals and general polygons.
Many exercises in this chapter on geometry need you to prove something
or give reasons for your answers. The solutions to geometry proofs only give
one method, but other methods are also acceptable.

DID YOU KNOW?


Geometry means measurement of the earth and comes from Greek. Geometry was used in ancient
civilisations such as Babylonia. However, it was the Greeks who formalised the study of geometry,
in the period between 500 BC and AD 300.

Notation
In order to show reasons for exercises, you must know how to name gures
correctly.
B
The point is called B.

The interval (part of a line) is called AB or BA.

If AB and CD are parallel lines, we write AB < CD.

This angle is named +BAC or +CAB. It can sometimes be named +A.


^

Angles can also be written as BAC or

This triangle is named 3ABC.

BAC

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

To name a quadrilateral,
go around it: for example,
BCDA is correct, but ACBD
is not.

Producing a line is the same


as extending it.

This quadrilateral is called ABCD.

Line AB is produced to C.

+ABD and +DBC are


equal.

DB bisects +ABC.

AM is a median of D ABC.

AP is an altitude of D ABC.

Types of Angles
Acute angle

0c1 xc1 90c

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

Right angle

A right angle is 90c.


Complementary angles are angles whose sum is 90c.

Obtuse angle

90c1 xc1180c

Straight angle

A straight angle is 180c.


Supplementary angles are angles whose sum is 180c.

Reex angle

180c1 xc1 360c

Angle of revolution

An angle of revolution is 360c.

Vertically opposite angles

+AEC and +DEB are called vertically opposite angles. +AED and +CEB are
also vertically opposite angles.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Vertically opposite angles are equal.


That is, +AEC = +DEB and +AED = +CEB.

Proof
Let +AEC = xc
Then +AED = 180c - xc
(+CED straight angle, 180c)
Now +DEB = 180c - (180c - xc)
(+AEB straight angle, 180c)
= xc
Also +CEB = 180c - xc
(+CED straight angle, 180c)
`
+AEC = +DEB and +AED =+CEB

EXAMPLES
Find the values of all pronumerals, giving reasons.
1.

Solution
x + 154 = 180
(+ABC is a straight angle, 180c)
x + 154 - 154 = 180 - 154
`
x = 26
2.

Solution
2x + 142 + 90
2x + 232
2x + 232 - 232
2x
2x
2
x

= 360
(angle of revolution, 360c )
= 360
= 360 - 232
= 128
128
=
2
= 64

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

3.

Solution
y + 2y + 30 = 90
3y + 30
3y + 30 - 30
3y
3y
3
y

(right angle, 90c)

= 90
= 90 - 30
= 60
60
3
= 20
=

4.

Solution
x + 50 = 165
x + 50 - 50 = 165 - 50
x = 115
y = 180 - 165
= 15
w = 15

(+WZX and +YZV vertically opposite)

(+XZY straight angle, 180c)


(+WZY and +XZV vertically opposite)

5.

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Solution
a = 90
b + 53 + 90 = 180
b + 143 = 180
b + 143 - 143 = 180 - 143
b = 37
d = 37
c = 53

(vertically opposite angles)


(straight angle, 180c)

(vertically opposite angles)


(similarly)

6. Find the supplement of 57c 12l.

Solution
Supplementary angles add up to 180c.
So the supplement of 57c 12l is
180c - 57c 12l = 122c 48l.
7. Prove that AB and CD are straight lines.
A

(x + 30)c
C

(6x + 10)c

(2x
2 + 10)c
E
(5x + 30)c
B

Solution
6x + 10 + x + 30 + 5x + 30 + 2x + 10 = 360
^ angle of revolution h
14x + 80 - 80 = 360 - 80
14x = 280
14x
280
=
14
14
x = 20
+AEC = (20 + 30)c
= 50c
+DEB = (2 # 20 + 10)c
= 50c
These are equal vertically opposite angles.
` AB and CD are straight lines

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

4.1 Exercises
1.

Find values of all pronumerals,


giving reasons.
(a)

yc

(i)

133c

(b)

(j)

(c)
2.

Find the supplement of


(a) 59c
(b) 107c 31l
(c) 45c 12l

3.

Find the complement of


(a) 48c
(b) 34c 23l
(c) 16c 57l

4.

Find the (i) complement and


(ii) supplement of
(a) 43c
(b) 81c
(c) 27c
(d) 55c
(e) 38c
(f) 74c 53l
(g) 42c 24l
(h) 17c 39l
(i) 63c 49l
(j) 51c 9l

5.

(a) Evaluate x.
(b) Find the complement of x.
(c) Find the supplement of x.

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)
(2x + 30)c
142c

143

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

6.

Find the values of all


pronumerals, giving reasons for
each step of your working.

8.

(a)
Prove that CD bisects +AFE.
Prove that AC is a straight line.

9.

D
C

(b)
(3x + 70)c
(110 - 3x)c
B

(c)
A

10. Show that +AED is a right angle.


A

(d)

(50 - 8y)c

(e)

(5y - 20)c

(f)

7.

Prove that AC and DE are straight


lines.

(3y + 60)c

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

145

Parallel Lines
When a transversal cuts two lines, it forms pairs of angles. When the two
lines are parallel, these pairs of angles have special properties.

Alternate angles

Alternate angles form


a Z shape. Can you
nd another set of
alternate angles?

If the lines are parallel, then alternate angles are equal.

Corresponding angles

Corresponding angles form


an F shape. There are 4 pairs
of corresponding angles. Can
you nd them?

If the lines are parallel, then corresponding angles are equal.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Cointerior angles
Cointerior angles form
a U shape. Can you nd
another pair?

If the lines are parallel, cointerior angles are supplementary (i.e. their sum
is 180c).

Tests for parallel lines


If alternate angles are equal, then the lines are parallel.

If +AEF = +EFD,
then AB < CD.

If corresponding angles are equal, then the lines are parallel.

If +BEF = +DFG,
then AB < CD.

If cointerior angles are supplementary, then the lines are parallel.

If +BEF + +DFE = 180c,


then AB < CD.

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

If 2 lines are both parallel to a third line, then the 3 lines are parallel to
each other. That is, if AB < CD and EF < CD, then AB < EF.

EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of y, giving reasons for each step of your working.

Solution
+AGF = 180c - 125c
= 55c

(+FGH is a straight angle)

(+AGF, +CFE corresponding angles, AB < CD)

y = 55c

2. Prove EF < GH.

Solution
+CBF = 180c - 120c (+ABC is a straight angle)
= 60c
` +CBF = +HCD = 60c
But +CBF and +HCD are corresponding angles
` EF < GH

Can you prove this


in a different way?

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Think about the reasons for


each step of your calculations.

4.2 Exercises
1.

Find values of all pronumerals.


(a)

(h)

(i)

(b)
(j)

(c)

2.

Prove AB < CD.


(a)

(d)

(b)
(e)

(c)

(f)

(g)

104c

C 76c

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

(d)

(e)

B
138c

52c

E
C

E
128c

23c

F
115c

Types of Triangles
Names of triangles
A scalene triangle has no two sides or angles equal.

A right (or right-angled) triangle contains a right angle.

The side opposite the right angle (the longest side) is called the
hypotenuse.
An isosceles triangle has two equal sides.
The angles (called the base angles) opposite the equal sides in an
isosceles triangle are equal.

An equilateral triangle has three equal sides and angles.

A
D

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All the angles are acute in an acute-angled triangle.

An obtuse-angled triangle contains an obtuse angle.

Angle sum of a triangle

The sum of the interior angles in any triangle is 180c,


that is, a + b + c = 180

Proof

Let +YXZ = ac, +XYZ = bc and +YZX = cc


Draw line AB < YZ
Then +BXZ = cc
(+BXZ, +XZY alternate angles, AB < YZ)
+AXY = bc
(similarly)
+YXZ + +AXY + +BXZ = 180c
(+AXB is a straight angle)
`
a + b + c = 180

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

Class Investigation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Could you prove the base angles in an isosceles triangle are equal?
Can there be more than one obtuse angle in a triangle?
Could you prove that each angle in an equilateral triangle is 60c?
Can a right-angled triangle be an obtuse-angled triangle?
Can you nd an isosceles triangle with a right angle in it?

Exterior angle of a triangle

The exterior angle in any triangle is equal to the sum of the two opposite
interior angles. That is,
x+y=z

Proof

Let +ABC = xc , +BAC = yc and +ACD = zc


Draw line CE < AB
zc = +ACE + +ECD
+ECD = xc
+ACE = yc
`
z=x+y

(+ECD,+ABC corresponding angles, AB < CE)


(+ACE,+BAC alternate angles, AB < CE)

EXAMPLES
Find the values of all pronumerals, giving reasons for each step.
1.

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Solution
x + 53 + 82 = 180
(angle sum of D 180c)
x + 135 = 180
x + 135 - 135 = 180 - 135
x = 45
2.

Solution
+A = +C = x
x + x + 48 = 180
2x + 48 = 180
2x + 48 - 48 = 180 - 48
2x = 132
132
2x
=
2
2
x = 66

(base angles of isosceles D)


(angle sum in a D 180c)

3.

Solution
y + 35 = 141
(exterior angle of D)
y + 35 - 35 = 141 - 35
`
y = 106
This example can be done using the interior sum of angles.
+BCA = 180c - 141c
= 39c
y + 39 + 35 = 180
y + 74 = 180
y + 74 - 74 = 180 - 74
`
y = 106

(+BCD is a straight angle 180c)


(angle sum of D 180c)

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

Think of the reasons


for each step of your
calculations.

4.3 Exercises
1.

Find the values of all


pronumerals.
(a)

(h)

(b)
(i)

(j)
(c)

(d)

(k)

(e)

(f)

(g)

153

2.

Show that each angle in an


equilateral triangle is 60c.

3.

Find +ACB in terms of x.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

4.

5.

6.

Prove AB < ED.

(d)

8.

Prove D IJL is equilateral and


D JKL is isosceles.

9.

In triangle BCD below, BC = BD.


Prove AB ED.

Show D ABC is isosceles.

Line CE bisects +BCD. Find the


value of y, giving reasons.

A
B
C

46c
E
88c

7.

Evaluate all pronumerals, giving


reasons for your working.
(a)

10. Prove that MN QP .


32c

(b)
75c

73c

(c)

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

Congruent Triangles
Two triangles are congruent if they are the same shape and size. All pairs of
corresponding sides and angles are equal.
For example:

We write D ABC / D XYZ.

Tests
To prove that two triangles are congruent, we only need to prove that certain
combinations of sides or angles are equal.

Two triangles are congruent if


SSS: all three pairs of corresponding sides are equal
SAS: two pairs of corresponding sides and their included angles are
equal
AAS: two pairs of angles and one pair of corresponding sides are equal
RHS: both have a right angle, their hypotenuses are equal and one
other pair of corresponding sides are equal

EXAMPLES
1. Prove that DOTS / DOQP where O is the centre of the circle.

CONTINUED

The included angle


is the angle between
the 2 sides.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Solution
S:
A:
S:

OS = OQ
+TOS = +QOP
OT = OP

by SAS, DOTS / DOQP

(equal radii)
(vertically opposite angles)
(equal radii)

2. Which two triangles are congruent?

Solution
To nd corresponding sides, look at each side in relation to the angles.
For example, one set of corresponding sides is AB, DF, GH and JL.
D ABC / D JKL (by SAS)
3. Show that triangles ABC and DEC are congruent. Hence prove that
AB = ED.

Solution
A: +BAC = +CDE
A: +ABC = +CED
S:
AC = CD

(alternate angles, AB < ED)


(similarly)
(given)

` by AAS, D ABC / D DEC


`
AB = ED

(corresponding sides in congruent D s)

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

4.4 Exercises
1.

Are these triangles congruent?


If they are, prove that they are
congruent.
(a)

2.

Prove that these triangles are


congruent.
(a)

(b)

Y
4.7

110c

2.3

4.7

110
c
C

A
2

.3 m

(b)

(c)

(c)

(d)

(d)
(e)

(e)

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3.

Prove that
(a) ABD is congruent to ACD
(b) AB bisects BC, given D ABC is
isosceles with AB = AC.

4.

Prove that triangles ABD and CDB


are congruent. Hence prove that
AD = BC.

(a) Prove that TABC and TADC


are congruent.
(b) Show that +ABC = +ADC.
The centre of a circle is O and AC
is perpendicular to OB.

7.

5.

In the circle below, O is the centre


of the circle.
A

B
O

(a) Prove that TOAB and TOCD


are congruent.
(b) Show that AB = CD.
6.

(a) Show that TOAB and TOBC


are congruent.
(b) Prove that +ABC = 90c.
ABCF is a trapezium with
AF = BC and FE = CD. AE and BD
are perpendicular to FC.

8.

In the kite ABCD, AB = AD and


BC = DC.

(a) Show that TAFE and TBCD


are congruent.
(b) Prove that +AFE = +BCD.

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

9.

The circle below has centre O and


OB bisects chord AC.

10. ABCD is a rectangle as shown


below.
A

C
O
B

(a) Prove that TOAB is congruent


to TOBC.
(b) Prove that OB is perpendicular
to AC.

(a) Prove that TADC is


congruent to TBCD.
(b) Show that diagonals AC and
BD are equal.

Investigation
The triangle is used in many
structures, for example trestle
tables, stepladders and roofs.
Find out how many different ways
the triangle is used in the building
industry. Visit a building site, or
interview a carpenter. Write a
report on what you nd.

Similar Triangles
Triangles, for example ABC and XYZ, are similar if they are the same shape but
different sizes.
As in the example, all three pairs of corresponding angles are equal.
All three pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion (in the same ratio).

159

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

We write: D ABC <; D XYZ


D XYZ is three times larger than D ABC.
6
XY
= =3
AB
2
XZ
12
=
=3
4
AC
15
YZ
=
=3
5
BC
XY
XZ
YZ
`
=
=
AB
AC
BC

This shows that all 3 pairs


of sides are in proportion.

Application
Similar figures are used in many areas, including maps, scale drawings, models
and enlargements.

EXAMPLE
1. Find the values of x and y in similar triangles CBA and XYZ.

Solution
First check which sides correspond to one another (by looking at their
relationships to the angles).
YZ and BA, XZ and CA, and XY and CB are corresponding sides.
`

XZ
XY
=
CA
CB
y
5.4
=
4.9
3.6
3.6y = 4.9 # 5.4

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

161

4 . 9 # 5 .4
3 .6
= 7.35
XY
=
CB
5 .4
=
3.6
= 2 . 3 # 5 .4
2 . 3 # 5 .4
=
3 .6
= 3.45

y=
YZ
BA
x
2 .3
3 .6x
x

Tests
There are three tests for similar triangles.
Two triangles are similar if:
three pairs of corresponding angles are equal
three pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion
two pairs of sides are in proportion and their included angles
are equal

EXAMPLES
1.
(a) Prove that triangles ABC and ADE are similar.
(b) Hence nd the value of y, to 1 decimal place.

Solution
(a) +A is common
+ABC = +ADE
+ACB = +AED
` D ABC <; D ADE
(b)

(corresponding angles, BC < DE)


(similarly)
(3 pairs of angles equal)

CONTINUED

If 2 pairs of angles are


equal then the third
pair must also be equal.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

AE = 2.4 + 1.9
= 4 .3
DE
AE
=
BC
AC
y
4 .3
=
3 .7
2.4
2 .4 y = 3 . 7 # 4. 3
3 .7 # 4 .3
y=
2 .4
= 6 .6
2. Prove D XYZ <; DWVZ.

Solution
XZ
ZV
YZ
ZW
XZ
`
ZV
+XZY

3
15
=
7
35
3
6
=
=
7
14
YZ
=
ZW
= +WZV
=

(vertically opposite angles)

` since two pairs of sides are in proportion and their included angles are
equal the triangles are similar

Ratio of intercepts
The following result comes from similar triangles.

When two (or more) transversals cut a series of parallel lines, the
ratios of their intercepts are equal.
That is, AB : BC = DE : EF
AB
DE
or
=
EF
BC

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

Proof
Draw DG and EH parallel to AC.

Then
Also
`

DG = AB
EH = BC
DG
AB
=
EH
BC
+GDE = +HEF
+DEG = +EFH
+DGE = +EHF

(opposite sides of a parallelogram)


(similarly)
(1)
(corresponding +s, DG < EH)
(corresponding +s, BE < CF)
(angle sum of Ds)

So D DGE <; D EHF


DG
DE
=
`
EH
EF
From (1) and (2):

(2)

AB
DE
=
EF
BC

EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of x, to 3 signicant gures.

Solution
x
1.5
=
^ ratios of intercepts on parallel lines h
8.9
9.3
9.3x = 8.9 # 1.5
8.9 # 1.5
x=
9.3
= 1.44

CONTINUED

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2. Evaluate x and y, to 1 decimal place.

Solution
Use either similar triangles or ratios of intercepts to nd x. You must use
similar triangles to nd y.

Why?

x
2.7
=
5.8
3. 4
2.7 # 5.8
x=
3.4
= 4.6
y
2.7 + 3.4
=
7.1
3.4
6.1 # 7.1
y=
3.4
= 12.7

These ratios come


from intercepts on
parallel lines.

These ratios come from


similar triangles.

4.5 Exercises
1.

Find the value of all pronumerals,


to 1 decimal place where
appropriate.
(a)

(c)

(d)

(e)
(b)

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

(f)
46 c

xc

11

8.9
25.7

9.1

1.3

5c

1.82
E

14.3

19

4.

52c

4.2

4.9
5.88

yc

6.86

The diagram shows two


concentric circles with centre O.
(a) Prove that DOAB <; D OCD.
(b) If radius OC = 5.9 cm and
radius OB = 8.3 cm, and the
length of CD = 3.7 cm, nd the
length of AB, correct to 2 decimal
places.

7.

(a) Prove that D ABC <; D ADE.


(b) Find the values of x and y,
correct to 2 decimal places.

8.

ABCD is a parallelogram, with


CD produced to E. Prove that
D ABF <; DCEB.

Evaluate a and b to 2 decimal


places.

Show that D ABC and DCDE are


similar.

EF bisects +GFD. Show that


D DEF and D FGE are similar.

6.

(g)

3.

D
87c

46

2.

Show that D ABC and D DEF are


similar. Hence nd the value of y.

5.

165

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

9.

Show that D AED <; D ABC. Find


the value of m.

10. Prove that D ABC and D ACD are


similar. Hence evaluate x and y.

(e)

12. Show that


AB
AF
(a)
=
BC
FG
AB
AF
(b)
=
AC
AG
BD
DF
(c)
=
CE
EG

11. Find the values of all


pronumerals, to 1 decimal place.
(a)
13. Evaluate a and b correct to
1 decimal place.

(b)

14. Find the value of y to 2


signicant gures.
(c)

(d)
15. Evaluate x and y correct to
2 decimal places.

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

Pythagoras Theorem
DID YOU KNOW?
The triangle with sides in the
proportion 3:4:5 was known to be
right angled as far back as ancient
Egyptian times. Egyptian surveyors
used to measure right angles by
stretching out a rope with knots tied
in it at regular intervals.
They used the rope for forming
right angles while building and
dividing fields into rectangular plots.
It was Pythagoras (572495 BC)
who actually discovered the
relationship between the sides of the
right-angled triangle. He was able to
generalise the rule to all right-angled triangles.
Pythagoras was a Greek mathematician,
philosopher and mystic. He founded the Pythagorean
School, where mathematics, science and philosophy
were studied. The school developed a brotherhood and
performed secret rituals. He and his followers believed
that the whole universe was based on numbers.
Pythagoras was murdered when he was 77, and the
brotherhood was disbanded.

The square on the hypotenuse in any right-angled triangle is equal to the


sum of the squares on the other two sides.
That is,
c2 = a2 + b2
or

c=

a2 + b2

167

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Proof

Draw CD perpendicular to AB
Let AD = x, DB = y
Then x + y = c
In D ADC and D ABC,
+A is common
+ADC = +ACB = 90c
`

D ADC <; D ABC (equal corresponding +s)


AC
AD
=
AB
AC
x
b
c =b
b 2 = xc
D BDC <; D ABC
Similarly,
BC
DB
=
AB
BC
y
a
a= c
a 2 = yc
Now
a 2 + b 2 = yc + xc
= c ^y + xh
= c ]c g
= c2
If c 2 = a 2 + b 2, then D ABC must be right angled

EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of x, correct to 2 decimal places.

Solution
c2 = a2 + b2
x2 = 72 + 42
= 49 + 16
= 65

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

169

x = 65
= 8.06 to 2 decimal places
2. Find the exact value of y.

Solution
c2 = a2 + b2
82 = y2 + 42
64 = y 2 + 16
48 = y 2
`

Leave the answer in


surd form for the exact
answer.

y = 48
= 16 # 3
=4 3

3. Find the length of the diagonal in a square with sides 6 cm. Answer to
1 decimal place.

Solution

6 cm

6 cm

c =a +b
= 62 + 62
= 72
2

c = 72
= 8 .5
So the length of the diagonal is 8.5 cm.

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

4. A triangle has sides 5.1 cm, 6.8 cm and 8.5 cm. Prove that the triangle
is right angled.

Solution

5.1 cm

8.5 cm

6.8 cm

Let c = 8.5 (largest side) and a and b the other two smaller sides.
a 2 + b 2 = 5 . 1 2 + 6. 8 2
= 72.25
c 2 = 8. 5 2
= 72.25
` c2 = a2 + b2
So the triangle is right angled.

4.6 Exercises
1.

Find the value of all pronumerals,


correct to 1 decimal place.
(a)

2.

Find the exact value of all


pronumerals.
(a)

(b)
(b)

(c)
(c)

(d)
(d)

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

3.

Find the slant height s of a


cone with diameter 6.8 m and
perpendicular height 5.2 m, to
1 decimal place.

4.

Find the length of CE, correct


to 1 decimal place, in this
rectangular pyramid. AB = 8.6 cm
and CF = 15.9 cm.

5.

Prove that D ABC is a right-angled


triangle.

6.

7.

Show that AC = 2 BC.

8.

(a) Find the length of diagonal


AC in the gure.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, prove
that AC is perpendicular to DC.

9.

Find the length of side AB in


terms of b.

Show that D XYZ is a right-angled


isosceles triangle.
X

XY
in
YZ
terms of x and y in D XYZ.

10. Find the exact ratio of


2

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

11. Show that the distance squared


between A and B is given by
d 2 = 13t 2 - 180t + 625.

16. A ramp is 4.5 m long and 1.3 m


high. How far along the ground
does the ramp go? Answer correct
to one decimal place.
12. An 850 mm by 1200 mm gate
is to have a diagonal timber
brace to give it strength. To what
length should the timber be cut,
to the nearest mm?

4.5 m

1.3 m

17. The diagonal of a television


screen is 72 cm. If the screen is
58 cm high, how wide is it?
18. A property has one side 1.3 km
and another 1.1 km as shown
with a straight road diagonally
through the middle of the
property. If the road is 1.5 km
long, show that the property is
not rectangular.

13. A rectangular park has a length of


620 m and a width of 287 m. If I
walk diagonally across the park,
how far do I walk?
14. The triangular garden bed below
is to have a border around it.
How many metres of border are
needed, to 1 decimal place?

1.5 km

1.3 km

1.1 km

15. What is the longest length of


stick that will t into the box
below, to 1 decimal place?

19. Jodie buys a ladder 2 m long and


wants to take it home in the boot
of her car. If the boot is 1.2 m by
0.7 m, will the ladder t?

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

20. A chord AB in a circle with


centre O and radius 6 cm has a
perpendicular line OC as shown
4 cm long.

(a) By nding the lengths of AC


and BC, show that OC bisects the
chord.
(b) By proving congruent
triangles, show that OC bisects
the chord.

O
A

4 cm

6 cm

C
B

Types of Quadrilaterals
A quadrilateral is any four-sided gure

In any quadrilateral the sum of the interior angles is 360c

Proof
Draw in diagonal AC
+ADC + +DCA + +CAD = 180c
(angle sum of D)
+ABC + +BCA + +CAB = 180c
(similarly)
` +ADC + +DCA + +CAD + +ABC + +BCA + +CAB = 360c
That is,
+ADC + +DCB + +CBA + +BAD = 360c

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLE
Find the value of i.

Solution
i + 120 + 56 + 90 = 360 ^ angle sum of quadrilateral h
i + 266 = 360
i = 94

Parallelogram

A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel


PROPERTIES

These properties can


all be proven.

opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal


opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal
diagonals in a parallelogram bisect each other
each diagonal bisects the parallelogram into two
congruent triangles

TESTS
A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if:
both pairs of opposite sides are equal
both pairs of opposite angles are equal
one pair of sides is both equal and parallel
the diagonals bisect each other

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

175

Rectangle

A rectangle is a parallelogram with one angle a right angle

If one angle is a right


angle, then you can
prove all angles are
right angles.

PROPERTIES
the same as for a parallelogram, and also
diagonals are equal

TEST
A quadrilateral is a rectangle if its diagonals are equal

Application
Builders use the property of equal diagonals to check if a rectangle is accurate.
For example, a timber frame may look rectangular, but may be slightly slanting.
Checking the diagonals makes sure that a building does not end up like the
Leaning Tower of Pisa!

Rhombus

A rhombus is a parallelogram with a pair of adjacent sides equal


PROPERTIES
the same as for parallelogram, and also
diagonals bisect at right angles
diagonals bisect the angles of the rhombus

It can be proved that


all sides are equal.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

TESTS

A quadrilateral is a rhombus if:


all sides are equal
diagonals bisect each other at right angles

Square

A square is a rectangle with a pair of adjacent sides equal


PROPERTIES

the same as for rectangle, and also


diagonals are perpendicular
diagonals make angles of 45c with the sides

Trapezium

A trapezium is a quadrilateral with one pair of sides parallel

Kite

A kite is a quadrilateral with two pairs of adjacent sides equal

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

EXAMPLES
1. Find the values of i, x and y, giving reasons.

Solution
i = 83c
x = 6.7 cm
y = 2.3 cm

(opposite +s in < gram)


(opposite sides in < gram)
(opposite sides in < gram)

2. Find the length of AB in square ABCD as a surd in its simplest form if


BD = 6 cm.

Solution
Let AB = x
Since ABCD is a square, AB = AD = x (adjacent sides equal)
Also, +A = 90c
(by definition)
By Pythagoras theorem:
c2 = a2 + b2
62 = x2 + x2
36 = 2x 2
18 = x 2
` x = 18
= 3 2 cm

CONTINUED

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3.
(a) Two equal circles have centres O and P respectively. Prove that OAPB
is a rhombus.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, show that AB is the perpendicular bisector
of OP.

Solution
OA = OB
(equal radii)
PA = PB
(similarly)
Since the circles are equal, OA = OB = PA = PB
` since all sides are equal, OAPB is a rhombus
(b) The diagonals in any rhombus are perpendicular bisectors.
Since OAPB is a rhombus, with diagonals AB and OP, AB is the
perpendicular bisector of OP.

(a)

4.7 Exercises
1.

Find the value of all pronumerals,


giving reasons.
(a)

(e)

(f)
(b)

(g)
(c)

(d)

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

2.

Given AB = AE, prove CD is


perpendicular to AD.

(c)

(d)

3.

(a) Show that +C = xc and


+B = +D = (180 - x)c.
(b) Hence show that the sum of
angles of ABCD is 360c.

(e)

(f)
4.

5.

Find the value of a and b.

3x

x+

6.

In the gure, BD bisects


+ADC. Prove BD also bisects
+ABC.

7.

(a)

Prove that each gure is a


parallelogram.
(a)

(b)

(b)

Find the values of all


pronumerals, giving reasons.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

(c)

(d)

(e)
(d)

8.

Evaluate all pronumerals.


(a)

9.

The diagonals of a rhombus


are 8 cm and 10 cm long. Find
the length of the sides of the
rhombus.

10. ABCD is a rectangle with


+EBC = 59c . Find +ECB, +EDC
and +ADE.
(b)

(c)

11. The diagonals of a square are


8 cm long. Find the exact length
of the side of the square.
12. In the rhombus, +ECB = 33c.
Find the value of x and y.

ABCD is a kite

Polygons
A polygon is a closed plane gure with straight sides

A regular polygon has all sides and all interior angles equal

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

EXAMPLES

3-sided
(equilateral
triangle)

4-sided
(square)

5-sided
(pentagon)

6-sided
(hexagon)

8-sided
(octagon)

10-sided
(decagon)

DID YOU KNOW?


Carl Gauss (17771855) was a famous German mathematician, physicist and astronomer. When
he was 19 years old, he showed that a 17-sided polygon could be constructed using a ruler and
compasses. This was a major achievement in geometry.
Gauss made a huge contribution to the study of mathematics and science, including
correctly calculating where the magnetic south pole is and designing a lens to correct
astigmatism.
He was the director of the Gttingen Observatory for 40 years. It is said that he did not
become a professor of mathematics because he did not like teaching.

The sum of the interior angles of an n-sided polygon is given by


S = 180n - 360
or S = (n - 2) # 180c

Proof
Draw any n-sided polygon and divide it into n triangles as
shown. Then the total sum of angles is n # 180c or 180n.
But this sum includes all the angles at O. So the sum of
interior angles is 180n - 360c .
That is, S = 180n - 360
= ] n - 2 g #180c

The sum of the exterior angles of any polygon is 360c

Proof
Draw any n-sided polygon. Then the sum of both the
exterior and interior angles is n #180c.
Sum of exterior angles = n #180c - sum of interior angles
= 180n - ] 180n - 360c g
= 180n - 180n + 360c
= 360c

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
1. Find the sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon with 15 sides.
How large is each angle?

Solution
n = 15
S = (n - 2)#180c
= (15 - 2)#180c
= 13#180c
= 2340c
Each angle has size 2340c' 15 = 156c.
2. Find the number of sides in a regular polygon whose interior angles
are 140c.

Solution
Let n be the number of sides
Then the sum of interior angles is 140n
But
S = (n - 2)#180c
So 140n = (n - 2)#180c
= 180n - 360
360 = 40n
9=n
So the polygon has 9 sides.

There are n sides and so n


angles, each 140c.

4.8 Exercises
1.

2.

Find the sum of the interior


angles of
(a) a pentagon
(b) a hexagon
(c) an octagon
(d) a decagon
(e) a 12-sided polygon
(f) an 18-sided polygon
Find the size of each interior
angle of a regular
(a) pentagon
(b) octagon
(c) 12-sided polygon
(d) 20-sided polygon
(e) 15-sided polygon

3.

Find the size of each exterior


angle of a regular
(a) hexagon
(b) decagon
(c) octagon
(d) 15-sided polygon

4.

Calculate the size of each


interior angle in a regular 7-sided
polygon, to the nearest minute.

5.

The sum of the interior angles of


a regular polygon is 1980c.
(a) How many sides has the
polygon?
(b) Find the size of each interior
angle, to the nearest minute.

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

6.

Find the number of sides of a


regular polygon whose interior
angles are 157c 30l.

7.

Find the sum of the interior


angles of a regular polygon whose
exterior angles are 18c.

8.

9.

A regular polygon has interior


angles of 156c. Find the sum of its
interior angles.

13. A regular octagon has a


quadrilateral ACEG inscribed as
shown.
B

Find the size of each interior


angle in a regular polygon if
the sum of the interior angles is
5220c.

10. Show that there is no regular


polygon with interior angles of
145c.
11. Find the number of sides of a
regular polygon with exterior
angles
(a) 40c
(b) 30c
(c) 45c
(d) 36c
(e) 12c

Show that ACEG is a square.


14. In the regular pentagon below,
show that EAC is an isosceles
triangle.
A

12. ABCDEF is a regular hexagon.


A

B
D

(a) Show that triangles AFE and


BCD are congruent.
(b) Show that AE and BD are
parallel.

15. (a) Find the size of each exterior


angle in a regular polygon with
side p.
(b) Hence show that each interior
180 (p - 2)
.
angle is
p

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Areas
Most areas of plane gures come from the area of a rectangle.

Rectangle

A = lb

Square

A square is a
special rectangle.

A = x2

Triangle

The area of a triangle


is half the area of a
rectangle.

A=

1
bh
2

Proof

Draw rectangle ABCD, where b = length and h = breadth.

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

185

area = bh

1
1
area AEFD and area DCEF = area EBCF
2
2
1
area DCDE =
area ABCD
2
1
That is, A = bh
2

Area D DEF =
`

Parallelogram

A = bh

Proof
In parallelogram ABCD, produce DC to E and draw BE perpendicular to CE.
Then ABEF is a rectangle.

Area ABEF = bh
In D ADF and D BCE,
+AFD = +BEC = 90c
AF = BE = h
(opposite sides of a rectangle)
AD = BC
(opposite sides of a parallelogram)
` by RHS, D ADF / D BCE
`
area D ADF = area D BCE
So
area ABCD = area ABEF
= bh

Rhombus

1
xy
2
(x and y are lengths of diagonals)
A=

The area of a
parallelogram is the
same as the area of
two triangles.

186

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Proof

Let AC = x and BD = y
By properties of a rhombus,
1
1
AE = EC = x and DE = EB = y
2
2
Also +AEB = 90c
Area D ABC =
=
Area D ADC =
=
` total area of rhombus =
=

1
1
x: y
2
2
1
xy
4
1
1
x: y
2
2
1
xy
4
1
1
xy + xy
4
4
1
xy
2

Trapezium

A=

Proof

Let
DE = x
Then DF = x + a
`
FC = b - ] x + a g
=b-x-a

1
h ( a + b)
2

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

Area trapezium = area D ADE + area rectangle ABFE + area D BFC


1
1
= xh + ah + (b - x - a) h
2
2
1
= h ( x + 2 a + b - x - a)
2
1
= h (a + b )
2

Circle

A = rr 2

EXAMPLES
1. Find the area of this trapezium.

Solution
1
h ( a + b)
2
1
= ( 4) ( 7 + 5)
2
= 2 # 12

A=

= 24 m 2

4.2 cm

8.9 cm

3.7 cm

2. Find the area of the shaded region in this gure.

12.1 cm
CONTINUED

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Solution
Area large rectangle = lb
= 8.9 #12.1
= 107.69 cm 2
Area small rectangle = lb
= 3 . 7 # 4 .2
`

= 15.54 cm 2
shaded area = 107.69 - 15.54
= 92.15 cm 2

3. A park with straight sides of length 126 m and width 54 m has semicircular ends as shown. Find its area, correct to 2 decimal places.
126 m

54 m

188

Solution
Area of 2 semi-circles = area of 1 circle
54
r =
2
= 27
A = rr 2
= r (27) 2
= 2290.22 m2
Area rectangle = 126 # 54
= 6804
Total area = 2290.22 + 6804
= 9094.22 m2

4.9 Exercises
1.

Find the area of each gure.


(a)

(b)

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

(c)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)
(d)

(e)

(f)

cm

2 cm

(g)
4.

2.

Find the area of a rhombus with


diagonals 2.3 m and 4.2 m.

3.

Find each shaded area.


(a)

Find the area of each gure.


(a)

(b)

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

(c)

(d)

8.

The dimensions of a battleaxe


block of land are shown below.
(a) Find its area.
(b) A house in the district where
this land is can only take up 55%
of the land. How large (to the
nearest m 2) can the area of the
house be?
(c) If the house is to be a
rectangular shape with width
8.5 m, what will its length be?

9.

A rhombus has one diagonal


25 cm long and its area is
600 cm 2 . Find the length of
(a) its other diagonal and
(b) its side, to the nearest cm.

(e)

5.

Find the exact area of the gure.

6.

Find the area of this gure,


correct to 4 signicant gures.
The arch is a semicircle.

7.

Jenny buys tiles for the oor of


her bathroom (shown top next
column) at $45.50 per m 2 . How
much do they cost altogether?

10. The width w of a rectangle is


a quarter the size of its length.
If the width is increased by 3
units while the length remains
constant, nd the amount of
increase in its area in terms of w.

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

191

Test Yourself 4
1.

Find the values of all pronumerals


(a)

2.

Prove that AB and CD are parallel lines.

3.

Find the area of the gure, to 2 decimal


places.

4.

(a) Prove that triangles ABC and ADE are


similar.
(b) Evaluate x and y to 1 decimal place.

5.

Find the size of each interior angle in a


regular 20-sided polygon.

6.

Find the volume of a cylinder with radius


5.7 cm and height 10 cm, correct to
1 decimal place.

7.

Find the perimeter of the triangle below.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)
(O is the centre
of the circle.)

(f)

(g)

The perimeter
is the distance
around the outside
of the figure.

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8.

(a) Prove triangles ABC and ADC are


congruent in the kite below.

(b) Prove triangle AOB and COD are


congruent. (O is the centre of the circle.)

12. Triangle ABC is isosceles, and AD bisects


BC.

(a) Prove triangles ABD and ACD are


congruent.
(b) Prove AD and BC are perpendicular.
13. Triangle ABC is isosceles, with AB = AC.
Show that triangle ACD is isosceles.

9.

Find the area of the gure below.

14. Prove that opposite sides in any


parallelogram are equal.

10. Prove triangle ABC is right angled.

15. A rhombus has diagonals 6 cm and 8 cm.


(a) Find the area of the rhombus.
(b) Find the length of its side.
16. The interior angles in a regular polygon
are 140c . How many sides has the
polygon?
17. Prove AB and CD are parallel.

11. Prove

AF
AB
.
=
AG
AC

Chapter 4 Geometry 1

18. Find the area of the gure below.


6 cm
5 cm
8 cm

20. (a) Prove triangles ABC and DEF are


similar.
(b) Evaluate x to 1 decimal place.

2 cm

10 cm

19. Prove that z = x + y in the triangle


below.

Challenge Exercise 4
1.

Find the value of x.

4.

Given +BAD =+DBC, show that D ABD


and D BCD are similar and hence nd d.

2.

Evaluate x, y and z.

5.

Prove that ABCD is a parallelogram.


AB = DC.

3.

Find the sum of the interior angles of a


regular 11-sided polygon. How large is
each exterior angle?

6.

Find the shaded area.

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7.

Prove that the diagonals in a square


make angles of 45c with the sides.

8.

Prove that the diagonals in a kite are


perpendicular.

9.

Prove that MN is parallel to XY.

12. Find the values of x and y correct to


1 decimal place.

13. Find the values of x and y, correct to


2 decimal places.

10. Evaluate x.

11. The letter Z is painted on a billboard.

(a) Find the area of the letter.


(b) Find the exact perimeter of the letter.

14. ABCD is a square and BD is produced to


1
E such that DE = BD.
2
(a) Show that ABCE is a kite.
2x
(b) Prove that DE =
units when
2
sides of the square are x units long.

Functions and
Graphs

TERMINOLOGY
Arc of a curve: Part or a section of a curve between two
points

Even function: An even function has line symmetry


(reflection) about the y-axis, and f ] - x g = - f ] x g

Asymptote: A line towards which a curve approaches but


never touches

Function: For each value of the independent variable x,


there is exactly one value of y, the dependent variable.
A vertical line test can be used to determine if a
relationship is a function

Cartesian coordinates: Named after Descartes. A system of


locating points (x, y) on a number plane. Point (x, y) has
Cartesian coordinates x and y
Curve: Another word for arc. When a function consists
of all values of x on an interval, the graph of y = f ] x g is
called a curve y = f ] x g
Dependent variable: A variable is a symbol that can
represent any value in a set of values. A dependent
variable is a variable whose value depends on the value
chosen for the independent variable
Direct relationship: Occurs when one variable varies
directly with another i.e. as one variable increases, so
does the other or as one variable decreases so does
the other
Discrete: Separate values of a variable rather than a
continuum. The values are distinct and unrelated
Domain: The set of possible values of x in a given domain
for which a function is defined

Independent variable: A variable is independent if it may


be chosen freely within the domain of the function
Odd function: An odd function has rotational symmetry
about the origin (0, 0) and where f ] - x g = - f ] x g
Ordered pair: A pair of variables, one independent and
one dependent, that together make up a single point in
the number plane, usually written in the form (x, y)
Ordinates: The vertical or y coordinates of a point are
called ordinates
Range: The set of real numbers that the dependent
variable y can take over the domain (sometimes called
the image of the function)
Vertical line test: A vertical line will only cut the graph of
a function in at most one point. If the vertical line cuts
the graph in more than one point, it is not a function

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

INTRODUCTION
FUNCTIONS AND THEIR GRAPHS are used in many areas, such as mathematics,
science and economics. In this chapter you will study functions, function
notation and how to sketch graphs. Some of these graphs will be studied in
more detail in later chapters.

DID YOU KNOW?


The number plane is called the Cartesian plane after Rene
Descartes (15961650). He was known as one of the first
modern mathematicians along with Pierre de Fermat
(16011665). Descartes used the number plane to develop
analytical geometry. He discovered that any equation
with two unknown variables can be represented by a line.
The points in the number plane can be called Cartesian
coordinates.
Descartes used letters at the beginning of the
alphabet to stand for numbers that are known, and letters
near the end of the alphabet for unknown numbers. This is
why we still use x and y so often!
Do a search on Descartes to find out more details of
his life and work.
Descartes

Functions
Denition of a function
Many examples of functions exist both in mathematics and in real life. These
occur when we compare two different quantities. These quantities are called
variables since they vary or take on different values according to some pattern.
We put these two variables into a grouping called an ordered pair.

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EXAMPLES
1. Eye colour

Name

Anne

Colour Blue

Jacquie Donna Hien

Marco

Russell

Trang

Brown

Green

Brown

Brown

Grey

Brown

Ordered pairs are (Anne, Blue), (Jacquie, Brown), (Donna, Grey), (Hien,
Brown), (Marco, Green), (Russell, Brown) and (Trang, Brown).
2. y = x + 1
x

The ordered pairs are (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4) and (4, 5).
3.
A

C
3
D
4

The ordered pairs are (A, 1), (B, 1), (C, 4), (D, 3) and (E, 2).

Notice that in all the examples, there was only one ordered pair for each
variable. For example, it would not make sense for Anne to have both blue
and brown eyes! (Although in rare cases some people have one eye thats a
different colour from the other.)
A relation is a set of ordered points (x, y) where the variables x and y are
related according to some rule.
A function is a special type of relation. It is like a machine where for
every INPUT there is only one OUTPUT.
INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

The rst variable (INPUT) is called the independent variable and the
second (OUTPUT) the dependent variable. The process is a rule or pattern.

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

For example, in y = x + 1, we can use any number for x (the independent


variable), say x = 3.
When x = 3
y=3+1
=4
As this value of y depends on the number we choose for x, y is called the
dependent variable.

A function is a relationship between two variables where for


every independent variable, there is only one dependent variable.
This means that for every x value, there is only one y value.

Investigation
When we graph functions in mathematics, the independent variable
(usually the x-value) is on the horizontal axis while the dependent
variable (usually the y-value) is on the vertical axis.
In other areas, the dependent variable goes on the horizontal axis. Find
out in which subjects this happens at school by surveying teachers or
students in different subjects. Research different types of graphs on the
Internet to nd some examples.

Here is an example of a relationship that is NOT a function. Can you see the
difference between this example and the previous ones?
A
B

1
2

C
3
D
E

In this example the ordered pairs are (A, 1), (A, 2), (B, 1), (C, 4), (D, 3)
and (E, 2).
Notice that A has two dependent variables, 1 and 2. This means that it is
NOT a function.

While we often call the


independent variable
x and the dependent
variable y, there are other
pronumerals we could
use. You will meet some
of these in this course.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Here are two examples of graphs on a number plane.


1.

2.

There is a very simple test to see if these graphs are functions. Notice that
in the rst example, there are two values of y when x = 0. The y-axis passes
through both these points.
y

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

There are also other x values that give two y values around the curve. If
we drew a vertical line anywhere along the curve, it would cross the curve in
two places everywhere except one point. Can you see where this is?
In the second graph, a vertical line would only ever cross the curve in one
place.
So when a vertical line cuts a graph in more than one place, it shows that
it is not a function.

If a vertical line cuts a graph only once anywhere along the graph, the
graph is a function.
y

If a vertical line cuts a graph in more than one place anywhere along the
graph, the graph is not a function.
y

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EXAMPLES
1. Is this graph a function?

Solution

You will learn how to sketch these


graphs later in this chapter.

A vertical line only cuts the graph once. So the graph is a function.
2. Is this circle a function?

Solution

A vertical line can cut the curve in more than one place. So the circle is
not a function.

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

3. Does this set of ordered pairs represent a function?


^ - 2 , 3 h , ^ - 1, 4 h , ^ 0 , 5 h , ^ 1 , 3 h , ^ 2 , 4 h

Solution
For each x value there is only one y value, so this set of ordered pairs is a
function.
4. Is this a function?
y

Solution
y

Although it looks like this is not a function, the open circle at x = 3 on


the top line means that x = 3 is not included, while the closed circle on
the bottom line means that x = 3 is included on this line.
So a vertical line only touches the graph once at x = 3. The graph is
a function.

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5.1 Exercises
Which of these curves are functions?
1.

6.

2.

7.

3.

8.

4.

9.

^ 1, 3 h, ^ 2, -1 h, ^ 3, 3 h, ^ 4, 0 h

10. ^ 1, 3 h, ^ 2, -1 h, ^ 2, 7 h, ^ 4, 0 h
11.

5.
12.

13.

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

14. Name Ben


Paul
Pierre Hamish Jacob
Lee
Pierre
Lien
Sport Tennis Football Tennis Football Football Badminton Football Badminton
15. A

Function notation
If y depends on what value we give x in a function, then we can say that y is a
function of x. We can write this as y = f ] x g.

EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of y when x = 3 in the equation y = x + 1.

Solution
When x = 3:
y = x +1
= 3+1
=4
2. If f ] x g = x + 1, evaluate f (3).

Solution
f ]x g = x + 1
f ]3 g = 3 + 1
=4

Notice that these two examples are asking for the same value and f (3) is
the value of the function when x = 3.

If y = f ] x g then f (a) is the value of y at the point on the function where x = a

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EXAMPLES
1. If f ] x g = x 2 + 3x + 1, nd f ] - 2 g .

Solution
This is the same as finding y
when x = - 2.

f ( - 2) = ] - 2 g 2 + 3 (- 2) + 1
=4-6+1
= -1
2. If f ] x g = x 3 - x 2, nd the value of f ] - 1 g .

Solution
f (x) = x 3 - x 2
f (- 1) = ] - 1 g 3 - ] - 1 g 2
= -1 - 1
= -2
3. Find the values of x for which f ] x g = 0, given that f ] x g = x 2 + 3x - 10.

Solution
f (x) = 0
Putting f (x) = 0 is different
from finding f (0) . Follow
this example carefully.

i.e.

x + 3x - 10 = 0
( x + 5 ) ( x - 2) = 0
x + 5 = 0,
x-2=0
x = -5
x=2
2

4. Find f ] 3 g, f ] 2 g, f ] 0 g and f ] - 4 g if f ] x g is dened as


3x + 4 when x $ 2
f ]x g = )
- 2x
when x 1 2.
Use f (x) = 3x + 4 when
x is 2 or more, and use
f (x) = - 2x when x is less
than 2.

Solution
f (3 ) = 3 ( 3) + 4
= 13
f (2 ) = 3 ( 2) + 4
= 10
f (0) = - 2 (0)
=0
f (- 4) = - 2 ( - 4)
=8
5. Find the value of
x2
g ] x g = * 2x - 1
5

since

3$2

since

2$2

since

012

since -4 1 2

g ] 1 g + g ] - 2 g - g ] 3 g if
when x 2 2
when - 1 # x # 2
when x 1 - 1

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

211

Solution
g (1 ) = 2 ( 1) - 1
=1
g (- 2) = 5

since -1 # 1 # 2
since - 2 1 - 1

g (3) = 3
since 3 2 2
=9
So g (1) + g (- 2) - g (3) = 1 + 5 - 9
= -3
2

DID YOU KNOW?


Leonhard Euler (170783), from Switzerland, studied functions and invented the term
f (x) for function notation. He studied theology, astronomy, medicine, physics and oriental
languages as well as mathematics, and wrote more than 500 books and articles on
mathematics. He found time between books to marry and have 13 children, and even when
he went blind he kept on having books published.

5.2 Exercises
1.

Given f ] x g = x + 3, nd f ] 1 g and
f ]-3 g.

10. If f ] x g = 2x - 9, nd f ^ p h and
f ]x + h g.

2.

If h ] x g = x 2 - 2, nd h ] 0 g, h ] 2 g
and h ] - 4 g .

11. Find g ] x - 1 g when


g ] x g = x 2 + 2x + 3.

3.

If f ] x g = - x 2, nd f ] 5 g, f ] - 1 g, f ] 3 g
and f ] - 2 g .

12. If f ] x g = x 3 - 1, nd f ] k g as a
product of factors.

4.

Find the value of f ] 0 g + f ] - 2 g if


f ] x g = x 4 - x 2 + 1.

5.

Find f ] - 3 g if f ] x g = 2x 3 - 5x + 4.

13. Given f ] t g = t 2 + 2t + 1, nd
t when f ] t g = 0. Also nd any
values of t for which f ] t g = 9.

6.

If f ] x g = 2x - 5, nd x when
f ] x g = 13.

7.

Given f ] x g = x + 3, nd any
values of x for which f ] x g = 28.

15. f ] x g = )

8.

If f ] x g = 3 x, nd x when
1
f ]x g =
.
27

9.

Find values of z for which


f ] z g = 5 given f ] z g = 2z + 3 .

Z 2x - 4 if x $ 1
]
16. f ] x g = [x + 3
if -1 1 x 1 1
] 2
x
if x # -1
\
Find the values of

14. Given f ] t g = t 4 + t 2 - 5, nd the


value of f ] b g - f ] - b g .
x3
for x 2 1
x
for x # 1
Find f ] 5 g, f ] 1 g and ] - 1 g .

f ] 2 g - f ] - 2 g + f ] -1 g .

We can use pronumerals


other than f for functions.

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17. Find g ] 3 g + g ] 0 g + g ] - 2 g if
x+1
when x $ 0
g ]x g = )
- 2x + 1 when x 1 0
18. Find the value of
f ] 3 g - f ] 2 g + 2f ] - 3 g when
x

for x 2 2

f ]x g = * x
4

for -2 # x # 2
for x 1 -2

19. Find the value of f ] - 1 g - f ] 3 g


if f (x) = *
20. If f ] x g =

x3 - 1
2x 2 + 3x - 1

for x $ 2
for x 1 2

x 2 - 2x - 3
x-3

(a) evaluate f (2)


(b) explain why the function
does not exist for x = 3
(c) by taking several x values
close to 3, nd the value of y that
the function is moving towards
as x moves towards 3.

21. If f ] x g = x 2 5x + 4, nd
f ] x + h g - f ] x g in its simplest
form.
f ]x + h g - f ]x g
22. Simplify
where
h
f ] x g = 2x 2 + x
23. If f ] x g = 5x - 4, nd f ] x g - f ] c g
in its simplest form.
24. Find the value of f ^ k 2 h if
3x + 5
for x $ 0
f ]x g = * 2
x
for x 1 0
Z 3
25. If
when x $ 3
]x
f ] x g = [5
when 0 1 x 1 3
] 2
x - x + 2 when x # 0
\
evaluate
(a) f (0)
(b) f ] 2 g - f ] 1 g
(c) f ^ - n 2 h

Graphing Techniques
You may have previously learned how to draw graphs by completing a table
of values and then plotting points. In this course, you will learn some other
techniques that will allow you to sketch graphs by showing their important
features.

Intercepts
One of the most useful techniques is to nd the x- and y-intercepts.

Everywhere on the x-axis,


y = 0 and everywhere on
the y-axis x = 0 .

For x-intercept, y = 0
For y-intercept, x = 0

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

213

EXAMPLE
Find the x- and y-intercepts of the function f ] x g = x 2 + 7x - 8.

Solution

This is the same as


y = x 2 + 7x - 8.

For x-intercept: y = 0
0 = x 2 + 7x - 8
= ]x + 8 g]x - 1 g
x + 8 = 0,
x-1=0
x = - 8,
x=1
For y-intercept: x = 0

You will use the intercepts


to draw graphs in the next
section in this chapter.

y = ] 0 g2 + 7 ] 0 g - 8
= -8

Domain and range


You have already seen that the x-coordinate is called the independent variable
and the y-coordinate is the dependent variable.
The set of all real numbers x for which a function is dened is called the
domain.
The set of real values for y or f (x) as x varies is called the range (or
image) of f.

EXAMPLE
Find the domain and range of f ] x g = x 2 .

Solution
You can see the domain and range from the graph, which is the parabola y = x 2 .
y

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Notice that the parabola curves outwards gradually, and will take on any
real value for x. However, it is always on or above the x-axis.
Domain: {all real x}
Range: {y: y $ 0}
You can also nd the domain and range from the equation y = x 2. Notice
that you can substitute any value for x and you will nd a value of y.
However, all the y-values are positive or zero since squaring any number
will give a positive answer (except zero).

Odd and even functions


When you draw a graph, it can help to know some of its properties, for
example, whether it is increasing or decreasing on an interval or arc of the
curve (part of the curve lying between two points).
If a curve is increasing, as x increases, so does y, and the curve is moving
upwards, looking from left to right.

If a curve is decreasing, then as x increases, y decreases and the curve


moves downwards from left to right.

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

215

EXAMPLES
1. State the domain over which each curve is increasing and decreasing.
y

x2

x1

x3

The curve isnt increasing or


decreasing at x2. We say that it is
stationary at that point. You will
study stationary points and further
curve sketching in the HSC Course.

Solution
The left-hand side of the parabola is decreasing and the right side is
increasing.
So the curve is increasing for x 2 x2 and the curve is decreasing when
x 1 x2.
2.
y

x1

x2

x3

Solution
The left-hand side of the curve is increasing until it reaches the y-axis
(where x = 0). It then turns around and decreases until x3 and then
increases again.
So the curve is increasing for x 1 0, x 2 x 3 and the curve is
decreasing for 0 1 x 1 x 3 .

Notice that the curve is


stationary at x = 0 and x = x 3 .

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As well as looking at where the curve is increasing and decreasing, we can


see if the curve is symmetrical in some way. You have already seen that the
parabola is symmetrical in earlier stages of mathematics and you have learned
how to nd the axis of symmetry. Other types of graphs can also be symmetrical.
Functions are even if they are symmetrical about the y-axis. They have
line symmetry (reection) about the y-axis.
This is an even function:
y

For even functions, f ] x g = f ] - x g for all values of x.


Functions are odd if they have point symmetry about the origin. A graph
rotated 180 about the origin gives the original graph.
This is an odd function:
y

For odd functions, f ] - x g = - f ] x g for all values of x in the domain.

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

217

EXAMPLES
1. Show that f ] x g = x 2 + 3 is an even function.

Solution
f ] - x g = ] - x g2 + 3
= x2 + 3
= f ]x g
` f ] x g = x 2 + 3 is an even function
2. Show that f ] x g = x 3 - x is an odd function.

Solution
f ] - x g = ] - x g3 - ] - x g
= -x3 + x
= - ^ x3 - x h
= -f ]x g
` f ] x g = x 3 - x is an odd function

Investigation
Explore the family of graphs of f ] x g = x n.
For what values of n is the function even?
For what values of n is the function odd?
Which families of functions are still even or odd given k? Let k take on
different values, both positive and negative.
1. f ] x g = kx n
2. f ] x g = x n + k
3. f ] x g = ] x + k gn

5.3 Exercises
1.

Find the x- and y-intercept of


each function.
(a) y = 3x - 2
(b) 2x - 5y + 20 = 0
(c) x + 3y - 12 = 0

(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

f ] x g = x 2 + 3x
f ] x g = x2 - 4
p ] x g = x 2 + 5x + 6
y = x 2 - 8x + 15
p ] x g = x3 + 5

k is called a parameter.
Some graphics calculators
and computer programs use
parameters to show how
changing values of k change the
shape of graphs.

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x+3
]x ! 0 g
x
2
(j) g ] x g = 9 - x
(i) y =

2.

Show that f ] x g = f ] - x g where


f ] x g = x 2 - 2. What type of
function is it?

3.

If f ] x g = x 3 + 1, nd
(a) f ^ x 2 h
(b) 6 f (x) @ 2
(c) f ] - x g
(d) Is it an even or odd function?

4.

Show that g ] x g = x 8 + 3x 4 - 2x 2 is
an even function.

5.

Show that f (x) is odd, where


f ] x g = x.

6.

Show that f ] x g = x 2 - 1 is an even


function.

7.

Show that f ] x g = 4x - x 3 is an
odd function.

8.

Prove that f ] x g = x 4 + x 2 is an
even function and hence nd
f ]x g - f ]-x g.

9.

Are these functions even, odd or


neither?
x3
(a) y = 4
x - x2
1
(b) y = 3
x -1
3
(c) f ] x g = 2
x -4
x-3
(d) y =
x+3
x3
(e) f ] x g = 5
x - x2

10. If n is a positive integer, for


what values of n is the function
f ] x g = xn
(a) even?
(b) odd?
11. Can the function f ] x g = x n + x
ever be
(a) even?
(b) odd?

12. For the functions below, state


(i) the domain over which the
graph is increasing
(ii) the domain over which
the graph is decreasing
(iii) whether the graph is odd,
even or neither.
y
(a)

(b)

(c)

-2

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

(d)

(e)

4
2

-2

-1

-2
-4

Investigation
Use a graphics calculator or a computer with graphing software to sketch
graphs and explore what effect different constants have on each type of
graph.
If your calculator or computer does not have the ability to use parameters
(this may be called dynamic graphing), simply draw different graphs by
choosing several values for k. Make sure you include positive and negative
numbers and fractions for k.
Alternatively, you may sketch these by hand.
1. Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k.
(a) y = kx
(b) y = kx 2
(c) y = kx 3
(d) y = kx 4
k
(e) y = x
What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs? Could you give a
general comment about y = k f ] x g?
2. Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k.
(a) y = ] x + k g 2
(b) y = x 2 + k
(c) y = x 3 + k
(d) y = x 4 + k
1
(e) y = x + k
What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs? Could you give a
general comment about y = f ] x g + k?
CONTINUED

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3. Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k.


(a) y = x + k
(b) y = ] x + k g2
(c) y = ] x + k g3
(d) y = ] x + k g4
1
(e) y =
x+k
What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs? Could you give a
general comment about y = f ] x + k g?

When k 2 0 , the graph


moves to the left and when
k 1 0 , the graph moves to
the right.

For the family of functions y = k f ] x g, as k varies, the function changes


its slope or steepness.
For the family of functions y = f ] x g + k, as k varies, the graph moves up
or down (vertical translation).
For the family of functions y = f ] x + k g, as k varies, the graph moves left
or right (horizontal translation).
Notice that the shape of most graphs is generally the same regardless of the
parameter k. For example, the parabola still has the same shape even though it
may be narrower or wider or upside down.
This means that if you know the shape of a graph by looking at its
equation, you can sketch it easily by using some of the graphing techniques in
this chapter rather than a time-consuming table of values. It also helps you to
understand graphs more and makes it easier to nd the domain and range.
You have already sketched some of these graphs in previous years.

Linear Function
A linear function is a function whose graph is a straight line.

Gradient form:
y = mx + b has gradient m and y-intercept b
General form:
ax + by + c = 0

Investigation
Are straight line graphs always functions? Can you nd an example of a
straight line that is not a function?
Are there any odd or even straight lines? What are their equations?

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

221

Use a graphics calculator or a computer with dynamic graphing capability


to explore the effect of a parameter on a linear function, or choose
different values of k (both positive and negative).
Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k
1. y = kx
2. y = x + k
3. y = mx + b where m and b are both parameters
What effect do the parameters m and b have on these graphs?

EXAMPLE
Sketch the function f ] x g = 3x - 5 and state its domain and range.

Solution
This is a linear function. It could be written as y = 3x - 5.
Find the intercepts
y
For x-intercept: y = 0
6
0 = 3x - 5
5
5 = 3x
4

2
=x
3
For y-intercept: x = 0
1

y = 3 ]0 g - 5
= -5

3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1

-1

1 23
1

-2
-3
-4
-5

Notice that the line extends over the whole of the number plane, so that
it covers all real numbers for both the domain and range.
Domain: {all real x}
Range: {all real y}

The linear function ax + by + c = 0 has domain {all real x}


and range {all real y} where a and b are non-zero

Special lines
Horizontal and vertical lines have special equations.

Notice too, that you can


substitute any real number
into the equation of the
function for x, and any real
number is possible for y.

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EXAMPLES
1. Sketch y = 2 on a number plane. What is its domain and range?

Solution
x can be any value and y is always 2.
Some of the points on the line will be (0, 2), (1, 2) and (2, 2).
This gives a horizontal line with y-intercept 2.
y

5
4
3
2
1
-4

-3

-2

-1 -1

-2
-3
-4
-5

Domain: " all real x ,


Range: " y: y = 2 ,
2. Sketch x = - 1 on a number plane and state its domain and range.

Solution
y can be any value and x is always - 1.
Some of the points on the line will be ^ - 1, 0 h, ^ - 1, 1 h and ^ - 1, 2 h .
This gives a vertical line with x-intercept - 1.
y
5
4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

Domain: " x: x = - 1 ,
Range: " all real y ,

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

x = a is a vertical line with x-intercept a


Domain: ! x: x = a +
Range: {all real y}
y = b is a horizontal line with y-intercept b
Domain: {all real x}
Range: " y: y = b ,

5.4 Exercises
1.

Find the x- and y-intercepts of


each function.
(a) y = x - 2
(b) f ] x g = 2x + 3
(c) 2x + y - 1 = 0
(d) x - y + 3 = 0
(e) 3x - 6y - 2 = 0

2.

Draw the graph of each straight


line.
(a) x = 4
(b) x - 3 = 0
(c) y = 5
(d) y + 1 = 0
(e) f ] x g = 2x - 1
(f) y = x + 4
(g) f ] x g = 3x + 2
(h) x + y = 3
(i) x - y - 1 = 0
(j) 2x + y - 3 = 0

3.

Find the domain and range of


(a) 3x - 2y + 7 = 0
(b) y = 2
(c) x = - 4
(d) x - 2 = 0
(e) 3 - y = 0

4.

Which of these linear functions


are even or odd?
(a) y = 2x
(b) y = 3
(c) x = 4
(d) y = - x
(e) y = x

5.

By sketching x - y - 4 = 0 and
2x + 3y - 3 = 0 on the same set
of axes, nd the point where they
meet.

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Quadratic Function
The quadratic function gives the graph of a parabola.

f ] x g = ax 2 + bx + c is the general equation of a parabola.


If a 2 0 the parabola is concave upwards

If a 1 0 the parabola is concave downwards

The pronumeral
a is called the
coefficient of x 2.

Applications
The parabola shape is used in many different applications as it has special
properties that are very useful. For example if a light is placed inside the parabola
at a special place (called the focus), then all light rays coming from this light and
bouncing off the parabola shape will radiate out parallel to each other, giving a
strong light. This is how car headlights work. Satellite dishes also use this property
of the parabola, as sound coming in to the dish will bounce back to the focus.

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

The lens in a camera and glasses are also parabola shaped. Some bridges look
like they are shaped like a parabola, but they are often based on the catenary.
Research the parabola and catenary on the Internet for further information.

Investigation
Is the parabola always a function? Can you nd an example of a parabola
that is not a function?
Use a graphics calculator or a computer with dynamic graphing capability
to explore the effect of a parameter on a quadratic function, or choose
different values of k (both positive and negative).
Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k.
1. y = kx 2
2. y = x 2 + k
3. y = ] x + k g2
4. y = x 2 + kx
What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs?
Which of these families are even functions? Are there any odd quadratic
functions?

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EXAMPLES
1. (a) Sketch the graph of y = x 2 - 1, showing intercepts.
(b) State the domain and range.

Solution
(a) This is the graph of a parabola. Since a 2 0, it is concave upward
For x-intercept: y = 0
0=x -1
1 = x2
!1 = x
For y-intercept: x = 0
2

y = 02 - 1
= -1

y
5
4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5
-6

(b) From the graph, the curve is moving outwards and will extend
to all real x values. The minimum y value is - 1.
Domain: " all real x ,
Range: " y: y $ -1 ,
2. Sketch f ] x g = ] x + 1 g 2.

Solution
This is a quadratic function. We nd the intercepts to see where the
parabola will lie.
Alternatively, you may know from your work on parameters that
f ] x g = ] x + a g 2 will move the function f ] x g = x 2 horizontally a units to the
left.
So f ] x g = ] x + 1 g 2 moves the parabola f ] x g = x 2 1 unit to the left.
For x-intercept: y = 0
0 = ]x + 1 g2
x+1=0
x = -1
For y-intercept: x = 0
y = ]0 + 1 g2
=1

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

227

y
5
4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

3. For the quadratic function f ] x g = x 2 + x - 6


(a) Find the x- and y-intercepts
(b) Find the minimum value of the function
(c) State the domain and range
(d) For what values of x is the curve decreasing?

Solution
(a) For x-intercept: y = 0
This means f ] x g = 0
0 = x2 + x - 6
= ]x + 3 g]x - 2 g
x + 3 = 0, x - 2 = 0
x = - 3, x = 2
For y-intercept: x = 0
f ] 0 g = ] 0 g2 + ] 0 g - 6
= -6
(b) Since a 2 0, the quadratic function has a minimum value.
Since the parabola is symmetrical, this will lie halfway between the
x-intercepts.
Halfway between x = - 3 and x = 2:
-3 + 2
1
=2
2
1
Minimum value is f c - m
2
1
1 2
1
f c- m = c- m + c- m - 6
2
2
2
1 1
= - -6
4 2
1
= -6
4
1
So the minimum value is - 6 .
4
CONTINUED

You will learn more


about this in Chapter 9.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

(c) Sketching the quadratic function gives a concave upward parabola.


y
5
4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-1 , -6 14
2

From the graph, notice that the parabola is gradually going outwards and
will include all real x values.
Since the minimum value is - 6 1 , all y values are greater than this.
4
Domain: " all real x ,
1
Range: ' y: y $ -6 1
4
(d) The curve decreases down to the minimum point and then
1
increases. So the curve is decreasing for all x 1 - .
2
4. (a) Find the x- and y-intercepts and the maximum value of the
quadratic function f ] x g = - x 2 + 4x + 5.
(b) Sketch the function and state the domain and range.
(c) For what values of x is the curve increasing?

Solution
(a) For x-intercept: y = 0
So
f ]x g = 0
0 = - x 2 + 4x + 5
x 2 - 4x - 5 = 0
]x - 5 g]x + 1 g = 0
x - 5 = 0, x + 1 = 0
x = 5,
x = -1
For y-intercept: x = 0
f ] 0 g = - ] 0 g2 + 4 ] 0 g + 5
=5

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

Since a 1 0, the quadratic function is concave downwards and has a


maximum value halfway between the x-intercepts x = - 1 and x = 5.
-1 + 5
=2
2
f ]2 g = -]2 g 2+ 4 ]2 g + 5
=9
So the maximum value is 9.
(b) Sketching the quadratic function gives a concave downward parabola.
y

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
-4

-3

-2

-1 -1
-2
-3
-4
-5

From the graph, the function can take on all real numbers for x, but the
maximum value for y is 9.
Domain: " all real x ,
Range: " y: y # 9 ,
(c) From the graph, the function is increasing on the left of the
maximum point and decreasing on the right.
So the function is increasing when x 1 2.

5.5 Exercises
1.

Find the x- and y-intercepts of


each function.
(a) y = x 2 + 2x
(b) y = - x 2 + 3x
(c) f ] x g = x 2 - 1
(d) y = x 2 - x - 2
(e) y = x 2 - 9x + 8

2.

Sketch
(a) y = x 2 + 2
(b) y = - x 2 + 1
(c) f ] x g = x 2 - 4
2
(d) y = x + 2x
(e) y = - x 2 - x
(f) f ] x g = ] x - 3 g 2

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(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
3.

f ] x g = ] x + 1 g2
y = x 2 + 3x - 4
y = 2x 2 - 5 x + 3
f ] x g = - x 2 + 3x - 2

For each parabola, nd


(i) the x- and y-intercepts
(ii) the domain and range
(a) y = x 2 7x + 12
(b) f ] x g = x 2 + 4x
(c) y = x 2 - 2x - 8
(d) y = x 2 - 6x + 9
(e) f ] t g = 4 - t 2

4.

Find the domain and range of


(a) y = x 2 - 5
(b) f ] x g = x 2 - 6x
(c) f ] x g = x 2 - x - 2
(d) y = - x 2
(e) f ] x g = ] x - 7 g 2

5.

Find the range of each function


over the given domain.
(a) y = x 2 for 0 # x # 3
(b) y = - x 2 + 4 for -1 # x # 2
(c) f ] x g = x 2 - 1 for -2 # x # 5
(d) y = x 2 + 2x - 3 for -2 # x # 4
(e) y = - x 2 - x + 2 for 0 # x # 4

6.

Find the domain over which each


function is
(i) increasing
(ii) decreasing
(a) y = x 2
(b) y = - x 2
(c) f ] x g = x 2 - 9
(d) y = - x 2 + 4x
(e) f ] x g = ] x + 5 g2

7.

Show that f ] x g = - x 2 is an even


function.

8.

State whether these functions are


even or odd or neither.
(a) y = x 2 + 1
(b) f ] x g = x 2 - 3
(c) y = -2x 2
(d) f ] x g = x 2 - 3x
(e) f ] x g = x 2 + x
(f) y = x 2 - 4
(g) y = x 2 - 2x - 3
(h) y = x 2 - 5x + 4
(i) p ] x g = ] x + 1 g 2
(j) y = ] x - 2 g 2

Absolute Value Function


You may not have seen the graphs of absolute functions before. If you are not
sure about what they look like, you can use a table of values or look at the
denition of absolute value.

EXAMPLES
1. Sketch f ] x g = x - 1 and state its domain and range.

Solution
Method 1: Table of values
When sketching any new graph for the rst time, you can use a table of
values. A good selection of values is -3 # x # 3 but if these dont give
enough information, you can nd other values.

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

e.g. When x = -3:


y = | -3 | -1
=3-1
=2
x

-3

-2

-1

-1

This gives a v-shaped graph.


y
5
4
3
2
1
-4

-3

-2

-1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

Method 2: Use the denition of absolute value


when x $ 0
x-1
y = | x | - 1 = &x - 1 when x 1 0
This gives 2 straight line graphs:
y = x - 1 ]x $ 0 g
y

5
y=x-1

4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

CONTINUED

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y = -x - 1 ] x 1 0 g
y
y=-x-1

5
4
3
2
1

-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

Draw these on the same number plane and then disregard the dotted
lines to get the graph shown in method 1.
y
y = -x - 1

y=x-1

4
3
2
1
-4 -3

-2 -1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

Method 3: If you know the shape of the absolute value functions, nd the
intercepts.
For x-intercept: y = 0
So f ] x g = 0
0 = | x |- 1
1 =| x |
` x = !1
For y-intercept: x = 0
f (0) = | 0 | - 1
= -1

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

The graph is V-shaped, passing through these intercepts.


y
5
4
3
2
1
-4 -3

-2 -1
-1

x
If you already know how
to sketch the graph of
y = | x | , translate the
graph of y = | x | - 1
down 1 unit, giving it a
y-intercept of -1.

-2
-3
-4
-5

From the graph, notice that x values can be any real number while the
minimum value of y is - 1.
Domain: {all real x}
Range: {y: y $ -1}
2. Sketch y = | x + 2 | .

Solution
Method 1: Use the denition of absolute value.
+2
when x + 2 $ 0
y = | x + 2 | = 'x
- (x + 2) when x + 2 1 0
This gives 2 straight lines:
y = x + 2 when x + 2 $ 0
x $ -2
y
5

y=x+2

4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

CONTINUED

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y = - ] x + 2 g when x + 2 1 0
i.e. y = - x - 2 when
x 1 -2
y
5
4

y = -x - 2

3
2
1

-4

-3

-2

-1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

Draw these on the same number plane and then disregard the dotted lines.
y
5
y = -x - 2

y=x+2

4
3
2
1

-4 -3

-2 -1
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

Method 2: Find intercepts


For x-intercept: y = 0
So f ] x g = 0
There is only one
solution for the
equation | x + 2 | = 0.
Can you see why?

0 =| x + 2 |
0=x+2
-2 = x
For y-intercept: x = 0
f (0) = | 0 + 2 |
=2

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

The graph is V-shaped, passing through these intercepts.


y
5
4
3
2
1
-4

-3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

Investigation
Are graphs that involve absolute value always functions? Can you nd an
example of one that is not a function?
Can you nd any odd or even functions involving absolute values? What
are their equations?
Use a graphics calculator or a computer with dynamic graphing capability
to explore the effect of a parameter on an absolute value function, or
choose different values of k (both positive and negative).
Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k
1. f ] x g = k | x |
2. f ] x g = | x | + k
3. f ] x g = | x + k |
What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs?

The equations and inequations involving absolute values that you studied in
Chapter 3 can be solved graphically.

If you know how to


sketch the graph of
y = | x | , translate it 2
places to the left for the
graph of y = | x + 2 | .

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EXAMPLES
Solve
1. | 2x - 1 | = 3

Solution
Sketch y = | 2x - 1 | and y = 3 on the same number plane.

The solution of | 2x - 1 | = 3 occurs at the intersection of the graphs, that


is, x = -1, 2.
2. | 2x + 1 | = 3x - 2

Solution
Sketch y = | 2x + 1 | and y = 3x - 2 on the same number plane.

The graph shows that


there is only one solution.
Algebraically, you need to
find the 2 possible solutions
and then check them.

The solution is x = 3.
3. | x + 1 | 1 2

Solution
Sketch y = | x + 1 | and y = 2 on the same number plane.

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

The solution of | x + 1 | 1 2 is where the graph y = | x + 1 | is below the


graph y = 2, that is, - 3 1 x 1 1.

5.6 Exercises
1.

2.

3.

Find the x- and y-intercepts of


each function.
(a) y = | x |
(b) f ] x g = | x | + 7
(c) f ] x g = | x | - 2
(d) y = 5 | x |
(e) f ] x g = - | x | + 3
(f) y = | x + 6 |
(g) f ] x g = | 3x - 2 |
(h) y = | 5x + 4 |
(i) y = | 7x - 1 |
(j) f ] x g = | 2x | + 9
Sketch each graph on a number
plane.
(a) y = | x |
(b) f ] x g = | x | + 1
(c) f ] x g = | x | - 3
(d) y = 2 | x |
(e) f ] x g = -| x |
(f) y = | x + 1 |
(g) f ] x g = -| x - 1 |
(h) y = | 2x - 3 |
(i) y = | 4x + 2 |
(j) f ] x g = | 3x | + 1
Find the domain and range of
each function.
(a) y = | x - 1 |
(b) f ] x g = | x | - 8

(c)
(d)
(e)

f ] x g = | 2x + 5 |
y = 2 | x |- 3
f ] x g = -| x - 3 |

4.

Find the domain over which each


function is
(i) increasing
(ii) decreasing
(a) y = | x - 2 |
(b) f ] x g = | x | + 2
(c) f ] x g = | 2x - 3 |
(d) y = 4 | x | - 1
(e) f ] x g = - | x |

5.

For each domain, nd the range


of each function.
(a) y = | x | for - 2 # x # 2
(b) f ] x g = - | x | - 4 for
-4 # x # 3
(c) f ] x g = | x + 4 | for -7 # x # 2
(d) y = | 2x - 5 | for -3 # x # 3
(e) f ] x g = -| x | for - 1 # x # 1

6.

For what values of x is each


function increasing?
(a) y = | x + 3 |
(b) f ] x g = - | x | + 4
(c) f ] x g = | x - 9 |
(d) y = | x - 2 | - 1
(e) f ] x g = - | x + 2 |

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7.

(k) | 2x + 3 | # 5
(l) | 2x - 1 | $ 1
(m) | 3x - 1 | = x + 3
(n) | 3x - 2 | = x - 4
(o) | x - 1 | = x + 1
(p) | x + 3 | = 2x + 2
(q) | 2x + 1 | = 1 - x
(r) | 2x - 5 | = x - 3
(s) | x - 1 | = 2x
(t) | 2x - 3 | = x + 3

Solve graphically
(a) | x | = 3
(b) | x | 2 1
(c) | x | # 2
(d) | x + 2 | = 1
(e) | x - 3 | = 0
(f) | 2x - 3 | = 1
(g) | x - 1 | 1 4
(h) | x + 1 | # 3
(i) | x - 2 | 2 2
(j) | x - 3 | $ 1

The Hyperbola
a
A hyperbola is a function with its equation in the form xy = a or y = x .

EXAMPLE
1
Sketch y = x .

Solution
1
y = x is a discontinuous curve since the function is undened at x = 0.
Drawing up a table of values gives:
x

-3

1
3

1
2

-2

-1

1
2

-1

-2

1
4

1
4

1
2

-4

1
2

1
3

Class Discussion
What happens to the graph as x becomes closer to 0? What happens as x
becomes very large in both positive and negative directions? The value of
y is never 0. Why?

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

To sketch the graph of a more general hyperbola, we can use the domain and
range to help nd the asymptotes (lines towards which the curve approaches
but never touches).
The hyperbola is an example of a discontinuous graph, since it has a gap
in it and is in two separate parts.

Investigation
Is the hyperbola always a function? Can you nd an example of a
hyperbola that is not a function?
Are there any families of odd or even hyperbolas? What are their
equations?
Use a graphics calculator or a computer with dynamic graphing capability
to explore the effect of a parameter on a hyperbola, or choose different
values of k (both positive and negative).
Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k
k
1. y = x
1
2. y = x + k
3. y =

1
x+k

What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs?

EXAMPLES
3
.
x-3
(b) Hence sketch the graph of the function.

1. (a) Find the domain and range of f ] x g =

Solution
This is the equation of a hyperbola.
To nd the domain, we notice that x - 3 ! 0.
So x ! 3
Also y cannot be zero (see example on page 238).
Domain: {all real x: x ! 3}
Range: {all real y: y ! 0}
The lines x = 3 and y = 0 (the x-axis) are called asymptotes.
CONTINUED

The denominator cannot


be zero.

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To make the graph more accurate we can nd another point or two. The
easiest one to nd is the y-intercept.
For y-intercept, x = 0
3
y=
0-3
= -1
y
5
4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3

Notice that this graph is


3
a translation of y =
x
three units to the right.

y=0

Asymptotes
x=3

-4
-5

2. Sketch y = -

1
.
2x + 4

Solution
This is the equation of a hyperbola. The negative sign turns the hyperbola
around so that it will be in the opposite quadrants. If you are not sure
where it will be, you can nd two or three points on the curve.
To nd the domain, we notice that 2x + 4 ! 0.
2x ! - 4
x ! -2
For the range, y can never be zero.
Domain: {all real x: x ! -2}
Range: {all real y: y ! 0}
So there are asymptotes at x = -2 and y = 0 (the x-axis).
To make the graph more accurate we can nd the y-intercept.
For y-intercept, x = 0
1
2 ( 0) + 4
1
=4

y=-

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

-2
- 14

a
is a hyperbola with
bx + c
c
domain & all real x: x ! - 0 and
b

The function f ] x g =

range {all real y: y ! 0}

5.7 Exercises
1.

For each graph


(i) State the domain and range.
(ii) Find the y-intercept if it
exists.
(iii) Sketch the graph.
2
(a) y = x
1
(b) y = - x
1
(c) f ] x g =
x+1
3
(d) f ] x g =
x-2
1
(e) y =
3x + 6
2
(f) f ] x g = x-3
4
(g) f ] x g =
x-1

2
x+1
2
(i) f ] x g =
6x - 3
6
(j) y = x+2

(h) y = -

2.

3.

2
Show that f ] x g = x is an odd
function.
Find the range of each function
over the given domain.
1
(a) f ] x g =
for -2 # x # 2
2x + 5
1
(b) y =
for -2 # x # 0
x+3
5
(c) f ] x g =
for - 3 # x # 1
2x - 4

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3
for - 3 # x # 3
x-4
2
for 0 # x # 5
(e) y = 3x + 1

1
1
for -1 # y # 7
x-1
3
for
(d) f ] x g = 2x + 1
1
-1 # y # 3
6
1
(e) y =
for 1 # y # 6
3x - 2
2
(c) f ] x g =

(d) f ] x g = -

4.

Find the domain of each function


over the given range.
3
(a) y = x for 1 # y # 3
2
1
(b) y = - x for - 2 # y # 2

Circles and Semi-circles


The circle is used in many applications, including building and design.

Circle gate

A graph whose equation is in the form x 2 + ax + y 2 + by + c = 0 has the


shape of a circle.
There is a special case of this formula:

The graph of x 2 + y 2 = r 2 is a circle, centre ^ 0, 0 h and radius r

Proof
y

(x, y)
r
x

y
x

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

243

Given the circle with centre (0, 0) and radius r:


Let (x, y) be a general point on the circle, with distances from the origin x
on the x-axis and y on the y-axis as shown.
By Pythagoras theorem:
c2 = a2 + b2
` r2 = x2 + y2

EXAMPLE
(a) Sketch the graph of x 2 + y 2 = 4. Is it a function?
(b) State its domain and range.

Solution
The radius is

(a) This is a circle with radius 2 and centre (0, 0).


y

-2

-2

The circle is not a function since a vertical line will cut it in more than
one place.
y

-2

-2

CONTINUED

4.

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(b) Notice that the x-values for this graph lie between - 2 and 2 and
the y-values also lie between - 2 and 2.
Domain: {x: -2 # x # 2}
Range: {y: -2 # y # 2}

The circle x 2 + y 2 = r 2 has domain: ! x: -r # x # r + and


range: " y: -r # y # r ,

We can use Pythagoras theorem to nd the equation of a more general circle.

The equation of a circle, centre (a, b) and radius r is ] x a g2 + ^ y b h2 = r 2

Proof
Take a general point on the circle, (x, y) and draw a right-angled triangle as
shown.
y

(x, y)

y
r
b

y-b

x-a

(a, b)
a

Notice that the small sides of the triangle are x a and y b and the
hypotenuse is r, the radius.
By Pythagoras theorem:
c2 = a2 + b2
r 2 = ] x a g2 + ^ y b h2

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

EXAMPLES
1. (a) Sketch the graph of x 2 + y 2 = 81.
(b) State its domain and range.

Solution
(a) The equation is in the form x 2 + y 2 = r 2.
This is a circle, centre (0, 0) and radius 9.
y

-9

-9

(b) From the graph, we can see all the values that are possible for x
and y for the circle.
Domain: {x: -9 # x # 9}
Range: {y: -9 # y # 9}
2. (a) Sketch the circle ] x 1 g2 + ^ y + 2 h2 = 4.
(b) State its domain and range.

Solution
(a) The equation is in the form ] x a g2 + ^ y b h2 = r 2.
] x 1 g 2 + ^ y + 2 h2 = 4
] x 1 g 2 + _ y ] - 2 g i2 = 2 2

So a = 1, b = - 2 and r = 2
CONTINUED

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This is a circle with centre ^ 1, - 2 h and radius 2.


To draw the circle, plot the centre point ^ 1, - 2 h and count 2 units up,
down, left and right to nd points on the circle.
y
5
4
3
2
1
x

-4 -3 -2

-1
-1
-2
-3

(1, -2)

-4
-5

(b) From the graph, we can see all the values that are possible for x
and y for the circle.
Domain: {x: -1 # x # 3}
Range: {y: -4 # y # 0}
3. Find the equation of a circle with radius 3 and centre ^ -2, 1 h in
expanded form.

Solution
This is a general circle with equation ] x a g2 + ^ y b h2 = r 2 where
a = - 2, b = 1 and r = 3.
Substituting:
] x a g2 + ^ y b h2 = r 2
You may need to revise this
in Chapter 2.

] x - ] - 2 g g2 + ^ y 1 h2 = 3 2
] x + 2 g2 + ^ y 1 h2 = 9
Remove the grouping symbols.
] a + b g2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
So ] x + 2 g2 = x 2 + 2 ] x g ] 2 g + 2 2
= x 2 + 4x + 4
2
] a b g = a 2 - 2ab + b 2
So ^ y 1 h2 = y 2 - 2 ^ y h ] 1 g + 1 2
= y 2 - 2y + 1
The equation of the circle is:
x 2 + 4x + 4 + y - 2y + 1 = 9
x 2 + 4 x + y - 2y + 5 = 9
x 2 + 4 x + y 2y + 5 - 9 = 9 - 9
x 2 + 4x + y - 2y - 4 = 0

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

Investigation
The circle is not a function. Could you break the circle up into
two functions?
Change the subject of this equation to y.
What do you notice when you change the subject to y? Do you get two
functions? What are their domains and ranges?
If you have a graphics calculator, how could you draw the graph of a
circle?

By rearranging the equation of a circle, we can also nd the equations of


semi-circles.
The equation of the semi-circle above the x-axis with centre (0, 0)
and radius r is y = r 2 - x 2
The equation of the semi-circle below the x-axis with centre (0, 0)
and radius r is y = - r 2 - x 2

Proof
x2 + y2 = r2
y2 = r2 x2
y = ! r2 - x2
This gives two functions:

y = r 2 - x 2 is the semi-circle above the x-axis since its range is y $ 0


for all values.
y

-r

The domain is {x: -r # x # r } and the range is {y: 0 # y # r }

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y = - r 2 - x 2 is the semi-circle above the x-axis since its range is


y # 0 for all values.
y

-r

-r

The domain is {x: - r # x # r } and the range is {y: -r # y # 0}

EXAMPLES
Sketch each function and state the domain and range.
1. f ] x g =

9 - x2

Solution
This is in the form f ] x g = r 2 - x 2 where r = 3.
It is a semi-circle above the x-axis with centre (0, 0) and radius 3.
y

-3

Domain: {x: -3 # x # 3}
Range: {y: 0 # y # 3}

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

2. y = - 4 - x 2

Solution
This is in the form y = - r 2 - x 2 where r = 2.
It is a semi-circle below the x-axis with centre (0, 0) and radius 2.
y

-2

-2

Domain: {x: -2 # x # 2}
Range: {y: -2 # y # 0}

5.8 Exercises
1.

2.

For each of the following


(i) sketch each graph
(ii) state the domain and
range.
(a) x 2 + y 2 = 9
(b) x 2 + y 2 - 16 = 0
(c) ] x 2 g2 + ^ y 1 h2 = 4
(d) ] x + 1 g2 + y 2 = 9
(e) ] x + 2 g2 + ^ y 1 h2 = 1
For each semi-circle
(i) state whether it is above or
below the x-axis
(ii) sketch the function
(iii) state the domain and
range.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
3.

y = - 25 - x 2
y = 1 - x2
y = 36 - x 2
y = - 64 - x 2
y = - 7 - x2

Find the length of the radius and


the coordinates of the centre of
each circle.
(a) x 2 + y 2 = 100
(b) x 2 + y 2 = 5
(c) ] x 4 g2 + ^ y 5 h2 = 16
(d) ] x 5 g2 + ^ y + 6 h2 = 49
(e) x 2 + ^ y 3 h2 = 81

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4.

(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

Find the equation of each circle


in expanded form (without
grouping symbols).
(a) Centre (0, 0) and radius 4
(b) Centre (3, 2) and radius 5
(c) Centre ^ -1, 5 h and radius 3
(d) Centre (2, 3) and radius 6

Centre ^ -4, 2 h and radius 5


Centre ^ 0, -2 h and radius 1
Centre (4, 2) and radius 7
Centre ^ -3, -4 h and radius 9
Centre ^ -2, 0 h and radius 5
Centre ^ -4, -7 h and radius 3

Other Graphs
There are many other different types of graphs. We will look at some of these
graphs and explore their domain and range.
You will meet these
graphs again in the
HSC Course.

Exponential and logarithmic functions


EXAMPLES
1. Sketch the graph of f ] x g = 3 x and state its domain and range.

Solution
If you do not know what this graph looks like, draw up a table of values.
You may need to revise the indices that you studied in Chapter 1.
e.g. When x = 0:
y = 3c
=1
When x = -1:
y = 3-1
1
= 1
3
1
=
3
x
y

-3
1
27

-2
1
9

-1
1
3

27

If you already know what the shape of the graph is, you can draw it
just using 2 or 3 points to make it more accurate.

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

You learned about


exponential graphs in earlier
stages of maths.

This is an exponential function with y-intercept 1. We can nd one


other point.
When x = 1
y = 31
=3

3
2
1
x

From the graph, x can be any real value (the equation shows this as well
since any x value substituted into the equation will give a value for y).
From the graph, y is always positive, which can be conrmed by
substituting different values of x into the equation.
Domain: " all real x ,
Range: " y: y 2 0 ,
2. Sketch f ] x g = log x and state the domain and range.

Solution
Use the LOG key on your calculator to complete the table of values.
Notice that you cant nd the log of 0 or a negative number.
x

0.5

0.3

0.3

0.5

0.6

2
1

-1

From the graph and by trying different values on the calculator, y can be
any real number while x is always positive.
Domain: ! x: x 2 0 +
Range: " all real y ,

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The exponential function y = a x has domain {all real x} and


range {y: y 2 0}
The logarithmic function y = log a x has domain ! x: x 2 0 + and
range {all real y}

Cubic function
A cubic function has an equation where the highest power of x is x 3 .

EXAMPLE
1. Sketch the function f ] x g = x 3 + 2 and state its domain and range.

Solution
Draw up a table of values.
x

25

10

29

y
5
4
3
2
1

-4

-3

-2

-1

-1

-2
If you already
know the shape of
y = x 3, f (x) = x 3 + 2 has
the same shape as f (x) = x 3
but it is translated 2 units up
(this gives a y-intercept of 2).

-3
-4
-5

The function can have any real x or y value:


Domain: " all real x ,
Range: " all real y ,

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

Domain and range


Sometimes there is a restricted domain that affects the range of a function.

EXAMPLE
1. Find the range of f ] x g = x 3 + 2 over the given domain of -1 # x # 4.

Solution
The graph of f ] x g = x 3 + 2 is the cubic function in the previous example.
From the graph, the range is {all real y}. However, with a restricted
domain of -1 # x # 4 we need to see where the endpoints of this
function are.
f ] -1 g = ] -1 g3 + 2
= -1 + 2
=1
f ] 4 g = ] 4 g3 + 2
= 64 + 2
= 66
Sketching the graph, we can see that the values of y all lie between
these points.
y

(4, 66)

(-1, 1)
x

Range: " y: 1 # y # 66 ,

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You may not know what a function looks like on a graph, but you can still
nd its domain and range by looking at its equation.
When nding the domain, we look for values of x that are impossible.
For example, with the hyperbola you have already seen that the denominator
of a fraction cannot be zero.
For the range, we look for the results when different values of x are
substituted into the equation. For example, x2 will always give zero or a
positive number.

EXAMPLE
Find the domain and range of f ] x g =

x - 4.

Solution
We can only nd the square root of a positive number or zero.
So x 4 $ 0
x$4
When you take the square root of a number, the answer is always positive
(or zero). So y $ 0
Domain: ! x: x $ 4 +
Range: " y: y $ 0 ,

5.9 Exercises
1.

(c) f ] x g = | 2x - 3 |

Find the domain and range of


(a) y = 4x + 3
(b) f ] x g = -4

(d) y = | x | - 2
(e) f ] x g = - 2x + 5

(c) x = 3
(d) f ] x g = 4x 2 1
(e) p ] x g = x 3 2

You may like to


simplify the function
by dividing by x.

(f) y = 5 - | x |
(g) y = 2 x
(h) y = -5 x
x+1
(i) f ] x g = x
4x - 3
(j) y =
2x

(f) f ] x g = 12 - x - x 2
(g) x 2 + y 2 = 64
3
t-4
2
(i) g (z) = + 5
z
(j) f ] x g = | x |

(h) f ] t g =

2.

Find the domain and range of


(a) y = x
(b) y =

x-2

3.

Find the x-intercepts of


(a) y = x ] x - 5 g2
(b) f ] x g = ] x 1 g ] x 2 g ] x + 3 g
(c) y = x 3 - 6x 2 + 8x
(d) g ] x g = x 4 - 16x 2
(e) x 2 + y 2 = 49

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

4.

(a) Solve 1 - x 2 $ 0.
(b) Find the domain of
f ] x g = 1 - x2 .

5.

Find the domain of


(a) y = x 2 - x - 2
(b) g ] t g = t 2 + 6t

6.

Each of the graphs has a


restricted domain. Find the range
in each case.
(a) y = 2x - 3 in the domain
-3 # x # 3
(b) y = x 2 in the domain
-2 # x # 3
(c) f ] x g = x 3 in the domain

9.

x
Given the function f ] x g = x
(a) nd the domain of the
function
(b) nd its range.
Draw each graph on a number
plane
(a) f ] x g = x 4
(b) y = - x 3
(c) y = x 4 - 3
(d) p ] x g = 2x 3
(e) g ] x g = x 3 + 1
(f) x 2 + y 2 = 100
(g) y = 2 x + 1

-2 # x # 1
1
(d) y = x in the domain
1# x #5

10. (a) Find the domain and range of


y = x - 1.
(b) Sketch the graph of y = x - 1 .

(e) y = | x | in the domain


0#x#4

11. Sketch the graph of y = 5 x .

(f) y = x 2 - 2x in the domain


-3 # x # 3

12. For each function, state


(i) its domain and range
(ii) the domain over which the
function is increasing
(iii) the domain over which the
function is decreasing.
(a) y = 2x - 9
(b) f ] x g = x 2 - 2
1
(c) y = x
(d) f ] x g = x 3
(e) f ] x g = 3 x

(g) y = - x 2 in the domain


-1 # x # 1
(h) y = x 2 - 1 in the domain
-2 # x # 3
(i) y = x 2 - 2x - 3 in the domain
-4 # x # 4
(j) y = - x 2 + 7x - 6 in the
domain 0 # x # 7
7.

8.

(a) Find the domain for the


3
function y =
.
x+1
(b) Explain why there is no
x- intercept for the function.
(c) State the range of the
function.

13. (a) Solve 4 - x 2 $ 0.


(b) Find the domain and range of
(i) y = 4 - x 2
(ii) y = - 4 - x 2 .

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DID YOU KNOW?


A lampshade can produce a hyperbola
where the light meets the flat wall.
Can you find any other shapes made by
a light?

Lamp casting its light

Limits and Continuity


Limits

A line that a graph approaches


but never touches is called an
asymptote.

The exponential function and the hyperbola are examples of functions that
approach a limit. The curve y = a x approaches the x-axis when x approaches
very large negative numbers, but never touches it.
That is, when x " - 3, a x " 0.
Putting a - 3 into index form gives
1
a-3 = 3
a
1
=3
Z0
We say that the limit of a x as x approaches -3 is 0. In symbols, we write
lim a x = 0.
x " -3

EXAMPLES
1. Find lim
x "0

x 2 + 5x
.
x

Solution
0
, which is undened.
0
Factorising and cancelling help us nd the limit.
x 1 ]x + 5 g
x 2 + 5x
lim
lim
=
x
x "0
x "0
x1
= lim (x + 5)
Substituting x = 0 into the function gives

x "0

=5

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

2. Find lim
x "2

x-2
.
x2 - 4

Solution
Substituting x = 2 into the function gives

0
, which is undened.
0

x-2
x-2
= lim
2
1
x
"
2
x -4
^x + 2h _x - 2i
1
= lim
x "2 x + 2
1
=
4
1

lim
x "2

3. Find lim
h "0

2h 2 x + hx 2 - 7h
.
h

Solution
lim
h "0

h ^ 2hx + x 2 - 7 h
2h 2 x + hx 2 - 7h
= lim
h "0
h
h
= lim 2hx + x 2 - 7
h "0

= x2 - 7

Continuity
Many functions are continuous. That is, they have a smooth, unbroken curve
(or line). However, there are some discontinuous functions that have gaps in
their graphs. The hyperbola is an example.
If a curve is discontinuous at a certain point, we can use limits to nd the
value that the curve approaches at that point.

EXAMPLES
1. Find lim
x "1

y=

x2 - 1
and hence describe the domain and range of the curve
x-1

x -1
. Sketch the curve.
x-1
2

Solution
Substituting x = 1 into

x2 - 1
0
gives
x-1
0
CONTINUED

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lim
x "1

]x + 1 g]x - 1 g
x2 - 1
= lim
x-1
x-1
x-1
= lim (x + 1)
x "1

=2
y=

x2 - 1
is discontinuous at x = 1 since y is undened at that point.
x-1

This leaves a gap in the curve. The limit tells us that y " 2 as x " 1, so
the gap is at ^ 1, 2 h .
Domain: " x: all real x, x ! 1 ,
Range: " y: all real y, y ! 2 ,
y=
=

x2 - 1
x-1
^x + 1h ^x - 1h

x-1
=x+1
the graph is y = x + 1 where x ! 1

Remember that x ! 1.

2. Find lim

x " -2

x2 + x - 2
x2 + x - 2
and hence sketch the curve y =
.
x+2
x+2

Solution
Substituting x = -2 into
lim

x " -2

x2 + x - 2
0
gives
x+2
0

^x - 1h ^x + 2h
x2 + x - 2
= lim
x
"
2
x+2
^x + 2h
= lim ^ x - 1 h
x " -2
= -3

y=
y=

x2 + x - 2
is discontinuous at x = - 2
x+2
^x + 2h ^x - 1h

x+2
=x-1
So the function is y = x - 1 where x ! -2. It is discontinuous at ^ -2, -3 h .

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

5.10 Exercises
1.

Find
(a) lim x 2 + 5

2.

x "4

(b) lim t - 7
t " -3

(c) lim x 3 + 2x - 4
x "2

(d) lim

x 2 + 3x
x

(e) lim

h2 - h - 2
h-2

(f) lim

y 3 - 125
y-5

(g) lim

x 2 + 2x + 1
x+1

(h) lim

x 2 + 2x - 8
x+4

x "0

h "2

y "5

x "-1

x " -4

Determine which of these


functions are discontinuous and
nd x values for which they are
discontinuous.
(a) y = x 2 - 3
1
(b) y =
x+1
(c) f ] x g =

x-1
1
(d) y = 2
x +4
1
(e) y = 2
x -4
3.

Sketch these functions, showing


any points of discontinuity.
(a) y =

x 2 + 3x
x

(i) lim

c-2
c2 - 4

(b) y =

(j) lim

x-1
x2 - x

x 2 + 3x
x+3

(c) y =

x 2 + 5x + 4
x+1

(k) lim

h 3 + 2h 2 - 7h
h

(l) lim

hx 2 - 3hx + h 2
h

(m) lim

2hx 3 - h 2 x 2 + 3hx - 5h
h

c "2

x "1

h "0

h "0

h "0

x3 - c3
(n) lim
x "c x - c

259

260

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Regions
Class Investigation
How many solutions are there for y $ x + 2? How would you record
them all?

Inequalities can be shown as regions in the Cartesian plane.


You can shade regions on a number plane that involve either linear or
non-linear graphs. This means that we can have regions bounded by a circle or
a parabola, or any of the other graphs you have drawn in this chapter.
Regions can be bounded or unbounded.
A bounded region means that the line or curve is included in the region.

EXAMPLE
Sketch the region x # 3.

Solution
Remember that x = 3 is a
vertical line with x-intercept 3.

x # 3 includes both x = 3 and x 1 3 in the region.


Sketch x = 3 as an unbroken or lled in line, as it will be included in the
region. Shade in all points where x 1 3 as shown.
y
5
4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2

-1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

x=3

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

261

An unbounded region means that the line or curve is not included in the
region.

EXAMPLE
Sketch the region y 2 -1.

Solution
y 2 -1 doesnt include y = -1. When this happens, it is an unbounded
region and we draw the line y = -1 as a broken line to show it is not
included.
Sketch y = -1 as a broken line and shade in all points where y 2 -1 as
shown.
y
5
4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1
y = -1
-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

For lines that are not horizontal or vertical, or for curves, we need to
check a point to see if it lies in the region.

Remember that y = -1 is a
horizontal line with
y-intercept -1.

262

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
Find the region dened by
1. y $ x + 2

Solution
First sketch y = x + 2 as an unbroken line.
On one side of the line, y 2 x + 2 and on the other side, y 1 x + 2.
To nd which side gives y 2 x + 2, test a point on one side of the
line (not on the line).
For example, choose ^ 0, 0 h and substitute into
y$x+2
0$0+2
0$2
(false)
This means that ^ 0, 0 h does not lie in the region y $ x + 2. The
region is on the other side of the line.

Any point in the region will


make the inequality true.
Test one to see this.

2. 2x - 3y 1 6

Solution
First sketch 2x - 3y = 6 as a broken line, as it is not included in the
region.
To nd which side of the line gives 2x - 3y 1 6, test a point on one
side of the line.
For example, choose ^ 0, 1 h and substitute into
2x - 3y 1 6
2 ] 0 g - 3 (1 ) 1 6
-3 1 6 (true)

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

This means that ^ 0, 1 h lies in the region 2x - 3y 1 6.

2x - 3y = 6

3. x 2 + y 2 2 1

Solution
The equation x 2 + y 2 = 1 is a circle, radius 1 and centre ^ 0, 0 h .
Draw x 2 + y 2 = 1 as a broken line, since the region does not include
the curve.
Choose a point inside the circle, say ^ 0, 0 h
x2 + y2 2 1
02 + 02 2 1
0 2 1 (false)
So the region lies outside the circle.

4. y $ x 2

Solution
The equation y = x 2 is a parabola. Sketch this as an unbroken line, as it is
included in the region.

CONTINUED

263

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Choose a point inside the parabola, say ^ 1, 3 h.


y $ x2
3 2 12
3 2 1 (true)
So ^ 1, 3 h lies in the region.
y = x2

Sometimes a region includes two or more inequalities. When this


happens, sketch each region on the number plane, and the nal region is
where they overlap (intersect).

EXAMPLE
Sketch the region x # 4, y 2 -2 and y # x 2 .

Solution
Draw the three regions, either separately or on the same set of axes, and
see where they overlap.

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

Put the three regions together.

If you are given a region, you should also be able to describe it


algebraically.

EXAMPLES
Describe each region.
1.

6
5
4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2

-1
-1

-2
-3
-4

Solution
The shaded area is below and including y = 6 so can be described as
y # 6.
It is also to the left of, but not including the line x = 4, which can be
described as x 1 4.
The region is the intersection of these two regions:
y # 6 and x 1 4

CONTINUED

265

266

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2.
2

-2

-2

Solution
The shaded area is the interior of the circle, centre (0, 0) and radius 2 but
it does not include the circle.
The equation of the circle is x 2 + y 2 = 2 2 or x 2 + y 2 = 4.
You may know (or guess) the inequality for the inside of the circle.
If you are unsure, choose a point inside the circle and substitute into the
equation e.g. (0, 0).
LHS = x 2 + y 2
= 02 + 02
=0
1 4 ] RHS g
So the region is x 2 + y 2 1 4.

5.11 Exercises
1.

Shade the region dened by


(a) x # 2
(b) x 2 1
(c) y $ 0
(d) y 1 5
(e) y # x + 1

(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

y $ 2x - 3
x+y21
3x - y - 6 1 0
x + 2y - 2 $ 0
2x - 1 1 0

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

2.

Write an inequation to describe


each region.
(a)

(d)

y
5

y = x2 - 4

4
3

-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

3
2

-2

1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-3

-4
-5

-2
-3

(e)

-4

y
y = 2x

(b)

4
3

2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3

3.

Shade each region described.


(a) y 2 x 2 1
(b) x 2 + y 2 # 9
(c) x 2 + y 2 $ 1
(d) y # x 2
(e) y 1 x 3

4.

Describe as an inequality
(a) the set of points that lie
below the line y = 3x - 2
(b) the set of points that lie
inside the parabola y = x 2 + 2
(c) the interior of a circle with
radius 7 and centre (0, 0)
(d) the exterior of a circle with
radius 9 and centre (0, 0)
(e) the set of points that lie to
the left of the line x = 5 and
above the line y = 2

-4

(c)

6
5

y=x+1

4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3
-4

267

268

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

The first quadrant is


where x and y values
are both positive.

5.

Shade the region


(a) ] x - 2 g2 + y 2 # 4
(b) ] x - 1 g2 + ^ y - 2 h2 # 1
(c) ] x + 2 g2 + ^ y - 1 h2 2 9

6.

Shade the intersection of these


regions.
(a) x # 3, y $ -1
(b) x $ -3, y 2 x -3
(c) y # 1, y $ 3x - 5
(d) y 2 x + 1, y # 3 - x
(e) y # 1, x 2 + y 2 # 9
(f) x 2 -1, x 2 + y 2 1 4
(g) y # 4, y $ x 2
(h) x 1 -2, y # 3, y 2 x 3
(i) y # 0, x 2 + y 2 $ 1
(j) -1 1 x - y # 2

7.

Shade the region bounded by


(a) the curve y = x 2, the x-axis
and the lines x = 1 and x = 3
(b) the curve y = x 3, the y-axis
and the lines y = 0 and y = 1

(c) the curve x 2 + y 2 = 4, the


x-axis and the lines x = 0 and
x = 1 in the rst quadrant
2
(d) the curve y = x , the x-axis
and the lines x = 1 and x = 4
1
, the
x+2
x-axis and the lines x = 0 and

(e) the curve y =


x=2
8.

Shade the regions bounded by


the intersection of
(a) x 1 2, y 1 5 and y # x 2
(b) x 1 3, y $ -1, y # x - 2
(c) y # 1 - x, y # 2x + 1, 2x - 3y # 6
(d) x $ -3, y # 2, x 2 + y 2 $ 9
(e) x 1 2, y # 3, y $ | x |

Application
Regions are used in business applications to find optimum profit. Two (or more)
equations are graphed together, and the region where a profit is made is shaded.
The optimum profit occurs at the endpoints (or vertices) of the region.

EXAMPLE
A company makes both roller skates (X ) and ice skates (Y ). Roller skates make a
$25 profit, while ice skates make a profit of $21. Each pair of roller skates spends
2 hours on machine A (available 12 hours per day) and 2 hours on machine B
(available 8 hours per day). Each pair of ice skates spends 3 hours on machine A
and 1 hour on machine B.
How many skates of each type should be made each day to give the greatest
profit while making the most efficient use of the machines?

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

SOLUTION
Profit P = $25 X + $21Y
Machine A: 2X + 3Y # 12
Machine B: 2X + Y # 8
Sketch the regions and find the
point of intersection of the lines.

The shaded area shows all possible ways of making a profit. Optimum profit
occurs at one of the endpoints of the regions.
(0, 4): P = $25 ] 0 g + $21 ] 4 g = $84
(4, 0): P = $25 ] 4 g + $21 ] 0 g = $100
(3, 2): P = $25 ] 3 g + $21 ] 2 g = $117

^ 3, 2 h gives the greatest profit, so 3 pairs of roller skates and 2 pairs of ice
skates each day gives optimum profit.

269

270

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Test Yourself 5
1.

If f ] x g = x 2 - 3x - 4, nd
(a) f ] -2 g
(b) f ] a g
(c) x when f ] x g = 0

2.

Sketch each graph


(a) y = x 2 - 3x - 4
(b) f ] x g = x 3
(c) x 2 + y 2 = 1
(d) y = 1 - x 2
(e) y = - 1 - x 2
2
(f) y = x
(g) 2x - 5y + 10 = 0
(h) y = | x + 2 |

(b)

3.

Find the domain and range of each graph


in question 2.

4.

If f ] x g = *

2x

if x $ 1

x -3

if x 1 1

11. Describe each region


(a)

nd f ] 5 g - f ] 0 g + f ] 1 g
3
5.

if x 2 3

Given f ] x g = * x
if 1 # x # 3
2 - x if x 1 1
nd
(a) f ] 2 g
(b) f ] -3 g
(c) f ] 3 g
(d) f ] 5 g
(e) f ] 0 g
2

6.

Shade the region y $ 2x + 1.

7.

Shade the region where x 1 3 and y $ -1.

8.

Shade the region given by x 2 + y 2 $ 1.

9.

Shade the region given by


2x + 3y - 6 # 0 and x $ -2.

10. Shade the region y 2 x + 1 and


x + y # 2.

(c)

12. (a) Write down the domain and range of


2
the curve y =
.
x-3
2
(b) Sketch the graph of y =
.
x-3

Chapter 5 Functions and Graphs

13. (a) Sketch the graph y = | x + 1 |.


(b) From the graph, solve
(i) | x + 1 | = 3
(ii) | x + 1 | 1 3
(iii) | x + 1 | 2 3

17. Find
(a) lim

x 2 - 2x - 3
x-3

(b) lim

2x
x + 5x

(c) lim

x3 + 1
x2 - 1

x "3

x "0

14. If f ] x g = 3x - 4, nd
(a) f ] 2 g
(b) x when f ] x g = 7
(c) x when f ] x g = 0

x " -1

(d) lim
h "0

15. Find the x- and y-intercepts of


(a) 2x - 5y + 20 = 0
(b) y = x 2 - 5x - 14
16. State which functions are (i) even
(ii) odd (iii) neither even nor odd.
(a) y = x 2 - 1
(b) y = x + 1
(c) y = x 3
(d) y = x 4
(e) y = 2 x

2xh 2 + 3h
h

18. Sketch y = 10 x, y = log x and y = x on the


same number plane.
19. (a) State the domain and range of
y = 2x - 4 .
(b) Sketch the graph of y = 2x - 4 .
20. Show that
(a) f ] x g = x 4 + 3x 2 - 1 is even
(b) f ] x g = x 3 - x is odd.

Challenge Exercise 5
1.

Find the values of b if f ] x g = 3x 2 - 7x + 1


and f ] b g = 7.

2.

6.

Sketch y = ] x + 2 g2 - 1 in the domain


-3 # x # 0.

Find the domain and range of


1
y= 2
.
x -1

7.

Sketch the region x 1 y, x + 2y 1 6,


x + 2y - 4 $ 0.

3.

Sketch the region y 2


quadrant.

8.

Find the domain and range of x 2 = y in


the rst quadrant.

4.

Draw the graph of y = | x | + 3x - 4.

9.

If f ] x g = 2x 3 - 2x 2 - 12x, nd x when
f ] x g = 0.

5.

4 - x 2 in the rst

Z 2x + 3 when x 2 2
]
f ] x g = [1
when -2 # x # 2
] 2
x
when x 1 -2
\
Find f ] 3 g, f ] -4 g, f ] 0 g and sketch the
curve.

1
10. Sketch the region dened by y 2
x+2
in the rst quadrant.

271

272

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

11. If h ] t g = )

1 - t2
t2 - 1

(b) Find the domain and range of

if t 2 1
if t # 1

y=

nd the value of h ] 2 g + h ] -1 g - h ] 0 g and


sketch the curve.
12. Sketch y =

1 - x in the rst quadrant.


2

13. Sketch the region y $ x - 5, y 1 x + x.


2

14. If f ] x g = 2x - 1, show that


f ^ a 2 h = f _ (-a)2 i for all real a.
15. Find the values of x for which f ] x g = 0
when f ] x g = 2x 2 - x - 5 (give exact
answers).
16. (a) Show that

2x + 7
1
=2+
.
x+3
x+3

2x + 7
.
x+3

(c) Hence sketch the graph of


y=

2x + 7
.
x+3

17. Sketch y = 2 x - 1 .
18. Sketch y =

|x |

.
x2
19. Find the domain and range of
f ] x g = 2x - 6 .
20. What is the domain of y =
21. Sketch f ] x g = 1 -

1
.
x2

1
4 - x2

Trigonometry
TERMINOLOGY
Angle of depression: The angle between the horizontal
and the line of sight when looking down to an object
below
Angle of elevation: The angle between the horizontal and
the line of sight when looking up to an object above
Angles of any magnitude: Angles can be measured around
a circle at the centre to find the trigonometric ratios of
angles of any size from 0c to 360c and beyond
Bearing: The direction relative to north. Bearings may
be written as true bearings (clockwise from North) or as
compass bearings (using N, S, E and W)

Complementary angles: Two or more angles that add up


to 90c
Cosecant: The reciprocal ratio of sine (sin). It is the
hypotenuse over the opposite side in a right triangle
Cotangent: The reciprocal ratio of tangent (tan). It is the
adjacent over the opposite side in a right triangle
Secant: The reciprocal ratio of cosine (cos). It is the
hypotenuse over the adjacent side in a right triangle
Trigonometric identities: A statement that is true for
all trigonometric values in the domain. Relationships
between trigonometric ratios

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

275

INTRODUCTION
TRIGONOMETRY IS USED IN many elds, such as building, surveying and
navigating. Wave theory also uses trigonometry.
This chapter revises basic right-angled triangle problems and applies them
to real-life situations. Some properties of trigonometric ratios, angles greater
than 90c and trigonometric equations are introduced. You will also study
trigonometry in non-right-angled triangles.

DID YOU KNOW?


Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus), in the second century, wrote He mathematike syntaxis (or
Almagest as it is now known) on astronomy. This is considered to be the first treatise on
trigonometry, but was based on circles and spheres rather than on triangles. The notation chord
of an angle was used rather than sin, cos or tan.
Ptolemy constructed a table of sines from 0c to 90c in steps of a quarter of a degree. He also
calculated a value of r to 5 decimal places, and established the relationship for sin (X ! Y ) and
cos (X ! Y ) .

Trigonometric Ratios
In similar triangles, pairs of corresponding angles are equal and sides are in
proportion. For example:

You studied similar triangles in


Geometry 1 in Chapter 4.

In any triangle containing an angle of 30c, the ratio of AB:AC = 1:2.


Similarly, the ratios of other corresponding sides will be equal. These ratios of
sides form the basis of the trigonometric ratios.
In order to refer to these ratios, we name the sides in relation to the angle
being studied:

the hypotenuse is the longest side, and is always opposite


the right angle
the opposite side is opposite the angle marked in the
triangle
the adjacent side is next to the angle marked

276

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

The opposite and adjacent sides vary according to where the angle is
marked. For example:

The trigonometric ratios are

You can learn these by their


initials SOH, CAH, TOA.

What about Some Old Hags


Cant Always Hide Their Old
Age?

Sine

sin i =

Cosine

cos i =

Tangent tan i =

opposite
hypotenuse
adjacent
hypotenuse
opposite
adjacent

As well as these ratios, there are three inverse ratios,

Cosecant cosec i =

1
sin i

sec i =

1
cos i

Cotangent cot i =

1
tan i

Secant

hypotenuse
p
opposite
hypotenuse
f=
p
adjacent
adjacent
f=
p
opposite
f=

DID YOU KNOW?


Trigonometry, or triangle measurement, progressed from the study of geometry in ancient
Greece. Trigonometry was seen as applied mathematics. It gave a tool for the measurement of
planets and their motion. It was also used extensively in navigation, surveying and mapping,
and it is still used in these fields today.
Trigonometry was crucial in the setting up of an accurate calendar, since this involved
measuring the distances between the Earth, sun and moon.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

277

EXAMPLES
1. Find sin a, tan a and sec a.

Solution
AB = hypotenuse = 5
BC = opposite side = 3
AC = adjacent side = 4
opposite
sin a =
hypotenuse
3
=
5
opposite
tan a =
adjacent
3
=
4
1
sec a =
cos a
hypotenuse
=
adjacent
5
=
4
2. If sin i =

2
, nd the exact ratios of cos i, tan i and cot i.
7

Solution
To find the other ratios
you need to find the
adjacent side.

By Pythagoras theorem:
c2 = a2 + b2
72 = a2 + 22
49 = a 2 + 4
45 = a 2
`a=

45
CONTINUED

278

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

cos i =
=
tan i =

adjacent
hypotenuse
45
7
opposite

adjacent
2
=
45
1
cot i =
tan i
45
=
2

Complementary angles

In D ABC, if+B = i, then +A = 90c - i

(angle sum of a )
a
(90c - i) = c
b
cos (90c - i) = c
a
tan (90c - i) =
b
c
sec (90c - i) =
b
c
cosec (90c - i) = a
b
cot (90c - i) = a

b
i= c
a
cos i = c
b
tan i = a
c
sec i = a
c
cosec i =
b
a
cot i =
b

sin

sin

From these ratios come the results.

sin i = cos (90 - i)


cos i = sin (90 - i)
sec i = cosec (90 - i)
cosec i = sec (90 - i)
tan i = cot (90 - i)
cot i = tan (90 - i)

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

279

EXAMPLES
1. Simplify tan 50c - cot 40c.

Solution
tan 50c = cot ] 90c - 50c g
= cot 40c
` tan 50c - cot 40c = tan 50c - tan 50c
=0

Check this answer on


your calculator.

2. Find the value of m if sec 55c = cosec ] 2m - 15 g c.

Solution
sec 55c = cosec ] 90c - 55c g
= cosec 35c
` 2m - 15 = 35
2m = 50
m = 25

Check this by substituting


m into the equation.

6.1 Exercises
1.

Write down the ratios of


cos i, sin i and tan i.

2.

Find sin b, cot b and sec b.

3.

Find the exact ratios of


sin b, tan b and cos b.

4.

Find exact values for cos x, tan x


and cosec x.

280

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

5.
6.

7.

Hint: Change 0.7 to a fraction.

8.

9.

4
, nd cos i and sin i.
3
2
If cos i = , nd exact values for
3
tan i, sec i and sin i.
If tan i =

1
If sin i = , nd the exact ratios
6
of cos i and tan i.
If cos i = 0.7, nd exact values
for tan i and sin i.
D ABC is a right-angled isosceles
triangle with +ABC = 90c and
AB = BC = 1.
(a) Find the exact length of AC.
(b) Find +BAC.
(c) From the triangle, write down
the exact ratios of sin 45c, cos 45c
and tan 45c.

10.

(c) Write down the exact ratios of


sin 60c, cos 60c and tan 60c.
11. Show sin 67c = cos 23c.
12. Show sec 82c = cosec 8c.
13. Show tan 48c = cot 42c.
14. Simplify
(a) cos 61c + sin 29c
(b) sec i - cosec ] 90c - i g
(c) tan 70c + cot 20c - 2 tan 70c
(d)

sin 55c
cos 35c

(e)

cot 25c + tan 65c


cot 25c

15. Find the value of x if


sin 80c = cos ] 90 - x g c.
16. Find the value of y if
tan 22c = cot ^ 90 - y h c.
17. Find the value of p if
cos 49c = sin ^ p + 10 h c.
18. Find the value of b if
sin 35c = cos ] b + 30 g c.
19. Find the value of t if
cot ] 2t + 5 g c = tan ] 3t - 15 g c.

(a) Using Pythagoras theorem,


nd the exact length of AC.
(b) Write down the exact ratios of
sin 30c, cos 30c and tan 30c.

20. Find the value of k if


tan ] 15 - k g c = cot ] 2k + 60 g c.

Trigonometric ratios and the calculator


Angles are usually given in degrees and minutes. In this section you will
practise rounding off angles and nding trigonometric ratios on the calculator.
Angles are usually given in degrees and minutes in this course. The
calculator uses degrees, minutes and seconds, so you need to round off.
60 minutes = 1 deg ree (60l = 1c)
60 sec onds = 1 min ute (60m = 1l)
In normal rounding off, you round up to the next number if the number
to the right is 5 or more. Angles are rounded off to the nearest degree by
rounding up if there are 30 minutes or more. Similarly, angles are rounded off
to the nearest minute by rounding up if there are 30 seconds or more.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

281

EXAMPLES
Round off to the nearest minute.
1. 23c 12l 22m

Solution
23c 12l 22m = 23c 12l
2. 59c 34l 41m

Solution
59c 34l 41m = 59c 35l
3. 16c 54l 30m
Because 30 seconds is
half a minute, we round
up to the next minute.

Solution
16c 54l 30m = 16c 55l

% , ,,

KEY
Some calculators have

This key changes decimal angles into degrees, minutes and seconds

deg or dms keys.

and vice versa.

EXAMPLES
1. Change 58c 19l into a decimal.

Solution
Press 58 % , ,, 19 % , ,, = % , ,,
So 58c 19l = 58.31666667
2. Change 45.236c into degrees and minutes.

Solution
Press 45.236 = SHIFT % , ,,
So 45.236c = 45c14l

If your calculator does not


give these answers, check
the instructions for its use.

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In order to use trigonometry in right-angled triangle problems, you need


to nd the ratios of angles on your calculator.

EXAMPLES
1. Find cos 58c 19l, correct to 3 decimal places.

Solution

If your calculator
doesn't give this
answer, check that it
is in degree mode.

Press COS 58 % , ,, 19 % , ,, =
So cos 58c19l = 0.525
2. Find sin 38c14l, correct to 3 decimal places.

Solution
Press SIN 38 % , ,, 14 % , ,, =
So sin 38c 14l = 0.619
3. If tani = 0.348, nd i in degrees and minutes.

Solution
This is the reverse of nding trigonometric ratios.
To nd the angle, given the ratio, use the inverse key ^ tan - 1 h .
Press SHIFT TAN - 1 0.348 = SHIFT % , ,,
tan i = 0.348
i = tan - 1 (0.348)
= 19c11l
4. Find i in degrees and minutes if cos i = 0.675.

Solution
Press SHIFT COS - 1 0.675 = SHIFT % , ,,
cos i = 0.675
i = cos - 1 (0.675)
= 47c 33l

6.2 Exercises
1.

Round off to the nearest degree.


(a) 47 13l 12m
(b) 81 45l 43m
(c) 19 25l 34m
(d) 76 37l 19m
(e) 52 29l 54m

2.

Round off to the nearest minute.


(a) 47 13l 12m
(b) 81 45l 43m
(c) 19 25l 34m
(d) 76 37l 19m
(e) 52 29l 54m

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

3.

Change to a decimal.
(a) 77c45l
(b) 65c30l
(c) 24c51l
(d) 68c21l
(e) 82c31l

5.

Find correct to 3 decimal places.


(a) sin 39c25l
(b) cos 45c 51l
(c) tan18c43l
(d) sin 68c06l
(e) tan 54c20l

4.

Change into degrees and minutes.


(a) 59.53c
(b) 72.231c
(c) 85.887c
(d) 46.9c
(e) 73.213c

6.

Find i in degrees and minutes if


(a) sin i = 0.298
(b) tan i = 0.683
(c) cos i = 0.827
(d) tan i = 1.056
(e) cos i = 0.188

Right-angled Triangle Problems


Trigonometry is used to nd an unknown side or angle of a triangle.

Finding a side
We can use trigonometry to nd a side of a right-angled triangle.

EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of x, correct to 1 decimal place.

Solution
cos i =

adjacent

hypotenuse
x
cos 23 49l =
11.8
x
11.8 # cos 23 49l = 11.8 #
11.8
11.8 cos 23 49l = x
`

10.8 cm = x ^ to 1 decimal point h


CONTINUED

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2. Find the value of y, correct to 3 signicant gures.

Solution
sin i =

opposite

hypotenuse
9.7
sin 41c 15l = y
9.7
y # sin 41c 15l = y # y
y sin 41c 15l = 9.7
y sin 41c 15l
9.7
=
sin 41c 15l
sin 41c 15l
9.7
y=
sin 41c 15l
= 14.7 m ^ to 3 significant figures h

6.3 Exercises
1.

Find the values of all pronumerals,


correct to 1 decimal place.
(a)

(c)

(b)
(d)

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

(e)
(l)

4.7 cm

(f)

37c22l
72c18l

(m)
x

6.3 cm

(g)
(n)
63c14l

23 mm

(o)

39c47l

(h)
3.7 m

(i)
(p)
k

(j)

46c5l

14.3 cm

(q)

5.4 cm

(k)

31c12l

4.8 m

74c29l

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68c41l

(r)

0.45 m

6.2 cm
73c

4.

(s)

5.75 cm

19c17l

17.3 m

(t)

Hamish is standing at an angle of


67c from a goalpost and 12.8 m
away as shown. How far does he
need to kick a football for it to
reach the goal?

12.8 m

67c
b

5.

6c3l

Square ABCD with side 6 cm has


line CD produced to E as shown
so that +EAD = 64c 12l. Evaluate
the length, correct to 1 decimal
place, of
(a) CE
(b) AE
E

2.

A roof is pitched at 60c. A room


built inside the roof space is to
have a 2.7 m high ceiling. How
far in from the side of the roof
will the wall for the room go?
64c12l

2.7 m
60c

3.

A diagonal in a rectangle with


breadth 6.2 cm makes an angle
of 73c with the vertex as shown.
Find the length of the rectangle
correct to 1 decimal place.

6.

6 cm

A right-angled triangle with


hypotenuse 14.5 cm long has one
interior angle of 43c 36l. Find the
lengths of the other two sides of
the triangle.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

7.

8.

9.

A right-angled triangle ABC


with the right angle at A has
+B = 56c44l and AB = 26 mm.
Find the length of the
hypotenuse.
A triangular fence is made for a
garden inside a park. Three holes
A, B and C for fence posts are
made at the corners so that A and
B are 10.2 m apart, AB and CB are
perpendicular, and angle CAB is
59c 54l. How far apart are A and C?
Triangle ABC has +BAC = 46c
and +ABC = 54c. An altitude
is drawn from C to meet AB at
point D. If the altitude is 5.3 cm
long, nd, correct to 1 decimal
place, the length of sides
(a) AC
(b) BC
(c) AB

(a) Find the length of the side of


the rhombus.
(b) Find the length of the other
diagonal.
11. Kite ABCD has diagonal
BD = 15.8 cm as shown.
If +ABD =57c29l and
+DBC = 72c51l, nd the length
of the other diagonal AC.
A

57c29l

72c51l

15.8 cm

10. A rhombus has one diagonal


12 cm long and the diagonal
makes an angle of 28c 23l with
the side of the rhombus.

Finding an angle
Trigonometry can also be used to nd one of the angles in a right-angled
triangle.

EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of i, in degrees and minutes.

CONTINUED

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Solution
cos i =

adjacent

hypotenuse
5.8
=
7.3
5.8
` i = cos - 1 c
m
7.3
= 37c 23l

2. Find the value of a, in degrees and minutes.

Solution
tan a =

opposite

adjacent
4
= .9
2 .1
4 .9
` a = tan - 1 c
m
2 .1
= 66c 48l

6.4 Exercises
1.

Find the value of each pronumeral,


in degrees and minutes.
(a)

(b)

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

(c)

(i)

(j)
(d)

(e)

3.8 cm

(k)

2.4 cm

(l)

(f)
8.3 cm

5.7 cm

(m)

i
6.9 mm

(g)

11.3 mm

(n)

(h)

3m

7m

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(o)

b
20 m

5.1 cm

11.6 cm

3.

(p)
15 m

A eld is 13.7 m wide and Andre is


on one side. There is a gate on the
opposite side and 5.6 m along from
where Andre is. At what angle will
he walk to get to the gate?

Andre

13 m

(q)

4.4 cm

12.3 m

7.6 cm
13.7 m

(r)

5.6 m

14.3 cm

8.4 cm

(s)

4.

Gate

A 60 m long bridge has an opening


in the middle and both sides open
up to let boats pass underneath.
The two parts of the bridge oor
rise up to a height of 18 m.
Through what angle do they move?

3m

18 m

5m

(t)

i
18.9 cm

10.3 cm

2.

A kite is ying at an angle of i


above the ground as shown. If the
kite is 12.3 m above the ground and
has 20 m of string, nd angle i.

5.

60 m

An equilateral triangle ABC with


side 7 cm has an altitude AD that
is 4.5 cm long. Evaluate the angle
the altitude makes with vertex A
]+DAB g.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

6.

7.

Rectangle ABCD has dimensions


18 cm # 7 cm. A line AE is drawn
so that E bisects DC.
(a) How long is line AE? (Answer
to 1 decimal place).
(b) Evaluate +DEA.
A 52 m tall tower has wire stays
on either side to minimise wind
movement. One stay is 61.3 m
long and the other is 74.5 m long
as shown. Find the angles that
the tower makes with each stay.
a b
61.3 m

5 cm

D
1 cm

(a) Find +BEC.


(b) Find the length of the
rectangle.
10. A diagonal of a rhombus with
side 9 cm makes an angle of 16c
with the side as shown. Find the
lengths of the diagonals.

74.5 m

16c

52 m

9 cm

8.

(a) The angle from the ground up


to the top of a pole is 41c when
standing 15 m on one side of it.
Find the height h of the pole, to
the nearest metre.
(b) If Seb stands 6 m away on the
other side, nd angle i.

11. (a) Kate is standing at the side of


a road at point A, 15.9 m away
from an intersection. She is at an
angle of 39c from point B on the
other side of the road. What is
the width w of the road?
(b) Kate walks 7.4 m to point
C. At what angle is she from
point B?
B

i
6m

9.

15 m

41c

Rectangle ABCD has a line BE


drawn so that +AEB = 90c and
DE = 1 cm. The width of the
rectangle is 5 cm.

w
A

39c
7.4 m

i
15.9 m

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Applications
DID YOU KNOW?
The Leaning Tower of Pisa was built as a belfry for the cathedral nearby. Work started on the
tower in 1174, but when it was only half completed the soil underneath one side of it subsided.
This made the tower lean to one side. Work stopped, and it wasnt until 100 years later that
architects found a way of completing the tower. The third and fifth storeys were built close to
the vertical to compensate for the lean. Later a vertical top storey was added.

The tower is about 55 m tall and 16 m in diameter. It is tilted about 5 m from the vertical, and
tilts by an extra 0.6 cm each year.

Class Investigation
Discuss some of the problems with the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
Find the angle at which it is tilted from the vertical.
Work out how far it will be tilted in 10 years.
Use research to nd out if the tower will fall over, and if so, when.

Angle of elevation
The angle of elevation is used to measure the
height of tall objects that cannot be measured
directly, for example a tree, cliff, tower or
building.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

Class Exercise
Stand outside the school building and look up to the top of the building.
Think about which angle your eyes pass through to look up to the top of
the building.

The angle of elevation, i, is the angle measured when


looking from the ground up to the top of the object. We
assume that the ground is horizontal.

EXAMPLE
The angle of elevation of a tree from a point 50 m out from its base is
38c 14l. Find the height of the tree, to the nearest metre.

Solution
We assume that the tree is vertical!

A clinometer is used to
measure the angle of
elevation or depression.

tan 38c 14l =

h
50

50 # tan 38c 14l = 50 #

h
50

50 tan 38c 14l = h


39 Z h
So the tree is 39 m tall, to the nearest metre.

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Angle of depression
The angle of depression is the angle
formed when looking down from a high
place to an object below.

Class Exercise
If your classroom is high enough, stand at the window and look down to
something below the window. If the classroom is not high enough, nd
a hill or other high place. Through which angle do your eyes pass as you
look down?

The angle of depression, i, is the angle measured when


looking down from the horizontal to an object below.

EXAMPLES
1. The angle of depression from the top of a 20 m building to a boy
below is 61c 39l. How far is the boy from the building, to 1 decimal place?

Solution

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

+DAC = +ACB
= 61c 39l
20
tan 61c 39l = x
20
x # tan 61c 39l = x # x
x tan 61c 39l = 20
x tan 61c 39l
20
=
tan 61c 39l
tan 61c 39l
20
x=
tan 61c 39l
Z 10.8

(alternate angles, AD < BC)

So the boy is 10.8 m from the building.


2. A bird sitting on top of an 8 m tall tree looks down at a possum 3.5 m
out from the base of the tree. Find the angle of elevation to the nearest
minute.

Solution
B

8m

3.5 m

The angle of depression is i


Since AB < DC
+BDC = i
tan i =

8
3.5

8
m
3 .5
= 66c 22l

` i = tan - 1 c

] horizontal lines g
^ alternate angles h

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Bearings
Bearings can be described in different ways:
For example, N70c W:

Start at north and


measure 70o around
towards the west.

True bearings measure angles clockwise from north

EXAMPLES
We could write
315o T for true bearings.

1. Sketch the diagram when M is on a bearing of 315c from P.

Solution

Measure clockwise,
starting at north.

2. X is on a bearing of 030c from Y. Sketch this diagram.

Solution

All bearings have 3 digits


so 30 becomes 030 for
a bearing.

3. A house is on a bearing of 305c from a school. What is the bearing of


the school from the house?

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

Solution
The diagram below shows the bearing of the house from the school.
North
House

School
305c

To nd the bearing of the school from the house, draw in North from the
house and use geometry to nd the bearing as follows:
N2

N1
H

S
305c

The bearing of the school from the house is +N 2 HS.


+N 1 SH = 360c - 305c
= 55c

^ angle of revolution h

+N 2 HS = 180c - 55c
= 125c

(cointerior angles, N 2 H < N 1 S)

So the bearing of the school from the house is 125c.

4. A plane leaves Sydney and ies


100 km due east, then
125 km due north. Find the
bearing of the plane from Sydney,
to the nearest degree.

CONTINUED

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Solution

125
100
= 1.25

tan x =

x = tan - 1 (1.25)
(to the nearest degree)
= 51c
i = 90c - xc
= 90c - 51c
= 39c
So the bearing of the plane from Sydney is 039.
5. A ship sails on a bearing of 140 from Sydney for 250 km. How far
east of Sydney is the ship now, to the nearest km?

Solution

A navigator on a ship
uses a sextant to
measure angles.

Could you use a


different triangle for
this question?

i = 140c - 90c
= 50c
x
cos 50c =
250
x
250 # cos 50c = 250 #
250
250 cos 50c = x
161 Z x
So the ship is 161 km east of Sydney, to the nearest kilometre.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

6.5 Exercises
1.

2.

Draw a diagram to show the


bearing in each question.
(a) A boat is on a bearing of 100c
from a beach house.
(b) Jamie is on a bearing of 320c
from a campsite.
(c) A seagull is on a bearing of
200c from a jetty.
(d) Alistair is on a bearing of
050c from the bus stop.
(e) A plane is on a bearing of
285c from Broken Hill.
(f) A farmhouse is on a bearing
of 012c from a dam.
(g) Mohammed is on a bearing of
160c from his house.
(h) A mine shaft is on a bearing
of 080c from a town.
(i) Yvonne is on a bearing of
349c from her school.
(j) A boat ramp is on a bearing of
280c from an island.

North

(b)

West

East
35c
X

South

(c)

North

X
10c

West

East

South

(d)
X

Find the bearing of X from Y in


each question in 3 gure (true)
bearings.
North
(a)

North

23c
West

East

South

(e)
112c

North

West
X

X
South

East

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3.

Jack is on a bearing of 260c from


Jill. What is Jills bearing from
Jack?

4.

A tower is on a bearing of 030c


from a house. What is the bearing
of the house from the tower?

5.

Tamworth is on a bearing of
340c from Newcastle. What is
the bearing of Newcastle from
Tamworth?

6.

7.

8.

The angle of elevation from a


point 11.5 m away from the base
of a tree up to the top of the tree
is 42c 12l. Find the height of the
tree to one decimal point.
Geoff stands 25.8 m away from
the base of a tower and measures
the angle of elevation as 39c 20l.
Find the height of the tower to
the nearest metre.
A wire is suspended from the
top of a 100 m tall bridge tower
down to the bridge at an angle of
elevation of 52c. How long is the
wire, to 1 decimal place?

10. A plane leaves Melbourne and


ies on a bearing of 065c for
2500 km.
(a) How far north of Melbourne
is the plane?
(b) How far east of Melbourne
is it?
(c) What is the bearing of
Melbourne from the plane?
11. The angle of elevation of a tower
is 39c 44l when measured at a
point 100 m from its base. Find
the height of the tower, to
1 decimal place.
12. Kim leaves his house and walks
for 2 km on a bearing of 155c .
How far south is Kim from his
house now, to 1 decimal place?
13. The angle of depression from
the top of an 8 m tree down to
a rabbit is 43c 52l. If an eagle is
perched in the top of the tree,
how far does it need to y to
reach the rabbit, to the nearest
metre?
14. A girl rides a motorbike through
her property, starting at her
house. If she rides south for
1.3 km, then rides west for
2.4 km, what is her bearing from
the house, to the nearest degree?
15. A plane ies north from Sydney
for 560 km, then turns and
ies east for 390 km. What is
its bearing from Sydney, to the
nearest degree?

9.

A cat crouches at the top of a


4.2 m high cliff and looks down
at a mouse 1.3 m out from the
foot (base) of the cliff. What is
the angle of depression, to the
nearest minute?

16. Find the height of a pole, correct


to 1 decimal place, if a 10 m rope
tied to it at the top and stretched
out straight to reach the ground
makes an angle of elevation of
67c13l.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

17. The angle of depression from the


top of a cliff down to a boat
100 m out from the foot of the
cliff is 59c42l. How high is the
cliff, to the nearest metre?
18. A group of students are
bushwalking. They walk north
from their camp for 7.5 km, then
walk west until their bearing
from camp is 320c. How far are
they from camp, to 1 decimal
place?
19. A 20 m tall tower casts a shadow
15.8 m long at a certain time
of day. What is the angle of
elevation from the edge of the
shadow up to the top of the
tower at this time?

20 m

15.8 m

20. A at verandah roof 1.8 m deep


is 2.6 m up from the ground. At a
certain time of day, the sun makes
an angle of elevation of 72c 25l.
How much shade is provided on
the ground by the verandah roof
at that time, to 1 decimal place?

21. Find the angle of elevation of a


15.9 m cliff from a point 100 m
out from its base.
22. A plane leaves Sydney and ies
for 2000 km on a bearing of 195c.
How far due south of Sydney
is it?
23. The angle of depression from the
top of a 15 m tree down to a pond
is 25c41l. If a bird is perched in
the top of the tree, how far does it
need to y to reach the pond, to
the nearest metre?
24. A girl starting at her house, walks
south for 2.7 km then walks east
for 1.6 km. What is her bearing
from the house, to the nearest
degree?
25. The angle of depression from the
top of a tower down to a car
250 m out from the foot of the
tower is 38c19l. How high is the
tower, to the nearest metre?
26. A hot air balloon ies south for
3.6 km then turns and ies east
until it is on a bearing of 127c
from where it started. How far
east does it y?
27. A 24 m wire is attached to the
top of a pole and runs down to
the ground where the angle of
elevation is 22c 32l. Find the
height of the pole.

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28. A train depot has train tracks


running north for 7.8 km where
they meet another set of tracks
going east for 5.8 km into a
station. What is the bearing of
the depot from the station, to the
nearest degree?
29. Jessica leaves home and walks for
4.7 km on a bearing of 075c. She
then turns and walks for 2.9 km
on a bearing of 115c and she is
then due east of her home.
(a) How far north does Jessica
walk?
(b) How far is she from home?

30. Builder Jo stands 4.5 m out from


the foot of a building and looks
up at to the top of the building
where the angle of elevation is
71c. Builder Ben stands at the top
of the building looking down at
his wheelbarrow that is 10.8 m
out from the foot of the building
on the opposite side from where
Jo is standing.
(a) Find the height of the
building.
(b) Find the angle of depression
from Ben down to his
wheelbarrow.

Exact Ratios
A right-angled triangle with one angle of 45 is isosceles. The exact length of
its hypotenuse can be found.

Pythagoras theorem is used


to find the length of the
hypotenuse.

c2 = a2 + b2
AC 2 = 1 2 + 1 2
=2
AC =

This means that the trigonometric ratios of 45c can be written as exact ratios.

1
2
1
cos 45c =
2
tan 45c = 1
sin 45c =

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

303

This angle is commonly used; for example, 45 is often used for the pitch of
a roof. The triangle with angles of 60 and 30 can also be written with exact
sides.

Halve the equilateral


triangle to get TABD.

AD 2 = 2 2 - 1 2
=3
AD =

3
2
1
cos 60 =
2
tan 60 = 3

sin 30c =

sin 60 =

1
2

3
2
1
tan 30c =
3

It may be easier to
remember the triangle
rather than all these ratios.

cos 30c =

DID YOU KNOW?


The ratios of all multiples of these angles follow a pattern:
A

0c

30c

45c

60c

90c

120c

135c

150c

sin A

0
2

1
2

2
2

3
2

4
2

3
2

2
2

1
2

cos A

4
2

3
2

2
2

1
2

0
2

- 1
2

- 2
2

- 3
2

The rules of the pattern are:


for sin A, when you reach 4, reverse the numbers
for cos A, when you reach 0, change signs and reverse

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EXAMPLES
1. Find the exact value of sec 45.

Solution
1
cos 45
1
=
1
2
= 2

sec 45 =

2. A boat ramp is to be made with an angle of 30c and base length 5 m.


What is the exact length of the surface of the ramp?

Solution
5
cos 30c = x
x cos 30c = 5
5
cos 30c
5
=
3
2
2
=5#
3
10
=
3
10 3
=
3

x=

So the exact length of the ramp is

10 3
m.
3

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

305

6.6 Exercises
Find the exact value in all questions,
with rational denominator where
relevant.
1.

(b)

Evaluate
(a) sin 60c + cos 60c
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

cos 2 45c = (cos 45c) 2

cos 2 45c + sin 2 45c


cosec 45c
2 sec 60c
cot 30c + cot 60c

(c)

(f) tan 60c - tan 30c


(g) sin 2 60c + sin 2 45c
(h) sin 45c cos 30c + cos 45c sin 30c
(i) 3 tan 30c
tan 45c + tan 60c
(j)
1 - tan 45c tan 60c

3.

(k) cos 30c cos 60c - sin 30c sin 60c 4.


(l) cos 2 30c + sin 2 30c
(m) 2 sec 45c - cosec 30c
2 sin 60c
sin 45c
(o) 1 + tan 2 30c
(n)

(p)

1 - cos 45c
1 + cos 45c

(q)

cot 30c
sec 60c

(r) sin 2 45c - 1


(s) 5 cosec 2 60c
(t)
2.

(a)

A 2-person tent is pitched at an


angle of 45c. Each side of the
tent is 2 m long. A pole of what
height is needed for the centre of
the tent?

5.

If the tent in the previous


question was pitched at an angle
of 60c, how high would the pole
need to be?

6.

The angle of elevation from a


point 10 m out from the base of
a tower to the top of the tower
is 30c. Find the exact height
of the tower, with rational
denominator.

2 - tan 60c
sec 2 45c

Find the exact value of all


pronumerals

A 2.4 m ladder reaches 1.2 m up


a wall. At what angle is it resting
against the wall?

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

7.

the oor. How far out from the


wall is it?

The pitch of a roof is 45c and


spans a length of 12 m.

Find the exact length of AC.

9.

(a) What is the length l of the


roof?
(b) If a wall is placed inside the
roof one third of the way along
from the corner, what height will
the wall be?
8.

A 1.8 m ladder is placed so that it


makes a 60c angle where it meets

10. The angle of depression from the


top of a 100 m cliff down to a
boat at the foot of the cliff is 30c.
How far out from the cliff is the
boat?

Angles of Any Magnitude


The angles in a right-angled triangle are always acute. However, angles greater
than 90c are used in many situations, such as in bearings. Negative angles are
also used in areas such as engineering and science.
We can use a circle to nd trigonometric ratios of angles of any magnitude
(size) up to and beyond 360c.

Investigation
1. (a) Copy and complete the table for these acute angles
(between 0c and 90c).
x

0c

10c

20c

30c

40c

50c

60c

70c

80c

90c

sin x
cos x
tan x
(b) Copy and complete the table for these obtuse angles
(between 90c and 180c).
x
sin x
cos x
tan x

100c

110c

120c

130c

140c

150c

160c

170c

180c

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

(c) Copy and complete the table for these reex angles
(between 180c and 270c).
x

190c

200c

210c

220c

230c

240c

250c

260c

270c

350c

360c

sin x
cos x
tan x
(d) Copy and complete the table for these reex angles
(between 270c and 360c).
x

280c

290c

300c

310c

320c

330c

340c

sin x
cos x
tan x
2. What do you notice about their signs? Can you see any patterns?
Could you write down any rules for the sign of sin, cos and tan for
different angle sizes?
3. Draw the graphs of y = sin x, y = cos x and y = tan x for
0c # x # 360c. For y = tan x, you may need to nd the ratios of
angle close to and either side of 90c and 270c.

Drawing the graphs of the trigonometric ratios can help us to see the
change in signs as angles increase.
We divide the domain 0c to 360c into 4 quadrants:

1st quadrant:
0c to 90c
2nd quadrant: 90c to 180c
3rd quadrant: 180c to 270c
4th quadrant: 270c to 360c

EXAMPLES
1. Describe the sign of sin x in each section (quadrant) of the graph y = sin x.

Solution
We can sketch the graph using the table below or using the values from
the tables in the investigation above for more accuracy.
x

0c

90c

180c

270c
-1

360c
0
CONTINUED

307

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

1
y = sin x

90c

180c

270c

360c

-1

The graph is above the x-axis for the rst 2 quadrants, then below for the
3rd and 4th quadrants.
This means that sin x is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants and
negative in the 3rd and 4th quadrants.
2. Describe the sign of cos x in each section (quadrant) of the graph of
y = cos x.

Solution
We can sketch the graph using the table below or using the values from
the tables in the investigation above for more accuracy.
x

0c

90c

180c
-1

270c

360c

y = cos x

90c

180c

270c

360c

-1

The graph is above the x-axis in the 1st quadrant, then below for the 2nd
and 3rd quadrants and above again for the 4th quadrant.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

309

This means that cos x is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants and
negative in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants.
3. Describe the sign of tan x in each section (quadrant) of the
graph y = tan x.

Solution
We can sketch the graph using the table below or using the values from
the tables in the investigation above for more accuracy.
x

0c

90c

180c

270c

360c

No result

No result

Neither tan 90c nor tan 270c exists (we say that they are undened).
Find the tan of angles close to these angles, for example tan 89c 59l and
tan 90c 01l, tan 279c 59l and tan 270c 01l.
There are asymptotes at 90c and 270c. On the left of 90c and 270c,
tan x is positive and on the right, the ratio is negative.
y

90c

180c

270c

360c

y = tan x

The graph is above the x-axis in the 1st quadrant, below for the 2nd,
above for the 3rd and below for the 4th quadrant.
This means that tan x is positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants and
negative in the 2nd and 4th quadrants.

To show why these ratios have different signs in different quadrants, we


look at angles around a unit circle (a circle with radius 1 unit).
We use congruent triangles when nding angles of any magnitude.
Page 310 shows an example of congruent triangles all with angles of 20c inside
a circle with radius 1 unit.

You will see why these


ratios are undefined later
on in this chapter.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

1 unit

1 unit
20c
20c

20c
20c
1 unit

1 unit

If we divide the circle into 4 quadrants, we notice that the x- and y-values
have different signs in different quadrants. This is crucial to notice when
looking at angles of any magnitude and explains the different signs you get
when nding sin, cos and tan for angles greater than 90c.

Quadrant 1
Looking at the rst quadrant (see diagram below), notice that x and y are both
positive and that angle i is turning anticlockwise from the x-axis.
y
First quadrant
The angle at the x-axis is 0 and
the angle at the y-axis is 90c,
with all other angles in this
quadrant between these two
angles.

(x, y)
1 unit

i
x

Point (x, y) forms a triangle with sides 1, x and y, so we can nd the


trigonometric ratios for angle i.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

311

y
1
=y

sin i =

x
1
=x

cos i =

y
tan i = x

Investigation
Since cos i = x and sin i = y, we can write the point (x, y) as (cos i, sin i).
The polar coordinates (cos i, sin i) give a circle.
The polar coordinates 6 A sin ] ai + c g, B sin ] bi g @ form a shape called a
Lissajous gure. These are sometimes called a Bowditch curve and they
are often used as logos, for example the ABC logo.
Use the Internet to research these and other similar shapes.
Use a graphics calculator or a computer program such as Autograph to draw
other graphs with polar coordinates using variations of sin i and cos i.

Quadrant 2
In the second quadrant, angles are between 90c and 180c.
If we take the 1st quadrant coordinates (x, y), where x 2 0 and y 2 0 and
put them in the 2nd quadrant, we notice that all x values are negative in the
second quadrant and y values are positive.
So the point in the 2nd quadrant will be (-x, y)
y
90c
Second quadrant
(-x, y)
y
180c

1 unit

180c- i

0c

These are called polar


coordinates.

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Since cos i = x, cos i will negative in the 2nd quadrant.


Since sin i = y , sin i will be positive in the 2nd quadrant.
y
tan i = x so it will be negative (a positive number divided by a negative
number).
To have an angle of i in the triangle, the angle around the circle is 180c - i.

Quadrant 3
In the third quadrant, angles are between 180c and 270c.
y

90c

180c

180c + i

x
y

0c

1 unit

(-x, -y)
Third quadrant

270c

Notice that x and y are both negative in the third quadrant, so cos i and
sin i will be both negative.
y
tan i = x so will be positive (a negative divided by a negative number).
To have an angle of i in the triangle, the angle around the circle is 180c + i.

Quadrant 4
In the fourth quadrant, angles are between 270c and 360c.
y
90c

180c

i
360c - i

0c

1 unit

360c

(x, -y)

270c

Fourth quadrant

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

313

While y remains negative in the fourth quadrant, x is positive again, so


sin i is negative and cos i is positive.
y
tan i = x so will be negative (a negative divided by a positive number)
For an angle i in the triangle, the angle around the circle is 360c - i.

ASTC rule
Putting all of these results together gives a rule for all four quadrants that we
usually call the ASTC rule.
y
90c

2nd quadrant

1st quadrant

180c - i

A
0c

180c

360c

180c + i

3rd quadrant

360c - i
4th quadrant

270c

A: ALL ratios are positive in the 1st quadrant


S: Sin is positive in the 2nd quadrant (cos and tan are negative)
T: Tan is positive in the 3rd quadrant (sin and cos are negative)
C: Cos is positive in the 4th quadrant (sin and tan are negative)
This rule also works for the reciprocal trigonometric ratios. For example,
where cos is positive, sec is also positive, where sin is positive, so is cosec and
where tan is positive, so is cot.
We can summarise the ASTC rules for all 4 quadrants:

First quadrant:
Angle i:
sin i is positive
cos i is positive
tan i is positive

You could remember


this rule as All Stations
To Central or A Silly
Trigonometry Concept, or
you could make up your
own!

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Second quadrant:
Angle 180c - i:
sin ] 180c - i g = sin i
cos ] 180c - i g = - cos i
tan ] 180c - i g = - tan i
Third quadrant:
Angle 180c + i:
sin ] 180c + i g = - sin i
cos ] 180c + i g = - cos i
tan ] 180c + i g = tan i
Fourth quadrant:
Angle 360c - i:
sin ] 360c - i g = - sin i
cos ] 360c - i g = cos i
tan ] 360c - i g = - tan i

EXAMPLES
1. Find all quadrants where
(a) sin i 2 0
(b) cos i 1 0
(c) tan i 1 0 and cos i 2 0

Solution
(a) sin i 2 0 means sin i is positive.
Using the ASTC rule, sin i is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants.
(b) cos i is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants, so cos i is negative in
the 2nd and 3rd quadrants.
(c) tan i is positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants so tan i is negative
in the 2nd and 4th quadrants. Also cos i is positive in the 1st and 4th
quadrants.
So tan i 1 0 and cos i 2 0 in the 4th quadrant.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

315

2. Find the exact ratio of tan 330c.

Solution
First we nd the quadrant that 330c is in. It is in the 4th quadrant.
y

330c

30c

The angle inside the triangle in the 4th quadrant is 30c and tan is
negative in the 4th quadrant.

Notice that
360c - 30c = 330c.

tan 330c = - tan 30c


1
=3

30c

:3

60c

3. Find the exact value of sin 225c.

Solution
The angle in the triangle in the 3rd quadrant is 45c and sin is negative in
the 3rd quadrant.
CONTINUED

Notice that
180c + 45c = 225c.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

225c

45c

sin 225c = - sin 45c


1
=2

45c

:2

45c

4. Find the exact value of cos 510c.

Solution
To nd cos 510c, we move around the circle more than once.
y

30c

150c
510c

510c - 360c = 150c


So
510c = 360c + 150c

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

The angle is in the 2nd quadrant where cos is


negative. The triangle has 30c in it.

30c

cos 510c = - cos 30c


=-

317

3
2

:3

60c

Notice that
180c - 30c = 150c.

5. Simplify cos (180c + x).

Solution
180c + x is an angle in the 3rd quadrant where cos is negative.
So cos ] 180c + x g = - cos x
6. If sin x = -

3
and cos x 2 0, nd the value of tan x and sec x.
5

Solution
sin x 1 0 in the 3rd and 4th quadrants and cos x 2 0 in the 1st and 4th
quadrants.
So sin x 1 0 and cos x 2 0 in the 4th quadrant.
This means that tan x 1 0 and sec x 2 0.
sin x =

sec x is the reciprocal of


cos x so is positive in the
4th quadrant.

opposite
hypotenuse

So the opposite side is 3 and the hypotenuse is 5.


y

x
5

This is a 3-4-5 triangle.

By Pythagoras theorem, the adjacent side is 4.


CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

3
4
1
sec x = cos x
5
=
4

So tan x = -

The ASTC rule also works for negative angles. These are measured in the
opposite way (clockwise) from positive angles as shown.
y
-270c

2nd quadrant
-(180c+ i )

1st quadrant

-360c
0

-180c

-(180c- i )

-(360c- i )

3rd quadrant

-i
4th quadrant

-90c

The only difference with this rule is that the angles are labelled differently.

EXAMPLE
Find the exact value of tan (-120c).

Solution
Notice that
- (180c - 60c) = -120c.

Moving around the circle the opposite way, the angle is in the 3rd
quadrant, with 60c in the triangle.
y

60c

120c

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

Tan is positive in the 3rd quadrant.


tan ] -120c g = tan 60c
=

3
30c

:3

60c

6.7 Exercises
1.

Find all quadrants where


(a) cos i 2 0
(b) tan i 2 0
(c) sin i 2 0
(d) tan i 1 0
(e) sin i 1 0
(f) cos i 1 0
(g) sin i 1 0 and tan i 2 0
(h) cos i 1 0 and tan i 2 0
(i) sin i 2 0 and tan i 1 0
(j) sin i 1 0 and tan i 1 0

2.

(a) Which quadrant is the angle


240c in?
(b) Find the exact value of cos 240c.

3.

(a) Which quadrant is the angle


315c in?
(b) Find the exact value of sin 315c.

4.

(a) Which quadrant is the angle


120c in?
(b) Find the exact value of
tan 120c .

5.

(a) Which quadrant is the angle


-225c in?
(b) Find the exact value of
sin (-225c).

6.

(a) Which quadrant is the angle


-330c in?
(b) Find the exact value of
cos (-330c).

7.

Find the exact value of each ratio.


(a) tan 225c
(b) cos 315c
(c) tan 300c
(d) sin 150c
(e) cos 120c
(f) sin 210c
(g) cos 330c
(h) tan 150c
(i) sin 300c
(j) cos 135c

8.

Find the exact value of each ratio.


(a) cos (-225c)
(b) cos (-210c)
(c) tan (-300c)
(d) cos (-150c)
(e) sin (-60c)
(f) tan (-240c)
(g) cos (-300c)
(h) tan (-30c)
(i) cos (-45c)
(j) sin (-135c)

319

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

9.

Find the exact value of


(a) cos 570c
(b) tan 420c
(c) sin 480c
(d) cos 660c
(e) sin 690c
(f) tan 600c
(g) sin 495c
(h) cos 405c
(i) tan 675c
(j) sin 390c
3
and cos i 1 0, nd
4
sin i and cos i as fractions.

10. If tan i =

Use Pythagoras theorem to


find the third side.

4
11. Given sin i = and tan i 1 0,
7
nd the exact value of cos i and
tan i.
5
12. If sin x 1 0 and tan x = - , nd
8
the exact value of cos x and cosec x.
2
and tan x 1 0,
5
nd the exact value of cosec x,
cot x and tan x.

13. Given cos x =

14. If cos x 1 0 and sin x 1 0, nd


cos x and sin x in surd form with
5
rational denominator if tan x = .
7

4
and
9
270c 1 i 1 360c, nd the exact

15. If sin i = -

value of tan i and sec i.


3
and
8
180 1 i 1 270, nd the exact
value of tan x, sec x and cosec x.

16. If cos i = -

17. Given sin x = 0.3 and tan x 1 0,


(a) express sin x as a fraction
(b) nd the exact value of cos x
and tan x.
18. If tan a = - 1.2 and
270 1 i 1 360, nd the exact
values of cot a, sec a and cosec a.
19. Given that cos i = - 0.7 and
90c 1 i 1 180c , nd the exact
value of sin i and cot i.
20. Simplify
(a) sin ] 180c - i g
(b) cos ] 360c - x g
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

tan ^ 180c + b h
sin ] 180c + a g
tan ] 360c - i g
sin ] - i g
cos ] - a g
tan ] - x g

Trigonometric Equations
This is called the principle
solution.

Whenever you nd an unknown angle in a triangle, you solve a trigonometric


equation e.g. cos x = 0.34. You can nd this on your calculator.
Now that we know how to nd the trigonometric ratios of angles of any
magnitude, there can be more than one solution to a trigonometric equation if
we look at a larger domain.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

321

EXAMPLES
1. Solve cos x =

3
in the domain 0 # x # 360.
2

Solution
3
is a positive ratio and cos is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants.
2
So there are two possible answers.
In the 1st quadrant, angles are in the form of i and in the 4th quadrant
angles are in the form of 360c - i.
cos 30c =

3
2

30c

But there is also a solution in the 4th quadrant where


the angle is 360c - i.
3
2
x = 30c , 360c - 30c
= 30c , 330c

:3

For cos x =

60c

2. Solve 2 sin 2 x - 1 = 0 for 0c # x # 360c.

Solution
2 sin 2 x - 1 = 0
2 sin 2 x = 1
1
sin 2 x =
2
sin x = !

This is called the principle


solution.

2
1
=!
2
Since the ratio could be positive or negative, there are solutions in all
4 quadrants.
1st quadrant: angle i
2nd quadrant: angle 180c - i
3rd quadrant: angle 180c + i
4th quadrant: angle 360c - i
CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

1
2
x = 45c , 180c - 45c , 180c + 45c , 360c - 45c
= 45c , 135c , 225c , 315c

sin 45c =

45c

:2

45c

3. Solve tan x =

3 for - 180c # x # 180c.

Solution
3 is a positive ratio and tan is positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants.
So there are two possible answers.
In the domain - 180c # x # 180c, we use positive angles for
0c # x # 180c and negative angles for - 180c # x # 0c.
y
90c

2nd quadrant

1st quadrant

180c - i

180c

0c

-180c
-(180c - i)

0c

3rd quadrant

-i
4th quadrant

-90c

In the 1st quadrant, angles are in the form of i and in the 3rd quadrant
angles are in the form of - ^ 180c - i h .
tan 60c = 3
But there is also a solution in the 3rd quadrant where the angle is
- ^ 180c - i h .
For tan x = 3
x = 60c , - ] 180c - 60c g
= 30c , -120c

30c

:3

60c

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

323

4. Solve 2 sin 2x - 1 = 0 for 0c # x # 360c.

Solution
Notice that the angle is 2x but the domain is for x.
If 0c # x # 360c then we multiply each part by 2 to get the domain for 2x.
0c # 2x # 720c
This means that we can nd the solutions by going
around the circle twice!

30c

2 sin 2x - 1 = 0
2 sin 2x = 1

:3

1
2
1
sin 30c =
2
sin 2x =

60c

Sin is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants.


First time around the circle, 1st quadrant is i and the 2nd quadrant is 180c - i.
Second time around the circle, we add 360c to the angles.
So 1st quadrant answer is 360c + i and the 2nd quadrant answer is
360c + ] 180c - i g or 540c - i.
So 2x = 30c , 180c - 30c, 360c + 30c , 540c - 30c
= 30c , 150c , 390c , 510c
` x = 15c , 75c , 195c , 255c

The trigonometric graphs can also help solve some trigonometric equations.

EXAMPLE
Solve cos x = 0 for 0c # x # 360c.
cos 90c = 0
However, looking at the graph of y = cos x shows that there is another
solution in the domain 0c # x # 360c.
y

90c
-1

For cos x = 0
x = 90c, 270c

180c

270c 360c

Notice that these solutions lie


inside the original domain of
0c # x # 360c.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Investigation
Here are the 3 trigonometric graphs that you explored earlier in the chapter.
y = sin x

y = cos x

y = tan x

Use the values in the sin, cos and tan graphs to nd values for the inverse
trigonometric functions in the tables below and then sketch the inverse
trigonometric functions.
For example sin 270 = -1
1
So cosec 270c =
-1
= -1
Some values will be undened, so you will need to nd values near them
in order to see where the graph goes.
y = cosec x
x
sin x
cosec x

0c

90c

180c

270c

360c

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

y = sec x
x

0c

90c

180c

270c

360c

0c

90c

180c

270c

360c

cos x
sec x
y = cot x
x
tan x
cot x

Here are the graphs of the inverse trigonometric functions.


y = cosec x

y = sec x

y = cot x

y = cotx
1

0
-1

90c

180c 270c

360c

x
360c

325

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

6.8 Exercises
1.

Solve for 0c # i # 360c.


(a) sin i = 0.35
1
(b) cos i = 2
(c) tan i = - 1
3
(d) sin i =
2
1
(e) tan i = 3
(f) 2 cos i = 3
(g) tan 2i =

(h) 2 sin 3i = - 1
(i) 2 cos 2i - 1 = 0
(j) tan 2 3i = 1
2.

Solve for -180c # i # 180c.


(a) cos i = 0.187
1
(b) sin i =
2
(c) tan i = 1
3
(d) sin i = 2
1
(e) tan i = 3
(f) 3 tan 2 i = 1
(g) tan 2i = 1
(h) 2 sin 2 3i = 1
(i) tan i + 1 = 0
(j) tan 2 2i = 3

3.

Sketch y = cos x for


0c # x # 360c .

4.

Evaluate sin 270c .

5.

Sketch y = tan x for


0c # x # 360c .

6.

Solve tan x = 0 for


0c # x # 360c .

7.

Evaluate cos 180c .

8.

Find the value of sin 90c .

9.

Solve cos x = 1 for


0c # x # 360c .

10. Sketch y = sin x for


-180c # x # 180c .
11. Evaluate cos 270c.
12. Solve sin x + 1 = 0 for
0c # x # 360c .
13. Solve cos 2 x = 1 for
0c # x # 360c .
14. Solve sin x = 0 for
0c # x # 360c .
15. Solve sin x = 1 for
- 360c # x # 360c .
16. Sketch y = sec x for
0c # x # 360c .
17. Sketch y = cot x for
0c # x # 360c .

Trigonometric Identities
Trigonometric identities are statements about the relationships of
trigonometric ratios. You have already met some of thesethe reciprocal
ratios, complementary angles and the rules for the angle of any magnitude.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

Reciprocal ratios

1
sin i
1
sec i =
cos i
1
cot i =
tan i

cosec i =

Complementary angles

sin i = cos ] 90c - i g


cosec i = sec ] 90c - i g
tan i = cot ] 90c - i g

Angles of any magnitude

sin ] 180c - i g = sin i


cos ] 180c - i g = - cos i
tan ] 180c - i g = - tan i
sin (180c + i) = - sin i
cos (180c + i) = - cos i
tan (180c + i) = tan i
sin (360c - i) = - sin i
cos (360c - i) = cos i
tan (360c - i) = - tan i
sin (- i) = - sin i
cos (- i) = cos i
tan (- i) = - tan i

In this section you will learn some other identities, based on the unit circle.
In the work on angles of any magnitude, we dened
sin i as the y-coordinate of P and cos i as the x-coordinate of P.

327

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

y
tan i = x
sin i
=
cos i

tan i =

sin i
cos i

cot i =

cos i
sin i

1
tan i
cos i
=
sin i

cot i =

Pythagorean identities
The circle has equation x 2 + y 2 = 1.
Substituting x = cos i and y = sin i into x 2 + y 2 = 1 gives
Remeber that cos 2 i
means (cos i) 2.

cos 2 i + sin 2 i = 1

This is an equation so can be rearranged to give


sin 2 i = 1 - cos 2 i
cos 2 i = 1 - sin 2 i
There are two other identities that can be derived from this identity.

1 + tan 2 i = sec 2 i

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

329

Proof
cos 2 i + sin 2 i = 1
cos 2 i sin 2 i
1
+
=
cos 2 i cos 2 i
cos 2 i
1 + tan 2 i = sec 2 i
This identity can be rearranged to give
tan 2 i = sec 2 i - 1
1 = sec 2 i - tan 2 i
cot 2 i + 1 = cosec 2 i

Proof
cos 2 i + sin 2 i = 1
cos 2 i sin 2 i
1
+
=
2
2
sin i sin i
sin 2 i
2
cot i + 1 = cosec 2 i
This identity can be rearranged to give

These are called Pythagorean


identities since the equation
of the circle comes from
Pythagoras rule (see Chapter 5).

cot 2 i = cosec 2 i - 1
1 = cosec 2 i - cot 2 i

EXAMPLES
1. Simplify sin i cot i.

Solution
sin i cot i = sin i #
= cos i

cos i
sin i

2. Simplify sin ^ 90c - b h sec b where b is an acute angle.

Solution
sin ^ 90c - b h sec b = cos b #
=1

1
cos b

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

3. Simplify

sin 4 i + sin 2 i cos 2 i .

Solution
sin 4 i + sin 2 i cos 2 i = sin 2 i ^ sin 2 i + cos 2 i h
= sin 2 i ] 1 g
= sin 2 i
= sin i
4. Prove cot x + tan x = cosec x sec x.

Solution
LHS = cot x + tan x
cos x sin x
=
+
sin x cos x
cos 2 x + sin 2 x
sin x cos x
1
=
sin x cos x
1
1
=
# cos x
sin x
= cosec x sec x
= RHS
=

` cot x + tan x = cosec x sec x


5. Prove that

1 - cos x
1
=
.
1 + cos x
sin 2 x

Solution
1 - cos x
sin 2 x
1 - cos x
=
1 - cos 2 x
1 - cos x
=
] 1 + cos x g ] 1 - cos x g
1
=
1 + cos x
= RHS

LHS =

1 - cos x
1
=
2
1
cos x
+
sin x

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

6.9 Exercises
1.

2.

Simplify
(a) sin ] 90c - i g
(b) tan ] 360c - i g
(c) cos ] - i g
(d) cot ] 90c - i g
(e) sec ] 180c + a g

= cosec 2 x - cot 2 x
(e) ] sin x - cos x g3
= sin x - cos x - 2 sin 2 x cos x
+2 sin x cos 2 x
(f) cot i + 2 sec i
1 - sin 2 i + 2 sin i
sin i cos i
(g) cos 2 ] 90c - i g cot i

Simplify
(a) tan i cos i
(b) tan i cosec i
(c) sec x cot x
(d) 1 - sin 2 x
1 - cos a
cot 2 x + 1
1 + tan 2 x
sec 2 i - 1
5 cot 2 i + 5
1
(j)
cosec 2 x
(k) sin 2 a cosec 2 a
(l) cot i - cot i cos 2 i
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)

3.

(d) sec 2 x - tan 2 x

= sin i cos i
(h) (cosec x + cot x) (cosec x - cot x) = 1

Prove that
(a) cos 2 x - 1 = - sin 2 x
1 + sin i
(b) sec i + tan i =
cos i
3
2
(c) 3 + 3 tan a =
1 - sin 2 a

1 - sin 2 i cos 2 i
cos 2 i
2
= tan i + cos 2 i
1 + cot b
(j)
- cos b
cosec b
sec b
=
tan b + cot b
(i)

4.

If x = 2 cos i and y = 2 sin i,


show that x 2 + y 2 = 4.

5.

Show that x 2 + y 2 = 81 if
x = 9 cos i and y = 9 sin i.

Non-right-angled Triangle Results


A non-right-angled triangle is named so that its angles and opposite sides have
the same pronumeral. There are two rules in trigonometry that refer to nonright-angled triangles. These are the sine rule and the cosine rule.

331

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Sine rule

sin A
sin B
sin C
a = b = c

Use this rule for finding an angle.

Use this rule for finding a


side.

a
c
b
=
=
sin A
sin B
sin C

or

Proof

In TABC, draw perpendicular AD and call it h.


From TABD,
h
sin B = c
`
h = c sin B

(1)

From TACD,
h
b
h = b sin C

sin C =
`

From (1) and (2),


c sin B = b sin C
sin B
sin C
= c
b
Similarly, drawing a perpendicular from C it can be proven that
sin A
sin B
a = b .

(2)

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

333

EXAMPLES
The sine rule uses 2 sides
and 2 angles, with 1
unknown.

1. Find the value of x, correct to 1 decimal place.

Solution
Name the sides a and b, and angles A and B.
a
b
=
sin A
sin B
10.7
x
=
sin 43c 21l
sin 79c 12l
10.7
x
sin 43c 21l #
= sin 43c 21l #
sin 43c 21l
sin 79c 12l
10.7 sin 43c 21l
x=
sin 79c 12l
Z 7.5 cm
2. Find the value of y, to the nearest whole number.
You can rename the
triangle ABC or just make
sure you put sides with
their opposite angles
together.

Solution
+Y = 180c - (53c + 24c )
= 103c

You need to find +Y first, as it


is opposite y.

a
b
=
sin A
sin B
y
8
=
sin 103c
sin 53c
y
8
= sin 103c #
sin 103c #
sin 103c
sin 53c
8 sin 103c
y=
sin 53c
Z 10

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

3. Find the value of i, in degrees and minutes.

Solution
sin A
sin B
a = b
sin i
sin 86c 11l
=
6.7
8.3
sin i
sin 86c 11l
= 6.7 #
6.7 #
6 .7
8 .3
6.7 sin 86c 11l
sin i =
8 .3
- 1 6.7 sin 86c 11l
i = sin c
m
8.3
Z 53c39l

Since sin x is positive in the rst 2 quadrants, both acute angles (between 0c
and 90c) and obtuse angles (between 90c and 180c) give positive sin ratios.
e.g. sin 50c = 0.766
and sin 130c = 0.766
This affects the sine rule, since there is no way of distinguishing between an
acute angle and an obtuse angle. When doing a question involving an obtuse
angle, we need to use the 2nd quadrant angle of 180c - i rather than relying
on the calculator to give the correct answer.

EXAMPLE
Angle i is obtuse. Find the value of i, in degrees and minutes.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

Solution
sin A
sin B
a = b
sin i
sin 15c 49l
=
5.4
11.9
sin i
sin 15c 49l
= 11.9 #
11.9 #
5.4
11.9
11.9 sin 15c 49l
sin i =
5.4
- 1 11.9 sin 15c 49l
m
i = sin c
5.4
= 36c 55l
^ acute angle h
But i is obtuse
`
i = 180c - 36c 55l
= 143c 05l

6.10
1.

Exercises

Evaluate all pronumerals, correct


to 1 decimal place.

(c)

(a)

(d)

(b)

(e)

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2.

BC = 4.6 cm and
+ACB = 33c 47l.

Find the value of all pronumerals,


in degrees and minutes.
(a)

4.

Triangle EFG has +FEG = 48c ,


+EGF = 32c and FG = 18.9 mm.
Find the length of
(a) the shortest side
(b) the longest side..

5.

Triangle XYZ has +XYZ = 51c ,


+YXZ = 86c and XZ = 2.1 m.
Find the length of
(a) the shortest side
(b) the longest side.

6.

Triangle XYZ has XY = 5.4 cm,


+ZXY = 48c and +XZY = 63c.
Find the length of XZ.

7.

Triangle ABC has BC = 12.7 m,


+ABC = 47c and +ACB = 53c as
shown. Find the lengths of
(a) AB
(b) AC.

The shortest side is opposite


the smallest angle and the
longest side is opposite the
largest angle.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e) (i is obtuse)

9.

Triangle ABC is isosceles with


AB = AC. BC is produced to
D as shown. If AB = 8.3 cm,
+BAC = 52c and +ADC = 32c
nd the length of

Triangle ABC has an obtuse angle


at A. Evaluate this angle to the
nearest minute if AB = 3.2 cm,

53c

Triangle PQR has sides


PQ = 15 mm, QR = 14.7 mm
and +PRQ = 62c 29l. Find to the
nearest minute
(a) +QPR
(b) +PQR.

3.7

3.

12.7 m

8.

4.9
21c31l

47c

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

(a) AD
(b) BD.
A
52c

8.3 cm

32c

10. Triangle ABC is equilateral with


side 63 mm. A line is drawn from
A to BC where it meets BC at D
and +DAB = 26c 15l. Find the
length of
(a) AD
(b) DC.
D

Cosine rule
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos C

Similarly
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 - 2bc cos A
b 2 = a 2 + c 2 - 2ac cos B

Proof
A

a-x

In triangle ABC, draw perpendicular CD with length p and let CD = x.


Since BC = a, BD = a - x
From triangle ACD
b2 = x2 + p2
x
cos C =
b
` b cos C = x

(1)

(2)

From triangle DAB


c2 = p2 + ] a - x g 2
= p 2 + a 2 - 2ax + x 2
= p 2 + x 2 + a 2 - 2ax

(3)

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Substitute (1) into (3):


c 2 = b 2 + a 2 - 2ax

(4)

Substituting (2) into (4):


c 2 = b 2 + a 2 - 2a ] b cos C g
= b 2 + a 2 - 2ab cos C

DID YOU KNOW?


Pythagoras theorem is a special case of the cosine rule when the triangle is right angled.
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos C
When C = 90c
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos 90c
= a 2 + b 2 - 2ab ] 0 g
= a2 + b2

EXAMPLE
Find the value of x, correct to the nearest whole number.
The cosine rule uses 3 sides
and 1 angle, with 1 unknown.

Solution
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos C
x 2 = 5.6 2 + 6.4 2 - 2 (5.6) (6.4) cos 112c 32l
Z 99.79
x = 99.79
Z 10
Press 5.6 x 2 + 6.4 x 2 - 2 # 5.6 # 6.4
# cos 112 % , ,, 32 % , ,, =

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

339

When nding an unknown angle, it is easier to change the subject of


this formula to cos C.
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos C
c 2 + 2ab cos C = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos C + 2ab cos C
c 2 + 2ab cos C = a 2 + b 2
c 2 - c 2 + 2ab cos C = a 2 + b 2 - c 2
2ab cos C = a 2 + b 2 - c 2
2ab cos C
a2 + b2 - c2
=
2ab
2ab
cos C =

a2 + b2 - c2
2ab

Similarly
cos A =

b2 + c2 - a2
2bc

cos B =

a +c -b
2ac
2

Subtract the square of


the side opposite the
unknown angle.

EXAMPLES
1. Find i, in degrees and minutes.

Solution
a2 + b2 - c2
2ab
52 + 62 - 32
cos i =
2 ]5 g]6 g
52
=
60
52
m
i = cos - 1 c
60
Z 29c 56l

cos C =

2. Evaluate +BAC in degrees and minutes.


A
6.1 cm

4.5 cm
B

8.4 cm

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Solution
a2 + b2 - c2
2ab
4.5 2 + 6.1 2 - 8.4 2
cos +BAC =
2 ] 4. 5 g ] 6 .1 g
= - 0.2386
cos C =

Notice that the negative sign


tells us that the angle will be
obtuse.

+BAC = cos- 1 ] - 0.2386 g


= 103c 48l

6.11
1.

Exercises

Find the value of all pronumerals,


correct to 1 decimal place.

(e)

(a)
2.

Evaluate all pronumerals correct


to the nearest minute
(a)

(b)

(b)
(c)

(c)
(d)

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

YZ = 5.9 cm. Find the value of all


angles, to the nearest minute.

(d)

7.

Isosceles trapezium MNOP


has MP = NO = 12 mm,
MN = 8.9 mm, OP = 15.6 mm
and +NMP = 119c 15l.
(a) Find the length of diagonal NP.
(b) Find +NOP.

8.

Given the gure below, nd the


length of
(a) AC
(b) AD.

(e)

3.

Kite ABCD has AB = 12.9 mm,


CD = 23.8 mm and
+ABC = 125c as shown. Find the
length of diagonal AC.

42 c8 l
8.4 cm

B
12.9 mm

125 c

101 c38 l

3.7 cm

23.8 mm

9.9 cm

4.

5.

6.

Parallelogram ABCD has sides


11 cm and 5 cm, and one interior
angle 79c 25l. Find the length of
the diagonals.
Quadrilateral ABCD has sides
AB = 12 cm, BC = 10.4 cm,
CD = 8.4 cm and AD = 9.7 cm
with +ABC = 63c 57l.
(a) Find the length of diagonal AC
(b) Find +DAC
(c) Find +ADC.
Triangle XYZ is isosceles with
XY = XZ = 7.3 cm and

9.

In a regular pentagon ABCDE


with sides 8 cm, nd the length
of diagonal AD.

10. A regular hexagon ABCDEF has


sides 5.5 cm.
(a) Find the length of AD.
(b) Find +ADF.

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Applications
The sine and cosine rules can be used in solving problems.

Use the sine rule to nd:


1. a side, given one side and two angles
2. an angle, given two sides and one angle
Use the cosine rule to nd:
1. a side, given two sides and one angle
2. an angle, given three sides

EXAMPLES
1. The angle of elevation of a tower from point A is 72c. From point B,
50 m further away from the tower than A, the angle of elevation is 47c.
(a) Find the exact length of AT.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, nd the height h of the tower to 1 decimal place.

Solution

Use TBTA to find AT.

(a) +BAT = 180c - 72c


= 108c
+BTA = 180c - ] 47c + 108c g
= 25c
a
b
=
sin A
sin B
50
AT
=
sin 47c
sin 25c
50 sin 47c
AT =
`
sin 25c

^ straight angle h
(angle sum of T)

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

h
AT
h = AT sin 72c
50 sin 47c
=
# sin 72c
sin 25c
Z 82.3 m

343

(b) sin 72c =


`

Use right-angled TATO


to find h. Do not use the
sine rule.

2. A ship sails from Sydney for 200 km on a bearing of 040c , then sails
on a bearing of 157c for 345 km.
(a) How far from Sydney is the ship, to the nearest km?
(b) What is the bearing of the ship from Sydney, to the nearest degree?

Solution

(a) +SAN = 180c - 40c


= 140c

^ cointerior angles h

` +SAB = 360c - (140c + 157c)


= 63c

^ angle of revolution h

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos C
x 2 = 200 2 + 345 2 - 2 (200) (345) cos 63c
Z 96374.3
x = 96374.3
Z 310
So the ship is 310 km from Sydney.
sin A
sin B
a = b
sin i
sin 63c
=
345
310
345 sin 63c
` sin i =
310
Z 0.99
i Z 82c
( b)

The bearing from Sydney = 40c + 82c


= 122c

To find the bearing,


measure +TSB.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

6.12

Exercises

1.

Find the lengths of the diagonals


of a parallelogram with adjacent
sides 5 cm and 8 cm and one of
its angles 32c 42l.

2.

A car is broken down to the north


of 2 towns. The car is 39 km from
town A and 52 km from town B.
If A is due west of B and the 2
towns are 68 km apart, what is the
bearing of the car from (a) town A
(b) town B, to the nearest degree?

3.

7.

A boat is sinking 1.3 km out to


sea from a marina. Its bearing is
041c from the marina and 324c
from a rescue boat. The rescue
boat is due east of the marina.
(a) How far, correct to 2 decimal
places, is the rescue boat from the
sinking boat?
(b) How long will it take the
rescue boat, to the nearest
minute, to reach the other boat if
it travels at 80 km/h?

8.

The angle of elevation of the


top of a agpole from a point a
certain distance away from its
base is 20c. After walking 80 m
towards the agpole, the angle of
elevation is 75c. Find the height
of the agpole, to the nearest
metre.

9.

A triangular eld ABC has sides


AB = 85 m and AC = 50 m. If B is
on a bearing of 065c from A and
C is on a bearing of 166c from A,
nd the length of BC, correct to
the nearest metre.

The angle of elevation to the top


of a tower is 54c 37l from a point
12.8 m out from its base. The
tower is leaning at an angle of
85c 58l as shown. Find the height
of the tower.

54 c37 l

4.

from one post and 11 m from


the other, nd the angle within
which the ball must be kicked
to score a goal, to the nearest
degree.

12.8 m

85c58 l

A triangular park has sides 145.6 m,


210.3 m and 122.5 m. Find the
size of the largest interior angle of
the park.

5.

A 1.5 m high fence leans


outwards from a house at an
angle of 102c. A boy sits on top
of the fence and the angle of
depression from him down to the
house is 32c 44l . How far from
the fence is the house?

6.

Football posts are 3.5 m apart.


If a footballer is standing 8 m

10. (a) Find the exact value of AC in


the diagram.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, nd the
angle i, correct to the nearest
minute.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

11. Find the value of h, correct to


1 decimal place.

16. Rhombus ABCD with side 8 cm


has diagonal BD 11.3 cm long.
Find +DAB.
17. Zeke leaves school and runs for
8.7 km on a bearing of 338c,
then turns and runs on a bearing
of 061c until he is due north of
school. How far north of school
is he?

12. A motorbike and a car leave a


service station at the same time.
The motorbike travels on a
bearing of 080c and the car travels
for 15.7 km on a bearing of 108c
until the bearing of the motorbike
from the car is 310c. How far,
correct to 1 decimal place, has the
motorbike travelled?
13. A submarine is being followed
by two ships, A and B, 3.8 km
apart, with A due east of B. If A
is on a bearing of 165c from the
submarine and B is on a bearing
of 205c from the submarine, nd
the distance from the submarine
to both ships.
14. A plane ies from Dubbo on a
bearing of 139c for 852 km, then
turns and ies on a bearing of
285cuntil it is due west of Dubbo.
How far from Dubbo is the plane,
to the nearest km?
15. A triangular roof is 16.8 m up
to its peak, then 23.4 m on the
other side with a 125c angle
at the peak as shown. Find the
length of the roof.

125 c
16.8 m

23.4 m

18. A car drives due east for 83.7 km


then turns and travels for 105.6 km
on a bearing of 029c. How far is
the car from its starting point?
19. The gure below shows the
diagram that a surveyor makes
to measure a triangular piece of
land. Find its perimeter.

13.9 m
58 c1l
11.4 m

14.3 m
132 c31l

20. A light plane leaves Sydney and


ies for 1280 km on a bearing of
050c. It then turns and ies for
3215 km on a bearing of 149c.
How far is the plane from Sydney,
to the nearest km?
21. Trapezium ABCD has AD ; BC,
with AB = 4.6 cm, BC = 11.3 cm,
CD = 6.4 cm, +DAC = 23c 30l
and +ABC = 78c .
(a) Find the length of AC.
(b) Find +ADC to the nearest
minute.
22. A plane leaves Adelaide and
ies for 875 km on a bearing of
056c. It then turns and ies on a
bearing of i for 630 km until it is
due east of Adelaide. Evaluate i
to the nearest degree.

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23. Quadrilateral ABCD has


AB = AD = 7.2 cm, BC = 8.9 cm
and CD = 10.4 cm, with
+DAB = 107c
(a) Find the length of diagonal BD.
(b) Find +BCD.
24. Stig leaves home and travels on a
bearing of 248c for 109.8 km.
He then turns and travels for
271.8 km on a bearing of 143c.
Stig then turns and travels home
on a bearing of a.
(a) How far does he travel on the
nal part of his journey?
(b) Evaluate a.

25. A wall leans inwards and makes


an angle of 88c with the oor.
(a) A 4 m long ladder leans against
the wall with its base 2.3 m out
from the wall. Find the angle that
the top of the ladder makes with
the wall.
(b) A longer ladder is placed the
same distance out from the wall
and its top makes an angle of 31c
with the wall.
(i) How long is this
ladder?
(ii) How much further
does it reach up the wall
than the rst ladder?

Area
To nd the area of a triangle, you need to know its perpendicular height.
Trigonometry allows us to nd this height in terms of one of the angles in the
triangle.

A=

Similarly,
1
ac sin B
2
1
A = bc sin A
2
A=

Proof
From D BCD,
h
sin C = a
` h = a sin C
1
bh
2
1
= ba sin C
2

A=

1
ab sin C
2

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

347

EXAMPLE
Find the area of D ABC correct to 2 decimal places.

To find the area, use


2 sides and their
included angle.

Solution
1
ab sin C
2
1
= (4.3) (5.8) sin 112c 34l
2
Z 11.52 units 2

A=

6.13
1.

Exercises

Find the area of each triangle


correct to 1 decimal place.
(a)

(c)

(d)

(b)

(e)

348

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2.

3.

Calculate the exact area of D ABC.

Find the area of DOAB correct to


1 decimal place (O is the centre of
the circle).

7.

Find the area of a regular


hexagon with sides 4 cm, to the
nearest cm 2 .

8.

Calculate the area of a regular


pentagon with sides 12 mm.

9.

The gure below is made from a


rectangle and isosceles triangle
with AE = AB as shown.
A
84c

4.

5.

Find the area of a parallelogram


with sides 3.5 cm and 4.8 cm,
and one of its internal angles
67c 13l, correct to 1 decimal
place.

14.3 cm

Find the area of kite ABCD,


correct to 3 signicant gures.

10.5 cm

(a) Find the length of AE.


(b) Find the area of the gure.
10. Given the following gure,
A
58c

6.

Find the area of the sail, correct


to 1 decimal place.

44c

9.4 cm

36c
6.7 cm

(a) Find the length of AC


(b) Find the area of triangle ACD
(c) Find the area of triangle ABC.

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

Test Yourself 6
1.

Find the exact value of cos i and sin i if


3
tan i = .
5

2.

Simplify

12. Evaluate x, correct to 2 signicant


gures.
(a)

(a) sin x cot x


cos 40c + sin 50c
(b)
cos 40c
(c)

1 + cot 2 A

3.

Evaluate to 2 decimal places.


(a) sin 39c 54l
(b) tan 61c 30l
(c) cos 19c 2l

4.

Find i to the nearest minute if


(a) sin i = 0.72
(b) cos i = 0.286
5
(c) tan i =
7

5.

Prove that

6.

Find the value of b if


sin b = cos ] 2b - 30 g c .

7.

Find the exact value of


(a) cos 315c
(b) sin ] - 60c g

2 cos 2 i
= 2 + 2 sin i.
1 - sin i

(c) tan 120c


8.

Solve 2 cos x = -1 for 0c # x # 360c.

9.

Sketch the graph of y = cos x, and hence


solve cos x = 0 for 0c # x # 360c .

10. A ship sails on a bearing of 215c from


port until it is 100 km due south of port.
How far does it sail, to the nearest km?
11. Find the length of AB as a surd.

(b)

13. Evaluate i to the nearest minute.


(a)

(b)

(c)

14. Find the area of triangle MNO.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

15. Solve for -180c # x # 180c .


3
(a) sin 2 x =
4
1
(b) tan 2x =
3
2
(c) 3 tan x = tan x
5
16. If sec i = - and tan i 2 0, nd sin i
4
and cot i.
17. Jacquie walks south from home for
3.2 km, then turns and walks west for
1.8 km. What is the bearing, to the
nearest degree, of
(a) Jacquie from her home?
(b) her home from where Jacquie is now?
18. The angle of elevation from point B to
the top of a pole is 39c , and the angle of
elevation from D, on the other side of
the pole, is 42c. B and D are 20 m apart.

(a) Find an expression for the length of AD.


(b) Find the height of the pole, to
1 decimal place.
19. A plane ies from Orange for 1800 km
on a bearing of 300c . It then turns and
ies for 2500 km on a bearing of 205c .
How far is the plane from Orange, to the
nearest km?

Challenge Exercise 6
1.

Two cars leave an intersection at the


same time, one travelling at 70 km/h
along one road and the other car
travelling at 80 km/h along the other
road. After 2 hours they are 218 km
apart. At what angle, to the nearest
minute, do the roads meet at the
intersection?

2.

A ship sails from port on a bearing of


055c , then turns and sails on a bearing of
153c for 29.1 km, when it is due east of
port. How far, to 1 decimal place, is the
ship from its starting point?

3.

Evaluate x correct to 3 signicant gures.

4.

(a) Find an exact expression for the


length of AC.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, nd the value of
h correct to 1 decimal place.

5.

A man walks 3.8 km on a bearing of 134c


from a house. He then walks 2.9 km on a
bearing of 029c . How far is he from the
house, to 1 decimal place?

Chapter 6 Trigonometry

6.

Simplify sin ] 360c - x g $ tan ] 90c- x g .

7.

Find the exact area of D ABC.

12. Solve 2 cos (i + 10c ) = - 1 for


0c # i # 360c.
13. Two roads meet at an angle of 74c . Find
the distance, correct to 3 signicant
gures, between two cars, one 6.3 km
from the intersection along one road
and the other 3.9 km along the other
road.
14. Find the exact value of cos i, given
5
sin i = and cos i 1 0.
9

8.

Find the exact value of cos (-315c) .

9.

Solve tan 2x - 1 = 0 for 0c # x # 360c .

10. Find i to the nearest minute.

15. From the top of a vertical pole the angle


of depression to a man standing at the
foot of the pole is 43c . On the other side
of the pole is another man, and the angle
of depression from the top of the pole to
this man is 52c . The men are standing
58 m apart. Find the height of the pole,
to the nearest metre.
16. Show that
cos i ] sin i + cos i g
= 1 + tan i.
] 1 + sin i g ] 1 - sin i g

11. The angle of depression from the top of


a 4.5 m mast of a boat down to a sh
is 56c 28l . How far down, to 1 decimal
place, does a pelican sitting at the top of
the mast need to y to catch the sh?

17. If x = 3 sin i and y = 3 cos i - 2,


eliminate i to nd an equation relating
x and y.

351

Linear Functions
TERMINOLOGY
Collinear points: Two or more points that lie on the same
straight line

Interval: A section of a straight line including the end


points

Concurrent lines: Two or more lines that intersect at a


single point

Midpoint: A point lying exactly halfway between two


points

Gradient: The slope of a line measured by comparing


the vertical rise over the horizontal run. The symbol for
gradient is m

Perpendicular distance: The shortest distance between a


point and a line. The distance will be at right angles to
the line

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

INTRODUCTION
IN CHAPTER 5, YOU STUDIED functions and their graphs. This chapter
looks at the linear function, or straight-line graph, in more detail.
Here you will study the gradient and equation of a straight line, the
intersection of two or more lines, parallel and perpendicular lines,
the midpoint, distance and the perpendicular distance from a point
to a line.

DID YOU KNOW?


Pierre de Fermat (160165) was a lawyer who dabbled in mathematics. He was a contemporary of
Descartes, and showed the relationship between an equation in the form Dx = By, where D and
B are constants, and a straight-line graph. Both de Fermat and Descartes only used positive values
of x, but de Fermat used the x-axis and y-axis as perpendicular lines as we do today.
De Fermats notes Introduction to Loci, Method of Finding Maxima and Minima and Varia
opera mathematica were only published after his death. This means that in his lifetime de Fermat
was not considered a great mathematician. However, now he is said to have contributed as
much as Descartes towards the discovery of coordinate geometry. De Fermat also made a great
contribution in his discovery of differential calculus.

Class Assignment
Find as many examples as you can of straight-line graphs in newspapers
and magazines.

Distance
The distance between two points (or the length of the interval between two
points) is easy to nd when the points form a vertical or horizontal line.

353

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
Find the distance between
1. ^ -1, 4 h and ^ -1, -2 h

Solution

Counting along the y-axis, the distance is 6 units.


2. ^ 3, 2 h and ^ -4, 2 h

Solution

Counting along the x-axis, the distance is 7 units.

When the two points are not lined up horizontally or vertically, we use
Pythagoras theorem to nd the distance.

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

355

EXAMPLE
Find the distance between points ^ 3, -1 h and ^ -2, 5 h.

Solution

BC = 5 and AC = 6
By Pythagoras theorem,

You studied Pythagoras


theorem in Chapter 4.

c =a +b
AB 2 = 5 2 + 6 2
= 25 + 36
= 61
2

` AB = 61
Z 7.81

DID YOU KNOW?


Pythagoras made many discoveries about music as well as about mathematics. He found
that changing the length of a vibrating string causes the tone of the music to change. For
example, when a string is halved, the tone is one octave higher.

The distance between two points _ x 1, y 1 i and _ x 2, y 2 i is given by


d=

2
2
_ x2 - x1 i + _ y2 - y1 i

356

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Proof

If points A and B were changed


around, the formula would be
d =

(x 1 - x 2 ) + (y 1 - y 2 ) ,
2

which would give the same


answer.

Let A = _ x 1, y 1 i and B = _ x 2, y 2 i
Length AC = x 2 - x 1 and length BC = y 2 - y 1
By Pythagoras theorem
AB 2 = AC 2 + BC 2
d 2 = _ x 2 - x 1 i2 + _ y 2 - y 1 i2
`d=

2
2
_ x2 - x1 i + _ y2 - y1 i

EXAMPLES
1. Find the distance between the points ^ 1, 3 h and ^ -3, 0 h.

Solution
Let ^ 1, 3 h be _ x 1, y 1 i and ^ -3, 0 h be _ x 2, y 2 i
d=

2
2
_ x2 - x1 i + _ y2 - y1 i

= ] -3 - 1 g2 + ] 0 - 3 g2
= ] -4 g2 + ] -3 g2
= 16 + 9
= 25
=5
So the distance is 5 units.
2. Find the exact length of AB given that A = ^ -2, -4 h and B = ^ -1, 5 h .

Solution
Let ^ -2, -4 h be _ x 1, y 1 i and ^ -1, 5 h be _ x 2, y 2 i
d=

You would still get 82 if you


used (- 2, - 4) as (x 2 , y 2 ) and
(-1, 5) as (x 1 , y 1 ).

2
2
_ x2 - x1 i + _ y2 - y1 i

6 -1 - ^ -2 h @ 2 + 6 5 - ^ -4 h @ 2

=
=
=

12 + 92
1 + 81
82

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

7.1 Exercises
1.

Find the distance between points


(a) ^ 0, 2 h and ^ 3, 6 h
(b) ^ -2, 3 h and ^ 4, -5 h
(c) ^ 2, -5 h and ^ -3, 7 h

2.

Find the exact length of the


interval between points
(a) ^ 2, 3 h and ^ -1, 1 h
(b) ^ -5, 1 h and ^ 3, 0 h
(c) ^ - 2, -3 h and ^ - 4, 6 h
(d) ^ -1, 3 h and ^ -7, 7 h

3.

4.

Find the distance, correct to


2 decimal places, between points
(a) ^ 1, -4 h and ^ 5, 5 h
(b) ^ 0, 4 h and ^ 3, -2 h
(c) ^ 8, -1 h and ^ -7, 6 h
Find the perimeter of D ABC with
vertices A ^ 3, 1 h, B ^ -1, 1 h and
C ^ -1, -2 h .

5.

Prove that the triangle with


vertices ^ 3, 4 h, ^ -2, 7 h and ^ 6, -1 h
is isosceles.

6.

Show that AB = BC, where


A = ^ -2, 5 h, B = ^ 4, -2 h and
C = ^ -3, -8 h .

7.

Show that points ^ 3, -4 h and ^ 8,1 h


are equidistant from point ^ 7, -3 h .

8.

A circle with centre at the origin


O passes through the point
_ 2 , 7 i . Find the radius of the
circle, and hence its equation.

9.

Prove that the points


X _ 2 , -3 i, Y _ -1, 10 i and
Z _ - 6 , 5 i all lie on a circle
with centre at the origin. Find its
equation.

10. If the distance between ^ a, -1 h


and ^ 3, 4 h is 5, nd the value of a.
11. If the distance between ^ 3, -2 h
and ^ 4, a h is 7 , nd the exact
value of a.

12. Prove that A ^ 1, 4 h, B ^ 1, 2 h and


C _ 1 + 3 , 3 i are the vertices of
an equilateral triangle.
13. If the distance between ^ a, 3 h
and ^ 4, 2 h is 37 , nd the values
of a.
14. The points M ^ -1, -2 h, N (3, 0),
P ^ 4, 6 h and Q ^ 0, 4 h form
a quadrilateral. Prove that
MQ = NP and QP = MN. What
type of quadrilateral is MNPQ?
15. Show that the diagonals
of a square with vertices
A ^ -2, 4 h, B ^ 5, 4 h, C ^ 5, -3 h and
D ^ -2, -3 h are equal.
16. (a) Show that the triangle with
vertices A ^ 0, 6 h, B ^ 2, 0 h and
C ^ -2, 0 h is isosceles.
(b) Show that perpendicular OA,
where O is the origin, bisects BC.
17. Find the exact length of the
diameter of a circle with centre
^ -3, 4 h if the circle passes
through the point ^ 7, 5 h .
18. Find the exact length of the
radius of the circle with centre
(1, 3) if the circle passes through
the point ^ -5, -2 h .
19. Show that the triangle
with vertices A ^ -2, 1 h, B ^ 3, 3 h
and C ^ 7, -7 h is right angled.
20. Show that the points
X ^ 3, -3 h, Y ^ 7, 4 h and Z ^ - 4, 1 h
form the vertices of an isosceles
right-angled triangle.

357

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Midpoint
The midpoint is the point halfway between two other points.

The midpoint of two points _ x 1, y 1 i and _ x 2, y 2 i is given by


M=e

x1 + x2 y1 + y2
o
,
2
2

Proof

Can you see why


these triangles
are similar?

Find the midpoint of points A _ x 1, y 1 i and B _ x 2, y 2 i.


Let M = ^ x, y h
Then D APQ <; D ABR
AQ
AP
=
AR
AB
x - x1
1
` x -x =
2
2
1
2 _ x - x1 i = x2 - x1
2x - 2x 1 = x 2 - x 1
2x = x 1 + x 2
x1 + x2
`
x=
2
y1 + y2
Similarly, y =
2
`

EXAMPLES
1. Find the midpoint of ^ -1, 4 h and ^ 5, 2 h.

Solution
x=

x1 + x2
2

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

-1 + 5
2
4
=
2
=2
y1 + y2
y=
2
4+2
=
2
6
=
2
=3
So M = (2, 3) .
=

2. Find the values of a and b if ^ 2, -3 h is the midpoint between ^ -7, -8 h


and ^ a, b h.

Solution
x=

x1 + x2

2
-7 + a
2=
2
4 = -7 + a
11 = a
y1 + y2
y=
2
-8 + b
-3 =
2
-6 = -8 + b
2=b
So a = 11 and b = 2.

Note that the x-coordinate of the midpoint is the average of x 1 and x 2 .


The same applies to the y-coordinate.

PROBLEM
A timekeeper worked out the average time for 8 nalists in a race. The
average was 30.55, but the timekeeper lost one of the nalists times.
The other 7 times were 30.3, 31.1, 30.9, 30.7, 29.9, 31.0 and 30.3.
Can you nd out the missing time?

359

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

7.2 Exercises
1.

2.

Find the values of a and b if


(a) ^ 4, 1 h is the midpoint of ^ a, b h
and ^ -1, 5 h
(b) ^ -1, 0 h is the midpoint of
^ a, b h and ^ 3, -6 h
(c) ^ a, 2 h is the midpoint of (3, b h
and ^ -5, 6 h
(d) ^ -2, 1 h is the midpoint of
^ a, 4 h and ^ -3, b h
(e) ^ 3, b h is the midpoint of ^ a, 2 h
and ^ 0, 0 h

3.

Prove that the origin is the


midpoint of ^ 3, -4 h and ^ -3, 4 h .

4.

Show that P = Q where P is the


midpoint of ^ -2, 3 h and ^ 6, -5 h
and Q is the midpoint of ^ -7, -5 h
and ^ 11, 3 h .

5.
The locus is the path
that P (x, y) follows.

Find the midpoint of


(a) ^ 0, 2 h and ^ 4, 6 h
(b) ^ -2, 3 h and ^ 4, -5 h
(c) ^ 2, -5 h and ^ -6, 7 h
(d) ^ 2, 3 h and ^ -8, 1 h
(e) ^ -5, 2 h and ^ 3, 0 h
(f) ^ -2, -2 h and ^ -4, 6 h
(g) ^ 1, -4 h and ^ 5, 5 h
(h) ^ 0, 4 h and ^ 3, -2 h
(i) ^ 8, -1 h and ^ -7, 6 h
(j) ^ 3, 7 h and ^ -3, 4 h

6.

Find the point that divides the


interval between ^ 3, -2 h and
^ 5, 8 h in the ratio of 1:1.
Show that the line x = 3 is the
perpendicular bisector of the
interval between the points
^ -1, 2 h and ^ 7, 2 h .

7.

The points A ^ -1, 2 h, B ^ 1, 5 h,


C ^ 6, 5 h and D ^ 4, 2 h form a
parallelogram. Find the midpoints
of the diagonals AC and BD. What
property of a parallelogram does
this show?

8.

The points A ^ 3, 5 h, B ^ 9, -3 h,
C ^ 5, -6 h and D ^ -1, 2 h form a
quadrilateral. Prove that the
diagonals are equal and bisect
one another. What type of
quadrilateral is ABCD?

9.

A circle with centre ^ -2, 5 h has


one end of a diameter at ^ 4, -3 h .
Find the coordinates of the other
end of the diameter.

10. A triangle has vertices at


A ^ -1, 3 h, B ^ 0, 4 h and C ^ 2, -2 h .
(a) Find the midpoints X, Y
and Z of sides AB, AC and BC
respectively.
1
(b) Show that XY = BC,
2
1
1
XZ = AC and YZ = AB.
2
2
11. Point P ^ x, y h moves so that
the midpoint between P and
the origin is always a point on
the circle x 2 + y 2 = 1. Find the
equation of the locus of P.
12. Find the equation of the locus
of the point P ^ x, y h that is the
midpoint between all points on
the circle x 2 + y 2 = 4 and the
origin.

Gradient
The gradient of a straight line measures its slope. The gradient compares the
vertical rise with the horizontal run.

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

361

rise
Gradient = run

On the number plane, this is a measure of the rate of change of y with


respect to x.

The rate of change of y with respect to x is a very important measure


of their relationship. In later chapters you will use the gradient for many
purposes, including sketching curves, nding the velocity and acceleration
of objects, and nding maximum and minimum values of formulae.

EXAMPLES
Find the gradient of each interval.
1.
You will study the
gradient at different
points on a curve in
the next chapter.

Solution
rise
Gradient = run
2
=
3
CONTINUED

362

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2.

Solution
In this case, x is - 3 (the run is measured towards the left).
rise
Gradient = run
2
=
-3
2
=3

Positive gradient leans to the right.

Negative gradient leans to the left.

Gradient given 2 points


The gradient of the line between _ x 1, y 1 i and _ x 2, y 2 i is given by
y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1

Proof

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

363

BC = y 2 - y 1 and AC = x 2 - x 1
rise
Gradient = run
y2 - y1
= x -x
2
1

This formula could also be


y1 - y2
written m =
x1 - x2

EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the line between points ^ 2, 3 h and ^ -3, 4 h .

Solution
y2 - y1
Gradient: m = x - x
2
1
4-3
=
-3 - 2
1
=
-5
1
=5
2. Prove that points ^ 2, 3 h, ^ -2, -5 h and ^ 0, -1 h are collinear.

Solution
To prove points are collinear, we show that they have the same gradient
(slope).

CONTINUED

Collinear points lie on the


same line, so they have
the same gradients.

364

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Gradient of the interval between ^ -2, -5 h and ^ 0, -1 h :


y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1
-1 - ] -5 g
=
0 - ] -2 g
-1 + 5
=
2
4
=
2
=2
Gradient of the interval between ^ 0, -1 h and ^ 2, 3 h :
y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1
3 - ] -1 g
=
2-0
3+1
=
2
4
=
2
=2
Since the gradient of both intervals is the same, the points are collinear.

Gradient given the angle at the x-axis


The gradient of a straight line is given by
m = tan i
where i is the angle the line makes with the x-axis in the positive direction

Proof
rise
m = run
opposite
=
adjacent
= tan i

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

For an acute angle tan i 2 0.

365

For an obtuse angle tan i 1 0.

Class Discussion
1. Which angles give a positive gradient?
2. Which angles give a negative gradient? Why?
3. What is the gradient of a horizontal line? What angle does it make
with the x-axis?
4. What angle does a vertical line make with the x-axis? Can you nd
its gradient?

EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the line that makes an angle of 135c with the
x-axis in the positive direction.

Solution

m = tan i
= tan 135c
= -1

2. Find the angle, in degrees and minutes, that a straight line makes
with the x-axis in the positive direction if its gradient is 0.5.

Solution
m = tan i
` tan i = 0.5
i = 26c34l

Can you see why the


gradient is negative?

366

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

7.3 Exercises
1.

2.

3.

Find the gradient of the line


between
(a) ^ 3, 2 h and ^ 1, -2 h
(b) ^ 0, 2 h and ^ 3, 6 h
(c) ^ -2, 3 h and ^ 4, -5 h
(d) ^ 2, -5 h and ^ -3, 7 h
(e) ^ 2, 3 h and ^ -1, 1 h
(f) ^ - 5, 1 h and ^ 3, 0 h
(g) ^ -2, -3 h and ^ -4, 6 h
(h) ^ -1, 3 h and ^ -7, 7 h
(i) ^ 1, -4 h and ^ 5, 5 h
(j) ^ 0, 4 h and ^ 3, -2 h
If the gradient of _ 8, y 1 i and
^ -1, 3 h is 2, nd the value of y 1 .
The gradient of ^ 2, -1 h and ^ x, 0 h
is 5. Find the value of x.

4.

The gradient of a line is 1 and


the line passes through the points
^ 4, 2 h and ^ x, -3 h . Find the value
of x.
5. (a) Show that the gradient of
the line through ^ -2, 1 h and
^ 3, 4 h is equal to the gradient
of the line between the points
^ 2, -1 h and ^ 7,2 h .
(b) Draw the two lines on the
number plane. What can you say
about the lines?
6.

7.

8.

Show that the points


A ^ -1, 2 h, B ^ 1, 5 h, C ^ 6, 5 h and
D ^ 4, 2 h form a parallelogram.
Find the gradients of all sides.
The points
A ^ 3, 5 h, B ^ 9, -3 h, C ^ 5, -6 h and
D ^ -1, 2 h form a rectangle. Find
the gradients of all the sides and
the diagonals.
Find the gradients of the
diagonals of the square with
vertices A ^ -2, 1 h, B ^ 3, 1 h,
C ^ 3, 6 h and D ^ -2, 6 h .

9.

A triangle has vertices


A ^ 3, 1 h, B ^ -1, -4 h and C ^ -11, 4 h .
(a) By nding the lengths of all
sides, prove that it is a rightangled triangle.
(b) Find the gradients of sides
AB and BC.

10. (a) Find the midpoints F and


G of sides AB and AC where
ABC is a triangle with vertices
A ^ 0, 3 h, B ^ 2, -7 h and C ^ 8, -2 h .
(b) Find the gradients of FG
and BC.
11. The gradient of the line between
a moving point P ^ x, y h and the
point A ^ 5, 3 h is equal to the
gradient of line PB where B has
coordinates ^ 2, -1 h . Find the
equation of the locus of P.
12. Prove that the points ^ 3, -1 h, ^ 5, 5 h
and ^ 2, -4 h are collinear.
13. Find the gradient of the straight
line that makes an angle of 45c
with the x-axis in the positive
direction.
14. Find the gradient, to 2 signicant
gures, of the straight line that
makes an angle of 42c51l with
the x-axis.
15. Find the gradient of the line that
makes an angle of 87c14l with
the x-axis, to 2 signicant gures.
16. Find the angle, in degrees and
minutes, that a line with gradient
1.2 makes with the x-axis.
17. What angle, in degrees and
minutes does the line with
gradient 3 make with the x-axis
in the positive direction?

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

18. Find the exact gradient of the


line that makes an angle with the
x-axis in the positive direction of
(a) 60c
(b) 30c
(c) 120c.
19. Show that the line passing
through ^ 4, -2 h and ^ 7, -5 h

makes an angle of 135c with


the x-axis in the positive
direction.
20. Find the exact value of x with
rational denominator if the line
passing through ^ x, 3 h and ^ 2, 1 h
makes an angle of 60c with the
x-axis.

Gradient given an equation


In Chapter 5 you explored and graphed linear functions. You may have
noticed a relationship between the graph and the gradient and y-intercept of a
straight line.

Investigation
1. (i) Draw the graph of each linear function.
(ii) By selecting two points on the line, nd its gradient.
(a) y = x
(b) y = 2x
(c) y = 3x
(d) y = - x
(e) y = - 2x
Can you nd a pattern for the gradient of each line? Can you predict
what the gradient of y = 5x and y = - 9x would be?
2. (i) Draw the graph of each linear function.
(ii) Find the y-intercept.
(a) y = x
(b) y = x + 1
(c) y = x + 2
(d) y = x - 2
(e) y = x - 3
Can you nd a pattern for the y-intercept of each line? Can you predict
what the y-intercept of y = x + 11 and y = x - 6 would be?

y = mx + b has
m = gradient
b = y-intercept

367

368

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient and y-intercept of the linear function y = 7x - 5.

Solution
The equation is in the form y = mx + b where m = 7 and b = - 5.
Gradient = 7
y-intercept = - 5
2. Find the gradient of the straight line with equation 2x + 3y - 6 = 0.

Solution
First, we change the equation into the form y = mx + b.
2x + 3y - 6 = 0
2x + 3y - 6 + 6 = 0 + 6
2x + 3y = 6
2x - 2x + 3y = 6 - 2x
3y = 6 - 2x
= - 2x + 6
3y
- 2x + 6
=
3
3
- 2x 6
y=
+
3
3
2
= - x +2
3
2
m=3
2
So the gradient is - .
3

There is a general formula for nding the gradient of a straight line.

The gradient of the line ax + by + c = 0 is given by


m=-

Proof
ax + by + c = 0
by = - ax - c
ax c
y=b
b
a
`
m=b

a
b

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

EXAMPLE
Find the gradient of 3x - y = 2.

Solution
3x - y = 2
3x - y - 2 = 0
a = 3, b = - 1
a
m=b
3
=-1
=3
` gradient is 3

7.4 Exercises
1.

Find
(i) the gradient and
(ii) the y-intercept of each linear
function.
(a) y = 3x + 5
(b) f ] x g = 2x + 1
(c) y = 6x - 7
(d) y = - x
(e) y = - 4x + 3
(f) y = x - 2
(g) f ] x g = 6 - 2x
(h) y = 1 - x
(i) y = 9x
(j) y = 5x - 2

2.

Find
(i) the gradient and
(ii) the y-intercept of each linear
function.
(a) 2x + y - 3 = 0
(b) 5x + y + 6 = 0
(c) 6x - y - 1 = 0
(d) x - y + 4 = 0
(e) 4x + 2y - 1 = 0
(f) 6x - 2y + 3 = 0
(g) x + 3y + 6 = 0
(h) 4x + 5y - 10 = 0
(i) 7x - 2y - 1 = 0
(j) 5x - 3y + 2 = 0

3.

Find the gradient of the straight


line.
(a) y = 4x
(b) y = - 2x - 1
(c) y = 2
(d) 2x + y - 5 = 0
(e) x + y + 1 = 0
(f) 3x + y = 8
(g) 2x - y + 5 = 0
(h) x + 4y - 12 = 0
(i) 3x - 2y + 4 = 0
(j) 5x - 4y = 15
2
(k) y = x + 3
3
x
(l) y =
2
x
(m) y = - 1
5
2x
(n) y =
+5
7
3x
-2
(o) y = 5
x 1
(p) 2y = - +
7 3
y
(q) 3x - = 8
5
x y
(r)
+ =1
2 3
2x
(s)
- 4y - 3 = 0
3
x 2y
+
+7=0
(t)
4
3

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Equation of a Straight Line


There are several different ways to write the equation of a straight line.

General form
ax + by + c = 0

Gradient form
y = mx + b
where m = gradient and b = y-intercept

Intercept form

x y
a+b =1
where a and b are the x-intercept and y-intercept respectively

Proof
b
m = - a, b = b
`

b
y = -ax + b

y
`

b
y

x
= -a + 1

x
a+b =1

Point-gradient formula
There are two formulae for nding the equation of a straight line. One of these
uses a point and the gradient of the line.

The equation of a straight line is given by


y - y1 = m _ x - x1 i
This is a very useful
formula as it is used in
many topics in this course.

where _ x 1, y 1 i lies on the line with gradient m

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

371

Proof
Given point _ x 1, y 1 i on the line with gradient m
Let P = ^ x, y h
Then line AP has gradient
y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1
y - y1
`
m= x-x
1
m _ x - x1 i = y - y1

Two-point formula
The equation of a straight line is given by
y - y1
y2 - y1
=
x - x1
x2 - x1

This formula is
optional as you can
use the pointgradient
formula for any
question.

where _ x 1, y 1 i and _ x 2, y 2 i are points on the line

Proof

The gradient is the


same anywhere along
a straight line.

Let P = ^ x, y h
D APQ <; D ABR
PQ
BR
So
=
AR
AQ
y - y1
y2 - y1
i.e. x - x = x - x
1
2
1
The two-point formula is not essential. The right-hand side of it is the gradient
of the line. Replacing this by m gives the pointgradient formula.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the straight line with gradient -4 and passing
through the point ^ -2, 3 h .

Solution
m = -4, x 1 = -2 and y 1 = 3
Equation: y - y 1 = m (x - x 1)
y - 3 = - 4 [x - (-2)]
= - 4 (x + 2)
= - 4x - 8
`
y = - 4x - 5
or 4x + y + 5 = 0

(gradient form)
(general form)

2. Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the points
^ 2, -3 h and ^ -4, -7 h .

Solution
By two-point formula:
y - y1
y2 - y1
=
x - x1
x2 - x1
y - ] -7 g
-3 - ] -7 g
=
x - ] -4 g
2 - ] -4 g
y+7
-3 + 7
=
x+4
2+4
y+7
2
=
x+4
3
3 ^ y + 7 h = 2 ]x + 4 g
3y + 21 = 2x + 8
-2x + 3y + 13 = 0
or 2x - 3y - 13 = 0
By point-gradient method:
y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1
-3 - ] -7 g
=
2 - ] -4 g
-3 + 7
=
2+4
2
=
3
Use one of the points, say ^ -4, -7 h .
2
m = , x 1 = -4 and y 1 = -7
3
Equation:

y - y 1 = m ( x - x 1)
y - (-7) =

2
6 x - ( - 4) @
3

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

2
( x + 4)
3
= 2 ]x + 4 g
= 2x + 8
=0
=0

y+7=
3^ y + 7h
3y + 21
` -2x + 3y + 13
or 2x - 3y - 13

3. Find the equation of the line with x-intercept 3 and y-intercept 2.

Solution
x y
Intercept form is a + = 1, where a and b are the x-intercept and
b
y-intercept respectively.
x y
`
+ =1
3 2
2x + 3y = 6
` 2x + 3y - 6 = 0
Again, the point-gradient formula can be used. The x-intercept and
y-intercept are the points ^ 3, 0 h and ^ 0, 2 h .

7.5 Exercises
1.

Find the equation of the straight


line
(a) with gradient 4 and
y-intercept -1
(b) with gradient -3 and passing
through ^ 0, 4 h
(c) passing through the origin
with gradient 5
(d) with gradient 4 and
x-intercept -5
(e) with x-intercept 1 and
y-intercept 3
(f) with x-intercept 3,
y-intercept -4
(g) with y-intercept -1 and
making an angle of 45c with the
x-axis in the positive direction
(h) with y-intercept 5 and making
an angle of 45c with the x-axis in
the positive direction.

2.

Find the equation of the straight


line that makes an angle of
135c with the x-axis and passes
through the point ^ 2, 6 h .

3.

Find the equation of the straight


line passing through
(a) ^ 2, 5 h and ^ -1, 1 h
(b) ^ 0, 1 h and ^ -4, -2 h
(c) ^ - 2, 1 h and ^ 3, 5 h
(d) ^ 3, 4 h and ^ -1, 7 h
(e) ^ -4, -1 h and ^ - 2, 0 h .

4.

What is the equation of the line


with x-intercept 2 and passing
through ^ 3, -4 h ?

5.

Find the equation of the line


(a) parallel to the x-axis and
passing through ^ 2, 3 h
(b) parallel to the y-axis and
passing through ^ -1, 2 h .

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6.

A straight line passing through


the origin has a gradient of - 2.
Find its equation.

7.

A straight line has x-intercept 4


and passes through ^ 0, -3 h . Find
its equation.

8.

Find the equation of the straight


line with gradient -2 that passes
through the midpoint of ^ 5, -2 h
and ^ -3, 4 h .

9.

What is the equation of the


straight line through the point
^ -4, 5 h and the midpoint of ^ 1, 2 h
and ^ -9, 4 h ?

10. What is the equation of the


straight line through the
midpoint of ^ 0, 1 h and ^ -6, 5 h
and the midpoint of ^ 2, 3 h and
^ 8, -3 h ?

Parallel and Perpendicular Lines


Parallel lines

Class Investigation
Sketch the following straight lines on the same number plane.
1. y = 2x
2. y = 2x + 1
3. y = 2x - 3
4. y = 2x + 5
What do you notice about these lines?

If two lines are parallel, then they have the same gradient. That is,
m1 = m2

Two lines that are parallel have equations


ax + by + c 1 = 0 and ax + by + c 2 = 0

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

375

Proof
a
b
a
ax + by + c 2 = 0 has gradient m 2 = b
Since m 1 = m 2, the two lines are parallel.
ax + by + c 1 = 0 has gradient m 1 = -

EXAMPLES
1. Prove that the straight lines 5x - 2y - 1 = 0 and 5x - 2y + 7 = 0 are
parallel.

Solution
5x - 2y - 1 = 0
5x - 1 = 2y
5
1
x- =y
2
2
5
`
m1 =
2
5x - 2y + 7 = 0
5x + 7 = 2y
5
7
x+ =y
2
2
5
`
m2 =
2
5
m1 = m2 =
2
` the lines are parallel.
2. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to the line 2x - y - 3 = 0
and passing through ^ 1, -5 h .

Solution
2x - y - 3 = 0
2x - 3 = y
`
m1 = 2
For parallel lines m 1 = m 2
` m2 = 2
Equation:

y - y 1 = m (x - x 1)
y - (-5) = 2 (x - 1)
y + 5 = 2x - 2
0 = 2x - y - 7

Notice that the equations


are both in the form
5x - 2y + k = 0.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

DID YOU KNOW?


Parallel lines are usually thought of as lines that never meet. However, there is a whole branch
of geometry based on the theory that parallel lines meet at infinity. This is called affine
geometry. In this geometry there are no perpendicular lines.

Perpendicular lines

Class Investigation
Sketch the following pairs of straight lines on the same number plane.
1. (a) 3x - 4y + 12 = 0
2. (a) 2x + y + 4 = 0

(b) 4x + 3y - 8 = 0
(b) x - 2y + 2 = 0

What do you notice about these pairs of lines?

Gradients of perpendicular lines


are negative reciprocals of each
other.

If two lines with gradients m 1 and m 2 respectively are perpendicular, then


m 1 m 2 = -1
1
i.e. m 2 = - m
1

Proof

Let line AB have gradient m 1 = tan a .


Let line CD have gradient m 2 = tan b.
EB
EC
+CBE = 180c - a
EC
tan ] 180c - a g =
EB
EB
` cot ] 180c - a g =
EC
tan b =

^ straight angle h

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

So
or

tan b = cot ] 180c - a g


= - cot a
1
=tan a
1
m2 = - m
1
m 1 m 2 = -1

Perpendicular lines have equations in the form


ax + by + c 1 = 0 and bx - ay + c 2 = 0

Proof

a
b
b
bx - ay + c 2 = 0 has gradient m 2 = - - a
b
=a
a
b
m1 m2 = - # a
b
= -1
ax + by + c 1 = 0 has gradient m 1 = -

Since m 1 m 2 = -1, the two lines are perpendicular.

EXAMPLES
1. Show that the lines 3x + y - 11 = 0 and x - 3y + 1 = 0 are
perpendicular.

Solution
3x + y - 11 = 0
y = -3x + 11
m 1 = -3
`
x - 3y + 1 = 0
x + 1 = 3y
1
1
x+ =y
3
3
1
`
m2 =
3
1
m 1 m 2 = - 3#
3
= -1

Notice that the equations


are in the form
3x + y + c 1 = 0 and
x - 3y + c 2 = 0.

` the lines are perpendicular.

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 2, 3 h perpendicular to


the line that passes through ^ -1, 7 h and ^ 3, 3 h .

Solution
Line through ^ -1, 7 h and ^ 3, 3 h:
y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1
7-3
m1 =
-1 - 3
4
=
-4
= -1
For perpendicular lines, m 1 m 2 = - 1
i.e.
-1m 2 = - 1
m2 = 1
Equation through ^ 2, 3 h:
y - y 1 = m (x - x 1)
y - 3 = 1 (x - 2 )
=x-2
0=x-y+1

7.6 Exercises
1.

Find the gradient of the straight


line
(a) parallel to the line
3x + y - 4 = 0
(b) perpendicular to the line
3x + y - 4 = 0
(c) parallel to the line joining
^ 3, 5 h and ^ -1, 2 h
(d) perpendicular to the line with
x-intercept 3 and y-intercept 2
(e) perpendicular to the line
making an angle of 135c with the
x-axis in the positive direction
(f) perpendicular to the line
6x - 5y - 4 = 0
(g) parallel to the line making an
angle of 30c with the x-axis
(h) parallel to the line
x - 3y - 7 = 0

(i) perpendicular to the line


making an angle of 120c with the
x-axis in the positive direction
(j) perpendicular to the line
passing through ^ 4, -2 h and ^ 3, 3 h .
2.

Find the equation of each straight


line
(a) passing through ^ 2, 3 h and
parallel to the line y = x + 6
(b) through ^ -1, 5 h and parallel
to the line x - 3y - 7 = 0
(c) with x-intercept 5 and parallel
to the line y = 4 - x
(d) through ^ 3, -4 h and
perpendicular to the line y = 2x
(e) through ^ -2, 1 h and
perpendicular to the line
2x + y + 3 = 0

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

(f) through ^ 7, -2 h and


perpendicular to the line
3x - y - 5 = 0
(g) through ^ -3, -1 h and
perpendicular to the line
4x - 3y + 2 = 0 .
3.

Show that the straight lines


y = 3x - 2 and 6x - 2y - 9 = 0
are parallel.

4.

Show that lines x + 5y = 0 and


y = 5x + 3 are perpendicular.

5.

Show that lines 6x - 5y + 1 = 0


and 6x - 5y - 3 = 0 are parallel.

6.

Show that lines 7x + 3y + 2 = 0


and 3x - 7y = 0 are
perpendicular.

7.

If the lines 3x - 2y + 5 = 0 and


y = kx - 1 are perpendicular, nd
the value of k.

8.

Show that the line joining ^ 3, -1 h


and ^ 2, -5 h is parallel to the line
8x - 2y - 3 = 0.

9.

Show that the points A ^ -3, -2 h,


B ^ -1, 4 h, C ^ 7, -1 h, and
D ^ 5, -7 h are the vertices of a
parallelogram.

10. The points A ^ -2, 0 h, B ^ 1, 4 h,


C ^ 6, 4 h and D ^ 3, 0 h form
a rhombus. Show that the
diagonals are perpendicular.

379

11. Find the equation of the straight


line
(a) passing through the
origin and parallel to the line
x+y+3=0
(b) through ^ 3, 7 h and parallel to
the line 5x - y - 2 = 0
(c) through ^ 0, - 2 h and
perpendicular to the line
x - 2y = 9
(d) perpendicular to the line
3x + 2y - 1 = 0 and passing
through the point ^ -2, 4 h .
12. Find the equation of the straight
line passing through ^ 6, -3 h
that is perpendicular to the line
joining ^ 2, -1 h and ^ -5, -7 h .
13. Find the equation of the line
through ^ 2, 1 h that is parallel
to the line that makes an angle
of 135c with the x-axis in the
positive direction.
14. Find the equation of the
perpendicular bisector of the
line passing through ^ 6, -3 h and
^ -2, 1 h .
15. Find the equation of the
straight line parallel to the line
2x - 3y - 1 = 0 and through the
midpoint of ^ 1, 3 h and ^ -1, 9 h .

Intersection of Lines
Two straight lines intersect at a single point ^ x, y h . The point satises the
equations of both lines. We nd this point by solving simultaneous equations.

You may need to revise


simultaneous equations
from Chapter 3.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Concurrent lines meet at a single point. To show that lines are


concurrent, solve two simultaneous equations to nd the point of intersection.
Then substitute this point of intersection into the third and subsequent lines
to show that these lines also pass through the point.

EXAMPLES
1. Find the point of intersection between lines 2x - 3y - 3 = 0 and
5x - 2y - 13 = 0.

Solution
Solve simultaneous equations:
2x - 3y - 3 = 0
5x - 2y - 13 = 0
4x - 6y - 6 = 0
^ 1 h # 2:
15x - 6y - 39 = 0
^ 2 h # 3:
+ 33 = 0
^ 3 h - ^ 4 h: -11x
33 = 11x
3=x

^1h
^2h
^3h
^4h

Substitute x = 3 into ^ 1 h:
You could use a
computer spreadsheet to
solve these simultaneous
equations.

2 ^ 3 h - 3y - 3 = 0
- 3y + 3 = 0
3 = 3y
1=y
So the point of intersection is ^ 3, 1 h .
2. Show that the lines 3x - y + 1 = 0, x + 2y + 12 = 0 and
4x - 3y - 7 = 0 are concurrent.

Solution
Solve any two simultaneous equations:
3x - y + 1 = 0
x + 2y + 12 = 0
4x - 3y - 7 = 0
6x - 2y + 2 = 0
^ 1 h # 2:
2
+
4
:
7
x
+ 14 = 0
^ h ^ h

^1h
^2h
^3h
^4h

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

7x = -14
x = -2
Substitute x = -2 into ^ 1 h:
3 ^ -2 h - y + 1 = 0
-y - 5 = 0
-5 = y
So the point of intersection of (1) and (2) is ^ -2, -5 h .
Substitute ^ -2, -5 h into (3): 4x - 3y - 7 = 0
LHS = 4 ^ -2 h - 3 ^ - 5 h - 7
= -8 + 15 - 7
=0
= RHS
So the point lies on line (3)
` all three lines are concurrent.

Equation of a line through the intersection of 2 other lines


To nd the equation of a line through the intersection of 2 other lines, nd
the point of intersection, then use it with the other information to nd the
equation.
Another method uses a formula to nd the equation.

If a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 = 0 and a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 = 0 are 2 given lines then the


equation of a line through their intersection is given by the formula
(a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1) + k (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2) = 0 where k is a constant

Proof
Let l 1 have equation a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 = 0.
Let l 2 have equation a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 = 0.
Let the point of intersection of l 1 and l 2 be P ^ x 1, y 1 h .
Then P satises l 1
i.e. a 1 x 1 + b 1 y 1 + c 1 = 0
P also satises l2
i.e. a 2 x 1 + b 2 y 1 + c 2 = 0
Substitute P into (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1) + k (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2) = 0
(a 1 x 1 + b 1 y 1 + c 1) + k (a 2 x 1 + b 2 y 1 + c 2) = 0
0 + k ^0h = 0
0=0
` if point P satises both equations l 1 and l 2 then it satises l 1 + kl 2 = 0.

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EXAMPLE
Find the equation of the line through ^ -1, 2 h that passes through the
intersection of lines 2x + y - 5 = 0 and x - 3y + 1 = 0.

Solution
Using the formula:
a 1 = 2, b 1 = 1, c 1 = -5

a 2 = 1, b 2 = -3, c 2 = 1

^ a1 x + b1 y + c1 h + k ^ a2 x + b2 y + c2 h = 0
^ 2x + y - 5 h + k ^ x - 3y + 1 h = 0
Since this line passes through ^ -1, 2 h, substitute the point into the
equation:
^ -2 + 2 - 5 h + k ^ -1 - 6 + 1 h = 0
-5 - 6k = 0
-5 = 6k
5
- =k
6
So the equation becomes:
5
^ 2x + y - 5 h - ^ x - 3y + 1 h = 0
6
6 ^ 2x + y - 5 h - 5 ^ x - 3 y + 1 h = 0
12x + 6y - 30 - 5x + 15y - 5 = 0
7x + 21y - 35 = 0
x + 3y - 5 = 0
Another way to do this example is to nd the point of intersection, then
use both points to nd the equation.

Substitute the value


of k back into the
equation.

7.7 Exercises
1.

Find the point of intersection of


straight lines
(a) 3x + 4y + 10 = 0 and
2x - 3y - 16 = 0
(b) 5x + 2y + 11 = 0 and
3x + y + 6 = 0
(c) 7x - 3y = 16 and
5x - 2y = 12
(d) 2x - 3y = 6 and 4x - 5y = 10
(e) x - 3y - 8 = 0 and
4x + 7y - 13 = 0
(f) y = 5x + 6 and y = - 4x - 3
(g) y = 2x + 1 and
5x - 3y + 6 = 0

(h) 3x + 7y = 12 and
4x - y - 1 6 = 0
(i) 3x - 5y = - 7 and
2x - 3y = 4
(j) 8x - 7y - 3 = 0 and
5x - 2y - 1 = 0
2.

Show that the lines


x - 2y - 11 = 0 and
2x - y - 10 = 0 intersect at the
point ^ 3, -4 h .

3.

A triangle is formed by 3
straight lines with equations
2 x - y + 1 = 0, 2 x + y - 9 = 0

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

and 2x - 5y - 3 = 0. Find the


coordinates of its vertices.
4.

Show that the lines


x - 5y - 17 = 0,
3x - 2y - 12 = 0 and
5x + y - 7 = 0 are concurrent.

5.

Show that the lines


x + 4y + 5 = 0, 3x - 7y + 15 = 0,
2x - y + 10 = 0 and
6x + 5y + 30 = 0 are concurrent.

6.

Find the equation of the straight


line through the origin that
passes through the intersection of
the lines 5x - 2y + 14 = 0 and
3x + 4y - 7 = 0 .

7.

Find the equation of the straight


line through ^ 3, 2 h that passes
through the intersection of
the lines 5x + 2y + 1 = 0 and
3x - y + 16 = 0.

8.

Find the equation of the straight


line through ^ -4, -1 h that
passes through the intersection
of the lines 2x + y - 1 = 0 and
3x + 5y + 16 = 0.

9.

Find the equation of the straight


line through ^ -3, 4 h that passes
through the intersection of
the lines 2x + y - 3 = 0 and
3x - 2y - 8 = 0 .

10. Find the equation of the straight


line through ^ 2, -2 h that passes
through the intersection of
the lines 2x + 3y - 6 = 0 and
3x + 5y - 10 = 0.
11. Find the equation of the straight
line through ^ 3, 0 h that passes
through the intersection of
the lines x - y + 1 = 0 and
4x - y - 2 = 0 .

12. Find the equation of the straight


line through ^ -1, -2 h that
passes through the intersection
of the lines 2x + y - 6 = 0 and
3 x + 7 y - 9 = 0.
13. Find the equation of the straight
line through ^ 1, 2 h that passes
through the intersection of
the lines x + 2y + 10 = 0 and
2x - y + 5 = 0.
14. Find the equation of the straight
line through ^ -2, 0 h that passes
through the intersection of
the lines 3x + 4y - 7 = 0 and
3 x - 2 y - 1 = 0.
15. Find the equation of the straight
line through ^ 3, -2 h that passes
through the intersection of
the lines 5x + 2y - 13 = 0 and
x - 3y + 11 = 0.
16. Find the equation of the straight
line through ^ -3, -2 h that
passes through the intersection
of the lines x + y + 1 = 0 and
3x + 2y = 0 .
17. Find the equation of the straight
line through ^ 3, 1 h that passes
through the intersection of
the lines 3x - y + 4 = 0 and
2x - y + 12 = 0.
18. Find the equation of the straight
line with gradient 3 that passes
through the intersection of
the lines 2x + y - 1 = 0 and
3x + 5y + 16 = 0.
19. Find the equation of the straight
line with gradient 2 that passes
through the intersection of
the lines 5x - 2y - 3 = 0 and
7x - 3y - 4 = 0 .

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20. Find the equation of the


straight line parallel to the
line 3x - y - 7 = 0 that passes
through the intersection of
the lines 3x - 2y - 10 = 0 and
4x + y - 17 = 0.

21. Find the equation of the


straight line perpendicular to
the line x + 5y - 1 = 0 that
passes through the intersection
of lines 3x - 5y - 3 = 0 and
2x + 3y + 17 = 0.

Perpendicular Distance
The distance formula d = _ x 2 - x 1 i2 + _ y 2 - y 1 i2 is used to nd the distance
between two points.
Perpendicular distance is used to nd the distance between a point and
a line. If we look at the distance between a point and a line, there could be
many distances.

So we choose the shortest distance, which is the perpendicular distance.

The perpendicular distance from _ x 1, y 1 i to the line ax + by + c = 0 is


A distance is always
positive, so take the
absolute value.

given by d =

Proof

| ax 1 + by 1 + c |
a2 + b2

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

Let d be the perpendicular distance of _ x 1, y 1 i from the line ax + by + c = 0.


- ax 1 - c
c
c
o
C = c 0, - m
R = e x 1,
A = b- a , 0 l
b
b
c2
c2
+
a2
b2

In D ACO, AC =

c2 b2 + c2 a2
a2 b2

=
=
PR = y 1 - e
=

c a2 + b2
ab

- ax 1 - c

b
ax 1 + by 1 + c

b
Why?

D ACO is similar to D PRQ


`

To find A and C, substitute


y = 0 and x = 0 into
ax + by + c = 0.

PQ
PR
=
AO
AC
AO . PR
PQ =
AC
ax 1 + by 1 + c
c a2 + b2
c
d=a#
'
b
ab
c _ ax 1 + by 1 + c i
ab
=
#
ab
c a2 + b2
ax 1 + by 1 + c
=
a2 + b2

All points on one side of the line ax + by + c = 0 make the numerator of


this formula positive. Points on the other side make the numerator negative.
Usually we take the absolute value of d. However, if we want to know if
points are on the same side of a line or not, we look at the sign of d.

EXAMPLES
1. Find the perpendicular distance of ^ 4, - 3 h from the line 3x - 4y - 1 = 0.

Solution
x 1 = 4, y 1 = - 3, a = 3, b = - 4, c = - 1
| ax 1 + by 1 + c |
d=
a2 + b2
| 3 ] 4 g + ] - 4 g ] -3 g + ] -1 g |
=
3 2 + ] -4 g2
CONTINUED

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| 12 + 12 - 1 |

25
23
=
5
= 4 .6
So the perpendicular distance is 4.6 units.
2. Prove that the line 6x + 8y + 20 = 0 is a tangent to the circle
x 2 + y 2 = 4.

Solution
There are three possibilities for the intersection of a circle and a straight line.

The centre of the circle x 2 + y 2 = 4 is ^ 0, 0 h and its radius is 2 units.


A tangent is perpendicular to the centre of the circle. So we prove that the
perpendicular distance from the line to the point ^ 0, 0 h is 2 units (the radius).
| ax 1 + by 1 + c |
d=
a2 + b2
| 6 (0) + 8 (0) + 20 |
=
62 + 82
| 20 |
=
100
20
=
10
=2
` the line is a tangent to the circle.
3. Show that the points ^ -1, 3 h and ^ 2, 7 h lie on the same side of the line
2 x - 3 y + 4 = 0.

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

Solution
To show that points lie on the same side of a line, their perpendicular
distance must have the same sign. We use the formula without the
absolute value sign.
d=

ax 1 + by 1 + c
a2 + b2

^ - 1, 3 h :
2 ]-1 g - 3 ]3 g + 4
d=
22 + ] - 3 g 2
-2 - 9 + 4
=
4+9
-7
=
13
^ 2, 7 h :
2 ]2 g - 3 ]7 g + 4
d=
2 2 + ] -3 g 2
4 - 21 + 4
=
4+9
- 13
=
13

Since the perpendicular distance for both points has the same sign, the
points lie on the same side of the line.

7.8 Exercises
1.

Find the perpendicular distance


between
(a) ^ 1, 2 h and 3x + 4y + 2 = 0
(b) ^ - 3, 2 h and 5x + 12y + 7 = 0
(c) ^ 0, 4 h and 8x - 6y - 1 = 0
(d) ^ - 3, - 2 h and 4x - 3y - 6 = 0
(e) the origin and
12x - 5y + 8 = 0.

2.

Find, correct to 3 signicant


gures, the perpendicular
distance between
(a) ^ 1, 3 h and x + 3y + 1 = 0
(b) ^ -1, 1 h and 2x + 5y + 4 = 0
(c) ^ 3, 0 h and 5x - 6y - 12 = 0
(d) ^ 5, - 3 h and 4x - y - 2 = 0
(e) ^ - 6, - 3 h and 2x - 3y + 9 = 0.

3.

Find as a surd with rational


denominator the perpendicular
distance between
(a) the origin and the line
3x - 2y + 7 = 0
(b) ^ -1, 4 h and 2x + y + 3 = 0
(c) ^ 3, -1 h and 3x + 14y + 1 = 0
(d) ^ 2, - 6 h and 5x - y - 6 = 0
(e) ^ - 4, - 1 h and
3 x - 2 y - 4 = 0.

4.

Show that the origin


is equidistant from the
lines 7x + 24y + 25 = 0,
4x + 3y - 5 = 0 and
12x + 5y - 13 = 0.

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Equidistant means that


two or more objects are
the same distance away
from another object.

5.

Show that points A ^ 3, - 5 h and


B ^ -1, 4 h lie on opposite sides of
2x - y + 3 = 0.

6.

Show that the points ^ 2, - 3 h and


^ 9, 2 h lie on the same side of the
line x - 3y + 2 = 0.

14. Find the perpendicular distance


between ^ 0, 5 h and the line
through ^ - 3, 8 h parallel to
4x - 3y - 1 = 0.
15. The perpendicular distance
between the point ^ x, -1 h and
the line 3x - 4y + 7 = 0 is
8 units. Find two possible values
of x.

7.

Show that ^ - 3, 2 h and ^ 4, 1 h lie


on opposite sides of the line
4 x - 3 y - 2 = 0.

8.

Show that ^ 0, - 2 h is equidistant


from the lines 3x + 4y - 2 = 0
and 12x - 5y + 16 = 0.

16. The perpendicular distance


between the point ^ 3, b h and the
line 5x - 12y - 2 = 0 is 2 units.
Find the values of b.

9.

Show that the points ^ 8, - 3 h and


^ 1, 1 h lie on the same side of the
line 6x - y + 4 = 0.

17. Find m if the perpendicular


distance between ^ m, 7 h and the
line 9x + 12y + 6 = 0 is 5 units.

10. Show that ^ - 3, 2 h and ^ 4, 1 h lie


on opposite sides of the line
2x + y - 2 = 0.
11. Show that the point ^ 3, - 2 h
is the same distance from the
line 6x - 8y + 6 = 0 as the
point ^ - 4, -1 h is from the line
5x + 12y - 20 = 0.
12. Find the exact perpendicular
distance with rational
denominator from the point
^ 4, 5 h to the line with
x-intercept 2 and y-intercept -1.
13. Find the perpendicular distance
from ^ - 2, 2 h to the line passing
through ^ 3, 7 h and ^ -1, 4 h .

18. Prove that the line


3x - 4y + 25 = 0 is a tangent to
the circle with centre the origin
and radius 5 units.
19. Show that the line
3x - 4y + 12 = 0 does not cut
the circle x 2 + y 2 = 1.
20. The sides of a triangle are formed
by the lines with equations
2x - y - 7 = 0, 3x + 5y - 4 = 0
and x + 3y - 4 = 0.
(a) Find the vertices of the
triangle.
(b) Find the exact length of all
the altitudes of the triangle.

Chapter 7 Linear Functions

Test Yourself 7
1.

Find the distance between points ^ - 1, 2 h


and ^ 3, 7 h .

2.

What is the midpoint of the origin and


the point ^ 5, - 4 h ?

3.

Find the gradient of the straight line


(a) passing through ^ 3, -1 h and ^ - 2, 5 h
(b) with equation 2x - y + 1 = 0
(c) making an angle of 30c with the
x-axis in the positive direction
(d) perpendicular to the line
5 x + 3 y - 8 = 0.

4.

Find the equation of the linear function


(a) passing through ^ 2, 3 h and with
gradient 7
(b) parallel to the line 5x + y - 3 = 0
and passing through ^ 1, 1 h
(c) through the origin, and
perpendicular to the line 2x - 3y + 6 = 0
(d) through ^ 3, 1 h and ^ - 2, 4 h
(e) with x-intercept 3 and y-intercept 1.

5.

Find the perpendicular distance between


^ 2, 5 h and the line 2x - y + 7 = 0 in surd
form with rational denominator.

6.

Prove that the line between ^ -1, 4 h


and ^ 3, 3 h is perpendicular to the line
4x - y - 6 = 0.

7.

Find the x- and y-intercepts of


2x - 5y - 10 = 0.

8.

(a) Find the equation of the straight


line l that is perpendicular to the line
1
y = x - 3 and passes through ^ 1, -1 h .
2
(b) Find the x-intercept of l.
(c) Find the exact distance from ^ 1, -1 h
to the x-intercept of l.

9.

Prove that lines y = 5x - 7 and


10x - 2y + 1 = 0 are parallel.

10. Find the equation of the straight


line passing through the origin and
parallel to the line with equation
3x - 4y + 5 = 0.
11. Find the point of intersection between
lines y = 2x + 3 and x - 5y + 6 = 0.
12. The midpoint of ^ a, 3 h and ^ - 4, b h is
^ 1, 2 h . Find the values of a and b.
13. Show that the lines x - y - 4 = 0,
2x + y + 1 = 0, 5x - 3y - 14 = 0 and
3x - 2y - 9 = 0 are concurrent.
14. A straight line makes an angle of 153c 29l
with the x-axis in the positive direction.
What is its gradient, to 3 signicant
gures?
15. The perpendicular distance from ^ 3, - 2 h
to the line 5x - 12y + c = 0 is 2. Find
2 possible values of c.
16. Find the equation of the straight line
through ^ 1, 3 h that passes through the
intersection of the lines 2x - y + 5 = 0
and x + 2y - 5 = 0.
17. The gradient of the line through ^ 3, - 4 h
and ^ x, 2 h is 5. Evaluate x.
18. Show that the points ^ - 2, 1 h and
^ 6, 3 h are on opposite sides of the line
2 x - 3 y - 1 = 0.
19. Find the equation of the line with
x-intercept 4 that makes an angle of 45c
with the x-axis.
20. Find the equation of the line with
y-intercept - 2 and perpendicular to the
line passing through ^ 3, -2 h and ^ 0, 5 h .

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Challenge Exercise 7
1.

If points ^ - 3k, 1 h, ^ k - 1, k - 3 h and


^ k - 4, k - 5 h are collinear, nd the
value of k.

2.

Find the equation, in exact form, of the


line passing through _ 3 , -2 i that makes
an angle of 30c with the positive x-axis.

3.

Find the equation of the circle whose


centre is at the origin and with tangent
x - 3y + 9 = 0.

4.

ABCD is a rhombus where


A = ^ - 3, 0 h, B = ^ 0, 4 h, C = ^ 5, 4 h and
D = ^ 2, 0 h . Prove that the diagonals are
perpendicular bisectors of one another.

joining ^ -1, 3 h and ^ 2, - 4 h makes with


the x-axis in the positive direction.
10. Find the equation of the line that passes
through the point of intersection of lines
2x + 5y + 19 = 0 and 4x - 3y - 1 = 0
that is perpendicular to the line
3x - 2y + 1 = 0.
11. Prove A ^ 2, 5 h, B ^ - 4, 5 h and C ^ -1, 2 h are
the vertices of a right-angled isosceles
triangle.
12. Find the coordinates of the centre of
a circle that passes through points
^ 7, 2 h, ^ 2, 3 h and ^ -4, -1 h .

5.

Prove that the points _ -1, 2 2 i,


_ 3 , - 6 i and _ - 5 , 2 i all lie on a
circle with centre the origin. What are
the radius and equation of the circle?

6.

Find the exact distance between the


parallel lines 3x + 2y - 5 = 0 and
3x + 2y = 1.

14. Find the equation of the straight line


through ^ 3, -4 h that is perpendicular to
the line with x-intercept and y-intercept
2 and 5 respectively.

7.

A straight line has x-intercept A ^ a, 0 h


and y-intercept B ^ 0, b h, where a and b are
positive integers. The gradient of line AB
is -1. Find +OBA where O is the origin
and hence prove that a = b.

15. Find the exact equation of the straight


line through the midpoint of ^ 0, - 5 h,
and ^ 4, -1 h that is perpendicular to the
line that makes an angle of 30c with the
x-axis.

8.

Find the exact perpendicular distance


between the line 2x + 3y + 1 = 0
and the point of intersection of lines
3x - 7y = 15 and 4x - y = - 5.

16. Point P ^ x, y h moves so that it is


equidistant from points A ^ 1, 4 h and
B ^ - 2, 7 h . By nding the distances AP and
BP, nd the equation of the locus of P.

9.

Find the magnitude of the angle, in


degrees and minutes, that the line

13. If ax - y - 2 = 0 and bx - 5y + 11 = 0
intersect at the point ^ 3, 4 h, nd the
values of a and b.

Introduction to
Calculus
TERMINOLOGY
Composite function: A function of a function. One
function, f (x), is a composite of one function to another
function, for example g(x)
Continuity: Describing a line or curve that is unbroken
over its domain
Continuous function: A function is continuous over an
interval if it has no break in its graph. For every x value
on the graph the limit exists and equals the function
value

Differentiation: The process of finding the gradient of a


tangent to a curve which is called the derivative
Differentiation from rst principles: The process of finding
the gradient of a tangent to a curve by finding the
gradient of the secant between two points and finding
the limit as the secant becomes a tangent
Gradient of a secant: The gradient (slope) of the line
between two points that lie close together on a function

Derivative at a point: This is the gradient of a curve at a


particular point

Gradient of a tangent: The gradient (slope) of a line that


is a tangent to the curve at a point on a function. It is the
derivative of the function

Derivative function: The gradient function of a curve


obtained through differentiation

Rate of change: The rate at which the dependent variable


changes as the independent variable changes

Differentiable function: A function which is continuous


and where the gradient exists at all points on the
function

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

393

INTRODUCTION
CALCULUS IS A VERY IMPORTANT part of mathematics and involves the

Thousand Barrels per Day

measurement of change. It can be applied to many areas such as science,


economics, engineering, astronomy,
Crude Oil Production (Mbbl/d)
sociology and medicine. We also see articles
Iran
7,000
in newspapers every day that involve change:
the spread of infectious diseases, population
6,000
growth, ination, unemployment, lling of
5,000
our water reservoirs.
For example, this graph shows the
4,000
change in crude oil production in Iran over
3,000
the years. Notice that while the graph shows
that production is increasing over recent
2,000
years, the rate at which it is being produced
1,000
seems to be slowing down. Calculus is used
to look at these trends and predict what will
0
73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 07
happen in the future.
74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06
There are two main branches of
January 1973May 2007
calculus. Differentiation is used to calculate
the rate at which two variables change in relation to one another.
You will learn about
Anti-differentiation, or integration, is the inverse of differentiation and
integration in the
uses information about rates of change to go back and examine the original
HSC Course.
variables. Integration can also be used to nd areas of curved objects.

DID YOU KNOW?


Calculus comes from the Latin meaning pebble or small stone. In ancient civilisations, stones
were used for counting. However, the mathematics practised by these early people was quite
sophisticated. For example, the ancient Greeks used sums of rectangles to estimate areas of curved
figures.
However, it wasnt until the 17th century that there was a breakthrough in calculus when
scientists were searching for ways of measuring motion of objects such as planets, pendulums and
projectiles.
Isaac Newton, an Englishman, discovered the main principles of calculus when he was 23
years old. At this time an epidemic of bubonic plague closed Cambridge University where he was
studying, so many of his discoveries were made at home.
He first wrote about his calculus methods, which he called fluxions, in 1671, but his Method
of fluxions was not published until 1704.
Gottfried Leibniz (16461716), in Germany, was also studying the same methods and there
was intense rivalry between the two countries over who was first!
Search the Internet for further details on these two famous mathematicians. You can find
out about the history of calculus and why it was necessary for mathematicians all those years ago
to invent it.

Isaac Newton

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

In this chapter you will learn about differentiation, which measures the rate of
change of one variable with respect to another.

Gradient
Gradient of a straight line
The gradient of a straight line measures its slope. You studied gradient in the
last chapter.
rise
m = run

Class Discussion
Remember that an increasing line has a positive gradient and a
decreasing line has a negative gradient.

positive

negative

Notice also that a horizontal line has zero gradient.


Can you see why?

Can you nd the gradient of a vertical line? Why?

Gradient plays an important part, not just in mathematics, but in many areas
including science, business, medicine and engineering. It is used everywhere
we want to nd rates.
On a graph, the gradient measures the rate of change of the dependent
variable with respect to the change in the independent variable.

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

EXAMPLES
1. The graph shows the average distance travelled by a car over time.
Find the gradient and describe it as a rate.
d

km

400

5
Hours

Solution
The line is increasing so it will have a positive gradient.
rise
m = run
400
=
5
80
=
1
= 80
This means that the car is travelling at the rate of 80 km/hour.
2. The graph shows the number of cases of u reported in a town over
several weeks.
N

Number of
cases (100s)

15

Weeks

10

Find the gradient and describe it as a rate.


CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Solution
The line is decreasing so it will have a negative gradient.
rise
m = run
1500
=10
150
=1
= - 150
This means that the rate is -150 cases/week, or the number of cases
reported is decreasing by 150 cases/week.

When nding the gradient of a straight line in the number plane, we think of
a change in y values as x changes. The gradients in the examples above show
rates of change.
However, in most examples in real life, the rate of change will vary. For
example, a car would speed up and slow down depending on where it is in
relation to other cars, trafc light signals and changing speed limits.

Gradient of a curve

Class Discussion
The two graphs show the distance that a bicycle travels over time. One is
a straight line and the other is a curve.
d

20

20

15

15
km

km

396

10
5

10
5

3
Hours

t
1

3
Hours

Is the average speed of the bicycle the same in both cases? What is
different about the speed in the two graphs?
How could you measure the speed in the second graph at any one
time? Does it change? If so, how does it change?

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

Here is a more general curve. What could you say about its gradient?
How does it change along the curve?
y

Copy the graph and mark on it where the gradient is positive, negative
and zero.

Using what we know about the gradient of a straight line, we can see where
the gradient of a curve is positive, negative or zero by drawing tangents to the
curve in different places around the curve.
y

+
x

Notice that when the curve increases it has a positive gradient, when it
decreases it has a negative gradient and when it turns around the gradient is zero.

Investigation
There are some excellent computer programs that will draw tangents to
a curve and then sketch the gradient curve. One of these is Geometer
Sketchpad.
Explore how to sketch gradient functions using this or a similar
program as you look at the examples below.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
Describe the gradient of each curve.
1.

Solution
Where the curve increases, the gradient is positive. Where it decreases, it
is negative. Where it turns around, it has a zero gradient.

2.

Solution

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

399

Since we have a formula for nding the gradient of a straight line, we nd the
gradient of a curve by measuring the gradient of a tangent to the curve.

EXAMPLE
(a) Make an accurate sketch of y = x 2 on graph paper.
(b) Draw tangents to this curve at the points where
x = - 3, x = - 2, x = - 1, x = 0, x = 1, x = 2 and x = 3.
(c) Find the gradient of each of these tangents.
(d) Draw the graph of the gradients (the gradient function) on a
number plane.

Solution
(a) and (b)
y

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
-3 -2

There are computer


programs that will
draw these tangents.

(c) At x = - 3, m = - 6
At x = - 2, m = - 4
At x = - 1, m = - 2
At x = 0, m = 0
At x = 1, m = 2
At x = 2, m = 4
At x = 3, m = 6
(d)

Use the m values as


the y values on this
graph.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Drawing tangents to a curve is difcult. We can do a rough sketch of


the gradient function of a curve without knowing the actual values of the
gradients of the tangents.
To do this, notice in the example above that where m is positive, the
gradient function is above the x-axis, where m = 0, the gradient function is on
the x-axis and where m is negative, the gradient function is below the x-axis.

EXAMPLES
Sketch the gradient function of each curve.
1.

Solution
First we mark in where the gradient is positive, negative and zero.

Now on the gradient graph, place the points where m = 0 on the x-axis.
These are at x 1, x 2 and x 3 .

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

To the left of x 1, the gradient is negative, so this part of the graph will
be below the x-axis. Between x 1 and x 2, the gradient is positive, so the
graph will be above the x-axis. Between x 2 and x 3, the gradient is negative,
so the graph will be below the x-axis. To the right of x 3, the gradient is
positive, so this part of the graph will be above the x-axis.

2.

Solution
First mark in where the gradient is positive, negative and zero.

CONTINUED

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The gradient is zero at x 1 and x 2 . These points will be on the x-axis. To the
left of x 1, the gradient is positive, so this part of the graph will be above
the x-axis. Between x 1 and x 2, the gradient is negative, so the graph will
be below the x-axis. To the right of x 2, the gradient is positive, so this part
of the graph will be above the x-axis.

8.1 Exercises
Sketch the gradient function for each graph.
1.

4.

2.

5.

3.

6.

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

7.

9.

8.

10.

Differentiation from First Principles


Seeing where the gradient of a curve is positive, negative or zero is a good rst step,
but there are methods to nd a formula for the gradient of a tangent to a curve.
The process of nding the gradient of a tangent is called differentiation.
The resulting function is called the derivative.

Differentiability
A function is called a differentiable function if the gradient of the tangent
can be found.
There are some graphs that are not differentiable in places.
Most functions are continuous, which means that they have a smooth
unbroken line or curve. However, some have a gap, or discontinuity, in the
graph (e.g. hyperbola). This can be shown by an asymptote or a hole in the
graph. We cannot nd the gradient of a tangent to the curve at a point that
doesnt exist! So the function is not differentiable at the point of discontinuity.
y

This function is not


differentiable at a since the curve is
discontinuous at this point.

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This function is not


differentiable at b as the curve is
discontinuous at this point.

A function may be continuous but not smooth. It may have a sharp


corner. Can you see why curves are not differentiable at the point where there
is a corner?
y

The curve is not differentiable at


point c since it is not smooth at that
point.

A function y = f (x) is differentiable at the point x = a if the derivative


exists at that point. This can only happen if the function is continuous
and smooth at x = a.

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

EXAMPLES
1. Find all points where the function below is not differentiable.
y

x
C

Solution
The function is not differentiable at points A and B since there are sharp
corners and the curve is not smooth at these points.
It is not differentiable at point C since the function is discontinuous
at this point.

2. Is the function f (x) = )

x2
3x - 2

for x $ 1
differentiable at all points?
for x 1 1

Solution
The functions f (x) = x 2 and f (x) = 3x - 2 are both differentiable at all
points.
However, we need to look at where one nishes and the other starts, at f (1).
For f (x) = x 2
f ] 1 g = 12
=1
For f (x) = 3x - 2
f ]1 g = 3 ]1 g - 2
=1
This means that both pieces of this function join up (the function is
continuous). However, to be differentiable, the curve must be smooth at
this point.
CONTINUED

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Sketching this function shows that it is not smooth (it has a sharp
corner) so it is not differentiable at x = 1.
y

y = x2

1
1

-2
y = 3x - 2

8.2 Exercises
For each function, state whether it has any points at which it is not
differentiable.
1.

4.

x1

x1

2.

3.

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

5.

407

10.

5
4
3
2

x1

x2

1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3

6.

4
f (x) = x

7.

y=-

8.

9.

-4
-5

1
x+3

11. y = tan x for 0c # x # 360c

x3
if x 2 2
f (x) = )
x + 1 if x # 2
Z 2x
for x 2 3
]
f (x) = [3
for - 2 # x # 3
]
2
\1 - x for x 1 - 2

x
12. f (x) = x
13. f (i) = -3 cos 2i
14. g (z) = sin 2 z
15. y =

x-3
x2 - 9

Limits
To differentiate from rst principles, we need to look more closely at the
concept of a limit.
A limit is used when we want to move as close as we can to something.
Often this is to nd out where a function is near a gap or discontinuous point.
You saw this in Chapter 5 when looking at discontinuous graphs. In this topic,
it is used when we want to move from a gradient of a line between two points
to a gradient of a tangent.

EXAMPLES
1. Find lim
x "2

x2 - x - 2
.
x-2

Solution
(x + 1) (x - 2)
x2 - x - 2
= lim
x "2
x "2
x-2
(x - 2 )
= lim (x + 1)

You did this in


Chapter 5.

lim

x "2

=2+1
=3

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. Find an expression in terms of x for lim


h "0

2xh - h 2 - 3h
.
h

Solution
h (2 x - h - 3)
2xh - h 2 - 3h
= lim
h "0
h "0
h
h
= lim (2x - h - 3)

lim

h "0

= 2x - 3
3. Find an expression in terms of x for lim

dx " 0

3x 2 dx + dx 2 - 5dx
.
dx

Solution
d x ( 3x 2 + d x - 5 )
3x 2 d x + d x 2 - 5 d x
= lim
dx " 0
dx " 0
dx
dx
2
= lim (3x + dx - 5)
lim

dx " 0
2

= 3x - 5

8.3 Exercises
1.

Evaluate

2.

x + 3x
x
x "0
5x 3 - 2x 2 - 7x
lim
x
x "0
x 2 - 3x
lim
x "3 x - 3
t 2 - 16
lim
t "4
t-4
g2 - 1
lim
g "1 g - 1
x2 + x - 2
lim
x " -2
x+2
h 5 + 2h
lim
h "0
h
2
x - 7x + 12
lim
x "3
x-3
n 2 - 25
lim
n "5 n - 5
x 2 + 4x + 3
lim
x " -1
x2 - 1

Find as an expression in terms of x

x 2 h - 2xh - 4h
h "0
h
2x 3 h + xh - h
lim
h "0
h
3x 2 h 2 - 7xh + 4h 2 - h
lim
h "0
h
4x 4 h - x 2 h - 4xh 2
lim
h "0
h
x 2 h 2 + 3xh 2 - 4xh + 3h
lim
h "0
h
2x 2 h + 5xh 2 + 6h
lim
h "0
h
x 2 dx 2 - 2xdx
lim
dx " 0
dx
4 x 2 dx - 2 dx 2
lim
dx " 0
dx
x 3 dx 2 + 3xdx - dx
lim
dx " 0
dx
x 2 dx - 2xdx + 9dx
lim
dx " 0
dx

(a) lim

(a) lim

(b)

(b)

(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

Differentiation as a limit
y2 - y1
The formula m = x - x is used to nd the gradient of a straight line when we
2
1
know two points on the line. However, when the line is a tangent to a curve,
we only know one point on the linethe point of contact with the curve.
To differentiate from rst principles, we rst use the point of contact
and another point close to it on the curve (this line is called a secant) and then
we move the second point closer and closer to the point of contact until they
overlap and the line is at single point (the tangent). To do this, we use a limit.
If you look at a close up of a graph, you can get some idea of this concept.
When the curve is magnied, two points appear to be joined by a straight line.
We say the curve is locally straight.

Investigation
Use a graphics calculator or a computer program to sketch a curve and
then zoom in on a section of the curve to see that it is locally straight.
For example, here is a parabola.
10

f 1(x) = x2
2

-20

x
20

-10

Notice how it looks straight when we zoom in on a point on the


parabola?
7.99 y

2.99

f 1(x) = x2

Use technology to sketch other curves and zoom in to show that they are
locally straight.

409

410

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Before using limits to nd different formulae for differentiating from rst


principles, here are some examples of how we can calculate an approximate
value for the gradient of the tangent to a curve. By taking two points close
together, as in the example below, we nd the gradient of the secant and then
estimate the gradient of the tangent.
y

(3.01, f (3.01))
(3, f (3))
x

EXAMPLES
1. For the function f ] x g = x 3, nd the gradient of the secant PQ where P
is the point on the function where x = 2 and Q is another point on the
curve close to P. Choose different values for Q and use these results to
estimate the gradient of the curve at P.

y
Q
P

(2.1, f(2.1))
(2, f(2))

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

411

Solution
P = ^ 2, f (2) h
Take different values of x for point Q, for example x = 2.1
Using different values of x for point Q gives the results in the table.
Point Q
_ 2 .1 , f ] 2 .1 g i

_ 2.01, f ] 2.01 g i

_ 2.001, f ] 2.001 g i

_ 1 .9 , f ] 1 .9 g i

_ 1.99, f ] 1.99 g i

_ 1.999, f ] 1.999 g i

Gradient of secant PQ

y2 - y1
to find
x2 - x1
the gradient of the secant.
Use m =

f ( 2 . 1 ) - f (2 )
m=
2 .1 - 2
2 .1 3 - 2 3
=
2 .1 - 2
= 12.61
f (2.01) - f (2)
2.01 - 2
2.01 3 - 2 3
=
2.01 - 2
= 12.0601

m=

f (2.001) - f (2)
2.001 - 2
2.001 3 - 2 3
=
2.001 - 2
= 12.006001

m=

f ( 1 . 9 ) - f (2 )
1 .9 - 2
1 .9 3 - 2 3
=
1 .9 - 2
= 11.41

m=

f (1.99) - f (2)
1.99 - 2
1.99 3 - 2 3
=
1.99 - 2
= 11.9401

m=

f (1.999) - f (2)
1.999 - 2
1.999 3 - 2 3
=
1.999 - 2
= 11.994001

m=

From these results, a good estimate for the gradient at P is 12.


We can say that as x approaches 2, the gradient approaches 12.
f (x) - f (2)
We can write lim
= 12.
x "2
x-2

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. For the curve y = x 2, nd the gradient of the secant AB where A is the


point on the curve where x = 5 and point B is close to A. Find an estimate
of the gradient of the curve at A by using three different values for B.

Solution
A = ^ 5, f (5) h
Take three different values of x for point B, for example x = 4.9, x = 5.1
and x = 5.01.
(a) B = ^ 4.9, f (4.9) h
y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1
f ( 4 . 9 ) - f (5 )
=
4 .9 - 5
4 .9 2 - 5 2
=
4 .9 - 5
= 9 .9
(b) B = ^ 5.1, f (5.1) h
y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1
f ( 5 . 1 ) - f (5 )
=
5 .1 - 5
5 .1 2 - 5 2
=
5 .1 - 5
= 10.1
(c) B = ^ 5.01, f (5.01) h
y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1
f (5.01) - f (5)
=
5.01 - 5
5.01 2 - 5 2
=
5.01 - 5
= 10.01
From these results, a good estimate for the gradient at A is 10.
We can say that as x approaches 5, the gradient approaches 10.
We can write lim
x "5

f (x) - f (5)
= 10.
x-5

We can nd a general formula for differentiating from rst principles by


using c rather than any particular number. We use general points P ^ c, f (c) h and
Q ^ x, f (x) h where x is close to c.
The gradient of the secant PQ is given by
y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1
f (x) - f (c)
=
x-c

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

413

The gradient of the tangent at P is found when x approaches c. We call


this fl(c).

f l(c) = lim
x "c

f (x) - f (c)
x-c

There are other versions of this formula.


We can call the points P ^ x, f (x) h and Q ^ x + h, f (x + h) h where h is small.
y
Q

(x + h, f(x + h))

(x , f(x))
x

Secant PQ has gradient


y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1
f (x + h) - f (x)
=
x+h-x
f (x + h) - f (x)
=
h
To nd the gradient of the secant, we make h smaller as shown, so that
Q becomes closer and closer to P.
y
Q

(x + h, f(x + h))
Q

Q
P

(x, f (x))
x

Search the Internet using


keywords differentiation from
first principles, gradient of
secant and tangent to find
mathematical websites that
show this working.

414

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

As h approaches 0, the gradient of the tangent becomes lim


h "0
We call this fl(x).

fl(x) = lim

f (x + h) - f (x)
h

h "0

The symbol d is a
Greek letter called
delta.

f (x + h) - f (x)

If we use P ^ x, y h and Q ^ x + dx, y + dy h close to P where dx and dy are


small:
Gradient of secant PQ
y2 - y1
m= x -x
2
1
y + dy - y
=
x + dx - x
dy
=
dx
dy
. We
As dx approaches 0, the gradient of the tangent becomes lim
dx " 0 d x
dy
call this
.
dx

dy
dx

= lim

dx " 0

dy
dx

All of these different notations stand for the derivative, or the gradient of
the tangent:
dy

d
d
,
(y),
^ f (x) h, f l(x), yl
dx dx
dx
These occur because Newton, Leibniz and other mathematicians over the
years have used different notation.

Investigation
Leibniz used

dy
dx

where d stood for difference. Can you see why he would

have used this?


Use the Internet to explore the different notations used in calculus and
where they came from.

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

415

The three formulae for differentiating from rst principles all work in a
similar way.

EXAMPLE
Differentiate from rst principles to nd the gradient of the tangent to
the curve y = x 2 + 3 at the point where x = 1.
Remember that y = x 2 - 3
is the same as f (x) = x 2 - 3.

Solution
Method 1:
f (x) - f (c)
x-c
2
f ]x g = x + 3
f ] 1 g = 12 + 3
=4
f (x) - f (c)
f l(c) = lim
x "c
x-c
f (x) - f (1)
f l(1) = lim
x "1
x-1
(x 2 + 3) - 4
= lim
x "1
x-1
x2 - 1
= lim
x "1 x - 1
(x + 1) (x - 1)
= lim
x "1
x-1
= lim (x + 1)
f l(c) = lim
x "c

x "1

=1+1
=2
Method 2:
f l(x) = lim

f (x + h ) - f ( x )

h "0

f ] x g = x2 + 3
f ] 1 g = 12 + 3
=4

f ] x + h g = ] x + h g2 + 3
When x = 1
f ] 1 + h g = ] 1 + h g2 + 3
= 1 + 2h + h 2 + 3
= 2h + h 2 + 4
CONTINUED

416

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

f l(x) = lim
h "0

f l(1) = lim

f (x + h) - f (x)
h
f (1 + h) - f (1)

h
(2h + h 2 + 4) - 4
= lim
h "0
h
2h + h 2
= lim
h "0
h
h (2 + h)
= lim
h "0
h
= lim (2 + h)
h "0

h "0

=2+0
=2
Method 3:
dy

= lim

dy

dx
dx
y = x2 + 3
dx " 0

When x = 1
y = 12 + 3
=4
So point ^ 1, 4 h lies on the curve.
Substitute point (1 + dx, 4 + dy):
4 + dy = (1 + dx) 2 + 3
= 1 + 2d x + d x 2 + 3
= 2d x + d x 2 + 4
d y = 2d x + d x 2
dy
2d x + d x 2
=
dx
dx
dx(2 + dx)
=
dx
= 2 + dx
dy
dy
= lim
d
x
"
0
dx
dx
= lim (2 + dx)
dx " 0

=2+0
=2

We can also use these formulae to nd the derivative function generally.

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

417

EXAMPLE
Differentiate f ] x g = 2x 2 + 7x - 3 from rst principles.

Solution

Try this example using the


other two formulae.

f ] x g = 2x + 7x - 3
f ] x + h g = 2 ] x + h g2 + 7 ] x + h g - 3
2

= 2 ^ x 2 + 2xh + h 2 h + 7x + 7h - 3
= 2x 2 + 4xh + 2h 2 + 7x + 7h - 3
f ] x + h g - f ] x g = ^ 2x 2 + 4xh + 2h 2 + 7x + 7h - 3 h - ^ 2x 2 + 7x - 3 h
= 2x 2 + 4xh + 2h 2 + 7x + 7h - 3 - 2x 2 - 7x + 3
= 4xh + 2h 2 + 7h
f l(x) = lim

f (x + h) - f (x)

h
4xh + 2h 2 + 7h
= lim
h "0
h
h ( 4 x + 2h + 7 )
= lim
h "0
h
= lim (4x + 2h + 7)
h "0

h "0

= 4x + 0 + 7
= 4x + 7

8.4 Exercises
1.

2.

(a) Find the gradient of the secant


between the point ^ 1, 2 h and the
point where x = 1.01, on the
curve y = x 4 + 1.
(b) Find the gradient of the
secant between ^ 1, 2 h and the
point where x = 0.999 on the
curve.
(c) Use these results to nd the
gradient of the tangent to the
curve y = x 4 + 1 at the point
^ 1, 2 h .
A function f ] x g = x 3 + x has a
tangent at the point ^ 2, 10 h .
f (x) - f (2)
(a) Find the value of
x-2
when x = 2.1.

(b) Find the value of

f (x) - f (2)
x-2

when x = 2.01.
f (x) - f (2)
(c) Evaluate
when
x-2
x = 1.99.
(d) Hence nd the gradient of the
tangent at the point ^ 2, 10 h .
3.

For the function f ] x g = x 2 - 4,


nd the derivative at point P
where x = 3 by selecting points
near P and nding the gradient of
the secant.

4.

If f (x) = x 2,
(a) nd f (x + h)
(b) show that
f (x + h) - f (x) = 2xh + h 2

418

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

(c) show that


f (x + h) - f (x)
h

5.

6.

= 2x + h

(d) show that fl(x) = 2x .

(b) show that

A function is given by
f (x) = 2x 2 - 7x + 3.
(a) Show that f (x + h) =
2x 2 + 4xh + 2h 2 - 7x - 7h + 3.
(b) Show that
f (x + h) - f (x) = 4xh + 2h 2 - 7h.
(c) Show that
f (x + h) - f (x)
= 4x + 2h - 7 .
h
(d) Find fl(x) .

(c) nd

A function is given by
f (x) = x 2 + x + 5.
(a) Find f ] 2 g.
(b) Find f ] 2 + h g.
(c) Find f ] 2 + h g - f ] 2 g.
(d) Show that
f (2 + h) - f ( 2)
= 5 + h.
h
(e) Find fl(2).

7.

Given the curve f (x) = 4x 3 - 3


(a) nd f ] -1 g
(b) nd f ] -1 + h g - f ] -1 g
(c) nd the gradient of the
tangent to the curve at the point
where x = -1.

8.

For the parabola y = x - 1


(a) nd f ] 3 g
(b) nd f ] 3 + h g - f ] 3 g
(c) nd fl(3).

9.

Remember that
1
-1
=
x

by substituting the point


^ x + dx, y + dy h

For the function


f (x) = 4 - 3x - 5x 2
(a) nd f l(1)
(b) similarly, nd the gradient
of the tangent at the point
^ -2, -10 h .

10. For the parabola y = x 2 + 2x


(a) show that
dy = 2xdx + dx 2 + 2dx

dy
dx

dy
dx

= 2x + dx + 2

11. Differentiate from rst principles


to nd the gradient of the
tangent to the curve
(a) f ] x g = x 2 at the point where
x=1
(b) y = x 2 + x at the point ^ 2, 6 h
(c) f ] x g = 2x 2 - 5 at the point
where x = -3
(d) y = 3x 2 + 3x + 1 at the point
where x = 2
(e) f ] x g = x 2 - 7x - 4 at the
point ^ -1, 6 h .
12. Find the derivative function for
each curve by differentiating
from rst principles
(a) f ] x g = x 2
(b) y = x 2 + 5x
(c) f ] x g = 4x 2 - 4x - 3
(d) y = 5x 2 - x - 1
(e) y = x 3
(f) f ] x g = 2x 3 + 5x
(g) y = x 3 - 2x 2 + 3x - 1
(h) f (x) = -2x 3.
13. The curve y = x has a tangent
drawn at the point ^ 4, 2 h .
(a) Evaluate

f (x) - f (4)
when
x-4

x = 3 .9 .
f (x) - f (4)
(b) Evaluate
when
x-4
x = 3.999.
f (x) - f (4)
when
(c) Evaluate
x-4
x = 4.01.
14. For the function f (x) = x - 1,
f (x) - f (5)
(a) evaluate
when
x-5
x = 4.99.

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

f (x) - f (5)
(b) evaluate
when
x-5
x = 5.01.
(c) Use these results to nd the
derivative of the function at the
point where x = 5.

15. Find the gradient of the tangent


4
to the curve y = 2 at point
x
P ^ 2, 1 h by nding the gradient of
the secant between P and a point
close to P.

Short Methods of Differentiation


The basic rule
Remember that the gradient of a straight line y = mx + b is m. The tangent to
the line is the line itself, so the gradient of the tangent is m everywhere along
the line.
y

y = mx + b

So if y = mx,

dy
dx

=m

d ] g
kx = k
dx

For a horizontal line in the form y = k, the gradient is zero.


y

y=k

So if y = k,

dy
dx

=0
d ] g
k =0
dx

419

420

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Investigation
Differentiate from rst principles:
y = x2
y = x3
y = x4
Can you nd a pattern? Could you predict what the result would be for xn?
Alternatively, you could nd an approximation to the derivative of a
f (x + 0.01) - f (x)
function at any point by drawing the graph of y =
.
0.01
Use a graphics calculator or graphing computer software to sketch the
derivative for these functions and nd the equation of the derivative.

Mathematicians working with differentiation from rst principles discovered


this pattern that enabled them to shorten differentiation considerably!
For example:
When y = x 2, yl = 2x
When y = x 3, yl = 3x 2
When y = x 4, yl = 4x 3

d ^ nh
x = nx n - 1
dx

Proof
You do not need to know
this proof.

f (x) = x n
f (x + h) = (x + h) n
f (x + h) - f (x) = (x + h) n - x n
= ^ (x + h) - x h [(x + h) n - 1 + (x + h) n - 2 x + (x + h) n - 3 x 2 + (x + h) n - 4 x 3
+ . . . + (x + h) x n - 2 + x n - 1]
= h [(x + h) n - 1 + (x + h) n - 2 x + (x + h) n - 3 x 2 + (x + h) n - 4 x 3
+ . . . + (x + h) x n - 2 + x n - 1]

f l(x) = lim

f (x + h) - f (x)

h
h [(x + h) n - 1 + (x + h) n - 2 x + (x + h) n - 3 x 2 + (x + h) n - 4 x 3 + . . . + (x + h) x n - 2 + x n - 1]
= lim
h "0
h
n-1
n-2
n-3 2
= lim [(x + h)
+ (x + h )
x + (x + h)
x + (x + h) n - 4 x 3 + . . . + (x + h) x n - 2 + x n - 1]
h "0

h "0

= (x) n - 1 + (x) n - 2 x + (x) n - 3 x 2 + (x) n - 4 x 3 + . . . + (x) x n - 2 + x n - 1


= nx n - 1

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

421

EXAMPLE
Differentiate f (x) = x 7.

Solution
f l(x) = 7x 6

There are some more rules that give us short ways to differentiate functions.
The rst one says that if there is a constant in front of the x (we call this a
coefcient), then it is just multiplied with the derivative.

d ^ nh
kx = knx n - 1
dx

A more general way of writing this rule is:

d
^ kf (x) h = kf l(x)
dx

Proof
kf (x + h) - kf (x)
d
^ kf (x) h = lim
0
h
"
dx
h
k [f (x + h) - f (x)]
= lim
h "0
h
f (x + h) - f (x)
= k lim
h "0
h
= kf l(x)

EXAMPLE
Find the derivative of 3x8.

Solution
If y = 3x 8
dy
= 3 # 8x 7
dx
= 24x 7

You do not need to know


this proof.

422

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Also, if there are several terms in an expression, we differentiate each one


separately. We can write this as a rule:

d
^ f (x) + g (x) h = f l(x) + g (x)
dx

Proof
You do not need to
know this proof.

[f (x + h) + g (x + h)] - [f (x) + g (x)]


d
^ f (x) + g (x) h = lim
h "0
dx
h
f (x + h) + g (x + h) - f (x) - g (x)
= lim
h "0
h
f (x + h) - f (x) + g (x + h) - g (x)
= lim
h "0
h
f (x + h ) - f ( x )
g ( x + h ) - g ( x)
G
= lim =
+
h "0
h
h
f (x + h ) - f ( x )
g ( x + h ) - g ( x)
= lim
+ lim
0
h "0
h
"
h
h
= f l(x) + gl(x)

EXAMPLE
Differentiate x 3 + x 4.

Solution
d 3
(x + x 4) = 3x 2 + 4x 3
dx

Many functions use a combination of these rules.

EXAMPLES
Differentiate
1. 7x

Solution
d ] g
7x = 7
dx

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

2. f (x) = x 4 - x 3 + 5

Solution
f l(x) = 4x 3 - 3x 2 + 0
= 4x 3 - 3x 2
3. y = 4x 7

Solution
dy
dx

= 4 # 7x 6
= 28x 6

4. If f (x) = 2x 5 - 7x 3 + 5x - 4, evaluate f l(-1)

Solution
f l(x) = 10x 4 - 21x 2 + 5
f l(-1) = 10(-1) 4 - 21(-1) 2 + 5
= -6
5. Differentiate

3x 2 + 5x
2x

Solution
Divide by 2x before differentiating.
3x 2 + 5x
3x 2 5x
=
+
2x
2x
2x
3
5
= x+
2
2
dy
3
=
2
dx
1
=1
2
6. Differentiate S = 2rr 2 + 2rrh with respect to r.

Solution
We are differentiating with respect to r, so r is the variable and r and h
are constants.
dS
= 2r(2r) + 2rh
dr
= 4r r + 2r h

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

8.5 Exercises
1.

Expand brackets
before differentiating.

2.

3.

Simplify by dividing
before differentiating.

Differentiate
(a) x + 2
(b) 5x - 9
(c) x 2 + 3x + 4
(d) 5x 2 - x - 8
(e) x 3 + 2x 2 - 7x - 3
(f) 2x 3 - 7x 2 + 7x - 1
(g) 3x 4 - 2x 2 + 5x
(h) x 6 - 5x 5 - 2x 4
(i) 2x 5 - 4x 3 + x 2 - 2x + 4
(j) 4x 10 - 7x 9
Find the derivative of
(a) x ] 2x + 1 g
(b) ] 2x - 3 g2
(c) ] x + 4 g ] x - 4 g
2
(d) ^ 2x 2 - 3 h
(e) ] 2x + 5 g ^ x 2 - x + 1 h
Differentiate
(a)

x2
-x
6

(b)

x4 x3
+4
2
3

(c)

1 6 2
x ( x - 3)
3

(d)

2x 3 + 5x
x

(e)

x 2 + 2x
4x

(f)

2x 5 - 3x 4 + 6x 3 - 2x 2
3x 2

4.

5.

6.

Find f l(x) when


f (x) = 8x 2 -7x + 4.
dy
If y = x 4 - 2x 3 + 5, nd
when
dx
x = - 2.
dy
Find
if
dx
y = 6x 10 - 5x 8 + 7x 5 - 3x + 8.
ds
.
dt

7.

If s = 5t 2 - 20t , nd

8.

Find gl(x) given g (x) = 5x - 4.

dv
when v = 15t 2 - 9.
dt
dh
10. If h = 40t - 2t 2, nd
.
dt
9.

Find

11. Given V =

dV
4 3
rr , nd
.
3
dr

12. If f (x) = 2x 3 - 3x + 4,
evaluate f l(1).
13. Given f (x) = x 2 - x + 5, evaluate
(a) f l(3)
(b) f l(-2)
(c) x when f l(x) = 7
14. If y = x 3 - 7, evaluate
dy
(a)
when x = 2
dx
dy
(b) x when
= 12
dx
15. Evaluate gl(2) when
g (t) = 3t 3 - 4t 2 - 2t + 1.

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

425

Tangents and Normals

DID YOU KNOW?


The word tangent comes from the Latin tangens, meaning touching. A tangent to a circle
intersects it only once.

However, a tangent to a curve could intersect the curve more than once.

This line is a tangent to the


curve at point P.

A line may only intersect a curve once but not be a tangent.

So a tangent to a curve is best described as the limiting position of the secant PQ as Q


approaches P.

Remember from earlier in the chapter that the derivative is the gradient of the
tangent to a curve.

dy
dx

is the gradient of the tangent to a curve

426

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the tangent to the parabola y = x 2 + 1 at the
point ^ 1, 2 h .

Solution
dy
dx
At ^ 1, 2 h

dy
dx

= 2x + 0
= 2x
= 2 (1 )
=2

So the gradient of the tangent at ^ 1, 2 h is 2.


2. Find values of x for which the gradient of the tangent to the curve
y = 2x 3 - 6x 2 + 1 is equal to 18.

Solution
dy
dx
dy
dx

= 6x 2 - 12x
is the gradient of the tangent, so substitute

dy
dx

= 18.

18 = 6x 2 - 12x
0 = 6x 2 - 12x - 18
= x 2 - 2x - 3
= ]x - 3 g]x + 1 g
x - 3 = 0, x + 1 = 0
` x = 3,
x = -1
3. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 4 - 3x 3 + 7x - 2
at the point ^ 2, 4 h .

Solution
dy
At ^ 2, 4 h

dx
dy
dx

= 4x 3 - 9x 2 + 7
= 4 ] 2 g3 - 9 ] 2 g2 + 7

=3
So the gradient of the tangent at ^ 2, 4 h is 3.
Equation of the tangent:
y - y1 = m _ x - x1 i
y - 4 = 3 ]x - 2 g

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

427

= 3x - 6
y = 3x - 2
or 0 = 3x - y - 2

The normal is a straight line perpendicular to the tangent at the same point of
contact with the curve.
y

Tangent

Normal

If lines with gradients m1 and m2 are perpendicular, then m 1 m 2 = -1

EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the normal to the curve y = 2x 2 - 3x + 5 at the
point where x = 4.

Solution
dy
dx

is the gradient of the tangent.


dy

= 4x - 3
dx
When x = 4
dy
=4#4-3
dx
= 13
So m 1 = 13
The normal is perpendicular to the tangent.
So m 1 m 2 = -1
CONTINUED

You used this rule in the


previous chapter.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

13m 2 = -1
1
m2 = 13
1
So the gradient of the normal is - .
13

2. Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = x 3 + 3x 2 - 2x - 1


at the point ^ -1, 3 h .

Solution
dy
dx

is the gradient of the tangent.


dy

= 3x 2 + 6x - 2
dx
When x = -1
dy
= 3 ] -1 g2 + 6 ] -1 g - 2
dx
= -5
So m 1 = - 5
The normal is perpendicular to the tangent.
So m 1 m 2 = -1
-5m 2 = -1
1
m2 =
5
1
So the gradient of the normal is .
5
Equation of the normal:
y - y1 = m _ x - x1 i
1
y - 3 = ] x - ] -1 g g
5
5y - 15 = x + 1
0 = x - 5y + 16

8.6 Exercises
1.

Find the gradient of the tangent


to the curve
(a) y = x 3 - 3x at the point where
x=5
(b) f ] x g = x 2 + x - 4 at the point
^ -7, 38 h
(c) f ] x g = 5x 3 - 4x - 1 at the
point where x = -1
(d) y = 5x 2 + 2x + 3 at the point
^ -2, 19 h
(e) y = 2x 9 at the point where
x=1

(f) f ] x g = x 3 - 7 at the point


where x = 3
(g) v = 2t 2 + 3t - 5 at the point
where t = 2
(h) Q = 3r 3 - 2r 2 + 8r - 4 at the
point where r = 4
(i) h = t 4 - 4t where t = 0
(j) f ] t g = 3t 5 - 8t 3 + 5t at the
point where t = 2.

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

2.

3.

4.

Find the gradient of the normal


to the curve
(a) f ] x g = 2x 3 + 2x - 1 at the
point where x = -2
(b) y = 3x 2 + 5x - 2 at the
point ^ -5, 48 h
(c) f ] x g = x 2 - 2x - 7 at the
point where x = - 9
(d) y = x 3 + x 2 + 3x - 2 at the
point ^ -4, - 62 h
(e) f ] x g = x 10 at the point where
x = -1
(f) y = x 2 + 7x - 5 at the
point ^ - 7, - 5 h
(g) A = 2x 3 + 3x 2 - x + 1 at the
point where x = 3
(h) f ] a g = 3a 2 - 2a - 6 at the
point where a = - 3
(i) V = h 3 - 4h + 9 at the
point ^ 2, 9 h
(j) g ] x g = x 4 - 2x 2 + 5x - 3 at
the point where x = -1.
Find the gradient of the
(i) tangent and (ii) normal to
the curve
(a) y = x 2 + 1 at the point
^ 3, 10 h
(b) f ] x g = 5 - x 2 at the point
where x = -4
(c) y = 2x 5 - 7x 2 + 4 at the
point where x = -1
(d) p ] x g = x 6 - 3x 4 - 2x + 8
where x = 1
(e) f ] x g = 4 - x - x 2 at the
point ^ -6, 26 h .
Find the equation of the tangent
to the curve
(a) y = x 4 - 5x + 1 at the
point ^ 2, 7 h
(b) f (x) = 5x 3 - 3x 2 - 2x + 6 at
the point ^ 1, 6 h
(c) y = x 2 + 2x - 8 at the
point ^ -3, -5 h
(d) y = 3x 3 + 1 at the point
where x = 2
(e) v = 4t 4 - 7t 3 - 2 at the point
where t = 2

5.

Find the equation of the normal


to the curve
(a) f ] x g = x 3 - 3x + 5 at the
point ^ 3, 23 h
(b) y = x 2 - 4x - 5 at the point
^ -2, 7 h
(c) f ] x g = 7x - 2x 2 at the point
where x = 6
(d) y = 7x 2 - 3x - 2 at the point
^ -3, 70 h
(e) y = x 4 - 2x 3 + 4x + 1 at the
point where x = 1.

6.

Find the equation of the


(i) tangent and (ii) normal to the
curve
(a) f ] x g = 4x 2 - x + 8 at the
point ^ 1, 11 h
(b) y = x 3 + 2x 2 - 5x at the
point ^ -3, 6 h
(c) F ] x g = x 5 - 5x 3 at the point
where x = 1
(d) y = x 2 - 8x + 7 at the
point ^ 3, - 8 h
(e) y = x 4 - 2x 3 + 4x + 1 at
the point where x = 1.

7.

For the curve y = x 3 - 27x - 5,


dy
nd values of x for which
= 0.
dx

8.

Find the coordinates of the point


at which the curve y = x 3 + 1 has
a tangent with a gradient of 3.

9.

A function f (x) = x 2 + 4x - 12
has a tangent with a gradient of
-6 at point P on the curve. Find
the coordinates of the point P.

10. The tangent at point P on the


curve y = 4x 2 + 1 is parallel to the
x-axis. Find the coordinates of P.
11. Find the coordinates of point Q
where the tangent to the curve
y = 5x 2 - 3x is parallel to the line
7x - y + 3 = 0 .

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

12. Find the coordinates of point S


where the tangent to the curve
y = x 2 + 4x - 1 is perpendicular
to the line 4x + 2y + 7 = 0.
13. The curve y = 3x - 4 has a
gradient of 6 at point A.
(a) Find the coordinates of A.
(b) Find the equation of the
tangent to the curve at A.
2

14. A function h = 3t 2 - 2t + 5 has a


tangent at the point where t = 2.
Find the equation of the tangent.
15. A function f ] x g = 2x 2 - 8x + 3
has a tangent parallel to the line
4x - 2y + 1 = 0 at point P. Find
the equation of the tangent at P.

Further Differentiation and Indices


The basic rule for differentiating xn works for any rational number n.

Investigation
1. (a) Show that

-h
1
1
- =
.
x+h x
x (x + h)

1
(b) Hence differentiate y = x from rst principles.
(c) Differentiate y = x - 1 using a short method. Do you get the same
answer as 1(b)?
2. (a) Show that ( x + h - x ) ( x + h + x ) = h.
(b) Hence differentiate y =
1
2

x from rst principles.

(c) Differentiate y = x and show that this gives the same answer as 2(b).

We sometimes need to change a function into index form before


differentiating.

EXAMPLES
1. Differentiate 7 3 x .

Solution
1

7 3 x = 7x 3
dy
1 1-1
= 7$ x 3
3
dx
2
7 -3
= x
3
7
1
= # 2
3
x3

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

=
=

7
1
#
3
3
x2
7
3 3 x2

4
2. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = 2 at the point
x
where x = 2.

Solution
4
x2
= 4x - 2

y=
dy
dx

= - 8x - 3
=-

8
x3

When x = 2
4
y= 2
2
=1
Gradient of the tangent at ^ 2, 1 h:
dy
8
=- 3
dx
2
= -1
Equation of the tangent:
y - y1 = m _ x - x1 i
y - 1 = -1 ] x - 2 g
= -x + 2
y = -x + 3
or x + y - 3 = 0

8.7 Exercises
1.

Differentiate
(a) x - 3
(b) x 1.4
(c) 6x 0.2
1

(d) x 2
1

(e) 2x 2 - 3x - 1
1

(f) 3x 3
3

(g) 8x 4
(h) - 2x

1
2

2.

Find the derivative function,


writing the answer without
negative or fractional indices.
1
(a) x
(b) 5 x
(c) 6 x
2
(d) 5
x
5
(e) - 3
x
1
(f)
x

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Note that

1
2x 6

1
1
# .
2
x6

(g)

Use index laws to


simplify first.

10. Find the equation of the tangent


to f (x) = 6 x at the point where
x = 9.

1
2x 6

(h) x x

x
11. (a) Differentiate x .

2
(i)
3x
3
1
(j)
+
4x 2 x 4
3.

Expand brackets first.

This rule is also called the


function of a function rule
or chain rule.

(b) Hence nd the gradient of the


x
tangent to the curve y = x at
the point where x = 4.

Find the gradient of the tangent


to the curve y = 3 x at the point
where x = 27.

12. Find the equation of the tangent


4
to the curve y = x at the point
1
c 8, m.
2

dx
12
, nd
when t = 2.
t
dt

4.

If x =

5.

A function is given by f (x) = 4 x .


Evaluate f l(16) .

6.

Find the gradient of the tangent


3
to the curve y =
at the point
2x 2
1
c 1, 1 m.
2
dy

14. The function f (x) = 3 x has


3
f l(x) = . Evaluate x.
4
2
15. The hyperbola y = x has two
2
tangents with gradient - . Find
25
the coordinates of the points of
contact of these tangents.

if y = ^ x + x h .
2

7.

Find

8.

A function f (x) =

9.

Find the equation of the tangent


1
to the curve y = 3 at the point
x
1
c 2, m.
8

dx

13. If the gradient of the tangent to


1
y = x is at point A, nd the
6
coordinates of A.

x
has a
2
tangent at ^ 4, 1 h . Find the
gradient of the tangent.

Composite Function Rule


A composite function is a function composed of two or more other functions.
5
For example, ^ 3x 2 - 4 h is made up of a function u5 where u = 3x 2 - 4.
To differentiate a composite function, we need to use the result..

dy
dx

dy
du

du
dx

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

Proof
Let dx, dy and du be small changes in x, y and u where dx " 0, dy " 0, du " 0.
dy
dy
du
=
#
Then
dx
du
dx
As dx " 0, du " 0
dy
dy
du
= lim
# lim
So lim
dx " 0 d x
du " 0 d u
dx " 0 d x

433

You do not need to


learn this proof.

Using the denition of the derivative from rst principles, this gives
dy
dx

dy
du

du
.
dx

EXAMPLES
Differentiate
1. (5x + 4) 7

Solution
u = 5x + 4
du
Then
=5
dx
y = u7
dy
`
= 7u 6
du
dy
dy
du
=
#
dx
du
dx
= 7u 6 # 5
= 35 (5x + 4) 6
Let

Can you see a quick


way of doing this
question?

2. (3x 2 + 2x - 1) 9

Solution
u = 3x 2 + 2x - 1
du
Then
= 6x + 2
dx
y = u9
dy
`
= 9u 8
du
dy
dy
du
=
#
dx
du
dx
8
= 9u (6x + 2)
= 9(6x + 2) (3x 2 + 2x - 1) 8
Let

CONTINUED

434

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

3.

3-x

Solution
1

3 - x = (3 - x) 2
Let u = 3 - x
du
= -1
dx
1

y = u2
dy
1 -1
= u 2
2
du
dy
dy
du
=
#
dx
du
dx
1 - 12
= u (-1)
2
1
1
= - (3 - x) 2
2
1
=2 3-x

The derivative of a composite function is the product of two derivatives.


One is the derivative of the function inside the brackets. The other is the
derivative of the whole function.

d
[ f (x)] n = f l(x) n [ f (x)] n - 1
dx

You do not need to know


this proof.

Proof
u = f (x)
du
= f l(x)
Then
dx
y = un
dy
`
= nu n - 1
du
dy
dy
du
=
#
dx
du
dx
= nu n - 1 # f l(x)
= f l(x) n [ f (x)] n - 1
Let

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

EXAMPLES
Differentiate
1. (8x 3 - 1) 5

Solution
dy
dx

= f l(x) $ n [ f (x)] n - 1
= 24x 2 $ 5 (8x 3 - 1) 4
= 120x 2 (8x 3 - 1) 4

2. (3x + 8) 11

Solution
yl = f l(x) . n [ f (x)] n - 1
= 3 # 11 (3x + 8) 10
= 33 (3x + 8) 10

3.

1
(6x + 1) 2

Solution
1
= (6x + 1) - 2
(6x + 1) 2
y l = f l(x) $ n [ f (x)] n - 1
= 6 # -2 (6x + 1) - 3
= -12 (6x + 1) - 3
12
=(6x + 1) 3

8.8 Exercises
1.

Differentiate
(a) (x + 3) 4
(b) (2x - 1) 3
(c) (5x 2 - 4) 7
(d) (8x + 3) 6
(e) (1 - x) 5

(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

3 (5x + 9) 9
2 (x - 4) 2
(2x 3 + 3x) 4
(x 2 + 5x - 1) 8
(x 6 - 2x 2 + 3) 6
1

(k) (3x - 1) 2

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2.

Find the gradient of the tangent


to the curve y = ] 3x - 2 g3 at the
point ^ 1, 1 h .

(o) (x 3 - 7x 2 + x) 4

3.

If f (x) = 2 (x 2 - 3) 5, evaluate fl(2).

3x + 4
1
(q)
5x - 2
1
(r)
(x 2 + 1) 4

4.

The curve y =

5.

For what values of x does the


1
function f (x) =
have
4x - 1
4
f l(x) = ?
49

6.

Find the equation of the tangent


to y = (2x + 1) 4 at the point
where x = - 1.

(l) (4 - x) - 2
(m) (x 2 - 9) - 3
1

(n) (5x + 4) 3

(p)

(s)
(t)
(u)
(v)
(w)
(x)
(y)

(7 - 3x) 2
5
4+x
1
2 3x - 1
3
4 (2x + 7) 9
1
x 4 - 3x 3 + 3x

(4x + 1) 4
1

( 7 - x) 5

x - 3 has a
1
tangent with gradient at point
2
N. Find the coordinates of N.

Product Rule
Differentiating the product of two functions y = uv gives the result

dy
dx

=u

dv
du
+v
dx
dx

Proof
y = uv
Given that dy, du and dv are small changes in y, u and v.
y + dy = (u + du) (v + dv)
= uv + udv + vdu + dudv
`

dy = udv + vdu + dudv ^ since y = uv h


dy
dv
du
dv
=u
+v
+ du
dx
dx
dx
dx

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

As dx " 0, du " 0
dy
dv
du
dv
F
lim
= lim < u
+v
+ du
dx " 0 d x
dx " 0
dx
dx
dx
dv
du
dv
F + lim < v
F + lim < du
F
= lim < u
dx " 0
d
x
"
0
d
x
"
0
dx
dx
dx
dy
dv
du
=u
+v
dx
dx
dx

437

You do not need to


know this proof.

It is easier to remember this rule as y l = uv l + vu l. We can also write this


the other way around which helps when learning the quotient rule in the next
section.
If y = uv, y l = u lv + v lu

EXAMPLES
Differentiate
1. ] 3x + 1 g ] x - 5 g

Solution
You could expand the brackets and then differentiate:
] 3x + 1 g ] x - 5 g = 3x 2 - 15x + x - 5
= 3x 2 - 14x - 5
dy
= 6x - 14
dx
Using the product rule:
y = uv where u = 3x + 1 and v = x - 5
ul = 3
vl = 1
y l = u lv + v l u
= 3 ] x - 5 g + 1 ] 3x + 1 g
= 3x - 15 + 3x + 1
= 6x - 14
2. 2x 5 ] 5x + 3 g3

Solution
y = uv where u = 2x 5 and v = ] 5x + 3 g 3
u l = 10x 4 v l = 5.3 ] 5x + 3 g 2
CONTINUED

438

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

y l = u lv + v l u
= 10x 4 ] 5x + 3 g3 + 5.3 ] 5x + 3 g2 $ 2x 5
= 10x 4 ] 5x + 3 g3 + 30x 5 ] 5x + 3 g2
= 10x 4 ] 5x + 3 g2 6 ] 5x + 3 g + 3x @
= 10x 4 ] 5x + 3 g2 ] 8x + 3 g

We can simplify this further


by factorising.

3. (3x - 4) 5 - 2x

Solution
1

Remember

5 - 2x = ] 5 - 2x g 2

y = uv where u = 3x - 4 and v = ] 5 - 2x g 2
1
1
ul = 3
v l = - 2 $ (5 - 2 x ) 2
2
y l = u lv + v lu
1

1
1]
5 - 2x g 2 ] 3x - 4 g
2
1
5 - 2x - (3x - 4) ] 5 - 2x g 2
3x - 4
5 - 2x 1
(5 - 2x) 2
3x - 4
5 - 2x 5 - 2x
5 - 2x $ 5 - 2x - (3x - 4)

= 3 ] 5 - 2x g 2 +- 2 $
=3
=3
=3
=
=

5 - 2x
3(5 - 2x) - (3x - 4)

5 - 2x
15 - 6x - 3x + 4
=
5 - 2x
19 - 9x
=
5 - 2x

8.9 Exercises
1.

Change this into a product


before differentiating.

Differentiate
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

x 3 ] 2x + 3 g
] 3x - 2 g ] 2x + 1 g
3x ] 5x + 7 g

4x 4 ^ 3x 2 - 1 h
2x ^ 3x 4 - x h
x 2 ] x + 1 g3

4x ] 3x - 2 g5
3x 4 ] 4 - x g3
] x + 1 g ] 2x + 5 g4
^ x 3 + 5x 2 - 3 h ^ x 2 + 1 h 5
x 2-x
5x + 3
(l)
2x - 1
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

2.

Find the gradient of the tangent


to the curve y = 2x ] 3x - 2 g4 at
the point ^ 1, 2 h .

7.

Find the equation of the tangent


to h = (t + 1) 2 (t - 1) 7at the point
^ 2, 9 h .

3.

If f (x) = (2x + 3) (3x - 1) 5,


evaluate fl(1) .

8.

4.

Find the exact gradient of the


tangent to the curve y = x 2x + 5
at the point where x = 1.

Find exact values of x for


which the gradient of the
tangent to the curve
y = 2x ] x + 3 g2 is 14.

9.

Given f (x) = (4x - 1) (3x + 2) 2,


nd the equation of the
tangent at the point where
x = -1.

5.

Find the gradient of the


tangent where t = 3, given
x = ] 2t - 5 g ] t + 1 g3.

6.

Find the equation of the tangent


to the curve y = x 2 ] 2x - 1 g4 at
the point ^ 1, 1 h .

Quotient Rule
u
Differentiating the quotient of two functions y = v gives the result.

dy
dx

du
dv
-u
dx
dx
v2

Proof
u
y= v
Given that dy, du and dv are small changes in y, u and v.
u + du
y + dy =
v + dv
u + du u
u
` dy =
- v a since y = v k
v + dv
v (u + du) u (v + dv)
=
v (v + dv)
v (v + dv)
v (u + du) - u (v + dv)
=
v (v + dv)
vu + vdu - uv - udv
=
v (v + dv)
vdu - udv
=
v (v + dv)
du
dv
-u
v
dy
dx
dx
=
v (v + dv)
dx
As dx " 0, dv " 0

439

440

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

lim

dx " 0

You do not need to know


this proof.

dy
dx
dy
dx

R
S v du - u dv
S dx
dx
= lim S
dx " 0
v ( v + d v)
T
du
dv
v
-u
dx
dx
=
v2

V
W
W
W
X

It is easier to remember this rule as y l =

u lv - v lu
.
v2

u
u lv - v lu
If y = v , y l =
v2

EXAMPLES
Differentiate
1. 3x - 5
5x + 2

Solution
u
y = v where u = 3x - 5 and v = 5x + 2
ul = 3
vl = 5
yl =
=

u lv - v lu
v2
3 (5x + 2) - 5 (3x - 5)

(5x + 2) 2
15x + 6 - 15x + 25
=
(5x + 2) 2
31
=
(5x + 2) 2
2. 4x 3 - 5x + 2
x3 - 1

Solution
u
y = v where u = 4x 3 - 5x + 2 and v = x 3 - 1
u l = 12x 2 - 5
v l = 3x 2
u l v - v lu
yl =
v2
(12x 2 - 5) (x 3 - 1) - 3x 2 (4x 3 - 5x + 2)
=
(x 3 - 1 ) 2
5
2
12x - 12x - 5x 3 + 5 - 12x 5 + 15x 3 - 6x 2
=
(x 3 - 1 ) 2
10x 3 - 18x 2 + 5
=
(x 3 - 1) 2

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

8.10
1.

Exercises

Differentiate
1
2x - 1
(b) 3x
x+5
x3
(c)
2
x -4
(d) x - 3
5x + 1
(e) x - 7
x2
(f) 5x + 4
x+3
x
(g)
2
2x - x
(h) x + 4
x-2
(i) 2x + 7
4x - 3
(j) x + 5
3x + 1
(k) x + 1
3x 2 - 7
2x 2
(l)
2x - 3
2
(m) x + 4
x2 - 5
3
(n) x
x+4
3
(o) x + 2x - 1
x+3
2
(p) x - 2x - 1
3x + 4
3
x
+x
(q)
2
x -x-1
2x
(r)
1
(x + 5) 2

3
(s) (2x - 9)
5x + 1
x-1
(t)
(7x + 2) 4
5
(u) (3x + 4)

(a)

(2x - 5) 3
(v) 3x + 1
x+1
(w)

x-1
2x - 3

(x)

x2 + 1
(x - 9) 2

2.

Find the gradient of the tangent to


2x
the curve y =
at the point
3x + 1
1
c 1, m.
2

3.

If f (x) =

4.

Find any values of x for which


the gradient of the tangent to the
4x - 1
curve y =
is equal to - 2.
2x - 1

5.

Given f (x) =
f l(x) =

4x + 5
evaluate f l(2).
2x - 1

2x
nd x if
x+3

1
.
6

6.

Find the equation of the tangent


x
to the curve y =
at the
x+2
2
point c 4, m.
3

7.

Find the equation of the tangent


x2 - 1
to the curve y =
at the
x+3
point where x = 2.

441

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Test Yourself 8
1.

Sketch the derivative function of


each graph
(a)

6.

7.
8.

Find the gradient of the tangent to the


curve y = x 3 - 3x 2 + x - 5 at the point
(-1, -10) .
dh
If h = 60t - 3t 2, nd
when t = 3.
dt
Find all x-values that are not
differentiable on the following curves.
(a)

(b)

(b)
5
4
3
2
1

2.

Differentiate y = 5x 2 - 3x + 2 from rst


principles.

3.

Differentiate
(a) 7x 6 - 3x 3 + x 2 - 8x - 4
(b) 3x - 4
2x + 1

(c)

-4 -3 -2 -1-1

5.

Given f (x) = (4x - 3) 5, nd the value of


(a) f (1)
(b) f 1 (1).

1 2 3 4

-2
-3
-4
-5

dv
if v = 2t 2 - 3t - 4.
dt

Find

5
4
3
2
1

(c) (x 2 + 4x - 2) 9
(d) 5x(2x - 1) 4
(e) x 2 x
5
(f) 2
x
4.

-44 -3 -2 -1
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
y

9.

Differentiate
(a) f ] x g = 2 ] 4x + 9 g4
5
(b) y =
x-3
(c) y = x ] 3x - 1 g2
4
(d) y = x
(e) f (x) = 5 x

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

10. Sketch the derivative function of the


following curve.

14. At which points on the curve


y = 2x 3 - 9x 2 - 60x + 3 are the tangents
horizontal?

15. Find the equation of the tangent to the


curve y = x 2 + 2x - 5 that is parallel to
the line y = 4x - 1.

16. Find the gradient of the tangent to the


curve y = ] 3x - 1 g3 ] 2x - 1 g2 at the point
where x = 2.
17. Find f l(4) when f ] x g = ] x - 3 g9 .
18. Find the equation of the tangent to the
1
1
curve y =
at the point where x = .
3x
6
1 2
at with respect
2
to t and nd the value of t for which
ds
= 5, u = 7 and a = - 10.
dt

19. Differentiate s = ut +
11. Find the equation of the tangent to
the curve y = x 2 + 5x - 3 at the point
^ 2, 11 h .
12. Find the point on the curve
y = x 2 - x + 1 at which the tangent has a
gradient of 3.
13. Find

20. Find the x-intercept of the tangent to


4x - 3
the curve y =
at the point where
2x + 1
x = 1.

dS
if S = 4rr 2.
dr

Challenge Exercise 8
1.

If f (x) = 3x 2 (1 - 2x) 5, nd the value of


f (1) and fl(1) .

2.

If A =

3.

4.

5.

Find the points on the curve y = x 3 - 6


where the tangents are parallel to the line
y = 12x - 1. Hence nd the equations of
the normals to the curve at those points.

6.

Find f l(2) if f (x) =

7.

Differentiate (5x + 1) 3 (x - 9) 5 .

8.

Find the derivative of y =

9.

If f (x) = 2x 3 + 3x 2 + 4, for what exact


values of x is fl(x) = 7?

dA
5h + 3
, nd
when h = 1.
7h - 1
dh

dx
Given x = 2t 4 + 100t 3, nd
and nd
dt
dx
values of t when
= 0.
dt
Find the equations of the tangents to the
curve y = x (x - 1) (x + 2) at the points
where the curve cuts the x-axis.

3x - 2 .

2x + 1
.
(4x - 9) 4

443

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

10. Find the equation of the normal to the


curve y = 3 x + 1 at the point where
x = 8.

(b) Sketch the derivative function for


the graph.
y

11. The tangent to the curve y = ax + 2 at


the point where x = 3 is inclined at 135c
to the x-axis. Find the value of a.
3

12. The normal to the curve y = x 2 + 1 at the


point where x = 2, cuts the curve again
at point P. Find the coordinates of P.
13. Find the exact values of the
x- coordinates of the points on the curve
y = (3x 2 - 2x - 4) 3 where the tangent is
horizontal.
14. Find the gradient of the normal to the
curve y = 2x 5 - x at the point (4, 8) .
15. Find the equation of the tangent to
the curve y = x 3 - x 2 + 2x + 6 at point
P (1, 8) . Find the coordinates of point Q
where this tangent meets the y-axis and
calculate the exact length of PQ.
16. The equation of the tangent to the
curve y = x 4 - nx 2 + 3x - 2 at the point
where x = - 2 is given by 3x - y - 2 = 0.
Evaluate n.
17. The function f (x) = 3x + 1 has a
tangent that makes an angle of 30c with
the x-axis. Find the coordinates of the
point of contact for this tangent and nd
its equation in exact form.
18. Find all x values of the function
f (x) = (x 2 - 3) (2x - 1) 8 for which
f l(x) = 0.
19. (a) Find any points at which the graph
below is not differentiable.

90c

180c 270c

360c

20. Find the point of intersection


between the tangents to the curve
y = x 3 - 2x 2 - 5x + 3 at the points where
x = 2 and x = - 1.
21. Find the equation of the tangent to the
x2 - 3
parabola y =
at the point where
2
the tangent is perpendicular to the line
3x + y - 3 = 0.
22. Differentiate

3x - 2
.
2x 3

23. (a) Find the equations of the tangents


to the parabola y = 2x 2 at the points
where the line 6x - 8y + 1 = 0 intersects
with the parabola.
(b) Show that the tangents are
perpendicular.
24. Find any x values of the function
2
f (x) = 3
where it is not
x - 8x 2 + 12x
differentiable.
25. The equation of the tangent to the curve
y = x 3 + 7x 2 - 6x - 9 is y = ax + b at the
point where x = -4. Evaluate a and b.

Chapter 8 Introduction to Calculus

26. Find the exact gradient with rational


denominator of the tangent to the curve
y = x 2 - 3 at the point where x = 5.
p
27. The tangent to the curve y = x has a
1
gradient of - at the point where x = 3.
6
Evaluate p.
2r
dV
when r =
and h = 6 given
3
dr
1
V = rr 3 h.
3

28. Find

29. Evaluate k if the function


f (x) = 2x 3 - kx 2 + 1 has f l(2) = 8.
30. Find the equation of the chord joining
the points of contact of the tangents to
the curve y = x 2 - x - 4 with gradients
3 and -1.
31. Find the equation of the straight line
passing through ^ 4, 3 h and parallel to the
tangent to the curve y = x 4 at the point
^ 1, 1 h .
32. Find fl(7) as a fraction, given
1
.
f (x) = 3
x+1

33. For the function


f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c, f (2) = 4,
f l(1) = 0 and f l(x) = 8 when x = -3.
Evaluate a, b and c.
34. Find the equation of the tangent to the
curve S = 2rr 2 + 2rrh at the point where
r = 2 (h is a constant).
35. Differentiate
(a) 2x 3 - x ] 3x - 5 g4
2x + 1
(b)
(x - 3) 3
36. The tangents to the curve
y = x 3 - 2x 2 + 3 at points A and B are
perpendicular to the tangent at ^ 2, 3 h .
Find the exact values of x at A and B.
37. (a) Find the equation of the normal to
the curve y = x 2 + x - 1 at the point
P where x = 3.
(b) Find the coordinates of Q , the point
where the normal intersects the parabola
again.

445

The Quadratic
Function

TERMINOLOGY
Axis of symmetry: A line about which two parts of
a graph are symmetrical. One half of the graph is a
reflection of the other
Coefcient: A constant multiplied by a pronumeral in an
algebraic term e.g. in ax3 the a is the coefficient
Discriminant: Part of the quadratic formula, the algebraic
expression b 2 - 4ac is called the discriminant as its value
determines the number and nature of the roots of a
quadratic equation
Equations reducible to quadratics: Equations that can be
reduced to the form: ax 2 + bx + c = 0
Indenite: A quadratic function where f(x) can be both
positive and negative for varying values of x

Maximum value: The maximum or greatest y-value of a


graph for a given domain
Minimum value: The minimum or smallest y-value of a
graph for a given domain
Negative denite: A quadratic function where f(x) is
always negative for all values of x
Positive denite: A quadratic function where f(x) is always
positive for all values of x
Root of an equation: The solution of an equation

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

451

INTRODUCTION
THE SOLUTION OF QUADRATIC equations is important in many elds,

such as engineering, architecture and astronomy. In this chapter you will


study quadratic equations in detail, and look at the relationship between
quadratic equations and the graphs of quadratic functions (the parabola).
You will study the axis of symmetry and maximum and minimum
values of the quadratic function. You will also look at the quadratic
formula in detail, and at the relationships between the roots (solutions)
of quadratic equations, the formula and the quadratic function.

DID YOU KNOW?


Thousands of clay tablets from ancient Babylonia have been discovered by archaeologists. These
tablets are from as far back as 2000 BC. They show that the Babylonians had mastered many
mathematical skills. Geometry, including Pythagoras theorem, was well developed, and geometric
problems were often worked out by using algebra.
Quadratic equations were used in solving geometry problems. The word quadratic comes
from the Latin quadratum, meaning four-sided figure. Completing the square and the quadratic
formula were both used to solve quadratic equations.
The Babylonians also had some interesting approximations for square roots. For example,
17
2 =
. An approximation for 2 that is very accurate was found on a tablet dating back to 1600 BC:
12
51
10
24
2 =1+
+
+
= 1.414213
60
60 2
60 3

Graph of a Quadratic Function


Axis of symmetry
EXAMPLE
(a ) Sketch the parabola y = x 2 - 4x on the number plane.
(b) Find the equation of the axis of symmetry of the parabola.
(c ) Find the minimum value of the parabola.

Solution
(a) For the y-intercept, x = 0
i.e. y = 0 2 - 4 (0)
=0
For the x-intercept, y = 0

The axis of symmetry lies halfway


between x = 0 and x = 4.

i.e. 0 = x 2 - 4x
= x (x - 4)
` x = 0 or x - 4 = 0
x=4
CONTINUED

452

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

(b) The axis of symmetry has equation x = 2.


(c) Since the parabola is symmetrical about the line x = 2, the
minimum value is on this line.
Substitute x = 2 into the equation of the parabola
i.e. y = 2 2 - 4 (2)
= -4
So the minimum value is - 4.

Class Investigation
1. How would you nd the axis of symmetry for a graph with no
x-intercepts?

2. How would you nd the axis of symmetry of a graph where the


x-intercepts are irrational numbers?

The axis of symmetry of the quadratic function y = ax 2 + bx + c has the


equation
b
x=2a

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

Proof
The axis of symmetry lies midway between the x-intercepts.
For the x-intercepts, y = 0
i.e. ax 2 + bx + c = 0
x=

- b ! b 2 - 4ac
2a

The x-coordinate of the axis of symmetry is the average of the


x-intercepts.

i.e.

- b - b 2 - 4ac
- b + b 2 - 4ac
+
2a
2a
x=
2
- 2b
2a
=
2
- 2b
=
4a
b
=2a

The parabola has a minimum value if a 2 0.


The shape of the parabola is concave upwards.

Minimum value

The parabola has a maximum value if a 1 0.


The shape of the parabola is concave downwards.
Maximum value

453

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

The minimum or maximum value is f c -

b
m
2a

EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the minimum value of
the quadratic function y = x 2 - 5x + 1.

Solution
The equation of the axis of symmetry is given by
b
2a
(- 5 )
x=i.e.
2 ( 1)
5
=
2
1
` Equation is x = 2
2
5 2
5
Minimum value: y = c m - 5 c m + 1
2
2
25 25
=
+1
4
2
1
= -5
4
x=-

a 2 0 gives a minimum
value.

1
So minimum value is - 5 .
4
2. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the maximum value of
the quadratic function y = - 3x 2 + x - 5.

Solution
The equation of the axis of symmetry is given by
b
2a
1
x=i.e.
2 (- 3 )
1
=
6
1
` Equation is x =
6
1 2
1
Maximum value: y = - 3 c m + c m - 5
6
6
1
1
=+ -5
12 6
11
= -4
12
x=-

a 1 0 gives a maximum
value.

So maximum value is - 4

11
.
12

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

Class Investigation
Examine the graph of y = - 3x 2 + x - 5 from the above example. Are
there any solutions for the quadratic equation - 3x 2 + x - 5 = 0?

The minimum or maximum point of the parabola is called the vertex.

EXAMPLE
(a) Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the coordinates of the
vertex of the parabola y = 2x 2 - 12x + 7.
(b) Find the y-intercept and sketch the graph.

Solution
(a) Axis of symmetry:
b
x=2a
- 12
=2#2
=3

When x = 3
y = 2 ] 3 g 2 - 12 ] 3 g + 7
= - 11

So the vertex is (3, -11) .


(b) For y-intercept, x = 0
-11

y = 2 ] 0 g 2 - 12 ] 0 g + 7
=7

(3, -11)

The vertex is the minimum point of the parabola since a 2 0.

9.1 Exercises
1.

By nding the intercepts on


the axes, sketch the parabola
y = x 2 + 2x. Find the equation
of its axis of symmetry, and the
minimum value.

2.

Find the equation of the axis of


symmetry and the minimum value
of the parabola y = 2x 2 + 6x - 3.

3.

Find the equation of the


axis of symmetry and the
minimum value of the parabola
y = x 2 + 3x + 2.

4.

Find the equation of the


axis of symmetry and the
minimum value of the parabola
y = x 2 - 4.

455

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

5.

Find the equation of the


axis of symmetry and the
minimum point of the parabola
y = 4x 2 - 3x + 1.

6.

Find the equation of the


axis of symmetry and the
maximum value of the parabola
y = - x 2 + 2x - 7.

7.

Find the equation of the


axis of symmetry and the
maximum point of the parabola
y = - 2x 2 - 4x + 5.

8.

Find the minimum value of


y = x 2 + 4x + 3. How many
solutions does the equation
x 2 + 4x + 3 = 0 have?

9.

Find the minimum value of


y = x 2 + x + 4. How many
solutions does the equation
x 2 + x + 4 = 0 have?

10. Find the minimum value of


y = x 2 + 4x + 4. How many
solutions does the equation
x 2 + 4x + 4 = 0 have?
11. Find the equation of the axis of
symmetry and the coordinates of
the vertex for each parabola.
(a) y = x 2 + 6x - 3
(b) y = - x 2 - 8x + 1
(c) y = - 2x 2 + 5x
(d) y = 4x 2 + 10x - 7
(e) y = 3x 2 + 18x + 4
12. Find
(i) the equation of the axis of
symmetry
(ii) the minimum or maximum
value and
(iii) the vertex of the parabola.
(a) y = x 2 + 2x - 2
(b) y = - 2x 2 + 4x - 1
13. Find the maximum or minimum
point for each function.
(a) y = x 2 + 2x + 1
(b) y = x 2 - 8x - 7

(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

f ] x g = x 2 + 4x - 3
y = x 2 - 2x
f ] x g = x 2 - 4x - 7
f ] x g = 2x 2 + x - 3
y = - x 2 - 2x + 5
y = - 2x 2 + 8x + 3
f ] x g = - 3x 2 + 3x + 7
f ] x g = - x 2 + 2x - 4

14. For each quadratic function


(i) nd any x-intercepts using the
quadratic formula.
(ii) state whether the function
has a maximum or minimum
value and nd this value.
(iii) sketch the function on a
number plane.
(a) f ] x g = x 2 + 4x + 4
(b) f ] x g = x 2 - 2x - 3
(c) y = x 2 - 6x + 1
(d) f ] x g = x 2 + 2x
(e) y = 2x 2 - 18
(f) y = 3x 2 + x - 2
(g) f ] x g = - x 2 - 2x + 6
(h) f ] x g = - x 2 - x + 3
(i) y = - x 2 - 3x + 2
(j) y = - 2x 2 + 4x + 5
15. (a) Find the minimum value of
the parabola y = x 2 - 2x + 5.
(b) How many solutions
does the quadratic equation
x 2 - 2x + 5 = 0 have?
(c) Sketch the parabola.
16. (a) How many x-intercepts
has the quadratic function
f ] x g = x 2 - 3x + 9 ?
(b) Find the minimum point of
the function.
(c) Sketch the function.
17. (a) Find the maximum value
of the quadratic function
f ] x g = - 2x 2 + x - 4 .
(b) How many solutions
has the quadratic equation
- 2x 2 + x - 4 = 0 ?
(c) Sketch the graph of the
quadratic function.

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

18. (a) Sketch the parabola


y = x 2 - 5x + 6.
(b) From the graph, nd values
of x for which x 2 - 5x + 6 2 0.
(c) Find the domain over which
x 2 - 5x + 6 # 0 .
19. Sketch y = 3x 2 - 2x + 4 and
hence show that 3x 2 - 2x + 4 2 0
for all x.

457

20. By sketching f ] x g = x 2 + x + 2,
show that x 2 + x + 2 2 0 for all x.
21. Show by a sketch that
- x 2 + 2x - 7 1 0 for all x.
22. Sketch y = - 5x 2 + 4x - 1 and
show that -5x 2 + 4x - 1 1 0 for
all x.

Investigation
Could you tell without sketching the function y = x 2 - x + 5 if
x 2 - x + 5 2 0 for all x? How could you do this?
How could you know that - x 2 + 2x - 7 1 0 for all x without sketching
the graph of f ] x g = - x 2 + 2x - 7?

Quadratic Inequalities
You looked at solving quadratic inequations in Chapter 3 using the number
line. You can also solve them using the graph of a parabola.

For any curve on a number plane


y = 0 is on the x-axis
(all values of y are zero on the x-axis)
y 2 0 is above the x-axis
(all positive values of y lie above the x-axis)
y 1 0 is below the x-axis
(all negative values of y lie below the x-axis)

Substituting ax 2 + bx + c for y in the general parabola y = ax 2 + bx + c gives


the following results:

For the parabola y = ax 2 + bx + c


ax 2 + bx + c = 0 on the x-axis
ax 2 + bx + c 2 0 above the x-axis
ax 2 + bx + c 1 0 below the x-axis

You will look at this later


on in the chapter.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

y
a20

ax2 + bx + c 2 0

ax 2 + bx + c = 0

ax 2 + bx + c 1 0

y
a10

ax 2 + bx + c 2 0

ax 2 + bx + c = 0

ax 2 + bx + c 1 0

EXAMPLES
1. Solve x 2 - 3x + 2 $ 0.

Solution
First sketch y = x 2 - 3x + 2 showing x-intercepts (a 2 0 so it is concave
upwards).
For x-intercepts, y = 0
0 = x 2 - 3x + 2
= ]x - 2g]x - 1g
x - 2 = 0, x - 1 = 0
x = 2,
x=1

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

y $ 0 on and above the x-axis


So x 2 - 3x + 2 $ 0 on and above the x-axis.
` x # 1, x $ 2
2. Solve 4x - x 2 2 0.

Solution
First sketch y = 4x - x 2 showing x-intercepts (a 1 0 so it is concave
downwards).
For x-intercepts, y = 0
0 = 4x - x 2
= x ]4 - x g
x = 0,
4-x=0
x = 0,
4=x
y

y 2 0 above the x-axis


So 4x - x 2 2 0 above the x-axis.
` 0 1 x 1 4.

CONTINUED

459

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

3. Solve x 2 - 25 1 0.

Solution
First sketch y = x 2 - 25 showing x-intercepts (a 2 0 so it is concave
upwards).
For x-intercepts, y = 0
0 = x 2 - 25
= ]x + 5 g]x - 5 g
x + 5 = 0, x - 5 = 0
x = - 5,
x=5
y

-5

y 1 0 below the x-axis


So x 2 - 25 1 0 below the x-axis.
` -5 1 x 1 5

9.2 Exercises
Solve
1.

x2 - 9 2 0

6.

2t - t 2 2 0

2.

n2 + n # 0

7.

x 2 + 2x - 8 2 0

3.

a 2 - 2a $ 0

8.

p 2 + 4p + 3 $ 0

4.

4 - x2 1 0

9.

m 2 - 6m + 8 2 0

5.

y 2 - 6y # 0

10. 6 - x - x 2 # 0

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

11. 2h 2 - 7h + 6 1 0

16. 12 - n - n 2 # 0

12. x 2 - x - 20 # 0

17. x 2 - 2x 1 15

13. 35 + 9k - 2k 2 $ 0

18. - t 2 $ 4t - 12

14. q 2 - 9q + 18 2 0

19. 3y 2 2 14y + 5

15. ] x + 2 g2 $ 0

20. ] x - 3 g ] x + 1 g $ 5

The Discriminant
The values of x that satisfy a quadratic equation are called the roots of the
equation.
The roots of ax 2 + bx + c = 0 are the x-intercepts of the graph
y = ax 2 + bx + c

1. If y = ax 2 + bx + c has 2 x-intercepts, then the quadratic equation


ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has 2 real roots.
y

a20

a10
x

Since the graph can be both positive and negative, it is called an


indenite function.
2. If y = ax 2 + bx + c has 1 x-intercept, then the quadratic equation
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has 1 real root
y

a20

a10
x

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3. If y = ax 2 + bx + c has no x-intercepts, then the quadratic equation


ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has no real roots
y

a20

a10
x

Since this graph is always positive,


it is called a positive denite
function.

Since this graph is always


negative, it is called a negative
denite function.

This information can be found without sketching the graph.

Investigation
1. Solve the following quadratic equations using the quadratic formula
(a) x 2 - 3x + 2 = 0
(b) x 2 + 4x - 7 = 0
(c) x 2 + x + 5 = 0
(d) x 2 - 6x + 9 = 0
2. Without solving a quadratic equation, can you predict how many
roots it has by looking at the quadratic formula?

b 2 - 4ac
, the expression b 2 - 4ac is called
2a
the discriminant. It gives us information about the roots of the quadratic
equation ax 2 + bx + x = 0.
In the quadratic formula x =

-b !

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

EXAMPLES
Use the quadratic formula to nd how many real roots each quadratic
equation has.
1. x 2 + 5x - 3 = 0

Solution
- b ! b 2 - 4ac
2a
- 5 ! 5 2 - 4 #1# - 3
=
2 #1
- 5 ! 25 + 12
=
2
- 5 ! 37
=
2
There are 2 real roots:
x=

x=

- 5 + 37 - 5 - 37
,
2
2

2. x 2 - x + 4 = 0

Solution
- b ! b 2 - 4ac
2a
- (-1) ! (-1) 2 - 4 #1# 4
=
2 #1
1 ! -15
=
2

x=

There are no real roots since

-15 has no real value.

3. x 2 - 2x + 1 = 0

Solution
- b ! b 2 - 4ac
2a
- (- 2) ! (- 2) 2 - 4 #1#1
=
2 #1
2! 0
=
2

x=

CONTINUED

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There are 2 real roots:


2+ 0 2- 0
,
2
2
= 1, 1

x=

However, these are equal roots.

Tis the Greek


letter 'delta'.

Notice that when there are 2 real roots, the discriminant b 2 - 4ac 2 0.
When there are 2 equal roots (or just 1 real root), b 2 - 4ac = 0.
When there are no real roots, b 2 - 4ac 1 0.
We often use D = b 2 - 4ac.

1. If T2 0, then the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has 2 real


unequal (different) roots.
y

a20

a10
x

If T is a perfect square, the roots are rational.


If T is not a perfect square, the roots are irrational.
2. If T = 0, then the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has 1 real root
or 2 equal roots.
y

a20

a10
x

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

3. If T1 0, then the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has no real roots.


y

a10

a20
x

If T1 0 and a 2 0, it is positive
denite and ax 2 + bx + c 2 0
for all x.

If T1 0 and a 1 0, it is
negative denite and
ax 2 + bx + c 1 0 for all x.

We can examine the roots of the quadratic equation by using the


discriminant rather than the whole quadratic formula.

EXAMPLES
1. Show that the equation 2x 2 + x + 4 = 0 has no real roots.

Solution
T = b 2 - 4ac
= 12 - 4 ] 2 g ] 4 g
= 1 - 32
= - 31
10
So the equation has no real roots.
2. Find the values of k for which the quadratic equation 5x 2 - 2x + k = 0
has real roots.

Solution
For real unequal roots, T 2 0.
For real equal roots, T = 0.
So for real roots, T $ 0.
CONTINUED

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T $0
b - 4ac $ 0
2

] -2 g 2 - 4 ] 5 g ] k g $ 0

4 - 20k $ 0
4 $ 20k
1
$k
5
3. Show that x 2 - 2x + 4 2 0 for all x.

Solution
If a 2 0 and T1 0, then ax 2 + bx + c 2 0 for all x.
y

a20
x

a =1
20
T = b 2 - 4ac
= ] -2 g 2 - 4 ] 1 g ] 4 g
= 4 - 16
= -12
10
Since a 2 0 and T1 0, x 2 - 2x + 4 2 0 for all x.
4. Show that the line 4x + y + 4 = 0 is a tangent to the parabola y = x 2.

Solution
For the line to be a tangent, it must intersect with the curve in only
1 point.

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

y
5
4
3
2
1
x
-4 -3 -2

-11

-2
-3
-4
-5
-6

It is too hard to tell from the graph if the line is a tangent, so we solve
simultaneous equations to nd any points of intersection.
]1 g
]2 g

y = x2
4x + y + 4 = 0
Substitute (1) into (2):
4x + x 2 + 4 = 0
x 2 + 4x + 4 = 0

We dont need to nd the roots of the equation as the question only asks
how many roots there are. We nd the discriminant.
D = b 2 - 4ac
= 42 - 4 ] 1 g ] 4 g
= 16 - 16
=0
` the equation has 1 real root (equal roots) so there is only one point of
intersection.
So the line is a tangent to the parabola.

9.3 Exercises
1.

Find the discriminant of each


quadratic equation.
(a) x 2 - 4x - 1 = 0
(b) 2x 2 + 3x + 7 = 0
(c) - 4x 2 + 2x - 1 = 0
(d) 6x 2 - x - 2 = 0
(e) - x 2 - 3x = 0
(f) x 2 + 4 = 0
(g) x 2 - 2x + 1 = 0
(h) -3x 2 - 2x + 5 = 0

(i) - 2x 2 + x + 2 = 0
(j) - x 2 + 4x - 4 = 0
2.

Find the discriminant and


state whether the roots of the
quadratic equation are real or
imaginary (not real), and if they
are real, whether they are equal
or unequal, rational or irrational.

467

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(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

x2 - x - 4 = 0
2x 2 + 3x + 6 = 0
x 2 - 9x + 20 = 0
x 2 + 6x + 9 = 0
2x 2 - 5x - 1 = 0
- x 2 + 2x - 5 = 0
- 2x 2 - 5x + 3 = 0
- 5x 2 + 2x - 6 = 0
-x2 + x = 0
- 2x 2 + 8x - 2 = 0

3.

Find the value of p for which


the quadratic equation
x 2 + 2x + p = 0 has equal roots.

4.

Find any values of k for


which the quadratic equation
x 2 + kx + 1 = 0 has equal roots.

5.

Find all the values of b for which


2x 2 + x + b + 1 = 0 has real roots.

6.

Evaluate p if px 2 + 4x + 2 = 0 has
no real roots.

7.

Find all values of k for which


] k + 2 g x 2 + x - 3 = 0 has 2 real
unequal roots.

8.

9.

Prove that 3x 2 - x + 7 2 0 for all


real x.
Find the values of k for which
x 2 + ] k + 1 g x + 4 = 0 has real
roots.

10. Find values of k for which the


expression kx 2 + 3kx + 9 is
positive denite.
11. Find the values of m for
which the quadratic equation
x 2 - 2mx + 9 = 0 has real and
different roots.

12. If x 2 - 2kx + 1 = 0 has real roots,


evaluate k.
13. Find exact values of p if
px 2 - 2x + 3p = 0 is negative
denite.
14. Evaluate b if
] b - 2 g x 2 - 2bx + 5b = 0 has real
roots.
15. Find values of p for which
the quadratic equation
x 2 + px + p + 3 = 0 has real roots.
16. Show that the line y = 2x + 6
cuts the parabola y = x 2 + 3 in
2 points.
17. Show that the line 3x + y - 4 = 0
cuts the parabola y = x 2 + 5x + 3
in 2 points.
18. Show that the line y = - x - 4
does not touch the parabola
y = x 2.
19. Show that the line y = 5x - 2
is a tangent to the parabola
y = x 2 + 3x - 1 .
20. The line y = 3x - p + 1 is a
tangent to the parabola y = x 2.
Evaluate p.
21. Which of these lines is a tangent
to the circle x 2 + y 2 = 4?
(a) 3x - y - 1 = 0
(b) 5x + y - 3 = 0
(c) 4x + 3y - 10 = 0
(d) 5x - 12y + 26 = 0
(e) 2x + y - 7 = 0

Quadratic Identities
When you use the quadratic formula to solve an equation, you compare a
quadratic, say, 3x 2 - 2x + 5 = 0 with the general quadratic ax 2 + bx + c = 0.

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

469

You are assuming when you do this that 3x 2 - 2x + 5 and ax 2 + bx + c are


equivalent expressions.
We can state this as a general rule:
If two quadratic expressions are equivalent to each other then the
corresponding coefcients must be equal.

If a 1 x 2 + b 1 x + c 1 / a 2 x 2 + b 2 x + c 2 for all real x


then a 1 = a 2, b 1 = b 2 and c 1 = c 2

Proof
If a 1 x 2 + b 1 x + c 1 = a 2 x 2 + b 2 x + c 2 for more than two values of x, then
(a 1 - a 2) x 2 + (b 1 - b 2) x + (c 1 - c 2) = 0.
That is, a 1 = a 2, b 1 = b 2 and c 1 = c 2 .

EXAMPLES
1. Write 2x 2 - 3x + 5 in the form A (x - 1)2 + B (x - 1) + C.

Solution
A ] x - 1 g2 + B (x - 1) + C = A (x 2 - 2x + 1) + Bx - B + C
= Ax 2 - 2Ax + A + Bx - B + C
= Ax 2 + (- 2A + B) x + A - B + C
2
For 2x - 3x + 5 / Ax 2 + (- 2A + B) x + A - B + C
A=2
- 2A + B = - 3
A-B+C=5
Substitute (1) into (2):
- 2 ( 2) + B = - 3
- 4 + B = -3
B=1
Substitute A = 2 and B = 1 into (3):
2-1+C=5
1+C=5
C=4

( 1)
(2)
( 3)

` 2x 2 - 3x + 5 / 2 (x - 1) 2 + (x - 1) + 4

CONTINUED

You learnt how to solve


simultaneous equations
with 3 unknowns in
Chapter 3.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. Find values for a, b and c if x 2 - x / a (x + 3)2 + bx + c - 1.

Solution
a ] x + 3 g2 + bx + c - 1 = a (x 2 + 6x + 9) + bx + c - 1
= ax 2 + 6ax + 9a + bx + c - 1
= ax 2 + (6a + b) x + 9a + c - 1
2
For x - x / ax 2 + (6a + b) x + 9a + c - 1
a =1
6a + b = -1
9a + c - 1 = 0
Substitute (1) into (2):
6 (1) + b = -1
6 + b = -1
b = -7
Substitute (1) into (3):
9 (1) + c - 1 = 0
8+c=0
c = -8
` a = 1, b = -7, c = - 8

( 1)
( 2)
( 3)

3. Find the equation of the parabola that passes through the points
(-1, -3), (0, 3) and (2, 21) .

Solution
The parabola has equation in the form y = ax 2 + bx + c. Substitute the
points into the equation:
^ -1, -3 h:
-3 = a ] -1 g 2 + b ] -1 g + c
=a-b+c
a - b + c = -3
^ 0, 3 h :
3 = a ]0 g2 + b ]0 g + c
=c

]1 g

]2 g

^ 2, 21 h:

c =3
21 = a ] 2 g 2 + b ] 2 g + c
= 4a + 2b + c

`
4a + 2b + c = 21
Solve simultaneous equations to nd a, b and c.
Substitute (2) into (1):
a - b + 3 = -3
a - b = -6

]3 g

( 4)

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

Substitute (2) into (3):


4a + 2b + 3 = 21
4a + 2b = 18
(4) # 2:
2a - 2b = -12
(6) + (5):
2a - 2b = -12
4a + 2b = 18
6a
=6
a=1
Substitute a = 1 into (5):
4 (1) + 2b = 18
4 + 2b = 18
2b = 14
b=7
`
a = 1, b = 7, c = 3
Thus the parabola has equation y = x 2 + 7x + 3.

(5 )
(6 )

9.4 Exercises
1.

Find values of a, b and c for


which
(a) x 2 + 4x - 3
/ a ]x + 1 g 2 + b ]x + 1 g + c
(b) 2x 2 - 3x + 1
/ a ]x + 2 g2 + b ]x + 2 g + c
(c) x 2 - x - 2
/ a ]x - 1 g2 + b ]x - 1 g + c
(d) x 2 + x + 6
/ a ]x - 3 g2 + b ]x - 3 g + c
(e) 3x 2 - 5x - 2
/ a ]x + 1 g2 + b ]x - 1 g + c
(f) 4x 2 + x - 7
/ a ]x - 2 g2 + b ]x - 2 g + c
(g) 2x 2 + 4x - 1
/ a ]x + 4 g2 + b ]x + 2 g + c
(h) 3x 2 - 2x + 5
/ a ] x + 1 g 2 + bx + c
(i) - x 2 + 4x - 3
/ a ]x + 3 g2 + b ]x + 3 g + c
(j) - 2x 2 + 4x - 3
/ a ]x - 1 g2 + b ]x + 1 g + c

2.

Find values of m, p and q for


which 2x 2 - x - 1
/ m ] x + 1 g 2 + p ] x + 1 g + q.

3.

Express x 2 - 4x + 5 in the form


Ax ] x - 2 g + B ] x + 1 g + C + 4.

4.

Show that x 2 + 2x + 9 can


be written in the form
a ]x - 2g]x + 3g + b ]x - 2g + c
where a = 1, b = 1 and c = 17.

5.

Find values of A, B and C if


x 2 + x - 2 / A ] x - 2 g 2 + Bx + C.

6.

Find values of a, b and c


for which 3x 2 + 5x - 1
/ ax ] x + 3 g + bx 2 + c ] x + 1 g .

7.

Evaluate K, L and M if
x 2 / K ] x - 3 g 2 + L ] x + 1 g - 2M.

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8.

9.

10. Find the equation of the parabola


that passes through the points
(a) (0, -5), (2, -3) and (-3, 7)
Find the values of a, b and c if
(b) (1, -2), (3, 0) and (-2, 10)
20x - 17 / a ] x - 4 g 2 - b ] 5x + 1 g + c.
(c) (-2, 21), (1, 6) and (-1, 12)
(d) (2, 3), (1, -4) and (-1, -12)
(e) (0, 1), (-2, 1) and (2, -7)

Express 4x 2 + 2 in the form


a ] x + 5 g + b ] 2x - 3 g 2 + c - 2 .

Sum and Product of Roots


When you solve a quadratic equation, you may notice a relationship between
the roots. You also used this to factorise trinomials in Chapter 2.

EXAMPLE
(a) Solve x 2 - 9x + 20 = 0.
(b) Find the sum of the roots.
(c) Find the product of the roots.

Solution
(a)

Notice -9 is the coefficient of


x and 20 is the constant term
in the equation.

x 2 - 9x + 20 = 0
(x - 4) (x - 5) = 0
x - 4 = 0, x - 5 = 0
` x = 4,
x=5

(b) Sum = 4 + 5
=9
(c) Product = 4 # 5
= 20

This relationship with the sum and product of the roots works for any
quadratic equation.

The general quadratic equation can be written in the form


x 2 - (a + b) x + ab = 0
where a and b are the roots of the equation.

Proof
Suppose the general quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has roots a and b.
Then this equation can be written in the form

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

473

(x - a ) (x - b) = 0
i.e. x - bx - a x + ab = 0
x 2 - (a + b) x + ab = 0
2

EXAMPLES
1. Find the quadratic equation that has roots 6 and - 1.

Solution
Method 1: Using the general formula
x 2 - (a + b) x + ab = 0 where a = 6 and b = -1
a + b = 6 + -1
=5
ab = 6 # -1
= -6
Substituting into x 2 - (a + b ) x + ab = 0 gives
x 2 - 5x - 6 = 0
Method 2:
If 6 and -1 are the roots of the equation then it can be written as
]x - 6 g]x + 1 g = 0
x 2 + x - 6x - 6 = 0
x 2 - 5x - 6 = 0
2. Find the quadratic equation that has roots 3 + 2 and 3 - 2 .

Solution
Method 1: Using the general formula
a+b=3+ 2+3- 2
=6
ab = (3 + 2 ) # (3 - 2 )
= 3 2 - ( 2 )2
=9-2
=7
Substituting into x 2 - (a + b ) x + ab = 0 gives
x 2 - 6x + 7 = 0
Method 2:
If 3 + 2 and 3 - 2 are the roots of the equation then it can be
written as
_x - "3 + 2 ,i_x - "3 - 2 ,i = 0
^x - 3 - 2 h^x - 3 + 2 h = 0
x 2 - 3x + 2 x - 3x + 9 - 3 2 - 2 x + 3 2 - 2 = 0
x 2 - 6x + 7 = 0

It doesnt matter
which way around we
name these roots.

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We can nd a more general relationship between the sum and product of


roots of a quadratic equation.

If a and b are the roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0:


b
Sum of roots: a + b = - a
c
Product of roots: ab = a

Proof
If an equation has roots a and b, it can be written as x 2 - (a + b )x + ab = 0.
But we know that a and b are the roots of the quadratic equation
ax 2 + bx + c = 0.
Using quadratic identities, we can compare the two forms of the
equation.
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
ax 2 bx c
0
a + a +a=a
c
b
x2 + a x + a = 0

c
b
For x 2 - (a + b ) x + ab / x 2 + a x + a
b
- (a + b ) = a
b
`
a + b = -a
c
Also
ab = a

EXAMPLES
1. Find (a) a + b (b) ab (c) a2 + b2 if a and b are the roots of
2x 2 - 6x + 1 = 0.

Solution
b
(a) a + b = - a
==3

(-6)
2

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

475

c
(b) ab = a
1
=
2
(c)

a 2 + b 2 ! (a + b ) 2

^ a + b h2 = a 2 + 2ab + b2
^ a + b h2 - 2ab = a 2 + b2
] 3 g 2 - 2 c 1 m = a2 + b2
2
9 - 1 = a 2 + b2

8 = a 2 + b2
2. Find the value of k if one root of kx 2 -7x + k + 1 = 0 is - 2.

Solution
If - 2 is a root of the equation then x = -2 satises the equation.
Substitute x = - 2 into the equation:
k ] -2 g 2 - 7 ] -2 g + k + 1 = 0
4k + 14 + k + 1 = 0
5k + 15 = 0
5k = - 15
k = -3
3. Evaluate p if one root of x 2 + 2x - 5p = 0 is double the other root.
You could use b
and 2b instead.

Solution
If one root is a then the other root is 2a .
Sum of roots:
b
a + b = -a
2
1
3a = - 2
2
a=3

a + 2a = -

CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Product of roots:
c
ab = a
- 5p
a # 2a =
1
2
2a = - 5p
2 2
2 c - m = - 5p
3
4
2 c m = - 5p
9
8
= - 5p
9
8
=p
45

9.5 Exercises
1.

2.

Find a + b and ab if a and b are


the roots of
(a) x 2 + 2x + 1 = 0
(b) 2x 2 - 3x - 6 = 0
(c) 5x 2 - x - 9 = 0
(d) x 2 + 7x + 1 = 0
(e) 3y 2 - 8y + 3 = 0
If a and b are the roots
of the quadratic equation
x 2 - 3x - 6 = 0, nd the value of
(a) a + b
(b) ab
1
1
+
(c)
a
b

4.

Find the value of m in


x 2 + 2mx - 6 = 0 if one of the
roots is 2.

5.

If one of the roots of


the quadratic equation
2x 2 - 5x + k - 1 = 0 is - 3, nd
the value of k.

6.

One root of
3x 2 - 2 (3b + 1) x + 4b = 0 is 8.
Find the value of b.

7.

In the quadratic equation


2x 2 - 3x + k = 0, one root is
double the other. Find the value
of k.

8.

In the quadratic equation


x 2 - 8x + p - 1 = 0, one root
is triple the other. Find the
value of p.

9.

In the quadratic equation


(k - 2) x 2 + 50x + 2k + 3 = 0,
the roots are reciprocals of each
other. Find the value of k.

(d) a2 + b2
3.

Reciprocals are n and

1
.
n

Find the quadratic equation


whose roots are
(a) 2 and - 5
(b) - 3 and 7
(c) - 1 and - 4
(d) 4 + 5 and 4 - 5
(e) 1 + 2 7 and 1 - 2 7

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

10. In the quadratic equation


x 2 + mx + 2 = 0, the roots are
consecutive. Find the values of m.
11. In the quadratic equation
- 3x 2 - (k + 1) x + 5 = 0, the
roots are equal in magnitude but
opposite in sign. Find the value
of k.
12. Find values of n in the equation
2x 2 - 5(n - 1) x + 12 = 0 if the
two roots are consecutive.
13. If the sum of the roots of
x 2 + px + r = 0 is - 2 and the
product of roots is - 7, nd the
values of p and r.
14. One root of the quadratic
equation x 2 + bx + c = 0 is 4 and
the product of the roots is 8. Find
the values of b and c.
15. The roots of the quadratic
equation x 2 + 4x - a = 0 are
b + 1 and b - 3. Find the values
of a and b.
16. Show that the roots of
the quadratic equation
3mx 2 + 2x + 3m = 0 are always
reciprocals of one another.

17. Find values of k in the equation


k +1
m = 0 if:
x 2 + (k + 1 ) x + c
4
(a) roots are equal in magnitude
but opposite in sign
(b) roots are equal
(c) one root is 1
(d) roots are reciprocals of one
another
(e) roots are real.
18. Find exact values of p in the
equation x 2 + px + 3 = 0 if
(a) the roots are equal
(b) it has real roots
(c) one root is double the other.
19. Find values of k in the equation
x 2 + kx + k - 1 = 0 if
(a) the roots are equal
(b) one root is 4
(c) the roots are reciprocals of
one another.
20. Find values of m in the equation
mx 2 + x + m - 3 = 0 if
(a) one root is -2
(b) it has no real roots
(c) the product of the roots is 2.

Equations Reducible to Quadratics


To solve a quadratic equation such as ] x - 3 g 2 - ] x - 3 g - 2 = 0, you could
expand the brackets and then solve the equation. However, in this section you
will learn a different way to solve this.
There are other equations that do not look like quadratic equations that
can also be solved this way.

Consecutive numbers
are numbers that
follow each other
in order, such as
3 and 4.

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EXAMPLES
1. Solve ] x + 2 g 2 - 3 ] x + 2 g - 4 = 0.

Solution
u=x+2

Let

Then u - 3u - 4
]u - 4 g]u + 1 g
u - 4 = 0, u + 1
u = 4,
u
2

But

=0
=0
=0
= -1

u=x+2

So x + 2 = 4,
x = 2,

x + 2 = -1
x = -3

2
2. Solve x + x = 3 where x ! 0.

Solution
2
x+ x =3
2
x#x+x#x =3#x
x 2 + 2 = 3x
x 2 - 3x + 2 = 0
]x - 2 g]x - 1 g = 0
x - 2 = 0, x - 1 = 0
x = 2,
x=1
3. Solve 9 x - 4.3 x + 3 = 0.

Solution
x
2
9x = ^ 32 h = ^ 3x h
So 9 x - 4.3 x + 3 = 0 can be written as
^ 3 x h2 - 4.3 x + 3 = 0
Let
k = 3x

k 2 - 4k + 3 = 0
]k - 3 g]k - 1 g = 0
k - 3 = 0, k - 1 = 0
k = 1,
k=3
But k = 3 x
So 3 x = 1,
x = 0,

3x = 3
x=1

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

479

4. Solve 2 sin 2 x + sin x - 1 = 0 for 0c # x # 360c.

Solution
sin x = u

Let

Then 2u + u - 1 = 0
] 2u - 1 g ] u + 1 g = 0
2u - 1 = 0 or u + 1 = 0
u = -1
2u = 1
2

u=

1
2

But u = sin x
1
So sin x = or sin x = -1
2
1
sin x = has solutions in the 1st and 2nd quadrants
2
1
sin 30c =
2
So x = 30c, 180c - 30c
= 30c, 150c

30c

600c

For sin x = - 1, we use the graph of y = sin x


y

90c

180c

-1

From the graph:


x = 270c
So solutions to 2 sin 2 x + sin x - 1 = 0 are
x = 30c, 150c, 270c

270c

360c

See Chapter 6 if you have


forgotten how to solve a
trigonometric equation.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

9.6 Exercises
1.

2.

3.

4.

Solve
(a) ] x - 1 g 2 + 7 ] x - 1 g + 10 = 0
(b) ^ y - 3 h 2 - ^ y - 3 h - 2 = 0
(c) ] x + 2 g 2 - 2 ] x + 2 g - 8 = 0
(d) ] n - 5 g 2 + 7 ] n - 5 g + 6 = 0
(e) ] a - 4 g 2 + 6 ] a - 4 g - 7 = 0
(f) ^ p + 1 h 2 - 9 ^ p + 1 h + 20 = 0
(g) ] x + 3 g 2 - 4 ] x + 3 g - 5 = 0
(h) ] k - 8 g 2 - ] k - 8 g - 12 = 0
(i) ] t - 2 g 2 + 2 ] t - 2 g - 24 = 0
(j) ] b + 9 g 2 - 2 ] b + 9 g - 15 = 0
Solve (x ! 0) .
6
(a) x - x = 1
6
(b) x + x = 5
20
(c) x + x - 9 = 0
15
(d) x + x = 8
12
(e) 2x + x = 11

(c) 5 2x - 5 x - 20 = 0
(d) 9 x + 3 x - 12 = 0
(e) 4 x - 10.2 x + 16 = 0
5.

6.

7.

4
= 5 (x ! 0 ) .
x2

1 2
1
Solve b x + x l + b x + x l - 2 = 0
(x ! 0) .
Solve
1 2
1
n - 9 d x 2 + 2 n + 20 = 0
x2
x
correct to 2 decimal places
(x ! 0) .

d x2 +

8.

Solve
(a) x 4 - 7x 2 - 18 = 0
9.
(b) y 4 - 6y 2 + 8 = 0, giving exact
values
2
(c) ^ x 2 - x h + ^ x 2 - x h - 2 = 0
giving exact values
(d)
^ x 2 + 3x -1 h2 - 7 ^ x 2 + 3x -1 h +10 = 0
correct to 2 decimal places
10.
2
(e) ^ a 2 + 4a h + 2 ^ a 2 + 4a h - 8 = 0
giving exact values.
Solve
(a) 2 2x - 9.2 x + 8 = 0
(b) 3 2p + 3 p - 12 = 0

Solve x 2 +

Solve for 0c # x # 360c.


(a) sin 2 x - sin x = 0
(b) cos 2 x + cos x = 0
(c) 2 sin 2 x - sin x - 1 = 0
(d) 2 cos 2 x = cos x
(e) sin x = cos 2 x - 1
Solve for 0c # x # 360c.
(a) tan 2 x - tan x = 0
(b) cos 2 x - 1 = 0
(c) 2 sin 2 x - sin x = 0
(d) 8 sin 4 x - 10 sin 2 x + 3 = 0
(e) 3 tan 4 x - 10 tan 2 x + 3 = 0
Show that the equation
2
x+3+
= 5 has 2 real
x+3
irrational roots (x ! - 3) .

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

Test Yourself 9
1.

Solve
(a) x 2 - 3x # 0
(b) n 2 - 9 2 0
(c) 4 - y 2 $ 0

2.

Evaluate a, b and c if 2x 2 - 5x + 7
= 2a(x + 1) 2 + b (x + 1) + c.

3.

Find
(a) the equation of the axis of
symmetry and
(b) the minimum value of the parabola
y = x 2 - 4x + 1.

4.

Show that y = x 2 - 2x + 7 is a positive


denite quadratic function.

5.

If a and b are roots of the quadratic


equation x 2 - 6x + 3 = 0, nd
(a) a + b
(b) ab
1
1
+
(c)
a
b
(d) ab2 + a 2 b
(e) a 2 + b2

9.

Find
(a) the equation of the axis of
symmetry and
(b) the maximum value of the quadratic
function y = - 2x 2 - x + 6.

10. Write 3x 2 + 7 in the form


a (x - 2) 2 + b (x + 3) + c.
11. Solve 2 sin 2 x + sin x - 1 = 0 for
0c # x # 360c.
12. Find the value of k in x 2 + 3x + k - 1 = 0
if the quadratic equation has
(a) equal roots
(b) one root - 3
(c) one root double the other
(d) consecutive roots
(e) reciprocal roots.
3
13. Solve 2x = 5 + x

(x ! 0) .

14. Find values of m such that


mx 2 + 3x - 4 1 0 for all x.

6.

Solve (3x - 2) 2 - 2 (3x - 2) - 3 = 0.

15. Solve 5 2x - 26.5 x + 25 = 0.

7.

Describe the roots of each quadratic


equation as
(i) real, different and rational
(ii) real, different and irrational
(iii) equal or
(iv) unreal.
(a) 2x 2 - x + 3 = 0
(b) x 2 - 10x - 25 = 0
(c) x 2 - 10x + 25 = 0
(d) 3x 2 + 7x - 2 = 0
(e) 6x 2 - x - 2 = 0

16. For each set of graphs, state whether they


have
(i) 2 points
(ii) 1 point
(iii) no points of intersection.
(a) xy = 7 and 3x - 5y - 1 = 0
(b) x 2 + y 2 = 9 and y = 3x - 3
(c) x 2 + y 2 = 1 and x - 2y - 3 = 0
2
(d) y = x and y = 3x + 1
(e) y = x 2 and y = 4x - 4

8.

Show that - 4 + 3x - x 2 1 0 for all x.

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17. State if each quadratic function is


(i) indenite
(ii) positive denite or
(iii) negative denite.
(a)

(d)

18. Show that kx 2 - px + k = 0 has reciprocal


roots for all x.
(b)

19. Find the quadratic equation that has


roots
(a) 4 and - 7
(b) 5 + 7 and 5 - 7
20. Solve 2 2x - 10.2 x + 16 = 0.

(c)

Challenge Exercise 9
1.

Show that the quadratic equation


2x 2 - kx + k - 2 = 0 has real rational
roots.

2.

Find the equation of a quadratic


function that passes through the points
(- 2, 18), (3, - 2) and (1, 0) .

3.

Find the value of a, b and c if


x 2 + 5x - 3 / ax (x + 1) + b (x + 1)2 + cx.

25
= 10.
x2 + 1

4.

Solve x 2 + 1 +

5.

Find the maximum value of the function


f (x) = - 2x 2 - 4x + 9.

6.

Find the value of n for which the


equation (n + 2) x 2 + 3x - 5 = 0 has one
root triple the other.

Chapter 9 The Quadratic Function

7.

Find the values of p for which


x 2 - x + 3p - 2 2 0 for all x.

12. Find exact values of k for which


x 2 + 2kx + k + 5 = 0 has real roots.

8.

Show that the quadratic equation


x 2 - 2px + p 2 = 0 has equal roots.

13. Solve 3 - 2 cos 2 x - 3 sin x = 0 for


0c # x # 360c.

9.

Solve 2 2x + 1 - 5.2 x + 2 = 0.

1 2
1
14. Solve b x + x l - 5 b x + x l + 6 = 0.

10. Find values of A, B and C if


4x 2 - 3x + 7 / (Ax + 4)2 + B (x + 4) + C.
4x + 1
in the form
x -x-2
a
b
+
.
x-2 x+1

11. Express

15. Solve 2 sin 2 x + cos x - 2 = 0 for


0c # x # 360c.
16. If a and b are the roots of the quadratic
equation 2x 2 + 4x - 5 = 0, evaluate
a 3 + b 3.

483

10

Locus and the


Parabola
TERMINOLOGY
Axis: A line around which a curve is reflected e.g. the axis
of symmetry of a parabola

Latus rectum: A focal chord that is perpendicular to the


axis of the parabola

Chord: An interval joining any two points on a curve. In


this chapter, any two points on a parabola

Locus: The path traced out by a point that


moves according to a particular pattern or rule.
Locus can be described algebraically or
geometrically

Circle: The locus of a point moving so that it is


equidistant from a fixed point on a plane surface
Directrix: A fixed line from which all points equidistant
from this line and a fixed point called the focus form a
parabola

Parabola: The locus of a point moving so that it is


equidistant from a fixed point called the focus and a
fixed line called the directrix

Focal chord: A chord that passes through the focus

Tangent: A straight line that touches a curve at a single


point only

Focal length: The distance between the focus and the


vertex of a parabola or the shortest distance between the
vertex and the directrix
Focus: A fixed point from which all points equidistant
from this point and the directrix form a parabola

Vertex: The turning point (maximum or minimum point)


of a parabola. It is the point where the parabola meets
the axis of symmetry

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

INTRODUCTION
THIS CHAPTER EXPANDS THE work on functions that you have already learned.

It shows a method of nding the equation of a locus. In particular, you will


study the circle and the parabola, dened as a locus.

Circle

DID YOU KNOW?


Locus problems have been studied since very early times. Apollonius of Perga (262190 BC),
a contemporary (and rival) of Archimedes, studied the locus of various figures. In his Plane Loci,
he described the locus points whose ratio from two fixed points is constant. This locus is called
the Circle of Apollonius.
2
Apollonius also used the equation y = lx for the parabola.
Ren Descartes (15961650) was another mathematician who tried to solve locus problems.
His study of these led him to develop analytical (coordinate) geometry.

Locus
A relation can be described in two different ways. It can be a set of points that
obey certain conditions, or a single point that moves along a path according
to certain conditions.
A locus is the term used to describe the path of a single moving point
that obeys certain conditions.

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EXAMPLES
Describe the locus of the following.
1. A pencil on the end of compasses.

Solution
The path of the pencil is a circle with centre at the point of the
compasses.

2. A person going up an escalator (standing still on one step).

What would the locus be


if the person walks up the
escalator?

Solution
The body travels along a straight line parallel to the escalator.

3. A doorknob on a closing door.

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

Solution
If the door could swing right around it would follow a circle. So a door
closing swings through an arc of a circle.

4. A point on the number line that is 3 units from 0.

Solution

The locus is !3.


5. A point in the number plane that moves so that it is always 3 units
from the y-axis.

Solution
The locus is 2 vertical lines with equations x = !3.

Class Discussion
Describe the path of a person abseiling down a cliff.

10.1 Exercises
Describe the locus of the following:
1.

a racing car driving around a


track

2.

a person climbing a ladder

3.

a child on a swing

4.

a balls ight when thrown

5.

a person driving up to the 5th


oor of a car park

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

6.

7.

a point that moves along the


number line such that it is always
less than 2 units from 0
a point on the number plane that
moves so that it is always 2 units
from the origin

8.

a point that moves so that it is


always 1 unit from the x-axis

9.

a point that moves so that it is


always 5 units from the y-axis

10. a point that moves so that it is


always 2 units above the x-axis
11. a point that moves so that it is
always 1 unit from the origin
12. a point that moves so that it is
always 4 units from the point
^ 1, - 2 h

13. a point that is always 5 units


below the x-axis
14. a point that is always 3 units
away from the point (1, 1)
15. a point that is always 7 units to
the left of the y-axis
16. a point that is always 3 units to
the right of the y-axis
17. a point that is always 8 units
from the x-axis
18. a point that is always 4 units
from the y-axis
19. a point that is always 6 units
from the point (- 2, 4)
20. a point that is always 1 unit from
the point (- 4, 5).

A locus describes a single point P ^ x, y h that moves along a certain path. The
equation of a locus can often be found by using P ^ x, y h together with the
information given about the locus.

EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the locus of a point P ^ x, y h that moves so that it
is always 3 units from the origin.

Solution

You studied this formula in


2
Chapter 7. It is easier to use d
than d to find the equation of
the locus.

You may recognise this locus as a circle, centre ^ 0, 0 h radius 3 units. Its
equation is given by x 2 + y 2 = 9.
Alternatively, use the distance formula.
d=

2
2
_ x2 - x1 i + _ y2 - y1 i

or d 2 = _ x 2 - x 1 i2 + _ y 2 - y 1 i2

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

489

Place P anywhere on
the number plane.

Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus.


We want
PO = 3
i.e.
PO 2 = 9
^x - 0h2+ ^y - 0h2 = 9
x2 + y2 = 9
2. Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that moves
so that distance PA to distance PB is in the ratio 2:1 where
A = ^ - 3, 1 h and B = ^ 2, - 2 h .

Solution

Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus.


PA : PB = 2:1
i.e.
`

2
PA
=
PB
1
PA = 2PB
PA 2 = ] 2PB g 2
= 4PB 2

[x - ^ - 3 h] 2 + ^ y - 1 h2 = 4 $ ^ x - 2 h 2 + [y - ^ - 2 h] 2 .
^ x + 3 h 2 + ^ y - 1 h2 = 4 [^ x - 2 h 2 + ^ y + 2 h 2 ]
2
x + 6x + 9 + y 2 - 2y + 1 = 4 ^ x 2 - 4x + 4 + y 2 + 4x + 4 h
= 4x 2 - 16x + 16 + 4y 2 + 16y + 16
0 = 3x 2 - 22x + 3y 2 + 18y + 22
or 3x 2 - 22x + 3y 2 + 18y + 22 = 0

i.e.

3. Find the equation of the locus of a point P ^ x, y h that moves so that


the line PA is perpendicular to line PB, where A = ^ 1, 2 h and B = ^ - 3, -1 h .
CONTINUED

Use the distance


formula as in
Example 1.

This is the equation


of a circle.

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Solution

These results come from


Chapter 7.

The locus is a circle with


diameter AB.

Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus.


For perpendicular lines, m 1 m 2 = -1
y2 - y1
Using m = x - x
2
1
y-2
PA: m 1 =
x -1
y - ] -1 g
PB: m 2 =
x - ]-3g
y +1
=
x+3
For PA perpendicular to PB
y - 2 y +1
#
= -1
x -1 x + 3
y2 - y - 2
= -1
x 2 + 2x - 3
y 2 - y - 2 = - ^ x 2 + 2x - 3 h
= - x 2 - 2x + 3
i.e. x 2 + 2x + y 2 - y - 5 = 0
4. Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that is equidistant from
xed point A ^ 1, - 2 h and xed line with equation y = 5.

Solution

Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus.


B has coordinates ^ x, 5 h .
We want
PA = PB
PA 2 = PB 2
^ x - 1 h + [ y - ^ - 2 h] 2 = ^ x - x h 2 + ^ y - 5 h 2
^x - 1h2+ ^y + 2h2 = ^y - 5h2
x 2 - 2x + 1 + y 2 + 4y + 4 = y 2 - 10y + 25
x 2 - 2x + 14y - 20 = 0
i.e.

This is the equation of


a parabola. Can you
see where the parabola
lies?

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

10.2 Exercises
1.

Find the equation of the locus of


point P ^ x, y h that moves so that it
is always 1 unit from the origin.

2.

Find the equation of the locus of


point P ^ x, y h that moves so that
it is always 9 units from the point
^ -1, -1 h .

3.

4.

5.

6.

Find the equation of the locus


of a point that moves so that it
is always 2 units from the point
^ 5, - 2 h .
Find the equation of the locus of
point P ^ x, y h that moves so that
it is equidistant from the points
^ 3, 2 h and ^ -1, 5 h .
Find the equation of the locus
of a point that moves so that it
is equidistant from the points
^ - 4, 6 h and ^ 2, -7 h .
Find the equation of the locus of
point P ^ x, y h that moves so that it
is equidistant from the x-axis and
the y-axis.

7.

Find the equation of the locus of


a point P that moves so that PA
is twice the distance of PB where
A = ^ 0, 3 h and B = ^ 4, 7 h .

8.

Find the equation of the locus of


point P ^ x, y h that moves so that
the ratio of PA to PB is 3:2 where
A = ^ - 6, 5 h and B = ^ 3, -1 h .

9.

Find the equation of the locus


of a point that moves so that
it is equidistant from the point
^ 2, - 3 h and the line y = 7.

10. Find the equation of the locus of


a point that moves so that it is
equidistant from the point ^ 0, 5 h
and the line y = - 5.

11. Find the equation of the locus of


a point that moves so that it is
equidistant from the point ^ 2, 0 h
and the line x = 6.
12. Find the equation of the locus
of a point that moves so that
it is equidistant from the point
^ 1, -1 h and the line y = 3.
13. Find the equation of the locus
of a point that moves so that
it is equidistant from the point
^ 0, - 3 h and the line y = 3.
14. Find the equation of the locus
of a point P ^ x, y h that moves so
that the line PA is perpendicular
to line PB where A = ^ 1, - 3 h and
B = ^ 4, 5 h .
15. Find the equation of the locus
of a point P ^ x, y h that moves so
that the line PA is perpendicular
to line PB, where A = ^ - 4, 0 h and
B = ^ 1, 1 h .
16. Find the equation of the locus
of a point P ^ x, y h that moves so
that the line PA is perpendicular
to line PB where A = ^ 1, 5 h and
B = ^ - 2, - 3 h .
17. Point P moves so that
PA 2 + PB 2 = 4 where A = ^ 3, -1 h
and B = ^ - 5, 4 h . Find the
equation of the locus of P.
18. Point P moves so that
PA 2 + PB 2 = 12 where
A = ^ - 2, - 5 h and B = ^ 1, 3 h .
Find the equation of the locus
of P.
19. Find the equation of the locus
of a point that moves so that
its distance from the line
3x + 4y + 5 = 0 is always 4 units.

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20. Find the equation of the locus


of a point that moves so that
its distance from the line
12x - 5y - 1 = 0 is always 1 unit.
21. Find the equation, in exact form,
of the locus of a point that moves
so that its distance from the line
x - 2y - 3 = 0 is always 5 units.
22. Find the equation of the locus
of a point that moves so that
it is equidistant from the line
4x - 3y + 2 = 0 and the line
3x + 4y - 7 = 0.

23. Find the equation of the locus


of a point that moves so that
it is equidistant from the line
3x + 4y - 5 = 0 and the line
5x + 12y - 1 = 0.
24. Given two points A ^ 3, - 2 h and
B ^ -1, 7 h, nd the equation of the
locus of P ^ x, y h if the gradient of
PA is twice the gradient of PB.
25. If R is the xed point ^ 3, 2 h
and P is a movable point ^ x, y h,
nd the equation of the locus
of P if the distance PR is twice
the distance from P to the line
y = -1.

PROBLEM
Can you see 2 mistakes in the solution to this question?
Find the locus of point P ^ x, y h that moves so that its perpendicular
distance from the line 12x + 5y - 1 = 0 is always 3 units.

Solution
Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus.
d=
3=
=
=

| ax 1 + by 1 + c |
a2 + b2
| 5x + 12y - 1|
5 2 + 12 2
| 5x + 12y - 1|
25 + 144
| 5x + 12y - 1|

169
| 5x + 12y - 1|
=
13
` 39 = 5x + 12y - 1
0 = 5x + 12y - 40
Can you nd the correct locus?

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

Circle as a Locus
The locus of point P (x, y) that is always a constant distance from a xed
point is a circle.

The circle, centre ^ 0, 0 h and radius r, has the equation


x2 + y2 = r2

Proof
Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that is always r units from the
origin.

Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus.


OP = r
i.e.
OP 2 = r 2
2
^ x - 0 h + ^ y - 0 h 2 = r2
x2 + y2 = r2
So x 2 + y 2 = r 2 is the equation of the locus. It describes a circle with radius r
and centre ^ 0, 0 h .

The circle, centre ^ a, b h and radius r, has the


equation
^ x - a h 2 + ^ y - b h 2 = r2

Proof
Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that is always r units from point
A ^ a, b h .

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Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus.


AP = r
i.e.
AP 2 = r 2
^ x - a h 2 + ^ y - b h 2 = r2
So ] x - a g2 + ^ y - b h2 = r 2 is the equation of the locus. It describes a circle
with radius r and centre ^ a, b h .

EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the locus of a point that is always 2 units from
the point ^ -1, 0 h .

Solution

You could find this equation by


using P (x, y) and treating the
question as a locus problem.

This is a circle with radius 2 and centre ^ -1, 0 h . Its equation is in the form
^ x - a h 2 + ^ y - b h 2 = r2
i.e. [x - ^ -1 h] 2 + ^ y - 0 h 2 = 2 2
^ x + 1 h 2 + y2 = 4
x 2 + 2x + 1 + y 2 = 4
x 2 + 2x + y 2 - 3 = 0
2. Find the radius and the coordinates of the centre of the circle
x 2 + 2x + y 2 - 6y - 15 = 0.

Solution
You learned how to
complete the square in
Chapter 3.

We put the equation into the form ^ x - a h 2 + ^ y - b h 2 = r 2 .


To do this we complete the square.
b 2
In general, to complete the square on x 2 + bx, add c m to give:
2
b 2
b 2
x 2 + bx + c m = c x + m
2
2
First we move any constants to the other side of the equation, then
complete the square.
2 2
To complete the square on x 2 + 2x, we add c m = 1.
2

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

6 2
To complete the square on y 2 - 6y, we add c m = 9.
2
x 2 + 2x + y 2 - 6y - 15 = 0
x 2 + 2x + y 2 - 6y = 15
2
x + 2x + 1 + y 2 - 6y + 9 = 15 + 1 + 9
^ x + 1 h 2 + ^ y - 3 h 2 = 25
^ x - ] - 1 g h 2 + ^ y - 3 h 2 = 52
The equation is in the form ^ x - a h 2 + ^ y - b h 2 = r 2 .
This is a circle, centre ^ -1, 3 h and radius 5.

10.3 Exercises
1.

2.

3.

4.

Find the length of the radius and


the coordinates of the centre of
each circle.
(a) x 2 + y 2 = 100
(b) x 2 + y 2 = 5
(c) ^ x - 4 h 2 + ^ y - 5 h 2 = 16
(d) ^ x - 5 h 2 + ^ y + 6 h 2 = 49
(e) x 2 + ^ y - 3 h2 = 81
Find the equation of each circle
in expanded form (without
grouping symbols).
(a) Centre (0, 0) and radius 4
(b) Centre (3, 2) and radius 5
(c) Centre ^ -1, 5 h and radius 3
(d) Centre (2, 3) and radius 6
(e) Centre ^ - 4, 2 h and radius 5
(f) Centre ^ 0, - 2 h and radius 1
(g) Centre (4, 2) and radius 7
(h) Centre ^ - 3, - 4 h and radius 9
(i) Centre ^ - 2, 0 h and radius 5
(j) Centre ^ - 4, -7 h and
radius 3 .
Find the equation of the locus of
a point moving so that it is 1 unit
from the point ^ 9, - 4 h .
Find the equation of the locus
of a point moving so that it is
4 units from the point ^ - 2, - 2 h .

5.

Find the equation of the locus


of a point moving so that it is
7 units from the point ^ 1, 0 h .

6.

Find the equation of the locus


of a point moving so that it is
2 units from the point ^ - 3, 8 h .

7.

Find the equation of the locus of


a point moving so that it is 2
units from the point ^ 5, - 2 h .

8.

Find the equation of a circle with


centre ^ 0, 0 h and radius 3 units.

9.

Find the equation of a circle with


centre ^ 1, 5 h and radius 1 unit.

10. Find the equation of a circle with


centre ^ - 6, 1 h and radius 6 units.
11. Find the equation of a circle with
centre ^ 4, 3 h and radius 3 units.
12. Find the equation of a circle
with centre ^ 0, - 3 h and radius
2 2 units.
13. Find the coordinates of the centre
and the length of the radius of
each circle.
(a) x 2 - 4x + y 2 - 2y - 4 = 0
(b) x 2 + 8x + y 2 - 4y - 5 = 0
(c) x 2 + y 2 - 2y = 0

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(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

x2 x2 +
x2 x2 +
x2 +
x2 x2 +

10x + y 2 + 6y - 2 = 0
2x + y 2 - 2y + 1 = 0
12x + y 2 = 0
6x + y 2 - 8y = 0
20x + y 2 - 4y + 40 = 0
14x + y 2 + 2y + 25 = 0
2x + y 2 + 4y - 5 = 0

14. Find the centre and radius of the


circle with equation given by
x 2 - 6x + y 2 + 2y - 6 = 0.
15. Find the centre and radius of the
circle with equation given by
x 2 - 4x + y 2 - 10y + 4 = 0.
16. Find the centre and radius of the
circle with equation given by
x 2 + 2x + y 2 + 12y - 12 = 0.
17. Find the centre and radius of the
circle with equation given by
x 2 - 8x + y 2 - 14y + 1 = 0.
18. Find the centre and radius of the
circle with equation given by
x 2 + 3x + y 2 - 2y - 3 = 0.
19. Sketch the circle whose
equation is given by
x 2 + 4x + y 2 - 2y + 1 = 0.
20. Prove that the line
3x + 4y + 21 = 0 is a
tangent to the circle
x 2 - 8x + y 2 + 4y - 5 = 0.

Concentric circles have


the same centre.

21. (a) Show that


x 2 - 2x + y 2 + 4y + 1 = 0 and
x 2 - 2x + y 2 + 4y - 4 = 0 are
concentric.
(b) Find the difference between
their radii.
22. Given two points A ^ 2, - 5 h and
B ^ - 4, 3 h, nd the equation of
the circle with diameter AB.

23. Find the exact length of AB


where A and B are the centres
of the circles x 2 - 6x + y 2 = 0
and x 2 + 4x + y 2 + 6y - 3 = 0
respectively.
24. (a) Find the length of XY where
X and Y are the centres of the
circles x 2 + 6x + y 2 - 2y + 1 = 0
and x 2 - 4x + y 2 - 2y + 1 = 0
respectively.
(b) Find the radius of each circle.
(c) What conclusion can you draw
from the results for (a) and (b)?
25. Show that the circles x 2 + y 2 = 4
and x 2 + 2x + y 2 - 4y - 4 = 0
both have 3x + 4y + 10 = 0 as a
tangent.
26. A circle has centre C ^ -1, 3 h and
radius 5 units.
(a) Find the equation of the
circle.
(b) The line 3x - y + 1 = 0 meets
the circle at two points. Find
their coordinates.
(c) Let the coordinates be X and
Y, where Y is the coordinate
directly below the centre C. Find
the coordinates of point Z, where
YZ is a diameter of the circle.
(d) Hence show +ZXY = 90c.
27. (a) Find the perpendicular
distance from P ^ 2, - 5 h to the line
5x + 12y - 2 = 0.
(b) Hence nd the equation
of the circle with centre P and
tangent 5x + 12y - 2 = 0.

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

Parabola as a Locus
The locus of a point that is equidistant from a xed point and a xed line
is always a parabola. The xed point is called the focus and the xed line is
called the directrix.

Work on the parabola as a locus is very important, as the properties of the


parabola are useful to us. The parabola is used in lenses of glasses and cameras,
in car headlights, and for bridges and radio telescope dishes.

DID YOU KNOW?


Any rope or chain supporting a load (e.g.
a suspension bridge) is in the shape of a
parabola.
Find some examples of suspension
bridges that have a parabola shaped chain.
Other bridges have ropes or chains
hanging freely. These are not in the shape
of a parabola, but are in a shape called a
catenary. Can you find some bridges with this
shape?
More recent bridges are cable-stayed,
where ropes or chains are attached to towers,
or pylons, and fan out along the sides of the bridge. An example is the Anzac Bridge
in Sydney.
There are many different bridge designs. One famous bridge in Australia is the Sydney
Harbour Bridge.
Research different bridge designs and see if you can find some with parabolic shapes.

Parabola with vertex at the origin


Just as the circle has a special equation when its centre is at the origin, the
parabola has a special equation when its vertex is at the origin. Both also have
a more general formula.

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The locus of a point that is equidistant from a xed point and a xed line
is always in the shape of a parabola.
If the xed point is (0, a) and the xed line is y = - a (where a 2 0), then
one of the equidistant points is the origin (0, 0). The distance between the
points (0, 0) and (0, a) is a units.
The point on y = - a directly below the origin is ^ 0, - a h and the distance
from (0, 0) to ^ 0, - a h is also a units.
y

(0, a)
a
x
a
(0, -a)

y =- a

To nd the equation of the parabola, we use the general process to nd


the equation of any locus. The features of the parabola have special names.

A parabola is equidistant from a xed point and a xed line.


The xed point is called the focus.
The xed line is called the directrix.
The turning point of the parabola is called the vertex.
The axis of symmetry of the parabola is called its axis.
The distance between the vertex and the focus is called the focal
length.
An interval joining any two points on the parabola is called a chord.
A chord that passes through the focus is called a focal chord.
The focal chord that is perpendicular to the axis is called the latus
rectum.
A tangent is a straight line that touches the parabola at a single point.

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

499

PARABOLA x 2 = 4 ay
The locus of point P ^ x, y h moving so that it is equidistant from the point
^ 0, a h and the line y = - a is a parabola with equation
x 2 = 4ay

Proof

Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus.


Taking the perpendicular distance from P to the line y = - a, point B = ^ x, - a h .
PA = PB
`
PA 2 = PB 2
^ x - 0 h 2 + ^ y - a h 2 = ^ x - x h 2 + [y - ^ - a h] 2
x2 + ^ y - a h 2 = ^ y + a h 2
x 2 + y 2 - 2ay + a 2 = y 2 + 2ay + a 2
x 2 = 4ay

The parabola x 2 = 4ay has


focus at ^ 0, a h
directrix with equation y = - a
vertex at ^ 0, 0 h
axis with equation x = 0
focal length the distance from the vertex to the focus with length a
latus rectum that is a horizontal focal chord with length 4a

Class Investigation
Find the equation of the locus if point P ^ x, y h is equidistant from ^ 0, - a h
and y = a.

Since the focal length is a, a


is always a positive number.

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EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola whose focus has coordinates ^ 0, 2 h
and whose directrix has equation y = - 2.

Solution
The focus has coordinates in the form ^ 0, a h and the directrix has
equation in the form y = - a, where a = 2.
` the parabola is in the form x 2 = 4ay where a = 2
i.e. x 2 = 4 (2) y
x 2 = 8y
2.
(a) Find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix of
the parabola x 2 = 20y.
(b) Find the points on the parabola at the endpoints of the latus rectum
and nd its length.

Solution
(a) The parabola x 2 = 20y is in the form x 2 = 4ay
4a = 20
` a=5
The focal length is 5 units.
We can nd the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the
directrix in two ways.
Method 1:
Draw the graph x 2 = 20y and count 5 units up and down from the
origin as shown.
y
x2 = 20y
(0, 5)
5
x
5
(0, -5) y = -5

The focus is (0, 5) and the directrix has equation y = -5.

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

501

Method 2:
The focus is in the form (0, a) where a = 5.
So the focus is (0, 5).
The directrix is in the form y = - a where a = 5.
So the directrix is y = - 5.
(b) The latus rectum is a focal chord that is perpendicular to the axis of
the parabola as shown
y
x2 = 20 y

(0, 5)
x

The endpoints of the latus rectum will be where the line y = 5 and the
parabola intersect.
Substitute y = 5 into the parabola.
x 2 = 20y
= 20 ] 5 g
= 100
x = ! 100
= !10
So the endpoints are (-10, 5) and (10, 5).
y
x2 = 20 y

(-10, 5)

(0, 5)

(10, 5)
x

From the graph, the length of the latus rectum is 20 units.

CONTINUED

The latus rectum is 4a


units long which gives
20 units.

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3. Find the equation of the focal chord to the parabola x 2 = 4y that


passes through (- 4, 4).

Solution
The parabola x 2 = 4y is in the form x 2 = 4ay.
4a = 4
`a=1
The focal length is 1 unit.
The focus is 1 unit up from the origin at (0, 1) and the focal chord also
passes through (- 4, 4).
y
(-4, 4)

x2 = 4y

(0, 1)
x

You used these


formulae in Chapter 7.

We can nd the equation of the line between (0, 1) and (- 4, 4) by using


either formula
y - y1
y2 - y1
y - y 1 = m _ x - x 1 i or x - x = x - x
1
2
1
y - y1
y2 - y1
x - x1 = x2 - x1
y -1
4 -1
=
x-0
-4 - 0
y -1
3
x = -4
- 4 ^ y - 1 h = 3x
- 4y + 4 = 3x
0 = 3x + 4y - 4

As you saw in the previous chapter, a parabola can be concave


downwards. Can you guess what the equation of this parabola might be?
PARABOLA x 2 = - 4 ay
The locus of a point P(x, y) moving so that it is equidistant from the
point ^ 0, - a h and the line y = a is a parabola with equation x 2 = - 4ay

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

Proof
y

B(x, a)

y=a

x
P(x, y)
A(0, -a)

Let P(x, y) be a point of the locus.


Taking the perpendicular distance from P to the line y = a, point B = ^ x, a h .
PA = PB
`

PA 2 = PB 2

2
^ x - 0 h 2 + 7 y - ^ - a h A = ^ x - x h 2 + ^ y - a h2
x 2 + ^ y + a h2 = ^ y - a h2
2
x + y 2 + 2ay + a 2 = y 2 - 2ay + a 2
x 2 = - 4ay

The parabola x 2 = - 4ay has


focus at ^ 0, - a h
directrix with equation y = a
vertex at (0, 0)
axis with equation x = 0
focal length a
latus rectum a horizontal focal chord with length 4a

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EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ^ 0, - 4 h and directrix
y = 4.

Solution
If we draw this information, the focus is below the directrix as shown. So
the parabola will be concave downwards (the parabola always turns away
from the directrix).
y

y=4
4
x
4
(0, -4)

The focal length is 4 so a = 4.


The parabola is in the form x 2 = - 4ay where a = 4.
x 2 = - 4ay
= -4]4gy
= - 16y
2. Find the coordinates of the vertex, the coordinates of the focus and
the equation of the directrix of the parabola x 2 = - 12y.

Solution
The parabola x 2 = -12y is in the form x 2 = - 4ay.
4a = 12
`a=3
The focal length is 3 units.
The vertex is (0, 0).
We can nd the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix
in two ways.
Method 1:
Draw the graph x 2 = -12y and count 3 units up and down from the
origin as shown. (The parabola is concave downward.)

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

y=3
3
x
3
(0, -3)

x2 = -12y

Counting down 3 units, the focus is ^ 0, - 3 h .


Counting up 3 units, the directrix has equation y = 3.
Method 2:
The focus is in the form ^ 0, - a h where a = 3.
So the focus is ^ 0, - 3 h .
The directrix is in the form y = a where a = 3.
So the directrix is y = 3.
3. Find the equation of the parabola with focal length 5 and whose
vertex is ^ 0, 0 h and equation of the axis is x = 0.

Solution
Vertex ^ 0, 0 h and axis given by x = 0 give a parabola in the form
x 2 = !4ay, since there is not enough information to tell whether it is
concave upwards or downwards.
This gives two possible parabolas.

CONTINUED

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Focal length of 5 means a = 5


i.e.

The equation is x 2 = !4 (5) y


x 2 = !20y

10.4 Exercises
1.

2.

3.

Find the equation of each


parabola.
(a) focus (0, 5), directrix y = - 5
(b) focus (0, 9), directrix y = - 9
(c) focus (0, 1), directrix y = -1
(d) focus (0, 4), directrix y = - 4
(e) focus (0, 10), directrix
y = -10
(f) focus (0, 3), directrix y = - 3
(g) focus (0, 6), directrix y = - 6
(h) focus (0, 11), directrix
y = -11
(i) focus (0, 2), directrix y = - 2
(j) focus (0, 12), directrix
y = -12
Find the equation of each
parabola.
(a) focus (0, - 1), directrix y = 1
(b) focus (0, - 3), directrix y = 3
(c) focus (0, - 4), directrix y = 4
(d) focus (0, - 7), directrix y = 7
(e) focus (0, - 6), directrix y = 6
(f) focus (0, - 9), directrix y = 9
(g) focus (0, - 8), directrix y = 8
(h) focus (0, - 2), directrix y = 2
(i) focus (0, -15), directrix
y = 15
(j) focus (0, -13), directrix
y = 13
Find
(i) the coordinates of the
focus and
(ii) the equation of the
directrix of
(a) x 2 = 4y
(b) x 2 = 28y
(c) x 2 = 16y

(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

x 2 = 36y
x 2 = 40y
x 2 = 44y
x 2 = 12y
x 2 = 6y
x 2 = 10y
x 2 = 15y

4.

Find
(i) the coordinates of the
focus and
(ii) the equation of the
directrix of
(a) x 2 = - 4y
(b) x 2 = - 24y
(c) x 2 = - 8y
(d) x 2 = - 48y
(e) x 2 = - 20y
(f) x 2 = - 16y
(g) x 2 = - 32y
(h) x 2 = - 40y
(i) x 2 = - 2y
(j) x 2 = - 22y

5.

Find the equation of the parabola


with
(a) coordinates of the focus ^ 0, 7 h
and equation of the directrix
y = -7
(b) coordinates of the focus
^ 0, 11 h and equation of the
directrix y = -11
(c) coordinates of the focus
^ 0, - 6 h and equation of the
directrix y = 6
(d) coordinates of the focus ^ 0, 2 h
and coordinates of the vertex
^ 0, 0 h .

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

(e) coordinates of the vertex


^ 0, 0 h, equation of the axis x = 0
and focal length 3
(f) coordinates of the vertex
^ 0, 0 h, equation of the axis x = 0
and focal length 8
(g) coordinates of the vertex
^ 0, 0 h and equation of the axis
x = 0, and passing through the
point ^ - 8, 2 h
(h) coordinates of the vertex
^ 0, 0 h and equation of the axis
x = 0, and passing through the
point ^ -1, 7 h .
6.

Find the coordinates of the focus,


the equation of the directrix and
the focal length of the parabola
(a) x 2 = 8y
(b) x 2 = 24y
(c) x 2 = -12y
(d) x 2 = 2y
(e) x 2 = - 7y
(f) 2x 2 = y

7.

Find the equation of the focal


chord that cuts the curve x 2 = 8y
at ^ - 4, 2 h .

8.

The tangent with equation


2x - y - 4 = 0 touches the
parabola x 2 = 4y at A. Find the
coordinates of A.

9.

The focal chord that cuts the


parabola x 2 = - 6y at ^ 6, - 6 h cuts
the parabola again at X. Find the
coordinates of X.

10. Find the coordinates of the


endpoints of the latus rectum of
the parabola x 2 = - 8y. What is
the length of the latus rectum?

11. The equation of the latus rectum


of a parabola is given by y = - 3.
The axis of the parabola is x = 0,
and its vertex is ^ 0, 0 h .
(a) Find the equation of the
parabola.
(b) Find the equation of the
directrix.
(c) Find the length of the focal
chord that meets the parabola at
1
c 2, - m .
3
12. (a) Show that the point ^ - 3, 3 h
lies on the parabola with
equation x 2 = 3y.
(b) Find the equation of the line
passing through P and the focus F
of the parabola.
(c) Find the coordinates of the
point R where the line PF meets
the directrix.
13. (a) Find the equation of chord
1
PQ where P c -1, m and Q ^ 2, 1 h
4
lie on the parabola x 2 = 4y.
(b) Show that PQ is not a focal
chord.
(c) Find the equation of the circle
with centre Q and radius 2 units.
(d) Show that this circle passes
through the focus of the
parabola.
14. (a) Show that Q _ 2aq, aq 2 i lies on
the parabola x 2 = 4ay.
(b) Find the equation of the focal
chord through Q.
(c) Prove that the length of the
latus rectum is 4a.

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Investigation
Sketch the parabola x = y 2. You may like to complete the table below to
help you with its sketch.
x
y

-3

-2

-1

Is this parabola a function? What is its axis of symmetry?

The parabola that has y2 rather than x2 in its equation is a sideways


parabola. It still has the same properties, but generally the x and y values are
swapped around.
PARABOLA y 2 = 4 ax
The locus of point P ^ x, y h moving so that it is equidistant from the point
^ a, 0 h and the line x = - a is a parabola with equation
y 2 = 4ax

Proof
Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h, which moves so that it is
equidistant from the point ^ a, 0 h and the line x = - a.

Coordinates of B are ^ - a, y h .
We want
PA = PB
i.e.

PA 2 = PB 2
^ x - a h 2 + ^ y - 0 h 2 = [x - ^ - a h 2 ] 2 + ^ y - y h 2
^ x - a h 2 + y2 = ^ x + a h 2
x 2 - 2ax + a 2 + y 2 = x 2 + 2ax + a 2
y 2 = 4ax

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

The parabola y 2 = 4ax has


focus at ^ a, 0 h
equation of directrix x = - a
vertex at ^ 0, 0 h
axis with equation y = 0
focal length the distance from the vertex to the focus with length a
latus rectum that is a vertical focal chord with length 4a

EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus (7, 0) and directrix
x = - 7.

Solution
If we draw this information, the focus is to the right of the directrix
as shown (the parabola always turns away from the directrix). So the
parabola turns to the right.
y
x=-7

7
(7, 0)

CONTINUED

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The focal length is 7 so a = 7.


The parabola is in the form y 2 = 4ax where a = 7.
y 2 = 4ax
= 4^7hx
= 28x.
2. Find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix of
the parabola y 2 = 32x.

Solution
The parabola y 2 = 32x is in the form y 2 = 4ax.
4a = 32
` a=8
The focal length is 8 units.
Method 1:
Draw the graph y 2 = 32x and count 8 units to the left and right from the
origin as shown. (The parabola turns to the right.)
y

x=-8

8
(8, 0)

y2 = 32x
2

Counting 8 units to the right, the focus is (8, 0).


Counting 8 units to the left, the directrix has equation x = - 8.
Method 2:
The focus is in the form (a, 0) where a = 8.
So the focus is (8, 0).
The directrix is in the form x = - a where a = 8.
So the directrix is x = - 8.

A parabola can also turn to the left.

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

PARABOLA y 2 = - 4 ax
The locus of a point P(x, y) moving so that it is equidistant from
the point ^ - a, 0 h and the line x = a is a parabola with equation
y 2 = - 4ax

Proof
y
P(x, y)

B(a, y)

A( - a, 0)

x=a

Let P(x, y) be a point of the locus.


Taking the perpendicular distance from P to the line x = a,
point B = ^ a, y h .
PA = PB
PA 2 = PB 2

7 x - ^ - a h A + ^ y - 0 h2 = ^ x - a h 2 + ^ y - y h 2
^ x + a h 2 + y2 = ^ x - a h 2
2

x 2 + 2ax + a 2 + y 2 = x 2 - 2ax + a 2
y 2 = - 4ax

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The parabola y 2 = - 4ax has


focus at (- a, 0)
directrix with equation x = a
vertex at (0, 0)
axis with equation y = 0
focal length a
latus rectum a vertical focal chord with length 4a

EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus (- 4, 0) and directrix
x = 4.

Solution
Drawing this information shows that the parabola turns to the left.
y

4
x

( - 4, 0)

x=4

The focal length is 4 so a = 4.


The parabola is in the form y 2 = - 4ax where a = 4.
y 2 = - 4ax
= -4^ 4h x
= -16x.
2. Find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix of
the parabola y 2 = - 2x.

Solution
The parabola y 2 = - 2x is in the form y 2 = - 4ax.
4a = 2
` a=

1
2

The focal length is

1
unit.
2

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

Method 1:
1
Draw the graph y 2 = - 2x and count unit to the left and right from the
2
origin as shown. (The parabola turns to the left.)
y

1
2

- 1, 0
2

1
2
x

)
x=

1
2

1
1
units to the left, the focus is c - , 0 m .
2
2
1
1
Counting units to the right, the directrix has equation x = .
2
2

Counting

Method 2:
1
The focus is in the form (- a, 0) where a = .
2
1
So the focus is c - , 0 m .
2
1
The directrix is in the form x = a where a = .
2
1
So the directrix is x = .
2

10.5 Exercises
1.

Find the equation of each


parabola.
(a) focus (2, 0), directrix x = - 2
(b) focus (5, 0), directrix x = - 5
(c) focus (14, 0), directrix
x = -14
(d) focus (9, 0), directrix x = - 9
(e) focus (8, 0), directrix x = - 8
(f) focus (6, 0), directrix x = - 6
(g) focus (7, 0), directrix x = - 7
(h) focus (3, 0), directrix x = - 3
(i) focus (4, 0), directrix x = - 4
(j) focus (1, 0), directrix x = -1

2.

Find the equation of each


parabola.
(a) focus (- 9, 0), directrix x = 9
(b) focus (- 4, 0), directrix x = 4
(c) focus (-10, 0), directrix x = 10
(d) focus (- 6, 0), directrix x = 6
(e) focus (- 2, 0), directrix x = 2
(f) focus (-12, 0), directrix x = 12
(g) focus (-11, 0), directrix x = 11
(h) focus (- 5, 0), directrix x = 5
(i) focus (- 3, 0), directrix x = 3
(j) focus (- 7, 0), directrix x = 7

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3.

4.

5.

Find
(i) the coordinates of the
focus and
(ii) the equation of the
directrix of
(a) y 2 = 8x
(b) y 2 = 12x
(c) y 2 = 16x
(d) y 2 = 4x
(e) y 2 = 28x
(f) y 2 = 32x
(g) y 2 = 24x
(h) y 2 = 36x
(i) y 2 = x
(j) y 2 = 18x
Find
(i) the coordinates of the
focus and
(ii) the equation of the
directrix of
(a) y 2 = - 8x
(b) y 2 = -12x
(c) y 2 = - 28x
(d) y 2 = - 4x
(e) y 2 = - 24x
(f) y 2 = - 52x
(g) y 2 = - 60x
(h) y 2 = - 2x
(i) y 2 = - 26x
(j) y 2 = - 5x
Find the equation of the parabola
with
(a) coordinates of the focus ^ 5, 0 h
and equation of the directrix
x = -5
(b) coordinates of the focus ^ 1, 0 h
and equation of the directrix
x = -1
(c) coordinates of the focus
^ - 4, 0 h and equation of the
directrix x = 4
(d) coordinates of the focus ^ 3, 0 h
and coordinates of the vertex
^ 0, 0 h
(e) coordinates of the vertex
^ 0, 0 h equation of the axis y = 0
and focal length 9

(f) coordinates of the vertex


^ 0, 0 h, equation of the axis y = 0
and focal length 2
(g) coordinates of the vertex
^ 0, 0 h and equation of the axis
y = 0 and passing through the
point ^ 3, 6 h
(h) coordinates of the vertex
^ 0, 0 h and equation of the axis
y = 0 and passing through the
point ^ 2, 1 h .
6.

Find the coordinates of the focus,


the equation of the directrix and
the focal length of the parabola
(a) y 2 = 8x
(b) y 2 = 4x
(c) y 2 = -12x
(d) y 2 = 6x
(e) y 2 = - 5x
(f) 3y 2 = x

7.

Find the equation of the focal


chord that cuts the curve y 2 = 16x
at ^ 4, 8 h .

8.

Find the length of the latus


rectum of the parabola y 2 = 12x.
What are the coordinates of its
endpoints?

9.

The line with equation


x - 3y - 27 = 0 meets the
parabola y 2 = 4x at two points.
Find their coordinates.

1
10. Let R c , - 2 m be a point on the
5
parabola y 2 = 20x.
(a) Find the equation of the focal
chord passing through R.
(b) Find the coordinates of the
point Q where this chord cuts the
directrix.
(c) Find the area of DOFQ where
O is the origin and F is the focus.
(d) Find the perpendicular
distance from the chord to the
point P ^ -1, -7 h .
(e) Hence nd the area of DPQR.

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

515

Application
A parabolic satellite dish receives its signals through the focus. If the dish has
height 12 m and a span of 20 m, find where the focus should be placed, to the
nearest mm.

SOLUTION

The parabola is of the form x 2 = 4ay and passes through (10, 12) and (-10, 12)
Substituting (10, 12) gives
2
10 = 4a (12)

100 = 48a
2.083 = a
So the focus should be placed 2.083 m from the vertex.

Here is a summary of the 4 different types of parabola with the vertex at


the origin.

1. x 2 = 4ay
y

x2 = 4ay
Focus
(0, a)
x

Directrix
y = -a

This is 2083 mm to
the nearest millimetre.

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2. x 2 = - 4ay
y

Directrix
y=a
x
Focus
(0, -a)
x 2 = -4ay

3. y 2 = 4ax
y
Directrix
x = -a

Focus
(a, 0)

y 2 = 4a x

4. y 2 = - 4ax
y
Directrix
x=a

Focus
(-a, 0)

y2 = -4ax

General Parabola
When the parabola does not have its vertex at the origin, there is a more
general formula.
Since we use a to mean the focal length, we cannot use (a, b) as the
vertex. We use (h, k) instead.

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

PARABOLA (x - h)2 = 4a(y - k)


The concave upwards parabola with vertex (h, k) and focal
length a has equation ^ x - h h 2 = 4a ^ y - k h

Proof
Find the equation of the parabola with vertex ^ h, k h and focal length a.

Counting up a units from vertex V gives the focus F = ^ h, k + a h .


Counting down a units from V gives the point on the directrix D = ^ h, k - a h .
So the equation of the directrix is given by y = k - a.
We nd the equation of the locus of P ^ x, y h that is equidistant from point
F ^ h, k + a h and line y = k - a.

B has coordinates ^ x, k - a h .
We want
PF = PB
i.e.
PF 2 = PB 2
^ x - h h 2 + [ y - ^ k + a h] 2 = ^ x - x h 2 + [ y - ^ k + a h] 2
^x - hh2 + ^ y - k - ah2 = ^ y - k + ah2
^x - hh2 = ^ y - k + ah2- ^ y - k - ah2
= [^ y - k + a h + ^ y - k - a h ] # [^ y - k + a h - ^ y - k - a h ]
^ difference of two squares h
= ^ 2y - 2k h ^ 2a h
= 4ay - 4ak
= 4a ^ y - k h

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The parabola ^ x - h h2 = 4a ^ y - k h has


axis parallel to the y-axis
vertex at ^ h, k h
focus at ^ h, k + a h
directrix with equation y = k - a

EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ^ 2, 3 h and directrix with
equation y = - 7.

Solution

Draw a diagram to find


the vertex and to find a.

Coordinates of B are ^ 2, -7 h .
The vertex is the midpoint of ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 2, -7 h .
` vertex = ^ 2, - 2 h
Focal length is the distance from the focus to the vertex.
`
a=5
From the diagram the parabola is concave upwards.
The equation is in the form
^ x - h h 2 = 4a ^ y - k h
i.e.
^ x - 2 h 2 = 4 ^ 5 h [ y - ^ - 2 h]
= 20 ^ y + 2 h
x 2 - 4x + 4 = 20y + 40
x 2 - 4x - 20y - 36 = 0
2. Find the coordinates of the vertex and the focus, and the equation of
the directrix, of the parabola with equation x 2 + 6x - 12y - 3 = 0.

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

519

Solution
Complete the square on x.
x 2 + 6x - 12y - 3 = 0
x 2 + 6x = 12y + 3
x 2 + 6x + 9 = 12y + 3 + 9
^ x + 3 h2 = 12y + 12
= 12 (y + 1)
So the parabola has equation ^ x + 3 h2 = 12 ^ y + 1 h .
Its vertex has coordinates ^ - 3, -1 h .
4a = 12
` a=3
The parabola is concave upwards as it is in the form ^ x - h h 2 = 4a ^ y - k h .

Count up 3 units to the focus


` focus = ^ - 3, 2 h
Count down 3 units to the directrix
` directrix has equation y = - 4.

PARABOLA (x - h)2 = - 4a(y - k)


The concave downwards parabola with vertex (h, k) and focal length a
has equation ^ x - h h 2 = - 4a ^ y - k h

Proof
Find the equation of the concave downwards parabola with vertex (h, k) and
focal length a.

It is easy to find
the focus and the
directrix by counting
along the y-axis.

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Counting down a units from the vertex V gives the focus F = ^ h, k - a h .


Counting up a units from the vertex V gives the point on the directrix
D = ^ h, k + a h .
So the equation of the directrix is given by y = k + a.
We nd the equation of the locus of P(x, y) that is equidistant from point
F ^ h, k - a h and line y = k + a.
y
B

y=k+a

P (x, y)

F (h , k - a)

B has coordinates ^ x, k + a h .
We want

PF = PB
PF 2 = PB 2

2
2
^x - hh2 + 7y - ^k - ahA = ^x - xh2 + 7y - ^k + ahA
2
2
2
^x - hh + ^y - k + ah = ^y - k - ah
^x - hh2 = ^y - k - ah2- ^y - k + ah2
= 7^y - k - ah + ^y - k + ahA7^y - k - ah - ^y - k + ahA
(difference of two squares)
= ^ 2y - 2k h ^ - 2a h
= - 4ay + 4ak
= - 4a ^ y - k h

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

The parabola ^ x - h h 2 = - 4a ^ y - k h has


axis parallel to the y-axis
vertex at (h, k)
focus at ^ h, k - a h
directrix with equation y = k + a

EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus (- 2, 1) and directrix
y = 3.

Solution
y

1
1
(-2, 1)

y=3

2
1

-2 -1

Coordinates of B are (- 2, 3).


The vertex is the midpoint of (- 2, 1) and (- 2, 3).
` vertex = (- 2, 2)
Focal length a = 1.
From the diagram the curve is concave downwards.
The equation is in the form
^ x - h h 2 = - 4a ^ y - k h
i.e.

2
7x - ^ -2 h A = -4 ]1 g^ y - 2 h
^ x + 2h 2 = -4^ y - 2h

x 2 + 4x + 4 = - 4y + 8
x 2 + 4x + 4y - 4 = 0.
2. Find the coordinates of the vertex and focus, and the equation of the
directrix of the parabola x 2 - 8x + 8y - 16 = 0.
CONTINUED

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Solution
Complete the square on x.
x 2 - 8x + 8y - 16 = 0
x 2 - 8x = - 8y + 16
x 2 - 8x + 16 = - 8y + 16 + 16
^ x - 4 h2 = - 8y + 32
= -8^ y - 4h
So the parabola has equation ^ x - 4 h 2 = - 8 ^ y - 4 h .
Its vertex has coordinates (4, 4).
4a = 8
`a=2
The parabola is concave downwards as it is in the form
^ x - h h 2 = - 4a ^ y - k h .
y
y=6

(4, 4)

4
3

2
(4, 2)

2
1
1

Count down 2 units to the focus


` focus = ^ 4, 2 h
Count up 2 units to the directrix
` directrix has equation y = 6.

PARABOLA ( y - k)2 = 4a(x - h)


The parabola with vertex (h, k) and focal length a that turns
to the right has equation ^ y - k h 2 = 4a ^ x - h h

Proof
Find the equation of the parabola that turns to the right with vertex (h, k) and
focal length a.

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

Counting a units to the right from the vertex V gives the focus F = ^ h + a, k h .
Counting a units to the left from the vertex V gives the point on the directrix
D = ^ h - a, k h .
So the equation of the directrix is given by x = h - a.
We nd the equation of the locus of P(x, y) that is equidistant from point
F ^ h + a, k h and line x = h - a.

x=h-a

P (x, y)

F (h +a, k)

B has coordinates ^ h - a, y h .
We want

PF = PB
PF 2 = PB 2

2
2
7x - ^h + ahA + ^y - kh2 = 7x - ^h - ahA + ^y - y h2
^x - h - ah2+ ^y - kh2 = ^x - h - ah2
^y - kh2 = ^x - h + ah2- ]x - h - ag2

= 7^x - h + ah + ^x - h - ahA7^x - h + ah - ^x - h - ahA


(difference of two squares)
= ^ 2x - 2h h ^ 2a h
= 4ax - 4ah
= 4a ^ x - h h

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The parabola ^ y - k h 2 = 4a ^ x - h h has


axis parallel to the x-axis
vertex at ^ h, k h
focus at ^ h + a, k h
directrix with equation x = h - a

EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus (1, -1) and directrix
x = - 5.

Solution
y
x = -5

5
4
3
2
1

1 2 3 4 5
(1, -1)

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1
B

-2
-3

Coordinates of B are (- 5, -1).


The vertex is the midpoint of (- 5, -1) and (1, -1).
` vertex = ^ - 2, -1 h
Focal length a = 3
From the diagram the parabola curves to the right.
The equation is in the form
^ y - k h 2 = 4a ] x - h g
i.e.

2
7 y - ^ -1 h A = 4 ] 3 g 7 x - ^ - 2 h A
^ y + 1 h 2 = 12 ] x + 2 g

y 2 + 2y + 1 = 12x + 24
y 2 + 2y - 12x - 23 = 0

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

2. Find the coordinates of the vertex and focus, and the equation of the
directrix of the parabola y 2 + 12y - 4x - 8 = 0.

Solution
Complete the square on y.
y 2 + 12y - 4x - 8 = 0
y 2 + 12y = 4x + 8
y 2 + 12y + 36 = 4x + 8 + 36
^ y + 6 h 2 = 4x + 44
= 4 ^ x + 11 h
So the parabola has equation ^ y + 6 h2 = 4 ^ x + 11 h
or 7 y - ] - 6 g A 2 = 4 6 x - ] -11 g @ .
Its vertex has coordinates (-11, - 6).
4a = 4
` a=1
The parabola turns to the right as it is in the form ^ y - k h 2 = 4a ^ x - h h .
y
x = -12
x
(-11, -6)
1

(-10, -6)

Count 1 unit to the right for the focus


` focus = ^ -10, - 6 h .
Count 1 unit to the left for the directrix
` directrix has equation x = -12.

PARABOLA (y k)2 = 4a(x h)


The parabola with vertex (h, k) and focal length a that turns to
the left has equation ^ y - k h 2 = - 4a ^ x - h h

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Proof
Find the equation of the parabola that turns to the left with vertex (h, k) and
focal length a.

Counting a units to the left from the vertex V gives the focus F = ^ h - a, k h.
Counting a units to the right from the vertex V gives the point on the directrix
D = ^ h + a, k h.
So the equation of the directrix is given by x = h + a.
We nd the equation of the locus of P(x, y) that is equidistant from point
F ^ h - a, k h and line x = h + a.
y
x=h+a
B

P (x, y)

F (h -a, k)

B has coordinates ^ h + a, y h .
We want
PF = PB
PF 2 = PB 2
2
7x - ^h - ahA + ^y - kh2 = 7x - ^h + ahA + ^y - y h2
^x - h + ah2+ ^y - kh2 = ^x - h - ah2
2

^y - kh2 = ^x - h - ah2- ^x - h + ah2


= 7^x - h - ah + ^x - h + ahA7^x - h - ah - ^x - h + ahA
(difference of two squares)
= ^ 2x - 2h h ^ - 2a h
= - 4ax + 4ah
= - 4a ^ x - h h
= - 4a ^ y - k h

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

The parabola ^ y - k h 2 = - 4a ] x - h g has


axis parallel to the x-axis
vertex at (h, k)
focus at ^ h - a, k h
directrix with equation x = h + a

EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus (2, 1) and directrix x = 3.

Solution
y
x=3
1 1
2 2
1

(2, 1)
1

(2 2x, 1)

Coordinates of B are (3, 1).


The vertex is the midpoint of (3, 1) and (2, 1).
1
` vertex = c 2 , 1 m
2
1
Focal length a =
2
From the diagram the parabola curves to the left.
The equation is in the form

^ y - k h 2 = - 4a ^ x - h h
1
1
i.e.
^y - 1h2 = -4c m cx - 2 m
2
2
1
2
^y - 1h = -2cx - 2 m
2
y 2 - 2y + 1 = - 2x + 5
y 2 - 2y + 2x - 4 = 0
2. Find the coordinates of the vertex and focus, and the equation of the
directrix of the parabola y 2 + 4y + 8x - 4 = 0.
CONTINUED

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Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Solution
Complete the square on y.
y 2 + 4y + 8x - 4 = 0
y 2 + 4y = - 8 x + 4
y 2 + 4y + 4 = - 8x + 4 + 4
^ y + 2 h 2 = - 8x + 8
= -8 ]x - 1 g
So the parabola has equation ^ y + 2 h2 = - 8 ] x - 1 g
or 7 y - ] - 2 g A 2 = - 8 ] x - 1 g .
Its vertex has coordinates ^ 1, - 2 h .
4a = 8
` a=2
The parabola turns to the left as it is in the form ^ y - k h 2 = - 4a ^ x - h h
y
x=3

1
-3 -2 -1

1
-1

(-1, -2)

-22

(1, -2)

Count 2 units to the left for the focus


` focus = ^ -1, - 2 h .
Count 2 units to the right for the directrix
` directrix has equation x = 3.

10.6 Exercises
1.

Complete the square on x to


write each equation in the form
] x - h g2 = !4a ^ y - k h .
(a) x 2 - 6x - 8y - 15 = 0
(b) x 2 - 10x - 4y + 1 = 0
(c) x 2 - 2x - 4y - 11 = 0
(d) x 2 - 8x + 12y - 20 = 0

(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

x 2 - 12x - 8y - 20 = 0
x 2 + 14x + 16y + 1 = 0
x 2 - 4x + 4y - 16 = 0
x 2 + 18x - 12y + 9 = 0
x 2 + 2x - 8y - 7 = 0
x 2 - 6 x + 4y + 1 = 0

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

2.

Complete the square on y to


write each equation in the form
^ y - k h2 = !4a ] x - h g
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

3.

4.

y 2 - 8y - 4x = 0
y 2 - 2y - 8x - 15 = 0
y 2 + 4y - 12x - 8 = 0
y 2 - 20y + 4x - 16 = 0
y 2 + 6y + 16x - 7 = 0
y 2 - 12y - 8x + 4 = 0
y 2 + 10y + 24x - 23 = 0
y 2 + 24y - 4x = 0
y 2 - 4y + 20x - 16 = 0
y 2 + 8y + 8x = 0

Find the equation of each parabola


(a) focus ^ -1, 3 h, directrix y = - 1
(b) focus ^ - 4, 1 h, directrix y = -1
(c) focus (2, 0), directrix y = - 4
(d) focus (3, 6), directrix y = 2
(e) focus ^ - 2, 5 h, directrix
y = -3
(f) focus ^ -1, - 4 h, directrix y = 4
(g) focus ( 4, - 3), directrix y = 7
(h) focus ^ - 5, 1 h, directrix y = 5
(i) focus ^ - 3, - 6 h, directrix y = 0
(j) focus ^ 0, -7 h, directrix y = - 5
(k) focus (2, 3), directrix x = - 4
(l) focus ^ -1, 4 h, directrix x = - 3
(m) focus (6, 0), directrix x = 2
(n) focus ( 3, - 2 ), directrix
x = -5
(o) focus ^ 1, -1 h, directrix x = - 3
(p) focus ^ - 2, - 4 h, directrix x = 4
(q) focus (2, 1), directrix x = 4
(r) focus ^ - 5, 3 h, directrix x = 3
(s) focus ^ - 1, 2 h, directrix x = 0
(t) focus (3, 1), directrix x = 4
Find
(i) the coordinates of the focus and
(ii) the equation of the directrix of
(a) x 2 - 6x - 4y - 3 = 0
(b) x 2 - 2x - 8y - 7 = 0
(c) x 2 + 4x - 4y = 0
(d) x 2 - 8x - 12y + 4 = 0
(e) x 2 + 10x - 8y + 1 = 0
(f) x 2 - 6x + 4y + 1 = 0

(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

x2
x2
x2
x2

+ 2x + 8y - 15 = 0
- 4 x + 4y = 0
- 8x + 12y + 4 = 0
+ 4x + 16y - 12 = 0

5.

Find
(i) the coordinates of the focus and
(ii) the equation of the directrix of
(a) y 2 + 2y - 4x - 3 = 0
(b) y 2 - 8y - 12x + 4 = 0
(c) y 2 - 6y - 8x - 7 = 0
(d) y 2 + 4y - 16x - 12 = 0
(e) y 2 - 2y - 24x + 25 = 0
(f) y 2 + 10y + 8x + 1 = 0
(g) y 2 + 14y + 4x + 1 = 0
(h) y 2 - 12y + 20x - 4 = 0
(i) y 2 - 4y + 32x - 28 = 0
(j) y 2 + 6y + 40x + 29 = 0

6.

Find the equation of the parabola


with vertex ^ 0, 3 h if it is concave
upwards and a = 3.

7.

Find the equation of the parabola


with vertex ^ - 2, -1 h, focal
length 2, and axis parallel to the
y-axis.

8.

A parabola has its vertex at


^ 1, - 5 h and its focal length as 1.
If the parabola is concave
upwards, nd its equation.

9.

A parabola has its axis parallel


to the x-axis. If its vertex has
coordinates ^ 2, 6 h and a = 3, nd
its equation if it turns to the left.

10. Find the equation of the parabola


with vertex at ^ 1, 0 h and focus at
^ 1, 4 h .
11. Find the equation of the parabola
that has vertex ^ 1, 1 h and focus
^ 1, 8 h .
12. A parabola has its vertex at
^ 2, - 2 h and focus at ^ - 4, - 2 h .
Find its equation.

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13. Find the equation of the parabola


with vertex ^ 0, 3 h and focus ^ 8, 3 h .
14. Find the equation of the parabola
with vertex ^ 3, 3 h and equation of
directrix y = 5.

21. The latus rectum of a parabola


has endpoints ^ - 2, 3 h and ^ 6, 3 h .
Find two possible equations for
the parabola.
22.

15. Find the equation of the parabola


with vertex ^ 3, -1 h and directrix
x = -1.
16. A parabola has directrix y = 5 and
focus ^ - 3, 3 h . Find its equation.
17. Find the equation of the locus
of a point moving so that it is
equidistant from the point ^ 2, 2 h
and the line y = - 4.
18. Find the equation of the parabola
with focus ^ 2, -1 h and directrix
x = 10.
19. Find the coordinates of the vertex
and focus and the equation of the
directrix for the parabola
(a) x 2 + 4x - 8y + 12 = 0
(b) x 2 - 6x - 12y + 33 = 0
(c) x 2 - 2x + 4y + 5 = 0
(d) y 2 - 8y - 16x + 64 = 0
(e) y 2 + 4y - 24x + 4 = 0
(f) y 2 + 8x + 40 = 0.
20. For the parabola
x 2 + 2x + 28y - 111 = 0, nd
the coordinates of its vertex and
focus, and the equations of its
directrix and axis. What is its
maximum value?

(a) Find the equation of the arch


above.
(b) Find the coordinates of its
focus and the equation of its
directrix.
23. (a) Sketch y = x 2 + 2x - 8,
showing intercepts and the
minimum point.
(b) Find the coordinates of the
focus and the equation of the
directrix of the parabola.
24. Find the equation of the parabola
with vertex ^ - 2, 3 h that also
passes through ^ 2, 1 h and is
concave downwards.
25. A parabolic satellite dish has a
diameter of 4 m at a depth of
0.4 m. Find the depth at which
its diameter is 3.5 m, correct to
1 decimal place.

DID YOU KNOW?


The word directrix is due to the Dutch mathematician Jan De Witt (162972). He published a
work called Elementa curvarum, in which he defined the properties of the parabola, ellipse,
circle and hyperbola. These curves are all called conic sections.

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

De Witt was well known as the Grand Pensionary of Holland. He took part in the politics
and wars of his time, opposing Louis XIV. When the French invaded Holland in 1672, De Witt
was seized and killed.

Tangents and Normals


Remember that the gradient of the tangent to a curve is given by the
derivative.
The normal to the curve is perpendicular to its tangent at that point.
That is, m 1 m 2 = - 1 for perpendicular lines.

EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 8y at the point
^ 4, 2 h .

Solution

x 2 = 8y
x2
y=
8
dy
2x
=
8
dx
x
=
4
CONTINUED

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dy

4
4
=1
So the gradient of the tangent at ^ 4, 2 h is 1.
At ^ 4, 2 h,

dx

2. Find the equation of the normal to the parabola x 2 = 4y at the point


^ - 8, 16 h .

Solution
x 2 = 4y

dy
dx

At (- 8, 16):

x2
4
2x
=
4
x
=
2
-8
=
2
= -4
= - 4.

y=

So

dy
dx

So the gradient of the tangent m 1

The normal is perpendicular to the tangent.


`
m 1 m 2 = -1
So
`

] - 4 g m 2 = -1

m2 =

1
4

The equation of the normal is given by


y - y 1 = m (x - x 1)
i.e.

1
[x - (- 8)]
4
1
= (x + 8 )
4
4y - 64 = x + 8
0 = x - 4y + 72.
y - 16 =

10.7 Exercises
1.

Find the gradient of the tangent


to the parabola x 2 = 12y at the
point where x = 2.

3.

Find the gradient of the normal


to the parabola x 2 = 4y at the
point where x = 2.

2.

Find the gradient of the tangent


to the parabola x 2 = - 3y at the
point ^ 6, -12 h .

4.

Find the gradient of the tangent


to the parabola x 2 = 16y at the
point ^ 4, 1 h .

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

5.

Show that the gradient of the


tangent to the curve x 2 = 2y at
any point is its x-coordinate.

6.

Find the equation of the tangent


to the curve x 2 = 8y at the point
^ 4, 2 h .

7.

Find the equation of the normal


to the curve x 2 = 4y at the point
where x = - 4.

8.

Find the equations of the tangent


and normal to the parabola
x 2 = - 24y at the point ^ 12, - 6 h .

9.

Find the equations of the tangent


and normal to the parabola
x 2 = 16y at the point where x = 4.

10. Find the equation of the tangent


to the curve x 2 = - 2y at the
point ^ 4, - 8 h . This tangent meets
the directrix at point M. Find the
coordinates of M.
11. Find the equation of the normal
to the curve x 2 = 12y at the point
^ 6, 3 h . This normal meets the
parabola again at point P. Find
the coordinates of P.

12. The normal of the parabola


x 2 = 18y at ^ - 6, 2 h cuts the
parabola again at Q. Find the
coordinates of Q.
13. Find the equations of the normals
to the curve x 2 = - 8y at the
1
points ^ -16, - 32 h and c - 2, - m .
2
Find their point of intersection
and show that this point lies on
the parabola.
14. Find the equation of the tangent
at ^ 8, 4 h on the parabola x 2 = 16y.
This tangent meets the tangent
at the vertex of the parabola at
point R. Find the coordinates
of R.
15. (a) Show that the point P _ 2p, p 2 i
lies on the parabola x 2 = 4y.
(b) Find the equation of the
normal to the parabola at P.
(c) Show that p 2 + 1 = 0 if the
normal passes through the focus
of the parabola ^ p ! 0 h .

533

534

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Test Yourself 10
1.

Find the equation of the locus of a point


moving so that it is equidistant from
A ^ - 1, 2 h and B ^ 3, 5 h.

2.

Find the equation of the parabola with


focus ^ 2, 1 h and directrix y = - 3.

3.

Find the radius and centre of the circle


x 2 - 6x + y 2 - 2y - 6 = 0.

4.

Find the coordinates of


(a) the vertex and
(b) the focus of the parabola
(y + 3) 2 = 12 ] x - 1 g .

12. Find the equation of the parabola with


directrix x = 6 and focus ^ - 6, 0 h .
13. A parabola has a focus at ^ 0, 4 h and its
vertex is at ^ 0, 2 h. Find the equation of
the parabola.
14. Find the equation of the locus of a point
that is always 3 units from the line
4x - 3y - 1 = 0 .
15. A point is equidistant from the x- and
y-axis. Find the equation of its locus.

5.

Find the equation of the locus of a point


that is always 5 units from the origin.

16. Find the equation of the parabola with


vertex at the origin, axis y = 0 and
1
passing through the point c 1 , 5 m .
4

6.

Find
(a) the equation of the directrix and
(b) the coordinates of the focus of the
parabola x 2 = - 8y.

17. Find the gradient of


(a) the tangent and
(b) the normal to the parabola x 2 = - 12y
at the point where x = 3.

7.

A point P ^ x, y h moves so that AP and BP


are perpendicular, given A = ^ 3, 2 h and
B = ^ - 4, 1 h . Find the equation of the
locus of P.

8.

Point P ^ x, y h is equidistant from the


point A ^ 4, - 2 h and the line y = 6. Find
the equation of the locus.

9.

Find (a) the coordinates of the (i) vertex


and (ii) focus and (b) the equation
of the directrix of the parabola
x 2 - 2x - 4y + 5 = 0.

10. Find the equation of the tangent to the


parabola x 2 = 18y at the point ^ - 6, 2 h .
11. Find the length of the diameter of the
circle x 2 + 8x + y 2 - 12y + 3 = 0.

18. (a) Find the equation of the normal


to the parabola x 2 = 4y at the point
^ - 8, 16 h .
(b) This normal cuts the parabola again
at Q. Find the coordinates of Q.
19. Show that 7x - 3y + 12 = 0 is a focal
chord of the parabola x 2 = 16y.
20. Find the point of intersection of the
normals to the parabola x 2 = -12y at the
1
1
points c 4, -1 m and c - 2, - m .
3
3
21. (a) Find the equation of the tangent to
the parabola x 2 = 12y at the point P (6, 3).
(b) Find R, the y-intercept of the tangent.
(c) Show that FP = FR where F is the
focus.

Chapter 10 Locus and the Parabola

Challenge Exercise 10
1.

(a) Find the equation of the locus of


point P, which is equidistant from xed
points A ^ 3, 5 h and B ^ -1, 2 h .
(b) Show that this locus is the
perpendicular bisector of line AB.

2.

(a) Find the equation of the circle with


centre ^ 1, 3 h and radius 5 units.
(b) Show that the circle cuts the x-axis at
the points ^ 5, 0 h and ^ - 3, 0 h .

3.

The line with equation 5x - 12y + 36 = 0


is a chord of the parabola x 2 = 12y. Find the
point of intersection of the tangents to the
parabola from the endpoints of the chord.

4.

(a) Find the equation of the normals to


the parabola x 2 = 8y at the points
1
M c - 2, m and N ^ 8, 8 h .
2
(b) Show that these normals are
perpendicular.
(c) Find the point of intersection X of
the normals.
(d) Find the equation of line MN and
show that it is a focal chord.

5.

From which point on the parabola x 2 = 4ay


does the normal pass through the focus?

6.

(a) Find the equation of the tangents to


the parabola x = 4y at the points
1
A c 1, m and B ^ - 4, 4 h .
4
(b) Show that the point of intersection of
these tangents lies on the directrix.
2

7.

8.

Find the equation of the parabola with


axis parallel to the y-axis and passing
through points ^ 0, - 2 h, ^ 1, 0 h and ^ 3, - 8 h .
Find the equation of the straight line
through the centres of the circles with
equations x 2 + 4x + y 2 - 8y - 5 = 0 and
x 2 - 2x + y 2 + 10y + 10 = 0.

9.

Sketch the region


x 2 + 2x + y 2 - 4y - 4 # 0.

10. (a) Find the equation of the locus


of a point P moving so that PA is
perpendicular to PB where A = ^ - 4, 3 h
and B = ^ 0, 7 h .
(b) Show that this locus is a circle with
centre ^ - 2, 5 h and radius 2 2 .
11. Find the exact gradient, with rational
denominator, of the normal to the
parabola y 2 = 12x at the point where
x = 4 in the rst quadrant.
12. (a) Find the equation of the parabola
with vertex ^ 3, - 2 h and focus ^ 7, - 2 h .
(b) Find the equation of the tangent to
the parabola at the point where x = 4 in
the rst quadrant.
13. Find the exact length of the line
from ^ 2, 7 h to the centre of the circle
x 2 + 4x + y 2 - 6y - 3 = 0 .
14. Find the equation of the locus of
midpoints of all chords of length
2 units in the circle with equation
x 2 + y 2 - 2 y - 3 = 0.
15. A satellite dish is to be 3.5 m wide and
1.1 m deep. Find the position of the
focus in millimetres, correct to the
nearest millimetre.
1.1 m
3.5 m

16. Find the equation of the locus of point


P that moves such that the distance
from P to the lines 3x - 4y + 1 = 0 and
12x + 5y + 3 = 0 is in the ratio 3:1.

535

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

INTRODUCTION
THIS CHAPTER GIVES A review of basic arithmetic skills, including knowing the

correct order of operations, rounding off, and working with fractions, decimals
and percentages. Work on significant figures, scientific notation and indices is
also included, as are the concepts of absolute values. Basic calculator skills are
also covered in this chapter.

Real Numbers
Types of numbers
Unreal or imaginary
numbers
Real numbers

Rational
numbers

Irrational
numbers

Integers

Integers are whole numbers that may be positive, negative or zero.


e.g. - 4, 7, 0, -11
a
Rational numbers can be written in the form of a fraction
b

3
where a and b are integers, b ! 0. e.g. 1 , 3.7, 0. 5, - 5
4
a
Irrational numbers cannot be written in the form of a fraction (that
b
is, they are not rational) e.g. 2 , r

EXAMPLE
Which of these numbers are rational and which are irrational?
3
r
3 , 1. 3, , 9 , , - 2.65
4
5

Solution
r
are irrational as they cannot be written as fractions (r is irrational).
4

3
13
1
1. 3 = 1 , 9 = and - 2.65 = - 2
so they are all rational.
3
1
20
3 and

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Order of operations
1. Brackets: do calculations inside grouping symbols rst. (For example,
a fraction line, square root sign or absolute value sign can act as a
grouping symbol.)
2. Multiply or divide from left to right.
3. Add or subtract from left to right.

EXAMPLE
Evaluate 40 - 3 ] 5 + 4 g .

Solution
40 - 3 (5 + 4) = 40 - 3# 9
= 40 - 27
= 13

BRACKETS KEYS
Use ( and ) to open and close brackets. Always use them in pairs.
For example, to evaluate 40 - 3 ] 5 + 4 g
press 40 - 3 # ( 5 + 4 ) =
= 13
5.67 - 3.49
correct to 1 decimal place
To evaluate
1.69 + 2.77
press :

( 5.67 - 3.49 )

'

( 1.69 + 2.77 )

= 0.7
correct to 1 decimal place

PROBLEM
What is wrong with this calculation?
19 - 4
1+2
Press 19 - 4 ' 1 + 2 = 19 - 4 '1 + 2

Evaluate

What is the correct answer?

17

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

MEMORY KEYS
Use STO to store a number in memory.
There are several memories that you can use at the same timeany letter from
A to F, or X, Y and M on the keypad.
To store the number 50 in, say, A press 50 STO A
To recall this number, press ALPHA A =
To clear all memories press SHIFT CLR

X -1 KEY
Use this key to find the reciprocal of x. For example, to evaluate
1
- 7.6 # 2.1
-1
=
press ( (-) 7.6 # 2.1 ) x
= - 0.063 (correct to 3 decimal places)

Rounding off
Rounding off is often done in everyday life. A quick look at a newspaper will
give plenty of examples. For example in the sports section, a newspaper may
report that 50 000 fans attended a football match.
An accurate number is not always necessary. There may have been exactly
49 976 people at the football game, but 50 000 gives an idea of the size of the
crowd.

EXAMPLES
1. Round off 24 629 to the nearest thousand.

Solution
This number is between 24 000 and 25 000, but it is closer to 25 000.

` 24 629 = 25 000 to the nearest thousand

CONTINUED

Different calculators use


different keys so check
the instructions for your
calculator.

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. Write 850 to the nearest hundred.

Solution
This number is exactly halfway between 800 and 900. When a number is
halfway, we round it off to the larger number.
` 850 = 900 to the nearest hundred

In this course you will need to round off decimals, especially when using
trigonometry or logarithms.
To round a number off to a certain number of decimal places, look at the
next digit to the right. If this digit is 5 or more, add 1 to the digit before it and
drop all the other digits after it. If the digit to the right is less than 5, leave the
digit before it and drop all the digits to the right.

EXAMPLES
1. Round off 0.6825371 correct to 1 decimal place.
Add 1 to the 6 as the 8 is
greater than 5.

Solution
0.6825371
#
` 0.6825371 = 0.7 correct to 1 decimal place
2. Round off 0.6825371 correct to 2 decimal places.

Drop off the 2 and all digits


to the right as 2 is smaller
than 5.

Solution
0.6825371
#
` 0.6825371 = 0.68 correct to 2 decimal places
3. Evaluate 3.56 ' 2.1 correct to 2 decimal places.

Check this on your


calculator. Add 1 to the
69 as 5 is too large to just
drop off.

Solution
3.56 ' 2.1 = 1.69 #
5238095

= 1.70 correct to 2 decimal places

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

FIX KEY
Use MODE or SET UP to fix the number of decimal places (see the
instructions for your calculator). This will cause all answers to have a fixed number
of decimal places until the calculator is turned off or switched back to normal.

While using a fixed number of decimal places on the display, the


calculator still keeps track internally of the full number of decimal places.

EXAMPLE
Calculate 3.25 ' 1.72 # 5.97 + 7.32 correct to 2 decimal places.

Solution
3.25 ' 1.72 # 5.97 + 7.32 = 1.889534884 # 5.97 + 7.32
= 11.28052326 + 7.32
= 18.60052326
= 18.60 correct to 2 decimal places
If the FIX key is set to 2 decimal places, then the display will show
2 decimal places at each step.
3.25 ' 1.72 # 5.97 + 7.32 = 1.89 # 5.97 + 7.32
= 11.28 + 7.32
= 18.60
If you then set the calculator back to normal, the display will show the
full answer of 18.60052326.

The calculator does not round off at each step. If it did, the answer might
not be as accurate. This is an important point, since some students round
off each step in calculations and then wonder why they do not get the same
answer as other students and the textbook.

1.1 Exercises
1.

State which numbers are rational


and which are irrational.
(a) 169
(b) 0.546
(c) -17
r
(d)
3

(e) 0.34
(f)

218

(g) 2 2
1
(h)
27
(i) 17.4%
1
(j)
5

Dont round off at


each step of a series of
calculations.

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2.

3.

Evaluate
(a) 20 - 8 ' 4
(b) 3 # 7 - 2 # 5
(c) 4 # ] 27 ' 3 g ' 6
(d) 17 + 3 # - 2
(e) 1.9 - 2 # 3.1
14 ' 7
(f)
-1 + 3
3
1 2
(g) 2 - #
5
5 3
3
1
1 4
8
(h)
5
6
5
5
'
8
6
(i)
1
1
+
4
8
1
7
3 5
10
(j)
1
1
1 4
2

7.

A crowd of 10 739 spectators


attended a tennis match.
Write this figure to the nearest
thousand.

8.

A school has 623 students. What


is this to the nearest hundred?

9.

A bank made loans to the value


of $7 635 718 last year. Round this
off to the nearest million.

Evaluate correct to 2 decimal


places.
(a) 2.36 + 4.2 ' 0.3
(b) ] 2.36 + 4.2 g ' 0.3
(c) 12.7 # 3.95 ' 5.7
(d) 8.2 ' 0.4 + 4.1# 0.54
(e) ] 3.2 - 6.5 g # ] 1.3 + 2.7 g
1
(f)
4.7 + 1.3
1
(g)
4.51 + 3.28

13. Round off 32.569148 to the


nearest unit.

0.9 + 1.4
(h)
5.2 - 3.6
5.33 + 2.87
(i)
1.23 - 3.15
(j)
4.

1.7 2 + 8.9 2 - 3.94 2

Round off 1289 to the nearest


hundred.

5.

Write 947 to the nearest ten.

6.

Round off 3200 to the nearest


thousand.

10. A company made a profit of


$34 562 991.39 last year. Write
this to the nearest hundred
thousand.
11. The distance between two cities
is 843.72 km. What is this to the
nearest kilometre?
12. Write 0.72548 correct to
2 decimal places.

14. Round off 3.24819 to 3 decimal


places.
15. Evaluate 2.45 # 1.72 correct to
2 decimal places.
16. Evaluate 8.7 ' 5 correct to
1 decimal place.
17. If pies are on special at 3 for
$2.38, find the cost of each pie.
18. Evaluate 7.48 correct to
2 decimal places.
6.4 + 2.3
correct to
8
1 decimal place.

19. Evaluate

20. Find the length of each piece


of material, to 1 decimal place,
if 25 m of material is cut into
7 equal pieces.

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

3.5 + 9.8
5.6 + 4.35
15.9 + 6.3 - 7.8
(d)
7.63 - 5.12
1
(e)
6.87 - 3.21

21. How much will 7.5 m 2 of tiles


cost, at $37.59 per m2?

(c)

22. Divide 12.9 grams of salt into


7 equal portions, to 1 decimal
place.
23. The cost of 9 peaches is $5.72.
How much would 5 peaches cost?

9.91 - ] 9.68 - 5.47 g


5.39 2
correct to 1 decimal place.

25. Evaluate

24. Evaluate correct to 2 decimal


places.
(a) 17.3 - 4.33 # 2.16
(b) 8.72 # 5.68 - 4.9 # 3.98

DID YOU KNOW?


In building, engineering and other industries where accurate measurements are used, the
number of decimal places used indicates how accurate the measurements are.
For example, if a 2.431 m length of timber is cut into 8 equal parts, according to the
calculator each part should be 0.303875 m. However, a machine could not cut this accurately.
A length of 2.431 m shows that the measurement of the timber is only accurate to the nearest
mm (2.431 m is 2431 mm). The cut pieces can also only be accurate to the nearest mm (0.304 m
or 304 mm).
The error in measurement is related to rounding off, as the error is half the smallest
measurement. In the above example, the measurement error is half a millimetre. The length of
timber could be anywhere between 2430.5 mm and 2431.5 mm.

Directed Numbers
Many students use the calculator with work on directed numbers (numbers
that can be positive or negative). Directed numbers occur in algebra and
other topics, where you will need to remember how to use them. A good
understanding of directed numbers will make your algebra skills much better.

^ - h KEY
Use this key to enter negative numbers. For example,
press (-) 3

10

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Adding and subtracting

To add: move to the right along the number line


To subtract: move to the left along the number line
-4

-3

-2

-1

Subtract

Add

EXAMPLES
You can also do these on a
calculator, or you may have
a different way of working
these out.

Evaluate
1. - 4 + 3

Solution
Start at - 4 and move 3 places to the right.

-4

-3

-2

-1

- 4 + 3 = -1
2. -1 - 2

Solution
Start at -1 and move 2 places to the left.

-4

-3

-2

-1

-1 - 2 = -3

Multiplying and dividing


To multiply or divide, follow these rules. This rule also works if there are two
signs together without a number in between e.g. 2 - -3

Same signs = +
+ + =+
- - =+
Different signs = + - =- + =-

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

11

EXAMPLES
Evaluate
1. - 2 #7

Solution
Different signs (- 2 and + 7) give a negative answer.
- 2 # 7 = -14
2. -12 ' - 4

Solution
Same signs (-12 and - 4) give a positive answer.
-12 ' - 4 = 3
3. -1 - - 3

Solution
The signs together are the same (both negative) so give a positive answer.
-

-1 - 3 = -1 + 3
=2

1.2 Exercises
Evaluate
1.

-2 + 3

11. 5 - 3 # 4

2.

-7 - 4

12. - 2 + 7 # - 3

3.

8 # -7

13. 4 - 3 # - 2

4.

7 - ]-3 g

14. -1 - -2

5.

28 ' -7

15. 7 + - 2

6.

- 4.9 + 3.7

16. 2 - ] -1 g

7.

- 2.14 - 5.37

17. - 2 + 15 ' 5

8.

4.8 # -7.4

18. - 2 # 6 # - 5

9.

1.7 - ] - 4.87 g

19. - 28 ' -7 # - 5

10. -

3
2
-1
5
3

20. ] - 3 g2

Start at -1 and move 3


places to the right.

12

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Fractions, Decimals and Percentages


Conversions
You can do all these
conversions on your
calculator using the
b
a or S + D key.
c

EXAMPLES
1. Write 0.45 as a fraction in its simplest form.

Solution
45
5
'
5
100
9
=
20

0.45 =

3
means 3 ' 8.
8

2. Convert

3
to a decimal.
8

Solution
0.375
8 g 3.000
3
So
= 0.375
8
3. Change 35.5% to a fraction.

Solution
35.5 2
#
100
2
71
=
200

35.5% =

4. Write 0.436 as a percentage.

Solution
Multiply by 100% to
change a fraction or
decimal to a percentage.

0.436 = 0.436 #100%


= 43.6%
5. Write 20 g as a fraction of 1 kg in its simplest form.

Solution
1 kg = 1000 g
20 g
20 g
=
1000 g
1 kg
1
=
50

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

13

6. Find the percentage of people who prefer to drink Lemon Fuzzy, if 24


out of every 30 people prefer it.

Solution
24 100%
#
= 80%
30
1

Sometimes decimals repeat, or recur.


Example

1
= 0.33333333 f = 0. 3
3
There are different methods that can be used to change a recurring
decimal into a fraction. Here is one way of doing it. Later you will discover
another method when studying series. (See HSC Course book, Chapter 8.)

EXAMPLES

A rational number is
any number that can be
written as a fraction.

1. Write 0. 4 as a rational number.

Solution
Let
n = 0.44444 f
Then
10n = 4.44444 f
(2) - (1): 9n = 4
4
n=
9

(1 )
(2 )

Check this on your


calculator by dividing
4 by 9.

2. Change 1.329 to a fraction.

Solution
n = 1.3292929 f
Let
Then 100n = 132.9292929 f
(2) - (1): 99n = 131.6
131.6
10
n=
#
99
10
1316
=
990
163
=1
495

(1 )
(2 )

CONTINUED

Try multiplying n by 10.


Why doesnt this work?

14

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Another method
Let
n = 1.3292929 f
Then
10n = 13.2929292 f
and
1000n = 1329.292929 f
(2) - (1): 990n = 1316
1316
n=
990
163
=1
495

This method avoids decimals


in the fraction at the end.

(1 )
(2 )

1.3 Exercises
1.

2.

3.

Write each decimal as a fraction


in its lowest terms.
(a) 0.64
(b) 0.051
(c) 5.05
(d) 11.8
Change each fraction into a
decimal.
2
(a)
5
7
(b) 1
8
5
(c)
12
7
(d)
11
Convert each percentage to a
fraction in its simplest form.
(a) 2%
(b) 37.5%
(c) 0.1%
(d) 109.7%

4.

Write each percentage as a decimal.


(a) 27%
(b) 109%
(c) 0.3%
(d) 6.23%

5.

Write each fraction as a


percentage.
7
20
1
(b)
3
(a)

4
15
1
(d)
1000

(c) 2

6.

Write each decimal as a


percentage.
(a) 1.24
(b) 0.7
(c) 0.405
(d) 1.2794

7.

Write each percentage as a


decimal and as a fraction.
(a) 52%
(b) 7%
(c) 16.8%
(d) 109%
(e) 43.4%
1
(f) 12 %
4

8.

Write these fractions as recurring


decimals.
5
(a)
6
7
(b)
99
13
(c)
99
1
(d)
6
2
(e)
3

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

5
33
1
(g)
7
2
(h) 1
11

31
99
13 + 6
(e)
7+4
(d) 1 -

(f)

9.

Express as fractions in lowest


terms.

(a) 0. 8
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

0. 2

1. 5

3. 7

0. 67

0. 54

0.15

(h) 0.216

(i) 0.2 19

(j) 1.074
10. Evaluate and express as a decimal.
5
(a)
3+6
(b) 8 - 3 ' 5
4+7
(c)
12 + 3

11. Evaluate and write as a fraction.


(a) 7.5 ' ] 4.1 + 7.9 g
15.7 - 8.9
(b)
4.5 - 1.3
6.3 + 1.7
(c)
12.3 - 8.9 + 7.6
4 .3
(d)
11.5 - 9.7
64
(e)
8100
12. Angel scored 17 out of 23 in a
class test. What was her score as a
percentage, to the nearest unit?
13. A survey showed that 31 out of
40 people watched the news on
Monday night. What percentage
of people watched the news?
14. What percentage of 2 kg is 350 g?
15. Write 25 minutes as a percentage
of an hour.

Investigation
Explore patterns in recurring decimals by dividing numbers by 3, 6, 9, 11,
and so on.
Can you predict what the recurring decimal will be if a fraction has 3 in
the denominator? What about 9 in the denominator? What about 11?
Can you predict what fraction certain recurring decimals will be? What
denominator would 1 digit recurring give? What denominator would you
have for 2 digits recurring?

Operations with fractions, decimals and percentages


You will need to know how to work with fractions without using a calculator,
as they occur in other areas such as algebra, trigonometry and surds.

15

16

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

The examples on fractions show how to add, subtract, multiply or divide


fractions both with and without the calculator. The decimal examples will
help with some simple multiplying and the percentage examples will be useful
in Chapter 8 of the HSC Course book when doing compound interest.
Most students use their calculators for decimal calculations. However, it
is important for you to know how to operate with decimals. Sometimes the
calculator can give a wrong answer if the wrong key is pressed. If you can
estimate the size of the answer, you can work out if it makes sense or not. You
can also save time by doing simple calculations in your head.

DID YOU KNOW?


Some countries use a comma for the decimal pointfor example, 0,45 for 0.45.
This is the reason that our large numbers now have spaces instead of commas between
digitsfor example, 15 000 rather than 15,000.

EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate 1

3
2
- .
5
4

Solution
1

3
3
2
7
- = 5
4
5
4
28
15
=
20
20
13
=
20

2. Evaluate 2

1
' 3.
2

Solution
2

3
5
1
'3 = '
2
2
1
5 1
= #
2 3
5
=
6

3. Evaluate 0.056 # 100.


Move the decimal point
2 places to the right.

Solution
0.056 #100 = 5.6

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

17

4. Evaluate 0.02 # 0.3.


Multiply the numbers
and count the number
of decimal places in
the question.

Solution
0.02 # 0.3 = 0.006
5. Evaluate

8.753
.
10

Solution

Move the decimal


point 1 place to
the left.

8.753 ' 10 = 0.8753


1
6. The price of a $75 tennis racquet increased by 5 %. Find the new
2
price.

Solution
1
5 % = 0.055
2
1
` 5 % of $75 = 0.055#$75
2
= $4.13

1
or 105 % of $75 = 1.055#$75
2
= $79.13

So the price increases by $4.13 to $79.13.


7. The price of a book increased by 12%. If it now costs $18.00, what did
it cost before the price rise?

Solution
The new price is 112% (old price 100%, plus 12%)
$18.00
` 1% =
112
$18.00 100
100% =
#
112
1
= $16.07
So the old price was $16.07.

1.4 Exercises
1.

Write 18 minutes as a fraction of


2 hours in its lowest terms.

2.

Write 350 mL as a fraction of


1 litre in its simplest form.

3.

Evaluate
3
1
(a)
+
5
4

2
7
-2
5
10
3
2
(c) #1
5
4
3
(d) ' 4
7
3
2
(e) 1 ' 2
5
3
(b) 3

18

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

4.
5.

6.

Find

3
of $912.60.
5

5
Find of 1 kg, in grams correct
7
to 1 decimal place.
Trinh spends
sleeping,

1
of her day
3

7
1
at work and
24
12

eating. What fraction of the day


is left?
7.

I get $150.00 a week for a casual


1
job. If I spend
on bus fares,
10
2
1
on lunches and on outings,
15
3
how much money is left over for
savings?

8.

John grew by

9.

17
of his height
200
this year. If he was 165 cm tall
last year, what is his height now,
to the nearest cm?

Evaluate
(a) 8.9 + 3
(b) 9 - 3.7
(c) 1.9 #10
(d) 0.032 #100
(e) 0.7 # 5
(f) 0.8 # 0.3
(g) 0.02 # 0.009
(h) 5.72 #1000
8.74
(i)
100
(j) 3.76 # 0.1

10. Find 7% of $750.


11. Find 6.5% of 845 mL.
12. What is 12.5% of 9217 g?
13. Find 3.7% of $289.45.
14. If Kaye makes a profit of $5 by
selling a bike for $85, find the
profit as a percentage of the
selling price.

15. Increase 350 g by 15%.


1
16. Decrease 45 m by 8 %.
2
17. The cost of a calculator is now
$32. If it has increased by 3.5%,
how much was the old cost?
18. A tree now measures 3.5 m, which
is 8.3% more than its previous
years height. How high was the
tree then, to 1 decimal place?

19. This month there has been a


4.9% increase in stolen cars. If
546 cars were stolen last month,
how many were stolen this
month?
20. Georges computer cost $3500. If
it has depreciated by 17.2%, what
is the computer worth now?

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

19

PROBLEM
If both the hour hand and minute hand start at the same position at
12 oclock, when is the first time, correct to a fraction of a minute, that
the two hands will be together again?

Powers and Roots


A power (or index) of a number shows how many times a number is
multiplied by itself.

EXAMPLES
1. 4 3 = 4 # 4 # 4 = 64
2. 2 5 = 2 # 2 # 2 # 2 # 2 = 32

A root of a number is the inverse of the power.

EXAMPLES
36 = 6 since 6 2 = 36

1.

2.

8 = 2 since 2 3 = 8

3.

64 = 2 since 2 6 = 64

DID YOU KNOW?


Many formulae use indices (powers and roots).
For example the compound interest formula that you will study in Chapter 8 of the HSC
n
Course book is A = P ^ 1 + r h
4
Geometry uses formulae involving indices, such as V = rr 3. Do you know what this
3
formula is for?
In Chapter 7, the formula for the distance between 2 points on a number plane is
d=

(x 2 - x 1) + (y 2 - y 1)

See if you can find other formulae involving indices.

In 4 3 the 4 is called the base


number and the 3 is called
the index or power.

20

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

POWER AND ROOT KEYS


Use the x 2 and x 3 keys for squares and cubes.
y
Use the x or ^ key to find powers of numbers.

key for square roots.

Use the

These laws work for any m


and n, including fractions and
negative numbers.

Use the

key for cube roots.

Use the

for other roots.

Index laws
There are some general laws that simplify calculations with indices.

am # an = am + n

Proof
a m # a n = (a # a #f# a) # (a # a #f# a)
14444244443 14444244443
m times
n times
=a
#
#
f
#
a
a
14444244443
m + n times
= am + n

am ' an = am - n

Proof
am
an
a # a #f# a (m times)
=
a # a #f# a (n times)
a # a #f# a (m - n times)
=
1
= am - n

am ' an =

(a m)n = a mn

Proof
(a m) n = a m # a m # a m #f# a m
= am + m + m + f + m
= a mn

(n times)
(n times)

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

(ab) n = a n b n

Proof
(ab) n = ab # ab # ab #f# ab (n times)
= (a # a #f# a) # (b # b #f# b)
14444244443 14444244443
n times
n times
= an bn

a n an
c m = n
b
b

Proof
a n a a a
a
c m = # # #f#
b
b b b
b
a # a # a #f # a
=
b # b # b #f # b
an
= n
b

(n times)
(n times)
(n times)

EXAMPLES
Simplify
1. m 9 # m 7 ' m 2

Solution
m9 #m7 ' m2 = m9 + 7 - 2
= m 14
2. (2y 4)3

Solution
(2y 4) 3 = 2 3 (y 4) 3
= 23 y4 # 3
= 8y 12

CONTINUED

21

22

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

3.

(y 6) 3 # y - 4
y5

Solution
(y 6) 3 # y - 4
y5

=
=
=

y 18 # y - 4
y5

y 18 + (- 4)
y5
y

14

y5
= y9

1.5 Exercises
1.

Evaluate without using a


calculator.
(a) 5 3 # 2 2
(b) 3 4 + 8 2
1 3
(c) c m
4
(d)
(e)

2.

3.

3
4

(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)

Simplify
(a) a 6 # a 9 # a 2
(b) y 3 # y - 8 # y 5
(c) a -1 # a -3
1

(d) w 2 # w 2
(e) x 6 ' x
(f) p 3 ' p - 7
y 11
(g) 5
y

x2
p
y9
w6 # w7
(m)
w3
2
p #(p 3) 4
(n)
p9
6
x ' x7
(o)
x2
2
a # ( b 2) 6
(p)
a4 # b9
(x 2) - 3 #(y 3) 2
(q)
x -1 # y 4
(l) f

27
16

Evaluate correct to 1 decimal


place.
(a) 3.7 2
(b) 1.06 1.5
(c) 2.3 - 0.2
(d) 3 19
(e) 3 34.8 - 1.2 # 43.1
1
(f) 3
0.99 + 5.61

(x 7) 3
(2x 5) 2
(3y - 2) 4
a3 #a5 ' a7

4.

Simplify
(a) x 5 # x 9
(b) a -1 # a - 6
m7
(c)
m3
(d) k 13 # k 6 ' k 9
(e) a - 5 # a 4 # a - 7
2

(f) x 5 # x 5
m5 # n4
(g) 4
m # n2

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

p2 # p2

(h)

10. (a) Simplify

p
(i) (3x 11) 2
(x 4) 6
(j)
x3

5.

2 6
11. Evaluate (a ) when a = c m .
3
12. Evaluate
b=

(2m 7) 3

m4
xy 3 #(xy 2) 4
(f)
xy
8 4
(2k )
(g)
(6k 3) 3
y 12
7
(h) _ 2y 5 i #
8

y=

Evaluate a3b2 when a = 2 and


3
b= .
4

7.

If x =
of

8.

2
1
and y = , find the value
3
9

x3 y2
xy 5

1
1
1
, b = and c = ,
4
2
3
a2 b3
evaluate 4 as a fraction.
c

If a =

11

9.

(a) Simplify

a b
.
a8 b7

(b) Hence evaluate


a=

a 11 b 8
when
a8 b7

5
2
and b = as a fraction.
5
8

x5 y5

when x =

1
and
3

14. Evaluate

k-5
1
when k = .
3
k-9

15. Evaluate

a4 b6
3
when a = and
3
2 2
4
a (b )

b=

6.

x4 y7

2
.
9

-3

a3 b6
1
when a = and
2
b4

2
.
3

13. Evaluate

a6 # a4
o
a 11
3
5xy 9
x8 # y3

p5 q8 r4

4 3

(d) (7a5b)2

(j) f

as a
p4 q6 r2
7
2
fraction when p = , q = and
8
3
3
r= .
4

a 8
(b) c m
b
4a 3
(c) d 4 n
b

(i) e

p4 q6 r2

(b) Hence evaluate

Simplify
(a) (pq 3) 5

(e)

p5 q8 r4

1
.
9

a6 # b3
as a fraction
a5 # b2
3
1
when a = and b = .
4
9

16. Evaluate

a2 b7
as a fraction in
a3 b
2 4
index form when a = c m and
5
5 3
b=c m.
8

17. Evaluate

18. Evaluate

(a 3) 2 b 4 c

as a fraction
a (b 2) 4 c 3
6
1
7
when a = , b = and c = .
7
3
9

23

24

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Negative and zero indices

Class Investigation
Explore zero and negative indices by looking at these questions.
For example simplify x 3 ' x 5 using (i) index laws and (ii) cancelling.
(i) x 3 ' x 5 = x - 2 by index laws
3
x# x# x
(ii) x =
5
x
x# x# x# x
#
x
1
= 2
x
1
So x - 2 = 2
x
Now simplify these questions by (i) index laws and (ii) cancelling.
(a) x 2 ' x 3
(b) x 2 ' x 4
(c) x 2 ' x 5
(d) x 3 ' x 6
(e) x 3 ' x 3
(f) x 2 ' x 2
(g) x ' x 2
(h) x 5 ' x 6
(i) x 4 ' x 7
(j) x ' x 3
Use your results to complete:
x0 =
x-n =

x0 = 1

Proof
xn ' xn = xn - n
= x0
xn
xn ' xn = n
x
=1
`

x0 = 1

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

x-n =

1
xn

Proof
x0 ' xn = x0 - n
= x-n
x0
x0 ' xn = n
x
1
= n
x
1
` x-n = n
x

EXAMPLES
1. Simplify e

Solution
e

ab 5 c
o .
abc 4

ab 5 c
o =1
abc 4

2. Evaluate 2 - 3 .

Solution
1
23
1
=
8

2-3 =

3. Write in index form.


1
x2
3
(b) 5
x
1
(c)
5x
1
(d)
x +1
(a)

CONTINUED

25

26

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Solution
1
= x-2
x2
3
(b) 5 = 3# 15
x
x
-5
= 3x
1
1 1
= #x
(c)
5x
5
1 -1
= x
5
1
1
=
(d)
x +1
(x + 1) 1
= ] x + 1 g-1
(a)

4. Write a3 without the negative index.

Solution
a-3 =

1
a3

1.6 Exercises
1.

Evaluate as a fraction or whole


number.
(a) 3 - 3
(b) 4 - 1
(c) 7 - 3
(d) 10 - 4
(e) 2 - 8
(f) 60
(g) 2 - 5
(h) 3 - 4
(i) 7 - 1
(j) 9 - 2
(k) 2 - 6
(l) 3 - 2
(m) 40
(n) 6 - 2
(o) 5 - 3
(p) 10 - 5
(q) 2 - 7
(r) 2 0
(s) 8 - 2
(t) 4 - 3

2.

Evaluate
(a) 2 0
1 -4
(b) c m
2
2 -1
(c) c m
3
5 -2
(d) c m
6
x + 2y 0
p
(e) f
3x - y
1 -3
(f) c m
5
3 -1
(g) c m
4
1 -2
(h) c m
7
2 -3
(i) c m
3
1 -5
(j) c m
2
3 -1
(k) c m
7

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

8 0
(l) c m
9
6 -2
(m)c m
7
9 -2
(n) c m
10
6 0
(o) c m
11
1 -2
(p) c - m
4
2 -3
(q) c - m
5
2 -1
(r) c - 3 m
7
3 0
(s) c - m
8
1 -2
(t) c - 1 m
4
3.

Change into index form.


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)

1
m3
1
x
1
p7
1
d9
1
k5
1
x2
2
x4
3
y2
1
2z 6
3
5t 8
2
7x

5
2m 6
2
(m) 7
3y
(l)

1
(3x + 4) 2
1
(o)
( a + b) 8
1
(p)
x-2
(n)

1
(5p + 1) 3
2
(r)
(4t - 9) 5
1
(s)
4 (x + 1) 11
5
(t)
9 ( a + 3 b) 7
(q)

4.

Write without negative indices.


(a) t - 5
(b) x - 6
(c) y - 3
(d) n - 8
(e) w - 10
(f) 2x -1
(g) 3m - 4
(h) 5x - 7

(i) ]2xg- 3

(j) ] 4n g-1
(k) ] x + 1 g- 6

(l) ^ 8y + z h-1
(m) ]k - 3g- 2

(n) ^ 3x + 2y h- 9
1 -5
(o) b x l
1 -10
(p) c y m
2 -1
(q) d n
p
1 -2
m
a+b
x + y -1
(s) e x - y o
(r) c

(t) e

2w - z - 7
o
3x + y

27

28

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

Fractional indices

Class Investigation
Explore fractional indices by looking at these questions.
For example simplify (i) ` x 2 j and (ii) ^ x h .
1 2

1 2

(i) ` x 2 j = x 1
=x
2
(ii) ^ x h = x

^ by index laws h

So ` x 2 j = ^ x h = x
1 2

x2 =

Now simplify these questions.


1

(a) ^ x 2 h 2
x2

(b)

1 3

(c) ` x 3 j

(d) ^ x 3 h 3

3
(e) ^ 3 x h

(f)

x3
1 4

4
(g) ` x j

(h) ^ x 4 h 4
1

4
(i) ^ 4 x h

(j)

x4

Use your results to complete:


1

xn =

1
n

a =n a

Proof
1 n

`an j = a
^ n a hn = a
1
n

` a =n a

^ by index laws h

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate
(a) 49

1
2
1

(b) 27 3

Solution
1
2

(a) 49 = 49
=7
1
3

(b) 27 = 3 27
=3
2. Write

3x - 2 in index form.

Solution
1

3x - 2 = (3x - 2) 2
1

3. Write (a + b) 7 without fractional indices.

Solution
1

( a + b) 7 = 7 a + b

Putting the fractional and negative indices together gives this rule.

1
-n

1
a

Here are some further rules.

m
n

a = n am
= (n a ) m

Proof
m

1 m

m
n

1
n

n
n
a = `a j
m
= ^n a h

a = ^ am h
= n am

29

30

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

a -n
b n
c m = bal
b

Proof
a -n
1
c m =
b
a n
c m
b
1
= n
a
bn
an
bn
bn
=1# n
a
bn
= n
a
b n
= bal
=1'

EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate
4

(a) 8 3
(b) 125

1
3

2 -3
(c) c m
3

Solution
4

(a) 8 3 = (3 8 ) 4 (or 3 8 4 )
= 24
= 16
(b) 125

1
3

1
1

125 3
1
=3
125
1
=
5

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

-3

(c) c 2 m
3

3 3
=c m
2
27
=
8
3
=3
8

2. Write in index form.


x5

(a)
(b)

1
(4x - 1) 2
2

Solution
5

x5 = x 2
1

(a)
(b)

(4x - 1)
2

1
2

(4x 2 - 1) 3
-

= (4x 2 - 1)

3. Write r

3
5

2
3

without the negative and fractional indices.

Solution
r

3
5

=
=

1
3

r5
1
5

r3

DID YOU KNOW?


Nicole Oresme (132382) was the first mathematician to use fractional indices.
John Wallis (16161703) was the first person to explain the significance of zero, negative
and fractional indices. He also introduced the symbol 3 for infinity.
Do an Internet search on these mathematicians and find out more about their work and
backgrounds. You could use keywords such as indices and infinity as well as their names to find
this information.

31

32

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

1.7 Exercises
1.

Evaluate
(a) 81

3.

1
2

Write without fractional indices.


1

(a) y 3

(b) 27 3

(b) y 3

(c) 16 2

(c) x

1
2
1

(d) (2x + 5) 2

(d) 8 3
1

(e) (3x - 1)

(e) 49 2
1

1
2

(f) (6q + r) 3

(f) 1000 3
1

(g) (x + 7)

(g) 16 4

2
5

(h) 64 2
(i) 64
(j) 1

4.

1
3

(a)

1
7

(k) 81
(l) 32

Write in index form.


(b)

t
5

x3

(c)

1
4

(d)
(e)

1
5

(m) 0 8

(f)

(n) 125

1
3

(g)

1
1
1

(r) 9
(s) 8

(i)

(t) 64
2.

(x - 2) 2
1
(j)
2 y+7
5
(k) 3
x+4
2
(l)
3 y2 - 1
3
(m)
5 4 (x 2 + 2) 3

3
2
-

1
3
-

2
3

Evaluate correct to 2 decimal


places.
1

(a) 23 4
(b) 4 45.8
(c)
(d)
(e)

5 .9 # 3 .7
8.79 - 1.4

(f)

1.24 + 4.3 2
1
12.9
3 .6 - 1 .4
1 .5 + 3 .7

(3x + 1) 5
1

(h)

(q) 256 4

9-x
4s + 1
1
2t + 3
1
(5x - y) 3

(o) 343 3
(p) 128 7

5.

Write in index form and simplify.


(a) x x
x
(b) x
x
(c) 3
x
x2
(d) 3
x
(e) x 4 x

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

6.

Expand and simplify, and write in


index form.

7.

(a) ( x + x) 2
(b) (3 a + 3 b ) (3 a - 3 b )
1 2
(c) f p +
p
p
1 2
)
x
x ( x 2 - 3x + 1 )

(d) ( x +
(e)

x3

33

Write without fractional or


negative indices.
(a) (a - 2b)
(b) (y - 3)

1
3

2
3

4
7

2
9

(c) 4 (6a + 1)
( x + y)
(d)
3

5
4

6 (3 x + 8 )
(e)
7

Scientic notation (standard form)


Very large or very small numbers are usually written in scientic notation to
make them easier to read. What could be done to make the gures in the box
below easier to read?

DID YOU KNOW?


The Bay of Fundy, Canada, has the largest tidal changes in the world. About 100 000 000 000
tons of water are moved with each tide change.
The dinosaurs dwelt on Earth for 185 000 000 years until they died out 65 000 000 years ago.
The width of one plant cell is about 0.000 06 m.
In 2005, the total storage capacity of dams in Australia was 83 853 000 000 000 litres and
households in Australia used 2 108 000 000 000 litres of water.

A number in scientic notation is written as a number between 1 and 10


multiplied by a power of 10.

EXAMPLES
1. Write 320 000 000 in scientic notation.

Solution
320 000 000 = 3.2 #10 8

Write the number


between 1 and 10
and count the decimal
places moved.

2. Write 7.1#10 -5 as a decimal number.

Solution
7.1#10

-5

= 7.1 ' 10
= 0.000 071
5

Count 5 places to
the left.

34

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION KEY


Use the EXP or #10 x key to put numbers in scientific notation.
For example, to evaluate 3.1#10 4 ' 2.5 #10 - 2,
press 3.1 EXP 4 ' 2.5 EXP (-) 2 =
= 1 240 000

DID YOU KNOW?


Engineering notation is similar to scientific notation, except the powers of 10 are always
multiples of 3. For example,
3.5 # 10

15.4 # 10

-6

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
The concept of signicant gures is related to rounding off. When we look
at very large (or very small) numbers, some of the smaller digits are not
signicant.
For example, in a football crowd of 49 976, the 6 people are not really
signicant in terms of a crowd of about 50 000! Even the 76 people are not
signicant.
When a company makes a prot of $5 012 342.87, the amount of
87 cents is not exactly a signicant sum! Nor is the sum of $342.87.
To round off to a certain number of signicant gures, we count from the
rst non-zero digit.
In any number, non-zero digits are always signicant. Zeros are not
signicant, except between two non-zero digits or at the end of a decimal
number.
Even though zeros may not be signicant, they are still necessary. For
example 31, 310, 3100, 31 000 and 310 000 all have 2 signicant gures but
are very different numbers!
Scientic notation uses the signicant gures in a number.

EXAMPLES
12 000 = 1.2 #10 4
0.000 043 5 = 4.35#10 - 5
0.020 7 = 2.07 #10 - 2

(2 significant figures)
(3 significant figures)
(3 significant figures)

When rounding off to signicant gures, use the usual rules for rounding off.

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

35

EXAMPLES
1. Round off 4 592 170 to 3 significant figures.

Solution
4 592 170 = 4 590 000 to 3 significant figures
2. Round off 0.248 391 to 2 significant figures.

Solution
0.248 391 = 0.25 to 2 significant figures
3. Round off 1.396 794 to 3 significant figures.

Solution
1.396 794 = 1.40 to 3 significant figures

1.8 Exercises
1.

Write in scientific notation.


(a) 3 800
(b) 1 230 000
(c) 61 900
(d) 12 000 000
(e) 8 670 000 000
(f) 416 000
(g) 900
(h) 13 760
(i) 20 000 000
(j) 80 000

3.

Write as a decimal number.


(a) 3.6 #10 4
(b) 2.78 #10 7
(c) 9.25#10 3
(d) 6.33#10 6
(e) 4 #10 5
(f) 7.23#10 - 2
(g) 9.7 #10 - 5
(h) 3.8 # 10 - 8
(i) 7 #10 - 6
(j) 5#10 - 4

2.

Write in scientific notation.


(a) 0.057
(b) 0.000 055
(c) 0.004
(d) 0.000 62
(e) 0.000 002
(f) 0.000 000 08
(g) 0.000 007 6
(h) 0.23
(i) 0.008 5
(j) 0.000 000 000 07

4.

Round these numbers to


2 significant figures.
(a) 235 980
(b) 9 234 605
(c) 10 742
(d) 0.364 258
(e) 1.293 542
(f) 8.973 498 011
(g) 15.694
(h) 322.78
(i) 2904.686
(j) 9.0741

Remember to put
the 0s in!

36

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

5.

Evaluate correct to 3 significant


figures.
(a) 14.6 # 0.453
(b) 4.8 ' 7
(c) 4.47 + 2.59 #1.46
1
(d)
3.47 - 2.7

6.

Evaluate 4.5#10 4 # 2.9 #10 5,


giving your answer in scientific
notation.

7.

Calculate

8.72 #10 - 3
and write
1.34 #10 7
your answer in standard form
correct to 3 significant figures.

Investigation
A logarithm is an index. It is a way of finding the power (or index) to
which a base number is raised. For example, when solving 3 x = 9, the
solution is x = 2.
The 3 is called the base number and the x is the index or power.
You will learn about logarithms in the HSC course.
The a is called the base
number and the x is the
index or power.

If a x = y then log a y = x

1. The expression log7 49 means the power of 7 that gives 49.


The solution is 2 since 7 2 = 49.
2. The expression log2 16 means the power of 2 that gives 16.
The solution is 4 since 2 4 = 16.
Can you evaluate these logarithms?
1. log3 27
2. log5 25
3. log10 10 000
4. log2 64
5. log4 4
6. log7 7
7. log3 1
8. log4 2
1
9. log 3
3
1
10. log 2
4

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

37

Absolute Value
Negative numbers are used in maths and science, to show opposite directions.
For example, temperatures can be positive or negative.

But sometimes it is not appropriate to use negative numbers.


For example, solving c 2 = 9 gives two solutions, c = !3.
However when solving c 2 = 9, using Pythagoras theorem, we only use
the positive answer, c = 3, as this gives the length of the side of a triangle. The
negative answer doesnt make sense.
We dont use negative numbers in other situations, such as speed. In
science we would talk about a vehicle travelling at 60k/h going in a negative
direction, but we would not commonly use this when talking about the speed
of our cars!

Absolute value definitions


We write the absolute value of x as x

x =)

We can also define


x as the distance
of x from 0 on the
number line. We will
use this in Chapter 3.

x when x $ 0
- x when x 1 0

EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate 4 .

Solution
4 = 4 since 4 $ 0

CONTINUED

38

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

2. Evaluate - 3 .

Solution
-3 = - ] - 3 g since - 3 1 0
=3

The absolute value has some properties shown below.

Properties of absolute value

| ab | = | a |#| b |

e.g. | 2 # - 3 | = | 2 |#| - 3 | = 6

|a | = a

e.g. | - 3 | 2 = ] - 3 g2 = 9

a2 = | a |
|- a | = | a |
|a - b | = | b - a |
| a + b |#| a | + | b |

e.g. 5 2 = | 5 | = 5
e.g. | -7 | = | 7 | = 7
e.g. | 2 - 3 | = | 3 - 2 | = 1
e.g. | 2 + 3 | = | 2 | + | 3 | but | - 3 + 4 | 1 | - 3 | + | 4 |

EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate 2 - -1 + - 3 2.

Solution
2 - -1 + - 3 2 = 2 - 1 + 3 2
=2 -1 + 9
= 10
2. Show that a + b # a + b when a = - 2 and b = 3.

Solution
LHS means Left Hand Side.

LHS = a + b
= -2 + 3
= 1
=1

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

RHS means Right Hand Side.

RHS = a + b
= -2 + 3
= 2+3
=5
Since 11 5
a+b # a + b
3. Write expressions for 2x - 4 without the absolute value signs.

Solution
2x - 4 = 2x - 4 when 2x - 4 $ 0
i.e.
2x $ 4
x$2
2x - 4 = - ] 2x - 4 g when 2x - 4 1 0
= - 2x + 4 i.e.

2x 1 4
x12

Class Discussion
Are these statements true? If so, are there some values for which the
expression is undefined (values of x or y that the expression cannot
have)?

2.

x
=1
x
2x = 2x

3.

2x = 2 x

4.

x + y = x+y

5.

2
x = x2

6.
7.

3
x = x3
x +1 = x +1

1.

3x - 2
=1
3x - 2
x
9.
=1
x2
10. x $ 0
8.

Discuss absolute value and its definition in relation to these statements.

39

40

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

1.9 Exercises
1.

2.

3.

Evaluate
(a) 7
(b) - 5
(c) - 6
(d) 0
(e) 2
(f) -11
(g) - 2 3
(h) 3 - 8
2
(i) - 5
(j) - 5 3
Evaluate
(a) 3 + - 2
(b) - 3 - 4
(c) - 5 + 3
(d) 2 #-7
(e) - 3 + -1
2
(f) 5 - - 2 # 6
(g) - 2 + 5# -1
(h) 3 - 4
(i) 2 - 3 - 3 - 4
(j) 5 - 7 + 4 - 2

(i)
(j)

Show that a + b # a + b
when
(a) a = 2 and b = 4
(b) a = -1 and b = - 2
(c) a = - 2 and b = 3
(d) a = - 4 and b = 5
(e) a = -7 and b = - 3.

6.

Show that x 2 = x when


(a) x = 5
(b) x = - 2
(c) x = - 3
(d) x = 4
(e) x = - 9.

7.

Use the definition of absolute


value to write each expression
without the absolute value signs
(a) x + 5
(b) b - 3
(c) a + 4
(d) 2y - 6
(e) 3x + 9
(f) 4 - x
(g) 2k + 1
(h) 5x - 2
(i) a + b
(j) p - q

8.

Find values of x for which x = 3.

9.

n
Simplify n where n ! 0.

a = 5 and b = 2
a = -1 and b = 2
a = - 2 and b = - 3
a = 4 and b = 7
a = -1 and b = - 2.

Write an expression for


(a) a when a 2 0
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

a when a 1 0
a when a = 0
3a when a 2 0
3a when a 1 0
3a when a = 0
a + 1 when a 2 -1

x - 2 when x 2 2
x - 2 when x 1 2.

5.

Evaluate a - b if
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

4.

(h) a + 1 when a 1 -1

x-2
and state which
x-2
value x cannot be.

10. Simplify

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

Test Yourself 1
1.

2.

Convert
(a) 0.45 to a fraction
(b) 14% to a decimal
5
(c)
to a decimal
8
(d) 78.5% to a fraction
(e) 0.012 to a percentage
11
(f)
to a percentage
15

6.

(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

(a) 7 - 2
(b) 5 -1

3.

7.

1
2

(b) 36 2
(c) - 5 2 - 2 3
(d) 4 - 3 as fraction

4.5 2 + 7.6 2

(b) 4.3 0.3


2
(c) 3
5.7
(d)

(e) 6
4.

5.

(e) 8 3
(f) - 2 - 1

1.3#10 9
3.8 #10 6
-

(g) 49

2
3

1
2

as a fraction

1
4

Evaluate
(a) |-3 | -| 2 |
(b) | 4 - 5 |
(c) 7 + 4 # 8
(d) [(3 + 2)#(5 - 1) - 4] ' 8
(e) - 4 + 3 - 9
(f) - 2 - -1
(g) - 24 ' - 6

(h) 16
(i) ] -3 g0
(j) 4 - 7 2 - -2 - 3
8.

(a) x 5 # x 7 ' x 3
(b) (5y 3) 2
(a 5) 4 b 7
(c)
a9 b
3
2x 6 n
(d) d
3
0

ab 4
o
a5 b6

Simplify
(a) a 14 ' a 9
6
(b) _ x 5 y 3 i
(c) p 6 # p 5 ' p 2

4
(d) ^ 2b 9h
(2x 7) 3 y 2
(e)
x 10 y

Simplify

(e) e

Evaluate
(a) - 4
1

Evaluate correct to 3 significant figures.


(a)

3
7
5
8
6
2
#3
7
3
3
9'
4
2
1
+2
5
10
5
15#
6

(a) 1

Evaluate as a fraction.

(c) 9

Evaluate

9.

Write in index form.


(a)

n
1
(b) 5
x
1
(c)
x+y
(d)

x +1

41

42

Maths In Focus Mathematics Preliminary Course

(e)

(c) If he spends 3 hours watching TV,


what fraction of the day is this?
(d) What percentage of the day does he
spend sleeping?

a+b

2
(f) x
1
(g)
2x 3
(h)

x4

(i)

(5x + 3) 9
1

m3

(j)

17. Rachel scored 56 out of 80 for a maths


test. What percentage did she score?

10. Write without fractional or negative


indices.
(a) a - 5
1

(b) n 4

(c) (x + 1) 2
(d) (x - y) -1
(e) (4t - 7) - 4
1

(f) (a + b) 5
(g) x

(i) (2x + 3)
-

18. Evaluate 2118, and write your answer in


scientific notation correct to 1 decimal
place.
19. Write in index form.
(a) x
1
(b) y
x+3
1
(d)
(2x - 3) 11

1
3

(h) b 4

(j) x

16. The price of a car increased by 12%. If


the car cost $34 500 previously, what is
its new price?

4
3

3
2

(c)

(e)

y7

20. Write in scientific notation.


(a) 0.000 013

11. Show that a + b # a + b when a = 5


and b = - 3.
9
2
12. Evaluate a b when a =
and b = 1 .
25
3
2 4

3
1 4
13. If a = c m and b = , evaluate ab 3 as a
4
3
fraction.
14. Increase 650 mL by 6%.
1
of his 24-hour day
3
1
sleeping and at work.
4
(a) How many hours does Johan spend
at work?
(b) What fraction of his day is spent at
work or sleeping?

15. Johan spends

(b) 123 000 000 000


21. Convert to a fraction.

(a) 0. 7

(b) 0.124
22. Write without the negative index.
(a) x - 3
(b) (2a + 5)- 1
a -5
(c) c m
b
23. The number of people attending a
football match increased by 4% from last
week. If there were 15 080 people at the
match this week, how many attended
last week?
24. Show that | a + b | # a + b when
a = - 2 and b = - 5.

Chapter 1 Basic Arithmetic

Challenge Exercise 1
3
2
2
7
+ 3 m ' c4 - 1 m.
4
5
3
8

1.

Simplify c 8

2.

3
5
149
7
Simplify +
+
.
5
12
180
30

3.

4.

Arrange in increasing order of size: 51%,


51
0.502, 0. 5,
.
99
1
1
of his day sleeping,
3
12
1
of the day eating and
of the day
20
watching TV. What percentage of the day
is left?
Mark spends

2
3

5.

Write 64

6.

Express 3.2 ' 0.014 in scientific


notation correct to 3 significant figures.

7.

as a rational number.

11. Show that 2 (2 k - 1) + 2 k + 1 = 2 (2 k + 1 - 1) .


12. Find the value of

3 2
2 4
1 3
a = c m , b = c - m and c = c m .
5
5
3
13. Which of the following are rational

3
numbers: 3 , - 0.34, 2, 3r, 1. 5, 0, ?
7
14. The percentage of salt in 1 L of water is
10%. If 500 mL of water is added to this
mixture, what percentage of salt is there
now?
15. Simplify

25

1
out of 20 for a maths
2
1
test, 19 out of 23 for English and 55
2
out of 70 for physics. Find his average
score as a percentage, to the nearest
whole percentage.

Vinh scored 17

a
in index form if
b3 c2

|x + 1 |
x2 - 1

for x ! !1.

4.3 1.3 - 2.9


correct to
2.4 3 + 3.31 2
2 decimal places.

16. Evaluate 6

17. Write 15 g as a percentage of 2.5 kg.


18. Evaluate 2.3 1.8 + 5.7 #10 - 2 correct to
3 significant figures.
- 3.4 #10 - 3 + 1.7 #10 - 2
and
(6.9 #10 5) 3
express your answer in scientific notation
correct to 3 significant figures.

8.

Write 1.3274 as a rational number.

19. Evaluate

9.

The distance from the Earth to the moon


is 3.84 #10 5 km. How long would it take
a rocket travelling at 2.13#10 4 km h to
reach the moon, to the nearest hour?

20. Prove | a + b | # | a | + | b | for all real a, b.

8.3# 4.1
correct to
0.2 + 5.4 ' 1.3
3 significant figures.

10. Evaluate 3

43