Basic Arithmetic
TERMINOLOGY
Absolute value: The distance of a number from zero on
the number line. Hence it is the magnitude or value of a
number without the sign
Directed numbers: The set of integers or whole
numbers f 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, f
Exponent: Power or index of a number. For example 23
has a base number of 2 and an exponent of 3
Index: The power of a base number showing how
many times this number is multiplied by itself
e.g. 2 3 = 2 # 2 # 2. The index is 3
Algebra and
Surds
TERMINOLOGY
Binomial: A mathematical expression consisting of
two terms such as x + 3 or 3x  1
Binomial product: The product of two binomial
expressions such as (x + 3) (2x  4)
Expression: A mathematical statement involving numbers,
pronumerals and symbols e.g. 2x  3
Factorise: The process of writing an expression as a
product of its factors. It is the reverse operation of
expanding brackets i.e. take out the highest common
factor in an expression and place the rest in brackets
e.g. 2y  8 = 2 (y  4)
Pronumeral: A letter or symbol that stands for a number
45
INTRODUCTION
THIS CHAPTER REVIEWS ALGEBRA skills, including simplifying expressions,
removing grouping symbols, factorising, completing the square and
simplifying algebraic fractions. Operations with surds, including rationalising
the denominator, are also studied in this chapter.
Simplifying Expressions
Addition and subtraction
EXAMPLES
DID YOU KNOW?
Simplify
7x
Box 1.
text...
x
Solution
Here x is called a
pronumeral.
7x  x = 7x  1 x
= 6x
2. 4x 2  3x 2 + 6x 2
Solution
4x 2  3x 2 + 6x 2 = x 2 + 6 x 2
= 7x 2
CONTINUED
46
3. x 3  3x  5x + 4
Only add or subtract like
terms. These have the
same pronumeral (for
example, 3x and 5x).
Solution
x 3  3 x  5x + 4 = x 3  8 x + 4
4. 3a  4b  5a  b
Solution
3a  4b  5a  b = 3a  5a  4b  b
=  2a  5b
2.1 Exercises
Simplify
1.
2x + 5x
16. 7b + b  3b
2.
9a  6a
17. 3b  5b + 4b + 9b
3.
5z  4z
18.  5x + 3x  x  7x
4.
5a + a
19. 6x  5y  y
5.
4b  b
20. 8a + b  4b  7a
6.
2r  5r
21. xy + 2y + 3xy
7.
 4y + 3y
8.
 2x  3x
23. m 2  5m  m + 12
9.
2a  2a
24. p 2  7p + 5p  6
10.  4k + 7k
25. 3x + 7y + 5x  4y
11. 3t + 4t + 2t
26. ab + 2b  3ab + 8b
12. 8w  w + 3w
27. ab + bc  ab  ac + bc
13. 4m  3m  2m
28. a 5  7x 3 + a 5  2x 3 + 1
14. x + 3x  5x
29. x 3  3xy 2 + 4x 2 y  x 2 y + xy 2 + 2y 3
15. 8h  h  7h
30. 3x 3  4x 2  3x + 5x 2  4x  6
47
Multiplication
EXAMPLES
Simplify
1.  5x # 3y # 2x
Solution
 5x # 3y # 2x =  30xyx
=  30x 2 y
2.  3x 3 y 2 #  4xy 5
Solution
 3x 3 y 2 #  4xy 5 = 12x 4 y 7
2.2 Exercises
Simplify
1.
5 # 2b
5
11. ^ 2x 2h
2.
2x # 4y
12. 2ab 3 # 3a
3.
5p # 2p
13. 5a 2 b #  2ab
4.
 3z # 2w
14. 7pq 2 # 3p 2 q 2
5.
 5a #  3b
15. 5ab # a 2 b 2
6.
x # 2y # 7z
16. 4h 3 #  2h 7
7.
8ab # 6c
17. k 3 p # p 2
8.
4d # 3d
4
18. ^  3t 3 h
9.
3a # 4a # a
19. 7m 6 #  2m 5
10. ^  3y h3
20.  2x 2 # 3x 3 y #  4xy 2
48
Division
Use cancelling or index laws to simplify divisions.
EXAMPLES
Simplify
1. 6v 2 y ' 2vy
Solution
By cancelling,
6v 2 y ' 2vy =
=
6v 2 y
2vy
63 # v # v1 # y1
21 # v # y1
= 3v
Using index laws,
6v 2 y ' 2vy = 3v 2  1 y 1  1
= 3v 1 y 0
= 3v
2.
5a 3 b
15ab 2
Solution
5a 3 b
= 1 a3 1 b1 2
3
15ab 2
= 1 a 2 b 1
3
a2
=
3b
2.3 Exercises
Simplify
1.
30x ' 5
2.
2y ' y
3.
4.
5.
8a
2
6.
xy
2x
7.
12p 3 ' 4p 2
8.
3a 2 b 2
6ab
9.
20x
15xy
10.
 9x 7
3x 4
8a 2
a
8a 2
2a
2ab
6a 2 b 3
13.
 8p
4pqs
16.
7pq 3
18.
42p 5 q 4
4a  9 ^ b 2 h
1
2xy 2 z 3
4x 3 y 2 z
EXAMPLE
7 # (9 + 11) = 7 # 20
= 140
Using the distributive law,
7 # (9 + 11) = 7 # 9 + 7 # 11
= 63 + 77
= 140
EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify.
1. 2 ] a + 3 g
Solution
2 (a + 3) = 2 # a + 2 # 3
= 2a + 6
CONTINUED
49
50
2.  ] 2x  5 g
Solution
(2x  5) = 1 (2x  5)
= 1 # 2x  1 #  5
=  2x + 5
3. 5a 2]4 + 3ab  c g
Solution
5a 2 (4 + 3ab  c) = 5a 2 # 4 + 5a 2 # 3ab  5a 2 # c
= 20a 2 + 15a 3 b  5a 2 c
4. 5  2 ^ y + 3 h
Solution
5  2 (y + 3 ) = 5  2 # y  2 # 3
= 5  2y  6
=  2y  1
5. 2 ] b  5 g  ] b + 1 g
Solution
2 (b  5)  (b + 1) = 2 # b + 2 #  5  1 # b 1 # 1
= 2b  10  b  1
= b  11
2.4 Exercises
Expand and simplify
1.
2]x  4 g
7.
ab ] 2a + b g
2.
3 ] 2h + 3 g
8.
5n ] n  4 g
3.
5 ] a  2 g
9.
3x 2 y _ xy + 2y 2 i
4.
x ^ 2y + 3 h
10. 3 + 4 ] k + 1 g
5.
x]x  2 g
11. 2 ] t  7 g  3
6.
2a ] 3a  8 b g
12. y ^ 4y + 3 h + 8y
13. 9  5 ] b + 3 g
20. 2ab ] 3  a g  b ] 4a  1 g
14. 3  ] 2x  5 g
21. 5x  ] x  2 g  3
15. 5] 3  2m g + 7 ] m  2 g
22. 8  4 ^ 2y + 1 h + y
16. 2 ] h + 4 g + 3 ] 2h  9 g
23. ] a + b g  ] a  b g
17. 3 ] 2d  3 g  ] 5d  3 g
24. 2 ] 3t  4 g  ] t + 1 g + 3
18. a ] 2a + 1 g  ^ a 2 + 3a  4 h
25. 4 + 3 ] a + 5 g  ] a  7 g
51
19. x ] 3x  4 g  5 ] x + 1 g
Binomial Products
A binomial expression consists of two numbers, for example x + 3.
A set of two binomial expressions multiplied together is called a binomial
product.
Example: ] x + 3 g ] x  2 g.
Each term in the rst bracket is multiplied by each term in the second
bracket.
] a + b g ^ x + y h = ax + ay + bx + by
Proof
]a + bg]c + d g = a ]c + d g + b ]c + d g
= ac + ad + bc + bd
EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify
1. ^ p + 3h^ q  4h
Solution
^ p + 3 h ^ q  4 h = pq  4p + 3q  12
2. ]a + 5g2
Solution
] a + 5 g2 = (a + 5)(a + 5)
= a 2 + 5a + 5a + 25
= a 2 + 10a + 25
52
The rule below is not a binomial product (one expression is a trinomial), but it
works the same way.
] a + b g ^ x + y + z h = ax + ay + az + bx + by + bz
EXAMPLE
Expand and simplify ] x + 4 g ^ 2x  3y  1 h .
Solution
(x + 4) (2x  3y  1) = 2x 2  3xy  x + 8x  12y  4
= 2x 2  3xy + 7x  12y  4
2.5 Exercises
Expand and simplify
1.
]a + 5g]a + 2g
2.
]x + 3g]x  1g
18. ^ 3x  4y h^ 3x + 4y h
3.
^ 2y  3h^ y + 5h
19. ]x + 3g]x  3g
4.
]m  4g]m  2g
20. ^ y  6h^ y + 6h
5.
]x + 4g]x + 3g
21. ] 3a + 1 g ] 3a  1 g
6.
^ y + 2h^ y  5h
7.
]2x  3g]x + 2g
23. ]x + 9g^ x  2y + 2h
8.
]h  7g]h  3g
24. ] b  3 g ] 2a + 2b  1 g
9.
]x + 5g]x  5g
25. ]x + 2g^ x 2  2x + 4h
10. ] 5a  4 g ] 3a  1 g
26. ]a  3g^ a 2 + 3a + 9h
11. ^ 2y + 3h^ 4y  3h
27. ]a + 9g2
12. ]x  4g^ y + 7h
28. ]k  4g2
13. ^ x 2 + 3h]x  2g
29. ]x + 2g2
14. ]n + 2g]n  2g
30. ^ y  7h2
16. ^ 4  7y h^ 4 + 7y h
37. ] a + b g2
34. ^ x  5y h2
38. ] a  b g2
39. ] a + b g ^ a 2  ab + b 2 h
36. ] a  b g ] a + b g
40. ] a  b g ^ a 2 + ab + b 2 h
Some binomial products have special results and can be simplified quickly
using their special properties. Binomial products involving perfect squares
and the difference of two squares occur in many topics in mathematics. Their
expansions are given below.
Difference of 2 squares
] a + b g ] a  b g = a2  b2
Proof
(a + b) (a  b) = a 2  ab + ab  b 2
= a2  b2
Perfect squares
] a + b g2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
Proof
] a + b g2 = (a + b) (a + b)
= a 2 + ab + ab + b 2
= a 2 + 2ab + b 2
]a  bg2 = a 2  2ab + b 2
Proof
] a  b g2 = (a  b) (a  b)
= a 2  ab  ab + b 2
= a 2  2ab + b 2
53
54
EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify
1. ]2x  3g2
Solution
] 2x  3 g2 = ] 2x g2  2 (2x) 3 + 3 2
= 4x 2  12x + 9
2. ^ 3y  4h^ 3y + 4h
Solution
(3y  4) (3y + 4) = ^ 3y h2  4 2
= 9y 2  16
2.6 Exercises
Expand and simplify
1.
]t + 4g2
16. ^ p + 1 h ^ p  1 h
2.
]z  6g2
17. ]r + 6g]r  6g
3.
] x  1 g2
18. ] x  10 g ] x + 10 g
4.
^ y + 8h2
5.
^ q + 3h2
20. ^ x  5y h^ x + 5y h
6.
]k  7g2
21. ] 4a + 1 g ] 4a  1 g
7.
] n + 1 g2
8.
]2b + 5g2
23. ^ x 2 + 2h^ x 2  2h
9.
]3  xg2
2
24. ^ x 2 + 5h
10. ^ 3y  1 h2
11. ^ x + y h2
12. ] 3a  b g2
1
1
27. b a  a lb a + a l
14. ]t + 4g]t  4g
28. _ x + 6 y  2 @ i _ x  6 y  2 @ i
15. ] x  3 g ] x + 3 g
29. 6]a + bg + c @2
30. 7 ] x + 1 g  y A
36. ] x  4 g3
55
Expand (x  4) (x  4) 2 .
1 2
1 2
37. b x  x l  b x l + 2
31. ] a + 3 g2  ] a  3 g2
32. 16  ]z  4g]z + 4g
38. _ x 2 + y 2 i  4x 2 y 2
34. ^ x + y h2  x ^ 2  y h
40. ] 2x  1 g ] 2x + 1 g ] x + 2 g2
35. ] 4n  3 g ] 4n + 3 g  2n 2 + 5
PROBLEM
Find values of all pronumerals that make this true.
a b
d
f e
i i i h
i i c c
c
e
b
g
b
Try c = 9.
Factorisation
Simple factors
Factors are numbers that exactly divide or go into an equal or larger number,
without leaving a remainder.
EXAMPLES
The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 are all the factors of 24.
Factors of 5x are 1, 5, x and 5x.
56
EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. 3x + 12
Solution
Divide each term by 3 to
find the terms inside the
brackets.
Solution
Check answers by
expanding brackets.
Solution
x and x2 are both common factors. We take out the highest common
factor which is x2.
x 3  2x 2 = x 2 ] x  2 g
4. 5] x + 3 g + 2y ] x + 3 g
Solution
The highest common factor is x + 3.
5 ] x + 3 g + 2y ] x + 3 g = ] x + 3 g ^ 5 + 2 y h
5. 8a 3 b 2  2ab 3
Solution
There are several common factors here. The highest common
factor is 2ab2.
8a 3 b 2  2ab 3 = 2ab 2 ^ 4a 2  bh
2.7 Exercises
Factorise
1.
2y + 6
19. x ] m + 5 g + 7 ] m + 5 g
2.
5x  10
20. 2 ^ y  1 h  y ^ y  1 h
3.
3m  9
21. 4^ 7 + y h  3x ^ 7 + y h
4.
8x + 2
22. 6x ]a  2g + 5]a  2g
5.
24  18y
23. x ] 2t + 1 g  y ] 2t + 1 g
6.
x 2 + 2x
7.
m 2  3m
24. a ] 3x  2 g + 2b ] 3x  2 g
 3c ] 3x  2 g
8.
2y 2 + 4y
9.
15a  3a 2
25. 6x 3 + 9x 2
26. 3pq 5  6q 3
27. 15a 4 b 3 + 3ab
10. ab 2 + ab
28. 4x 3  24x 2
11. 4x 2 y  2xy
13. 8x 2 z  2xz 2
14. 6ab + 3a  2a
15. 5x 2  2x + xy
33. y 2 ]x + 4g + 2]x + 4g
16. 3q 5  2q 2
34. a ] a + 1 g  ] a + 1 g2
17. 5b 3 + 15b 2
35. 4ab ^ a 2 + 1 h  3 ^ a 2 + 1 h
18. 6a 2 b 3  3a 3 b 2
Grouping in pairs
If an expression has 4 terms, it may be factorised in pairs.
ax + bx + ay + by = x(a + b) + y (a + b)
= ( a + b) ( x + y)
57
58
EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. x 2  2x + 3x  6
Solution
x 2  2x + 3x  6 = x (x  2) + 3 (x  2)
= (x  2) (x + 3)
2. 2x  4 + 6y  3xy
Solution
2x  4 + 6y  3xy = 2 (x  2) + 3y (2  x)
= 2 ( x  2)  3y ( x  2 )
= (x  2) (2  3y)
or 2x  4 + 6y  3xy = 2 (x  2)  3y ( 2 + x)
= 2 ( x  2)  3y ( x  2 )
= (x  2) (2  3y)
2.8 Exercises
Factorise
1.
2x + 8 + bx + 4b
12. m  2 + 4y  2my
2.
ay  3a + by  3b
3.
x 2 + 5x + 2x + 10
14. a 2 b + ab 3  4a  4b 2
4.
m 2  2m + 3m  6
15. 5x  x 2  3x + 15
5.
ad  ac + bd  bc
16. x 4 + 7x 3  4x  28
6.
x 3 + x 2 + 3x + 3
17. 7x  21  xy + 3y
7.
5ab  3b + 10a  6
18. 4d + 12  de  3e
8.
2xy  x 2 + 2y 2  xy
19. 3x  12 + xy  4y
9.
ay + a + y + 1
20. 2a + 6  ab  3b
10. x 2 + 5x  x  5
21. x 3  3x 2 + 6x  18
11. y + 3 + ay + 3a
22. pq  3p + q 2  3q
23. 3x 3  6x 2  5x + 10
27. 4x 3  6x 2 + 8x  12
25. xy + 7x  4y  28
26. x 4  4x 3  5x + 20
30. rr 2 + 2rr  3r  6
59
Trinomials
A trinomial is an expression with three terms, for example x 2  4x + 3.
Factorising a trinomial usually gives a binomial product.
x 2 + ] a + b g x + ab = ] x + a g ] x + b g
Proof
x 2 + (a + b) x + ab = x 2 + ax + bx + ab
= x(x + a) + b(x + a)
= (x + a) (x + b)
EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. m 2  5m + 6
Solution
a + b =  5 and ab = + 6
2
+6 '
3
5
Numbers with sum  5 and product + 6 are  2 and  3.
` m 2  5m + 6 = [m + ]  2 g] [m + ]  3 g]
= ]m  2g]m  3g
2. y 2 + y  2
Solution
a + b = + 1 and ab =  2
+2
2 '
1
+1
Two numbers with sum + 1 and product  2 are + 2 and 1.
` y2 + y  2 = ^ y + 2 h ^ y  1 h
60
2.9 Exercises
Factorise
1.
x 2 + 4x + 3
14. a 2  4a + 4
2.
y 2 + 7y + 12
15. x 2 + 14x  32
3.
m 2 + 2m + 1
16. y 2  5y  36
4.
t 2 + 8t + 16
17. n 2  10n + 24
5.
z2 + z  6
18. x 2  10x + 25
6.
x 2  5x  6
19. p 2 + 8p  9
7.
v 2  8v + 15
20. k 2  7k + 10
8.
t 2  6t + 9
21. x 2 + x  12
9.
x 2 + 9x  10
22. m 2  6m  7
10. y 2  10y + 21
23. q 2 + 12q + 20
11. m 2  9m + 18
24. d 2  4d  5
12. y 2 + 9y  36
25. l 2  11l + 18
13. x 2  5x  24
The result x 2 + ] a + b g x + ab = ] x + a g ] x + b g only works when the coefficient
of x 2 (the number in front of x 2) is 1. When the coefficient of x 2 is not 1, for
example in the expression 5x 2  2x + 4, we need to use a different method to
factorise the trinomial.
There are different ways of factorising these trinomials. One method is
the cross method. Another is called the PSF method. Or you can simply guess
and check.
EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. 5y 2  13y + 6
Solutioncross method
Factors of 5y 2 are 5y and y.
Factors of 6 are 1 and  6 or  2 and  3.
Possible combinations that give a middle term of 13y are
5y
2
5y
3
5y
1
5y
6
3
2
6
1
3
2
5y #  2 = 10y
y #  3 =  3y
13y
` 5y 2  13y + 6 = ^ 5y  3 h ^ y  2 h
SolutionPSF method
P: Product of first and last terms
S: Sum or middle term
F: Factors of P that give S
 3y
30y 2 )
10y
13y
30y 2
13y
 3y, 10y
` 5y 2  13y + 6 = 5y 2  3y  10y + 6
= y ^ 5y  3 h  2 ^ 5 y  3 h
= ^ 5y  3 h ^ y  2 h
CONTINUED
61
62
2. 4y 2 + 4y  3
Solutioncross method
Factors of 4y 2 are 4y and y or 2y and 2y.
Factors of 3 are 1 and 3 or  3 and 1.
Trying combinations of these factors gives
3
2y
2y # 1 =  2y
2y # 3 = 6y
4y
` 4y 2 + 4y  3 = ^ 2 y + 3 h ^ 2 y  1 h
2y
1
SolutionPSF method
P: Product of rst and last terms
12y 2
S: Sum or middle term
4y
F: Factors of P that give S
+ 6y,  2y
2 + 6y
12y )
2y
+ 4y
` 4y 2 + 4y  3 = 4 y 2 + 6 y  2 y  3
= 2y ^ 2y + 3 h  1 ^ 2 y + 3 h
= ^ 2y + 3 h ^ 2y  1 h
2.10
Exercises
Factorise
1.
2a 2 + 11a + 5
16. 4n 2  11n + 6
2.
5y 2 + 7y + 2
17. 8t 2 + 18t  5
3.
3x 2 + 10x + 7
4.
3x 2 + 8x + 4
19. 8r 2 + 22r  6
5.
2b 2  5b + 3
20. 4x 2  4x  15
6.
7x 2  9x + 2
21. 6y 2  13y + 2
7.
3y 2 + 5y  2
22. 6p 2  5p  6
8.
2x 2 + 11x + 12
23. 8x 2 + 31x + 21
9.
5p 2 + 13p  6
10. 6x 2 + 13x + 5
25. 6x 2  53x  9
11. 2y 2  11y  6
26. 9x 2 + 30x + 25
12. 10x 2 + 3x  1
13. 8t 2  14t + 3
14. 6x 2  x  12
15. 6y 2 + 47y  8
Perfect squares
You have looked at some special binomial products, including
]a + bg2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 and ]a  bg2 = a 2  2ab + b 2 .
When factorising, use these results the other way around.
a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = ] a + b g2
a 2  2ab + b 2 = ] a  b g2
63
64
EXAMPLES
In a perfect square, the
constant term is always a
square number.
Factorise
1. x 2  8x + 16
Solution
x 2  8x + 16 = x 2  2 (4) x + 4 2
= ] x  4 g2
2. 4a 2 + 20a + 25
Solution
4a 2 + 20a + 25 = ] 2a g2 + 2 (2a) (5) + 5 2
= ] 2a + 5 g2
2.11
Exercises
Factorise
1.
y 2  2y + 1
2.
x 2 + 6x + 9
3.
m 2 + 10m + 25
4.
t 2  4t + 4
5.
x 2  12x + 36
16. t 2 + t +
6.
4x 2 + 12x + 9
7.
16b 2  8b + 1
8.
9a 2 + 12a + 4
4x
4
+
3
9
6y
1
18. 9y 2 +
+
5
25
9.
25x 2  40x + 16
19. x 2 + 2 +
1
4
17. x 2 
1
x2
20. 25k 2  20 +
4
k2
Difference of 2 squares
A special case of binomial products is ] a + b g ] a  b g = a 2  b 2.
a2  b2 = ] a + b g ] a  b g
EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. d 2  36
Solution
d 2  36 = d 2  6 2
= ]d + 6 g]d  6 g
2. 9b 2  1
Solution
9b 2  1 = ] 3b g2  1 2
= ( 3 b + 1) ( 3 b  1 )
3. (a + 3) 2  (b  1) 2
Solution
] a + 3 g2  ] b  1 g2 = [(a + 3) + (b  1)] [(a + 3)  (b  1)]
= (a + 3 + b  1) ( a + 3  b + 1)
= ( a + b + 2 ) (a  b + 4 )
2.12
Exercises
Factorise
1.
a2  4
7.
1  4z 2
2.
x2  9
8.
25t 2  1
3.
y2  1
9.
9t 2  4
4.
x 2  25
10. 9  16x 2
5.
4x 2  49
11. x 2  4y 2
6.
16y 2  9
12. 36x 2  y 2
65
66
13. 4a 2  9b 2
20.
14. x 2  100y 2
15. 4a  81b
2
21. ] x + 2 g2  ^ 2y + 1 h2
22. x 4  1
16. ]x + 2g2  y 2
17. ] a  1 g  ] b  2 g
2
18. z  ] 1 + w g
2
19. x 2 
y2
1
9
1
4
23. 9x 6  4y 2
24. x 4  16y 4
25. a 8  1
Proof
(a + b) (a 2  ab + b 2) = a 3  a 2 b + ab 2 + a 2 b  ab 2 + b 3
= a3 + b3
a 3  b 3 = ] a  b g ^ a 2 + ab + b 2 h
Proof
(a  b) (a 2 + ab + b 2) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2  a 2 b  ab 2  b 3
= a3  b3
EXAMPLES
Factorise
1. 8x 3 + 1
Solution
8x 3 + 1 = ] 2x g3 + 1 3
= (2x + 1) [] 2x g2  (2x) (1) + 1 2]
= (2x + 1 ) (4 x 2  2 x + 1 )
2. 27a 3  64b 3
Solution
27a 3  64b 3 = ] 3a g3  ] 4b g3
= (3a  4b) [] 3a g2 + (3a) (4b) + ] 4b g2]
= (3a  4b) (9a 2 + 12ab + 16b 2)
2.13
Exercises
Factorise
1.
b3  8
2.
x 3 + 27
3.
12.
x3
 27
8
t3 + 1
13.
1000
1
+ 3
3
a
b
4.
a 3  64
14. ] x + 1 g3  y 3
5.
1  x3
6.
8 + 27y 3
7.
y 3 + 8z 3
8.
x 3  125y 3
9.
8x 3 + 27y 3
10. a 3 b 3  1
11. 1000 + 8t 3
17. 1 
x3
27
18. y 3 + ]3 + xg3
19. ] x + 1 g3 + ^ y  2 h3
20. 8]a + 3g3  b 3
Mixed factors
Sometimes more than one method of factorising is needed to completely
factorise an expression.
EXAMPLE
Factorise 5x 2  45.
Solution
5x 2  45 = 5 (x 2  9)
= 5 (x + 3) (x  3)
67
68
2.14
Exercises
Factorise
1.
2x 2  18
16. x 3  3x 2  10x
2.
3p 2  3p  36
17. x 3  3x 2  9x + 27
3.
5y 3  5
18. 4x 2 y 3  y
4.
4a 3 b + 8a 2 b 2  4ab 2  2a 2 b
19. 24  3b 3
5.
5a 2  10a + 5
6.
 2x 2 + 11x  12
21. 3x 2  6x + 3
7.
3z 3 + 27z 2 + 60z
22. x 3 + 2x 2  25x  50
8.
9ab  4a 3 b 3
23. z 3 + 6z 2 + 9z
9.
x3  x
24. 4x 4  13x 2 + 9
10. 6x 2 + 8x  8
25. 2x 5 + 2x 2 y 3  8x 3  8y 3
11. 3m  15  5n + mn
26. 4a 3  36a
12. ] x  3 g2  ] x + 4 g2
27. 40x  5x 4
13. y 2 ^ y + 5 h  16 ^ y + 5 h
28. a 4  13a 2 + 36
14. x 4  x 3 + 8x  8
15. x 6  1
30. 3x 3 + 9x 2  3x  9
x3
x2
x 2 + 4x
x2
x
5x  5
5x  5
0
So the other factor of x 3 + 4x  5 is x 2 + x + 5
` x 3 + 4x  5 = (x  1) (x 2 + x + 5)
69
EXAMPLES
1. Complete the square on x 2 + 6x.
Solution
Using a 2 + 2ab + b 2:
a=x
2ab = 6x
Substituting a = x:
2xb = 6x
b=3
Solution
Using a 2  2ab + b 2:
a=n
2ab = 10x
Substituting a = n:
2nb = 10n
b=5
70
EXAMPLES
1. Complete the square on x 2 + 12x.
Solution
Divide 12 by 2 and square it:
x 2 + 12x + c
12 2
m = x 2 + 12x + 6 2
2
= x 2 + 12x + 36
= ]x + 6g2
Solution
Divide 2 by 2 and square it:
2 2
y 2  2y + c m = y 2  2 y + 1 2
2
= y 2  2y + 1
= ^ y  1 h2
2.15
Exercises
x 2 + 4x
12. y 2 + 3y
2.
b 2  6b
13. x 2  7x
3.
x 2  10x
14. a 2 + a
4.
y 2 + 8y
15. x 2 + 9x
5.
m 2  14m
16. y 2 
6.
q 2 + 18q
5y
2
7.
x 2 + 2x
17. k 2 
11k
2
8.
t 2  16t
18. x 2 + 6xy
9.
x 2  20x
19. a 2  4ab
10. w 2 + 44w
11. x 2  32x
20. p 2  8pq
71
Algebraic Fractions
Simplifying fractions
EXAMPLES
Simplify
4x + 2
2
1.
Solution
2 ] 2x + 1 g
4x + 2
=
2
2
= 2x + 1
2x 2  3x  2
x3  8
2.
Solution
] 2x + 1 g ] x  2 g
2x 2  3x  2
=
3
] x  2 g ^ x 2 + 2x + 4 h
x 8
2x + 1
= 2
x + 2x + 4
2.16
Exercises
Simplify
1.
5a + 10
5
2.
3.
4.
9.
b3  1
b2  1
6t  3
3
10.
8y + 2
6
2p 2 + 7p  15
6p  9
11.
a2  1
a + 2a  3
8
4d  2
2
5.
6.
x
5x 2  2x
y4
12.
13.
y  8y + 16
3 ]x  2g + y ]x  2g
x3  8
x 3 + 3x 2  9x  27
x 2 + 6x + 9
7.
2ab  4a 2
a 2  3a
8.
s2 + s  2
s 2 + 5s + 6
14.
15.
2p 2  3p  2
8p 3 + 1
ay  ax + by  bx
2ay  by  2ax + bx
72
EXAMPLES
Simplify
1.
x+3
x1
5
4
Solution
Do algebraic fractions
the same way as ordinary
fractions.
4 ]x  1 g  5 ]x + 3 g
x 1 x +3
=
5
4
20
4x  4  5x  15
=
20
 x  19
=
20
2.
2a 2 b + 10ab
a 2  25
'
3
4b + 12
b + 27
Solution
2a 2 b + 10ab
a 2  25
2a 2 b + 10ab 4b + 12
'
=
# 2
4b + 12
b 3 + 27
b 3 + 27
a  25
2ab ] a + 5 g
4 ]b + 3 g
=
#
2
]
a + 5 g]a  5 g
] b + 3 g ^ b  3b + 9 h
8ab
=
] a  5 g ^ b 2  3b + 9 h
3.
2
1
+
x5 x+2
Solution
2 ]x + 2g + 1 ]x  5g
2
1
+
=
x5 x+2
]x  5g]x + 2g
2x + 4 + x  5
=
]x  5g]x + 2g
3x  1
=
]x  5g]x + 2g
2.17
1.
2.
Exercises
Simplify
x 3x
(a) +
4
2
y + 1 2y
(b)
+
5
3
a+2 a
(c)
4
3
p3 p+2
(d)
+
6
2
x5 x1
(e)
2
3
4.
Simplify
3
b 2 + 2b
#
(a)
b + 2 6a  3
1
1
+
x+1 x3
(g)
3
2
x
2
+
x 4
(h)
1
1
+
a 2 + 2a + 1 a + 1
(i)
5
2
1
+
y+2 y+3 y1
(j)
2
7
x 2  16 x 2  x  12
Simplify
(a)
y2  9
3x 2
x 2  2x  8
#
#
4y  12 6x  24
y 3 + 27
q3 + 1
(b) 2
#
q + 2q + 1 p + 2
(b)
2
a 2  5a
3a  15 y  y  2
'
#
5ay
y 2  4y + 4
y2  4
3ab 2
12ab  6a
(c)
' 2
5xy
x y + 2xy 2
(c)
3
x 2 + 3x
2x + 8
+ 2
#
x3
4x  16
x 9
(d)
5b
b2
b
' 2
2b + 6
b
1
+
b +b6
(e)
x 2  8x + 15
x 2  9 x 2 + 5x + 6
'
#
2
2x  10
5x + 10x
10x 2
p2  4
(d)
ax  ay + bx  by
x2  y2
x3 + y3
ab 2 + a 2 b
x 2  6x + 9
x 2  5x + 6
(e)
'
x 2  25
x 2 + 4x  5
3.
(f)
5.
Simplify
2 3
(a) x + x
Simplify
(a)
1
2
4
+
x 2  7x + 10 x 2  2x  15 x 2 + x  6
1
2
x1 x
(b)
3
5
2
+
2
2
x
x
x 4
(c) 1 +
3
a+b
(c)
3
2
+
p 2 + pq pq  q 2
(d) x 
x2
x+2
(d)
a
b
1
+
a + b a  b a2  b2
(b)
(e) p  q +
1
p+q
x+y
y
x
(e) x  y + y  x  2
y  x2
Substitution
Algebra is used in writing general formulae or rules. For example, the formula
A = lb is used to find the area of a rectangle with length l and breadth b. We
can substitute any values for l and b to find the area of different rectangles.
73
74
EXAMPLES
1. P = 2l + 2b is the formula for finding the perimeter of a rectangle
with length l and breadth b. Find P when l = 1.3 and b = 3.2.
Solution
P = 2 l + 2b
= 2 ] 1 . 3 g + 2 ] 3 .2 g
= 2 .6 + 6 . 4
=9
2. V = rr 2 h is the formula for finding the volume of a cylinder with
radius r and height h. Find V (correct to 1 decimal place) when r = 2.1
and h = 8.7.
Solution
V = rr 2 h
= r ] 2.1 g2 (8.7)
= 120.5 correct to 1 decimal place
9C
+ 32 is the formula for changing degrees Celsius ] C g into
5
degrees Fahrenheit ] F g find F when C = 25.
3. If F =
Solution
9C
+ 32
5
9 ] 25 g
=
+ 32
5
225
=
+ 32
5
225 + 160
=
5
385
=
5
= 77
This means that 25C is the same as 77F.
F=
2.18
1.
Exercises
ab
(g)  b 2
2.
T = a + ] n  1 g d is the formula
for finding the term of an
arithmetic series. Find T when
a =  4, n = 18 and d = 3.
3.
4.
5.
6.
If y = 2 x + 3 is the equation of
a function, find y when x = 1.3,
correct to 1 decimal place.
7.
8.
9.
n1
Given u n = ar
is the nth term
of a geometric series, find u n if
a = 5, r =  2 and n = 4.
75
76
20. If S =
r n
m is the formula
100
a ^rn  1h
is the sum of
r 1
a3 b2
if
c2
2
3
1 4
a = c 3 m , b = c 2 m and c = c m .
4
3
2
Surds
An irrational number is a number that cannot be written as a ratio or fraction
(rational). Surds are special types of irrational numbers, such as 2, 3 and 5 .
Some surds give rational values: for example, 9 = 3. Others, like 2 , do
not have an exact decimal value. If a question involving surds asks for an exact
answer, then leave it as a surd rather than giving a decimal approximation.
Simplifying surds
Class Investigations
1. Is there an exact decimal equivalent for 2 ?
2. Can you draw a line of length exactly 2 ?
3. Do these calculations give the same results?
(a) 9 # 4 and 9 # 4
(b)
and
4
9
(c)
9
9 + 4 and
9 +
(d)
9  4 and
9 
a# b =
ab
a' b =
^ x h2 =
x2 = x
a
b
77
EXAMPLES
1. Express in simplest surd form
45 .
45 also equals
3 # 15 but this will
not simplify. We look
for a number that is a
perfect square.
Solution
45 = 9 # 5
= 9 # 5
=3# 5
=3 5
2. Simplify 3 40 .
Solution
3 40 = 3 4 # 10
= 3 # 4 # 10
= 3 # 2 # 10
= 6 10
3. Write 5 2 as a single surd.
Solution
5 2 =
=
2.19
1.
25 # 2
50
Exercises
(k)
112
(l)
300
(a)
12
(b)
63
(c)
24
(d)
50
(e)
72
(f)
200
(g)
48
(h)
75
(i)
32
(a) 2 27
(j)
54
(b) 5 80
(m) 128
2.
(n)
243
(o)
245
(p)
108
(q)
99
(r)
125
Simplify
78
(c) 4 98
(g) 3 13
(d) 2 28
(h) 7 2
(e) 8 20
(i) 11 3
(f) 4 56
(j) 12 7
(g) 8 405
4.
(h) 15 8
(a)
(i) 7 40
x =3 5
(b) 2 3 =
(c) 3 7 =
(d) 5 2 =
(a) 3 2
(e) 2 11 =
(b) 2 5
(f)
(c) 4 11
(g) 4 19 =
(d) 8 2
(h)
(e) 5 3
(i) 5 31 =
(f) 4 10
(j)
(j) 8 45
3.
Evaluate x if
x =7 3
x
x = 6 23
x
x = 8 15
EXAMPLES
1. Simplify 3 2 + 4 2 .
Solution
3 2+4 2 =7 2
2. Simplify
3  12 .
Solution
First, change into like surds.
3  12 = 3  4 # 3
= 3 2 3
= 3
3. Simplify 2 2  2 + 3 .
Solution
2 2 2+ 3=
2+ 3
2.20
79
Exercises
Simplify
1.
5 +2 5
14.
50 
32
2.
3 2 2 2
15.
28 +
63
3.
3 +5 3
16. 2 8 
18
4.
7 3 4 3
5.
5 4 5
4 6 
6.
17. 3 54 + 2 24
18.
90  5 40  2 10
19. 4 48 + 3 147 + 5 12
7.
2 8 2
20. 3 2 + 8  12
8.
5 +4 5 +3 5
21.
63  28  50
9.
2 2 2 3 2
22.
12  45  48  5
10.
5 +
45
23.
150 + 45 + 24
11.
8 
24.
32  243  50 + 147
12.
3 +
48
25.
80  3 245 + 2 50
13.
12 
27
a # b = ab
a b # c d = ac bd
a# a =
a
b
a2 = a
a
b
EXAMPLES
Simplify
1. 2 2 # 5 7
Solution
2 2 # 5 7 = 10 14
CONTINUED
80
2. 4 2 # 5 18
Solution
4 2 # 5 18 = 20 36
= 20 # 6
= 120
3.
2 14
4 2
Solution
2 14
4 2
2 2 #
7
2
4.
4 2
3 10
15 2
Solution
3 10
15 2
3# 5 # 2
15 2
5
=
5
5. d
10 n
3
Solution
2
^ 10 h
10 n
=
3
^ 3 h2
10
=
3
=31
3
2.21
Exercises
Simplify
1.
7 #
2.
3# 5
3.
2 #3 3
4.
5 7 #2 2
5.
3 3 #2 2
6.
5 3 #2 3
7.
 4 5 # 3 11
8.
2 7# 7
9.
2 3 # 5 12
10.
6# 2
11.
8 #2 6
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
5 8
10 2
16 2
2 12
10 30
5 10
2 2
6 20
4 2
8 10
3
3 15
2
29.
12. 3 2 # 5 14
13.
10 # 2 2
14. 2 6 #7 6
15. ^ 2 h
2
16. ^ 2 7 h
17.
31.
32.
3 15
6 10
5 12
5 8
15 18
10 10
3# 5# 2
18. 2 3 # 7 # 5
19.
30.
2 # 6 #3 3
33.
15
2 6
2n
3
35. d
5n
7
20. 2 5 #  3 2 #  5 5
21.
22.
4 12
2 2
34. d
12 18
3 6
Expanding brackets
The same rules for expanding brackets and binomial products that you use in
algebra also apply to surds.
81
82
ab + ac
Proof
a^ b + ch =
=
a# b +
ab + ac
a# c
Binomial product:
^ a + b h^ c + d h =
ac +
ad +
bc +
bd
Proof
^ a + b h^ c + d h = a # c + a # d + b # c + b # d
= ac + ad + bc + bd
Perfect squares:
^ a + b h2 = a + 2 ab + b
Proof
^ a + b h2 = ^ a + b h ^ a + b h
= a 2 + ab + ab + b 2
= a + 2 ab + b
^ a  b h2 = a  2 ab + b
Proof
^ a  b h2 = ^ a  b h ^ a  b h
= a 2  ab  ab + b 2
= a  2 ab + b
Difference of two squares:
^ a + b h^ a  b h = a  b
Proof
^ a + b h ^ a  b h = a 2  ab + ab  b 2
=ab
83
EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify
1. 2 ^ 5 + 2 h
Solution
2( 5 +
2) =
=
=
2# 5 +
10 + 4
10 + 2
2# 2
2. 3 7 ^ 2 3  3 2 h
Solution
3 7 (2 3  3 2 ) = 3 7 # 2 3  3 7 # 3 2
= 6 21  9 14
3. ^ 2 + 3 5 h ^ 3 
2h
Solution
( 2 + 3 5)( 3 
2) =
=
2# 3  2# 2 +3 5# 3 3 5# 2
6  2 + 3 15  3 10
4. ^ 5 + 2 3 h ^ 5  2 3 h
Solution
( 5 + 2 3 ) ( 5  2 3 ) = 5 # 5  5 #2 3 + 2 3 # 5  2 3 #2 3
= 5  2 15 + 2 15  4#3
= 5  12
= 7
Another way to do this question is by using the difference of two squares.
2
2
( 5 + 2 3)( 5  2 3) = ^ 5 h  ^2 3 h
= 5  4#3
= 7
84
2.22
1.
Exercises
(m)^ 2 11 + 5 2 h^ 2 11  5 2 h
2^ 5 + 3h
(b)
3 ^2 2  5 h
2
(o) ^ 2 2  3 h
7 ^5 2  2 3 h
2
(q) ^ 2 3 + 3 5 h
(n) ^ 5 + 2 h
(c) 4 3 ^ 3 + 2 5 h
(d)
2
(p) ^ 3 2 + 7 h
(e)  3 ^ 2  4 6 h
(f)
2
(r) ^ 7  2 5 h
3 ^ 5 11 + 3 7 h
2
(s) ^ 2 8  3 5 h
(g)  3 2 ^ 2 + 4 3 h
(h)
(i)
5^ 5  5 3h
3 ^ 12 + 10 h
2
(t) ^ 3 5 + 2 2 h
3.
If a = 3 2 , simplify
(a) a2
(b) 2a3
(c) (2a)3
(d) ]a + 1g2
(e) ] a + 3 g ] a 3 g
4.
Evaluate a and b if
2
(a) ^ 2 5 + 1h = a + b
(j) 2 3 ^ 18 + 3 h
(k)  4 2 ^ 2  3 6 h
(l)  7 5 ^  3 20 + 2 3 h
(m) 10 3 ^ 2  2 12 h
(n)  2 ^ 5 + 2 h
(o) 2 3 ^ 2  12 h
2.
(b) ^ 2 2  5 h ^ 2  3 5 h
= a + b 10
(a) ^ 2 + 3h^ 5 + 3 3 h
5.
(e) ^ 2 5  7 2 h^ 5  3 2 h
6.
Evaluate k if
^ 2 7  3 h ^ 2 7 + 3 h = k.
(g) ^ 7 + 3 h^ 7  3 h
7.
Simplify _ 2 x + y i _ x  3 y i .
(h) ^ 2  3 h^ 2 + 3 h
8.
If ^ 2 3  5 h = a  b , evaluate
a and b.
(j) ^ 3 5 + 2 h^ 3 5  2 h
9.
(b) ^ 5  2 h^ 2  7 h
(c) ^ 2 + 5 3 h^ 2 5  3 2 h
(d) ^ 3 10  2 5 h^ 4 2 + 6 6 h
(f) ^ 5 + 6 2 h^ 3 5  3 h
(i) ^ 6 + 3 2 h^ 6  3 2 h
(k) ^ 8  5 h^ 8 + 5 h
(l) ^ 2 + 9 3 h^ 2  9 3 h
Evaluate a and b if
^ 7 2  3 h2 = a + b 2 .
85
5
5
This is hard to do
without a calculator.
= 3 # 2.236 ' 5
Multiplying by
b
a b
a
#
=
b
b
b
b
is the same as
multiplying by 1.
Proof
b
a b
a
#
=
b
b
b2
a b
=
b
EXAMPLES
1. Rationalise the denominator of
Solution
3
.
5
5
3 5
3
#
=
5
5
5
2. Rationalise the denominator of
Solution
2
5 3
.
Dont multiply by
5
2
5 3
3
3
2 3
5 9
2 3
=
5# 3
2 3
=
15
as it takes
5 3
longer to simplify.
86
a+ b
c+ d
, multiply by
Proof
a+ b
c+ d
^ a + b h^ c  d h
c d
^ c + d h^ c  d h
^ a + b h^ c  d h
=
^ c h2  ^ d h2
^ a + b h^ c  d h
=
cd
c d
EXAMPLES
1. Write with a rational denominator
5
2 3
Multiply by the conjugate
surd 2 + 3.
Solution
5
2 3
2 +3
2 +3
5 ^ 2 + 3h
^ 2 h2  3 2
10 + 3 5
=
29
10 + 3 5
=
7
10 + 3 5
=7
Solution
2 3 +
3 +4 2
3 4 2
3 4 2
^2 3 + 5 h^ 3  4 2 h
^ 3 h2  ^ 4 2 h2
2 # 3  8 6 + 15  4 10
=
3  16 # 2
c d
c d
6  8 6 + 15  4 10
 29
 6 + 8 6  15 + 4 10
=
29
=
3. Evaluate a and b if
3 3
3 2
= a + b.
Solution
3 3
3 2
3+ 2
3+ 2
3 3^ 3 + 2h
^ 3  2 h^ 3 + 2 h
3 9+3 6
=
^ 3 h2  ^ 2 h2
3#3+3 6
32
9+3 6
=
1
=9+3 6
=
=9+ 9# 6
= 9 + 54
So a = 9 and b = 54.
4. Evaluate as a fraction with rational denominator
2
+
3+2
5
32
Solution
2
+
3+2
5
3 2
2^ 3  2h + 5 ^ 3 + 2h
^ 3 + 2h ^ 3  2h
2 3  4 + 15 + 2 5
=
^ 3 h2  2 2
2 3  4 + 15 + 2 5
34
2 3  4 + 15 + 2 5
=
1
=  2 3 + 4  15  2 5
=
87
88
2.23
1.
2.
Exercises
3.
1
7
(a)
(b)
2 2
2 3
(c)
5
6 7
(d)
5 2
1+
2
3
6 5
(g)
5 +2 2
8+3 2
(j)
4 3 2 2
(f)
1
5 +
2 
2 +
2 +3
4 5
(j)
7 5
(k)
4
3 +
(l)
2
4.
2 7
5 +2 6
3 4
3 +4
3 3 3 +
(b)
(c)
2 +5
2
2
2 5 +3 2
3
2 +
3
3 2 
6 
2
3
2 +3
5
6 +2
2 +7
4+
2 3 +
3 2
6 +
1
3
3 
(d)
(e)
2 5
3
4 2
2 1
5 
3
5 3
2
4
2+
3 +1
Find a and b if
(a)
2 3
1
where z = 1 +
z2
(h)
(i)
1
2 1
1
where t =
t
3 2 +4
2 7
(e)
(g)
(i)
(d)
2 
3 2 4
(c)
(f) z 2 
(h)
(b)
1
+
2 +1
(e) t +
(f)
(a)
a
b
a 6
b
2
=a+b 5
5 +1
2 7
7 4
2 +3
2 1
=a+b 7
=a+
2

2
6 1
5.
2 1
Show that
2 +1
4
is
2
7.
If x =
(b) x 2 +
8.
1
x2
1
5 
3 + 2, simplify
1
(a) x + x
2
5 +
5 +1
rational.
6.
Write
Show that
8
2
+
is
3+2 2
2
rational.
1
(c) b x + x l
9.
1
If 2 + x = 3 , where x ! 0,
find x as a surd with rational
denominator.
89
90
Test Yourself 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
Simplify
(a) 5y  7y
3a + 12
(b)
3
(c)  2k 3 # 3k 2
y
x
(d) +
5
3
(e) 4a  3b  a  5b
(f) 8 + 32
(g) 3 5  20 + 45
Factorise
(a) x 2  36
(b) a 2 + 2a  3
(c) 4ab 2  8ab
(d) 5y  15 + xy  3x
(e) 4n  2p + 6
(f) 8  x 3
Expand and simplify
(a) b + 3 ] b  2 g
(b) ] 2x  1 g ] x + 3 g
(c) 5 ] m + 3 g  ] m  2 g
(d) ]4x  3g2
(e) ^ p  5h^ p + 5h
(f) 7  2 ] a + 4 g  5a
(g) 3 ^ 2 2  5 h
(h) ^ 3 + 7 h^ 3  2h
Simplify
4a  12
10b
(a)
# 3
5b 3
a  27
(b)
5.
5m + 10
m2  4
'
2
m  m  2 3m + 3
6.
7.
Simplify
8.
If a = 4, b =  3 and c =  2, nd the
value of
(a) ab 2
(b) a  bc
(c) a
(d) ]bcg3
(e) c ] 2a + 3b g
9.
Simplify
3 12
(a)
6 15
(b)
3
1
2
+
 2
.
x2
x+3
x +x6
4 32
2 2
1+ 3
2
14. Simplify
3x 4 y
(a)
9xy 5
(b)
5
15x  5
15. Simplify
2
(a) ^ 3 11 h
3
(b) ^ 2 3 h
16. Expand and simplify
(a) ] a + b g ] a  b g
(b) ] a + b g 2
(c) ] a  b g 2
17. Factorise
(a) a 2  2ab + b 2
(b) a 3  b 3
1
18. If x = 3 + 1, simplify x + x and
give your answer with a rational
denominator.
19. Simplify
4 3
(a) a +
b
(b)
x3 x2
5
2
20. Simplify
2
3
, writing
5+2 2 21
5 3
2
(c)
5 1
(d)
(e)
2 2
3 2+ 3
5+ 2
4 53 3
24. Simplify
3x
x2
(a)
5
2
a+2
2a  3
(b)
+
7
3
1
2
(c) 2
1
x
+
x 1
4
1
(d) 2
+
k + 2k  3 k + 3
(e)
3
2+ 5
5
3 2
25. Evaluate n if
(a) 108  12 =
(b)
112 + 7 =
n
n
8 6
(c) 2 8 + 200 =
2 18
(d) 4 147 + 3 75 = n
180
(e) 2 245 +
= n
2
(e) 5a #  3b #  2a
(f)
2m 3 n
6m 2 n 5
(g) 3x  2y  x  y
91
92
26. Evaluate x 2 +
1+2 3
1
if x =
2
x
12 3
2 7
(there may be more than one answer).
21
(a)
28
2 21
(b)
28
21
(c)
14
21
(d)
7
x3
x +1
.
5
4
]x + 7 g
20
x+7
20
x + 17
20
 ] x + 17 g
20
28. Simplify
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3
2
1
+
.
x2
x+2
x2  4
x+5
]x + 2g]x  2g
x+1
]x + 2g]x  2g
x+9
]x + 2g]x  2g
x3
]x + 2g]x  2g
31. Simplify
(d)
80
.
27
4 5
3 3
4 5
9 3
8 5
9 3
8 5
3 3
Challenge Exercise 2
1.
2.
2x + y
xy
3x + 2y
.
+
 2
x3
x+3
x +x6
5 3
3.
Simplify
4.
b
Complete the square on x 2 + a x.
Factorise
(a) (x + 4)2 + 5 (x + 4)
(b) x 4  x 2 y  6y 2
(c) 125x 3 + 343
(d) a 2 b  2a 2  4b + 8
16. If x =
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
7 6  54
11. Simplify
denominator
Simplify
d=
4x 2  16x + 12
 ax 1 + by 1 + c 
Simplify
10. Factorise
^a + 1h
a3 + 1
a2
4
 2.
2
x
b
lx 1 + kx 2
a2 + b2
the perpendicular distance from a
point to a line. Find the exact value
of d with a rational denominator if
a = 2, b = 1, c = 3, x 1 =  4 and y 1 = 5.
3
2 1
3 +4
3 4
2+3 3
=a+b 3
93
Equations
TERMINOLOGY
Absolute value: the distance of a number from zero on a
number line
Chapter 3 Equations
95
INTRODUCTION
EQUATIONS ARE FOUND IN most branches of mathematics. They are also
PROBLEM
The age of Diophantus at his death can be calculated from this epitaph:
Diophantus passed onesixth of his life in childhood, onetwelfth in youth, and
oneseventh
as a bachelor; ve years after his marriage a son was born
DID
YOU more
KNOW?
who died four years before his father at half his fathers nal age. How old
Diophantus?
Boxwas
text...
Simple Equations
Here are the four rules for changing numbers or pronumerals from one side of
an equation to the other.
96
EXAMPLES
Solve
1. 3x + 5 = 17
Solution
3x + 5 = 17
3x + 5  5 = 17  5
3x = 12
3x
12
=
3
3
x=4
You can check the solution by substituting the value into the equation.
LHS = 3x + 5
= 3 ( 4) + 5
= 12 + 5
= 17
= RHS
Since LHS = RHS, x = 4 is the correct solution.
2. 4y  3 = 8y + 21
Solution
4y  3
4 y  4y  3
3
 3  21
 24
= 8y + 21
= 8y  4y + 21
= 4y + 21
= 4y + 21  21
= 4y
4y
 24
=
4
4
6 = y
y = 6
3. 2 ] 3x + 7 g = 6  ] x  1 g
Check these solutions
by substituting them
into the equation.
Solution
2 (3 x + 7 ) = 6  ( x  1 )
6x + 14 = 6  x + 1
=7x
6x + x + 14 = 7  x + x
7x + 14 = 7
Chapter 3 Equations
7x + 14  14
7x
7x
7
x
= 7  14
= 7
7
7
= 1
=
3.1 Exercises
Solve
1.
t + 4 = 1
2.
z + 1.7 = 3.9
3.
y  3 = 2
4.
w  2 .6 = 4 .1
18. 3x + 5 = 17
5.
5 = x 7
19. 4a + 7 =  21
6.
1.5x = 6
20. 7y  1 = 20
7.
5y = 1
3
8.
b
=5
7
9.
2 =
10.
r
2
=
6
3
16.
x
3 =7
2
17.
m
+ 7 = 11
5
21. 8b  4 =  36
22. 3 (x + 2) = 15
23. 2 (3a + 1) = 8
n
8
11. 2y + 1 = 19
12. 33 = 4k + 9
13. 7d  2 = 12
14. 2 = 5x  27
y
15.
+4=9
3
24. 7t + 4 = 3t  12
25. x  3 = 6x  9
26. 2 (a  2) = 4  3a
27. 5b + 2 =  3(b  1)
28. 3 (t + 7) = 2 (2t  9)
29. 2 + 5( p  1) = 5p  ( p  2)
30. 3.7x + 1.2 = 5.4x  6.3
A S TA R T L I N G FA C T !
Half full = half empty
`
full = empty
97
98
EXAMPLES
Solve
m
1
1.
4=
3
2
Solution
Multiply by
the common
denominator, 6.
m
1
4 =
3
2
m
m  6 (4) = 6 c 1 m
2
3
2m  24 = 3
2m  24 + 24 = 3 + 24
2m = 27
6c
2m
27
=
2
2
27
m=
2
= 13 1
2
2.
x+1
x
+ =5
4
3
Solution
The common
denominator of
3 and 4 is 12.
x +1 x
+ =5
4
3
x +1
x
m + 12 c m = 12 (5)
12 c
4
3
4 (x + 1) + 3x = 60
4x + 4 + 3x = 60
7x + 4 = 60
7x + 4  4 = 60  4
7x = 56
7x
56
=
7
7
x=8
Chapter 3 Equations
3.
99
y +1
y2
5
=
5
3
6
Solution
y +1
y2
5
=
5
3
6
y +1
y 2
o  30 e
o = 30 c 5 m
30 e
5
3
6
6 (y + 1)  10 (y  2) = 25
6y + 6  10y + 20 = 25
 4y + 26 = 25
 4y + 26  26 = 25  26
 4y = 1
 4y
1
=
4
4
y=1
4
When there is a fraction on either side of the equation, multiplying by
the common denominator is the same as cross multiplying.
EXAMPLES
5
8
1. Solve x =
(x ! 0 )
3
Solution
5
8
x =3
8x = 15
8x
15
=
8
8
7
x=1
8
2. Solve
3
8
^n ! 0h
=
5
2n
Solution
3
8
=
5
2n
16n = 15
16n
15
=
16
16
15
n=
16
The common
denominator of 5, 3
and 6 is 30.
100
3.2 Exercises
Solve
1.
b
2
=
5
3
14.
3
x
x
 =
5
2
10
2.
7
1
x = 5 (x ! 0 )
15.
x+4 x
+ =1
3
2
3.
9
4
y = 10 (y ! 0)
16.
p3
2p
+
=2
2
3
4.
5x
11
=
4
7
17.
t +3 t 1
+
=4
7
3
5.
9
4
=
( k ! 0)
5
2k
18.
x+5
x+2
=1
5
9
6.
x
4=8
3
19.
q1
q2
=2
4
3
7.
3
5t
=
4
4
20.
x+3
x +7
+2=
5
2
8.
5+x
2
=
7
7
21.
3b
1
b
 =
4
5
2
9.
y
3
=5
2
22.
a
3
5
+ =
4
3
8
10.
x
2
 =7
9
3
23.
3
5
=x
x+2
^ x ! 0, 2 h
11.
w3
=5
2
24.
1
1
=
y +1
3y  1
c y ! 1,
12.
2t
t
 =2
5
3
25.
2
1
+
= 0 ^ t ! 3,  4 h
t3 t+4
13.
x
1
+ =4
4
2
1
m
3
Substitution
Sometimes substituting values into a formula involves solving an equation.
Investigation
Body mass index (BMI) is a formula that is used to measure body fatness
and is used by health professionals to screen for weight categories that
may lead to health problems.
Chapter 3 Equations
This is not the only measure that is used when looking for health
problems, however. For example, there are other factors in cardiac (heart)
disease. Research these to find out what other things doctors look for.
The BMI is used in a different way with children and teens, and is taken
in relation to the childs age.
w
The formula for BMI is BMI = 2 where w is weight in kg and h is height
h
in metres.
For adults over 20, a BMI under
18.5 means that the person
is underweight and over 25 is
overweight. Over 30 is obese.
The BMI may not always be
reliable in measuring body fat. Can
you think of some reasons?
Is it important where the body fat
is stored? Does it make a difference if it is on the hips or the stomach?
Research these questions and find out more about BMI generally.
EXAMPLES
1. The formula for the surface area of a rectangular prism is given by
S = 2 (lb + bh + lh) . Find the value of b when S = 180, l = 9 and h = 6.
Solution
S = 2 (lb + bh + lh)
180 = 2 (9b + 6b + 9 # 6)
= 2 (15b + 54)
= 30b + 108
180  108 = 30b + 108  108
72 = 30b
30b
72
=
30
30
2. 4 = b
CONTINUED
101
102
Solution
V = rr 2 h
350 = rr 2 (6.5)
r r 2 ( 6 .5 )
350
=
6 .5 r
6.5r
350
= r2
6 .5 r
350
= r2
6 .5 r
350
=r
6 .5 r
4.14 = r
3.3 Exercises
1.
7.
2.
8.
3.
9.
4.
5.
6.
Find y 1 when m =  5 ,
6
y 2 = 7, x 2 =  3 and x 1 = 1.
10. The surface area of a cylinder
is given by the formula
S = 2rr ] r + h g . Evaluate h
correct to 1 decimal place if
S = 232 and r = 4.5.
Chapter 3 Equations
18. If y =
Inequations
In order to solve inequations, we need to see what effect one operation applied
to both sides has on the inequality sign.
103
104
1
1
If a 2 b then a 1 for all positive numbers a and b
b
1
1
1 .
3
2
Chapter 3 Equations
105
EXAMPLES
Solve and show the solutions on a number line
1. 5x + 7 $ 17
Solution
5x + 7 $ 17
5x + 7  7 $ 17  7
5x $ 10
5x
10
$
5
5
x$2
4
3
2
1
2. 3t  2 2 5t + 4
Solution
3t  2 2 5t +
3t  3t  2 2 5t 2 2 2t +
 2  4 2 2t +
6 2 2t
2t
6
2
2
2
3 2 t
4
3t + 4
4
44
or
3t  2
3t  5t  2
2t  2
 2t  2 + 2
2t
2t
2
t
4
2 5t + 4
2 5t  5t + 4
24
24+2
26
6
2
2
1 3
3
2
Remember to change
the inequality sign when
dividing by 2.
1
CONTINUED
106
3. Solve 1 1 2z + 7 # 11.
Solution
Method 1: Separate into two separate questions.
1 1 2z + 7
(i)
1  7 1 2z + 7  7
 6 1 2z
6
2z
1
2
2
3 1 z
(ii)
2z + 7 # 11
2z + 7  7 # 11  7
2z # 4
2z
4
#
2
2
z #2
4
3
2
1
3.4 Exercises
1.
2.
Solve
(a) 5t 2 35
(b) 3x  7 $ 2
(c) 2 (p + 5) 2 8
(d) 4  (x  1) # 7
(e) 3y + 5 2 2y  4
(f) 2a  6 # 5a  3
(g) 3 + 4y $  2 (1  y)
(h) 2x + 9 1 1  4 (x + 1)
a
(i) #  3
2
2y
(j) 8 2
3
b
(k) + 5 1  4
2
x
(l)  4 2 6
3
x
1
(m) + # 1
4
5
(n)
m
2
3 2
4
3
Chapter 3 Equations
2b 1
 $6
5
2
r3
(p)
# 6
2
z+1
(q)
+223
9
w
2w + 5
(r)
+
14
6
3
(o)
(s)
x+1
x2
$7
2
3
(t)
t+3
t+2
#2
7
2
(u)
q2
3q
12+
4
3
3.
(v)
2x
x 1
2
2
3
2
9
(w)
2b  5
b+6
+3#
8
12
PROBLEM
Find a solution for this sum. Is it a unique solution?
CR OS S
+RO A DS
DANGE R
EXAMPLES
Plot on a number line and evaluate x
1. x = 2
Solution
x = 2 means the distance of x from zero is 2 (in either direction).
2
4
3
2
1
x = !2
CONTINUED
107
108
2. x # 2
Solution
x # 2 means the distance of x from zero is less than or equal to 2 (in
either direction).
4
The solution of
 x  1 2 would be
 2 1 x 1 2.
3
1
2
Notice that there is one region on the number line. We can write this as
the single statement  2 # x # 2.
3. x 2 2
Solution
x 2 2 means the distance of x from zero is greater than 2 (in either
direction).
2
4
The solution of
 x  $ 2 would be
x #  2, x $ 2.
3
1
2
There are two regions on the number line, so we write two separate
inequalities x 1  2, x 2 2.
x = a means x = ! a
x 1 a means a 1 x 1 a
x 2 a means x 2 a, x 1 a
Class Discussion
What does a  b mean as a distance along the number line?
Select different values of a and b to help with this discussion.
Chapter 3 Equations
109
EXAMPLES
Solve
1. x + 4 = 7
Solution
This means that the distance from x + 4 to zero is 7 in either direction.
So x + 4 = ! 7.
x+4 =7
x+4=7
or
x + 4 = 7
x+44=74
x + 4  4 = 7  4
x=3
x = 11
2. 2y  1 1 5
Solution
This means that the distance from 2y  1 to zero is less than 5 in either
direction. So it means  5 1 2y  1 1 5.
 5 1 2y  1 1 5
 5 + 1 1 2y  1 + 1 1 5 + 1
2y
6
4
1
1
2
2
2
2 1 y 1 3
3. 5b  7 $ 3
Solution
5b  7 $ 3 means that the distance from 5b  7 to zero is greater than
or equal to 3 in either direction.
5b  7 #  3
5b  7 $ 3
5b  7 + 7 # 3 + 7
5b # 4
5b
4
#
5
5
4
b #
5
4
So b # , b $ 2.
5
5b  7 + 7 $ 3 + 7
5b $ 10
5b
10
$
5
5
b$2
110
EXAMPLES
Solve
1. 2x + 1 = 3x  2
Solution
2x + 1 = 3x  2 means that 2x + 1 is at a distance of 3x  2 from zero.
2x + 1 = ! ] 3x  2 g
This question is impossible if 3x  2 is negative. Can you see why? If
2x + 1 is equal to a negative number, this is impossible as the absolute
value is always positive.
Case (i)
2x + 1 = 3x  2
2x  2x + 1 = 3x  2x  2
1=x2
1+2=x2+2
3=x
Check solution is possible:
Substitute x = 3 into 2x + 1 = 3x  2.
LHS = 2 # 3 + 1
= 7
=7
RHS = 3 # 3  2
=92
=7
Since LHS = RHS, x = 3 is a solution.
Case (ii)
2 x + 1 =  ( 3x  2 )
=  3x + 2
2x + 3x + 1 =  3 x + 3x + 2
5x + 1 = 2
5x + 1  1 = 2  1
5x = 1
5x
1
=
5
5
1
x=
5
Chapter 3 Equations
Check:
1
Substitute x = into 2x + 1 = 3x  2.
5
1
LHS = 2 # + 1
5
2
= 1
5
2
=1
5
1
RHS = 3 #  2
5
3
= 2
5
2
= 1
5
1
Since LHS ! RHS, x = is not a solution.
5
So the only solution is x = 3.
2. 2x  3 + x + 1 = 9
Solution
In this question it is difficult to use distances on the number line, so we
use the definition of absolute value.
2x  3
2x  3 = '  (2
x  3)
+1
x + 1 = ' (xx +
1)
when 2x  3 $ 0
when 2x  3 1 0
when x + 1 $ 0
when x + 1 1 0
111
2
into 2x  3 + x + 1 = 9.
3
CONTINUED
112
2
2
3 + 3 +1
3
3
1
2
= 4 + 4
3
3
1
2
=4 +4
3
3
=9
= RHS
2
So x = 3 is a solution.
3
Case (ii)
( 2 x  3 )  (x + 1 ) = 9
2x  3  x  1 = 9
x4=9
x4+4=9+4
x = 13
Check by substituting x = 13 into 2x  3 + x + 1 = 9.
LHS = 2 # 13  3 + 13 + 1
= 23 + 14
= 23 + 14
= 37
! RHS
So x = 13 is not a solution.
Case (iii)
(2x  3) + (x + 1) = 9
 2x + 3 + x + 1 = 9
x + 4 = 9
x + 4  4 = 9  4
x = 5
x
5
=
1
1
x = 5
LHS = 2 # 3
Chapter 3 Equations
113
 3x
7
=
3
3
1
3
1
Check by substituting x =  2 into 2x  3 + x + 1 = 9.
3
1
1
LHS = 2 #  2  3 +  2 + 1
3
3
2
1
= 7 + 1
3
3
2
1
= 7 +1
3
3
=9
= RHS
1
So x =  2 is a solution.
3
2
1
So solutions are x = 3 ,  2 .
3
3
x = 2
While you should always check solutions, you can see that there are some
cases where this is really important.
3.5 Exercises
1.
Solve
3.
Solve
(a) x + 2 = 5x  3
(b) 2a  1 = a + 2
(c) b  3 = 2b  4
(d) 3k  2 = k  4
(e) 6y + 23 = y  7
(f) 4x + 3 = 5x  4
(g) 2m  5 = m
(h) 3d + 1 = d + 6
(i) 5  y = 4y + 1
(j) 2t  7 = 3  t
4.
Solve
(a) x = 5
(b) y = 8
(c) a 1 4
(d) k $ 1
(e) x 2 6
(f) p # 10
(g) x = 0
(h) a 2 14
(i) y 1 12
(j) b $ 20
2.
Solve
(a) x + 3 = 3x  1
(a) x + 2 = 7
(b) 2y  5 = y  2
(c) 3a + 1 = 2a  9
(b) n  1 = 3
(d) 2x + 5 + x = 17
(c) 2a 2 4
(e) 3d  2 + d + 4 = 18
(d) x  5 # 1
(e) 9 = 2x + 3
(f) 7x  1 = 34
(g) 4y + 3 1 11
(h) 2x  3 $ 15
x
(i)
=4
3
a
(j)
3 #2
2
5.
114
Exponential Equations
An exponential equation involves an unknown index or power e.g. 2 x = 8.
We can also solve other equations involving indices. In order to solve
these, you need to understand their relationship. For example, squares and
square roots are the reverse of each other (we call them inverse operations).
Similarly cubes and cube roots are inverses, and this extends to all indices.
To solve equations, use inverse operations:
For squares, take the square root
For cubes, take the cube root
For square roots, take the square
For cube roots, take the cube
You have previously used these rules when substituting into formulae
involving squares and cubes.
EXAMPLES
Solve
1. x 2 = 9
There are two possible
solutions for x one
positive and one
negative since 3 2 = 9
and ( 3) 2 = 9.
Solution
x2 = 9
x2 = ! 9
` x= !3
2. 5n 3 = 40
Solution
5n 3 = 40
5n 3
40
=
5
5
3
n =8
3
n3 = 3 8
n=2
Chapter 3 Equations
3. a 3 = 4
Solution
3
2
2
3
3
2
a3 = 4
3
2
`a j = 4 2
2
3
3
3
a= 42
3
a = ^ 4h
= 23
=8
Investigation
Investigate equations of the type x n = k where k is a constant, for
example, x n = 9.
Look at these questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
EXAMPLES
Solve
1. 3 x = 81
Solution
3 x = 81
Equating indices:
3x = 34
`x=4
CONTINUED
115
116
2. 5 2k  1 = 25
Solution
5 2k  1 = 25
5 2k  1 = 5 2
` 2k  1 = 2
2k  1 + 1 = 2 + 1
2k = 3
3
2k
=
2
2
1
k=1
2
3. 8 n = 4
Solution
It is hard to write 8 as a power of 4 or 4 as a power of 8, but both can be
written as powers of 2.
8n = 4
(2 ) = 2 2
2 3n = 2 2
` 3n = 2
3n
2
=
3
3
2
n=
3
3 n
3.6 Exercises
1.
Solve
(a) x 3 = 27
(b) y 2 = 64
(c) n 4 = 16
(d) x 2 = 20 (give the exact answer)
(e) p 3 = 1000
(f) 2x 2 = 50
(g) 6y 4 = 486
(h) w 3 + 7 = 15
(i) 6n 2  4 = 92
(j) 3q 3 + 20 =  4
2.
Chapter 3 Equations
3.
Solve
6.
Solve
(a) 2 n = 16
(b) 3 y = 243
(c) 2 m = 512
(d) 10 x = 100 000
(e) 6 m = 1
(f) 4 x = 64
(g) 4 x + 3 = 19
(h) 5 (3 x ) = 45
(i) 4 x = 4
6k
(j)
= 18
2
7.
Solve
(a) 3 2x = 81
(b) 2 5x  1 = 16
(c) 4 x + 3 = 4
(d) 3 n  2 = 1
(e) 7 2x + 1 = 7
(f) 3 x  3 = 27
(g) 5 3y + 2 = 125
(h) 7 3x  4 = 49
(i) 2 4x = 256
(j) 9 3a + 1 = 9
8.
Solve
(a) 4 m = 2
(b) 27 x = 3
(c) 125 x = 5
2
3
(a) n = 9
3
(b) t 4 = 8
2
(c) x 5 = 4
4
(d) t 3 = 16
3
(e) p 5 = 27
3
(f) 2m 4 = 250
2
(g) b 3 + 3 = 39
4
(h) 5y 3 = 405
2
(i) 3a 7  2 = 10
3
4
(j)
4.
5.
t
=9
3
(d) c
1 k
m =7
49
1 k
m = 100
(e) c
1000
(f) 16 n = 8
(g) 25 x = 125
(h) 64 n = 16
1
3
3
2
1
4
3
4
(b) x
(c) a
(d) k
(e) 3x
3
2
=8
=
8
125
=3
= 125
2
3
= 12
1
8
2
1
3
(g) y =
4
2
4
(h) n 5 =
9
(f) x
(i) b
(j) m
5
3
2
3
1 3k
(i) c m = 2
4
(j) 8 x  1 = 4
=
=
1
32
36
49
9.
Solve
(a) 2 4x + 1 = 8 x
(b) 3 5x = 9 x  2
(c) 7 2k + 3 = 7 k  1
(d) 4 3n = 8 n + 3
(e) 6 x  5 = 216 x
(f) 16 2x  1 = 4 x  4
(g) 27 x + 3 = 3 x
1 x
1 2x + 3
m
(h) c m = c
2
64
117
118
3 x
27 2x  3
m
(i) c m = c
4
64
1 x9
m
(j) ] 5 g x = c
25
10. Solve
(a) 4 m =
9 k+3
m
(b) c
=
25
1
(c)
= 4 2x  5
2
3
5
(d) 3 k = 3 3
(e) c
3
1 3n + 1
m
=
27
81
5 n
2 3n + 1
(f) c m
=c m
5
2
1
(g) 32  x =
16
(h) 9 2b + 5 = 3 b 3
(i) 81 x + 1 =
3x
1 3m  5
(j) 25  m = c m
5
PUZZLE
Test your logical thinking and that of your friends.
1. How many months have 28 days?
2. If I have 128 sheep and take away all but 10, how many
do I have left?
3. A bottle and its cork cost $1.10 to make. If the bottle costs $1 more
than the cork, how much does each cost?
4. What do you get if you add 1 to 15 four times?
5. On what day of the week does Good Friday fall in 2016?
Quadratic Equations
A quadratic equation is an equation involving a square. For example, x 2  4 = 0.
Solving by factorisation
When solving quadratic equations by factorising, we use a property of zero.
EXAMPLES
Solve
1. x 2 + x  6 = 0
Solution
x2 + x  6 = 0
(x + 3) (x  2) = 0
Chapter 3 Equations
x+3=0
or
x2=0
x+33=03
x2+2 =0 +2
x = 3
or
x= 2
So the solution is x =  3 or 2.
2. y 2  7y = 0
Solution
y 2  7y = 0
y ( y  7) = 0
`
y=0
or
y7=0
y7+7=0+7
y=7
So the solution is y = 0 or 7.
3. 3a 2  14a =  8
Solution
3a 2  14a =  8
3a 2  14a + 8 =  8 + 8
3a 2  14a + 8 = 0
(3a  2) (a  4) = 0
`
3a  2 = 0
or
3a  2 + 2 = 0
or
3a = 2
3a
2
=
3
3
2
a=
3
2
So the solution is a = or 4.
3
a4 =0
a4+4 =0+4
a=4
3.7 Exercises
Solve
1.
y2 + y = 0
4.
t 2  5t = 0
2.
b2  b  2 = 0
5.
x 2 + 9x + 14 = 0
3.
p 2 + 2p  15 = 0
6.
q2  9 = 0
119
120
7.
x2  1 = 0
17. 5x  x 2 = 0
8.
a 2 + 3a = 0
18. y 2 = y + 2
9.
2x 2 + 8x = 0
19. 8n = n 2 + 15
10. 4x 2  1 = 0
20. 12 = 7x  x 2
11. 3x 2 + 7x + 4 = 0
21. m 2 = 6  5m
12. 2y 2 + y  3 = 0
22. x (x + 1) (x + 2) = 0
13. 8b 2  10b + 3 = 0
23. (y  1) (y + 5) (y + 2) = 0
14. x 2  3x = 10
24. (x + 3) (x  1) = 32
15. 3x 2 = 2x
25. (m  3) (m  4) = 20
16. 2x 2 = 7x  5
Application
1 2
at where u is the
2
initial velocity and a is the acceleration. Find the time when the displacement will
be zero, given u =  12 and a = 10.
A formula for displacement s at time t is given by s = ut +
2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
0 = 12t + 1 (10) t
2
= 12t + 5t
= t (12 + 5t )
` t = 0 or
12 + 5t = 0
12 + 12 + 5t = 0 + 12
5t = 12
5t
12
=
5
5
t = 2.4
So displacement will be zero when t = 0 or 2.4.
Chapter 3 Equations
121
EXAMPLES
Solve
1. x 2 = 7
Solution
x2 = 7
x=! 7
= ! 2.6
2. ] x + 3 g2 = 11
Solution
] x + 3 g2 = 11
x + 3 = ! 11
x + 3  3 = ! 11  3
x = ! 11  3
= 0.3,  6.3
3. ^ y  2 h2 = 7
Solution
^ y  2 h2 = 7
y2=! 7
y2+2=! 7+2
y=! 7+2
= 4.6,  0.6
EXAMPLES
Solve by completing the square
1. x 2  6x + 3 = 0 (give exact answer)
Solution
x 2  6x + 3 = 0
x 2  6x =  3
c 6 m = 32 = 9
2
CONTINUED
122
x 2  6x + 9 =  3 + 9
] x  3 g2 = 6
`
x3=! 6
x3+3=! 6+3
x=! 6+3
Solution
y 2 + 2y  7 = 0
y 2 + 2y = 7
c 2 m = 12 = 1
2
y 2 + 2y + 1 = 7 + 1
^ y + 1 h2 = 8
`
y+1=! 8
y + 1  1 = ! 8 1
y = ! 8 1
= !2 2  1
y = 1.83 or  3.83
3.8 Exercises
1.
2.
Solving by formula
Completing the square is difficult with harder quadratic equations, for
example 2x 2  x  5 = 0. Completing the square on a general quadratic
equation gives the following formula.
Chapter 3 Equations
b !
b 2  4ac
2a
Proof
Solve ax 2 + b + c = 0 by completing the square.
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
ax 2 bx c
0
a + a +a=a
bx c
x2 + a + a = 0
c
c
bx c
x2 + a + a  a = 0  a
bx
c
x2 + a =  a
2
2
2
b b ' 2l = c b m = b 2
a
2a
4a
bx
c
b2
b2
x2 + a + 2 =  a + 2
4a
4a
c
b2
b 2
cx +
m = a + 2
2a
4a
 4ac + b 2
=
4a 2
 4ac + b 2
b
x+
=!
2a
4a 2
2
b  4ac
=!
2a
b 2  4ac
b
b
b
x+
=!
2a
2a 2a
2a
b 2  4ac
b
x=
!
2a
2a
2
 b ! b  4ac
=
2a
EXAMPLES
1. Solve x 2  x  2 = 0 by using the quadratic formula.
Solution
a = 1, b = 1, c =  2
b 2  4ac
2a
 (1) ! (1) 2  4 (1) (2)
=
2 (1 )
1! 1+8
=
2
x=
b !
CONTINUED
123
124
1! 9
2
1!3
=
2
= 2 or  1
1! 3
gives two
2
1+ 3
separate solutions,
2
1 3
and
.
2
x =
Solution
a = 2, b = 9, c = 3
b ! b 2  4ac
2a
 ] 9 g ! ] 9 g2  4 ] 2 g ] 3 g
y=
2] 2 g
9 ! 81  24
=
4
9 ! 57
=
4
Z 4.14 or 0.36
x=
3.9
1.
Exercises
2.
Class Investigation
Here is a proof that 1 = 2. Can you see the fault in the proof?
x2  x2 = x2  x2
x(x  x) = (x + x) (x  x)
x=x+x
x = 2x
1=2
`
Chapter 3 Equations
125
Quadratic Inequations
Solving quadratic inequations is similar to solving quadratic equations, but
you need to do this in two stages. The rst is to solve the equation and then
the second step is to look at either the number line or the number plane for
the inequality.
In Chapter 9 you will look at how to use the number plane to solve these
quadratic inequations. Here are some examples of solving quadratic
inequations using the number line.
EXAMPLES
Solve
1. x 2 + x  6 2 0
Solution
Be careful: x 2 + x  6 2 0
does not mean x  2 2 0
and x + 3 2 0.
First solve x + x  6 = 0
(x  2 ) (x + 3 ) = 0
`
x = 2 or 3
2
3
2
1
(false)
126
(true)
(  4) 2 + ( 4)  6 2 0
620
So the solution is on the LHS of 3.
4
3
2
1
(true)
Solution
First solve 9  x 2 = 0
(3  x) (3 + x) = 0
`
x = !3
4
3
2
1
9  x2 $ 0
9  02 $ 0
9$0
(true)
3
2
1
Chapter 3 Equations
3.10
Exercises
Solve
1.
x 2 + 3x 1 0
14. 6  13b  5b 2 1 0
2.
y 2  4y 1 0
15. 6x 2 + 11x + 3 # 0
3.
n2  n $ 0
16. y 2 + y # 12
4.
x2  4 $ 0
17. x 2 2 16
5.
1  n2 1 0
18. a 2 # 1
6.
n 2 + 2n  15 # 0
19. x 2 1 x + 6
7.
c2  c  2 2 0
20. x 2 $ 2x + 3
8.
x 2 + 6x + 8 # 0
21. x 2 1 2x
9.
x 2  9x + 20 1 0
22. 2a 2  5a + 3 # 0
10. 4b 2 + 10b + 4 $ 0
23. 5y 2 + 6y $ 8
11. 1  2a  3a 2 1 0
24. 6m 2 2 15  m
12. 2y 2  y  6 2 0
25. 3x 2 # 7x  4
13. 3x 2  5x + 2 $ 0
Simultaneous Equations
Two equations, each with two unknown pronumerals, can be solved together
to nd one solution that satises both equations.
There are different ways of solving simultaneous equations. The
elimination method adds or subtracts the equations. The substitution
method substitutes one equation into the other.
Linear equations
These equations can be solved by either method. Many students prefer the
elimination method.
127
128
EXAMPLES
Solve simultaneously
1. 3a + 2b = 5 and 2a  b = 6
Solution
] 2 g # 2:
] 1 g + (3):
3a + 2b = 5
2a  b = 6
(1 )
(2 )
4a  2b = 12
3 a + 2b = 5
7a =  7
a = 1
(3 )
(1 )
Substitute a = 1 in (1)
3 (1) + 2b = 5
3 + 2b = 5
2b = 8
b=4
` solution is a = 1, b = 4
2. 5x  3y = 19 and 2x  4y = 16
Solution
(1) # 4:
( 2 ) # 3:
(3)  (4):
5x  3y = 19
2x  4y = 16
20x  12y = 76
6x  12y = 48
14x = 28
x=2
Substitute x = 2 in (2)
2 ( 2)  4 y
4  4y
 4y
y
= 16
= 16
= 12
= 3
( 1)
( 2)
(3 )
(4 )
Chapter 3 Equations
3.11
Exercises
Solve simultaneously
1.
a  b = 2 and a + b = 4
2.
5x + 2y = 12 and 3x  2y = 4
3.
4p  3q = 11 and 5p + 3q = 7
13. 5p + 2q + 18 = 0 and
2p  3q + 11 = 0
4.
y = 3x  1 and y = 2x + 5
5.
2x + 3y = 14 and x + 3y = 4
6.
7t + v = 22 and 4t + v = 13
16. 5s  3t  13 = 0 and
3s  7t  13 = 0
7.
4x + 5y + 2 = 0 and
4x + y + 10 = 0
17. 3a  2b =  6 and a  3b =  2
8.
2x  4y = 28 and 2x  3y = 11
9.
5x  y = 19 and 2x + 5y = 14
14. 7x 1 + 3x 2 = 4 and 3x 1 + 5x 2 =  2
15. 9x  2y = 1 and 7x  4y = 9
19. 2v 1 + 5v 2  16 = 0 and
7v 1 + 2v 2 + 6 = 0
20. 1.5x + 3.4y = 7.8 and
2 . 1 x  1 . 7y = 1 . 8
PROBLEM
A group of 39 people went to see a play. There were both adults and
children in the group. The total cost of the tickets was $939, with
children paying $17 each and adults paying $29 each. How many in
the group were adults and how many were children? (Hint: let x be the
number of adults and y the number of children.)
Nonlinear equations
In questions involving nonlinear equations there may be more than one set
of solutions. In some of these, the elimination method cannot be used. Here
are some examples using the substitution method.
129
130
EXAMPLES
Solve simultaneously
1. xy = 6 and x + y = 5
Solution
xy = 6
x+y=5
From (2):
y=5x
Substitute (3) in (1)
x (5  x) = 6
( 1)
(2 )
(3 )
5x  x 2 = 6
0 = x 2  5x + 6
0 = (x  2 ) (x  3 )
`
x  2 = 0 or x  3 = 0
x = 2 or x = 3
Substitute x = 2 in (3)
y=52=3
Substitute x = 3 in (3)
y=53=2
` solutions are x = 2, y = 3 and x = 3, y = 2
2. x 2 + y 2 = 16 and 3x  4y  20 = 0
Solution
x 2 + y 2 = 16
3x  4y  20 = 0
From ] 2 g: 3x  20 = 4y
3x  20
=y
4
Substitute (3) into (1)
3x  20 2
m = 16
x2 + c
4
9x 2  120x + 400 n
= 16
x2 + d
16
16x 2 + 9x 2  120x + 400 = 256
25x 2  120x + 144 = 0
(5x  12)2 = 0
`
5x  12 = 0
5x = 12
x = 2.4
Substitute x = 2.4 into ] 3 g
3 (2.4)  20
4
= 3.2
So the solution is x = 2.4, y = 3.2.
y=
(1)
(2 )
(3)
Chapter 3 Equations
3.12
131
Exercises
y = x 2 and y = x
11. y = x  1 and y = x 2  3
2.
y = x 2 and 2x + y = 0
12. y = x 2 + 1 and y = 1  x 2
3.
x 2 + y 2 = 9 and x + y = 3
13. y = x 2  3x + 7 and y = 2x + 3
4.
x  y = 7 and xy = 12
14. xy = 1 and 4x  y + 3 = 0
5.
y = x 2 + 4x and 2x  y  1 = 0
15. h = t 2 and h = ] t + 1 g2
6.
y = x 2 and 6x  y  9 = 0
16. x + y = 2 and 2x 2 + xy  y 2 = 8
7.
x = t 2 and x + t  2 = 0
17. y = x 3 and y = x 2 + 6x
8.
m 2 + n 2 = 16 and m + n + 4 = 0
18. y =  x  and y = x 2
9.
xy = 2 and y = 2x
19. y = x 2  7x + 6 and
24x + 4y  23 = 0
10. y = x 3 and y = x 2
EXAMPLE
Solve simultaneously a  b + c = 7, a + 2b  c = 4 and 3a  b  c = 3.
Solution
ab +c=7
a + 2b  c =  4
3a  b  c = 3
(1) + (2):
ab+c=7
a + 2b  c =  4
2a + b
=3
(1) + (3):
a b+c=7
3a  b  c = 3
4a  2b
= 10
or
2a  b
=5
(4) + (5): 2a + b
=3
4a
=8
a=2
(1 )
(2)
(3)
( 4)
(5)
132
Substitute a = 2 in (4)
2 ( 2) + b = 3
4+b=3
b = 1
Substitute a = 2 and b = 1 in (1)
2  (1) + c = 7
2 +1 + c = 7
3+c=7
c=4
` solution is a = 2, b = 1, c = 4
3.13
Exercises
x =  2, 2x  y = 4 and
x  y + 6z = 0
2.
a =  2, 2a  3b = 1 and
a  b + 5c = 9
3.
2a + b + c = 1, a + b =  2
and c = 7
4.
a + b + c = 0, a  b + c =  4 and
2a  3b  c = 1
5.
x + y  z = 7, x + y + 2z = 1 and
3x + y  2z = 19
6.
x  y  z = 1 , 2x + y  z =  9
and 2x  3y  2z = 7
7.
2p + 5q  r = 25,
2p  2q  r = 24 and
3p  q + 5r = 4
8.
2x  y + 3 z = 9 ,
3x + y  2z = 2 and
3x  y + 5z = 14
9.
3h + j  k = 3,
h + 2j + k = 3 and
5h  3j  2k = 13
10. 2a  7b + 3c = 7,
a + 3b + 2c = 4 and
4a + 5b  c = 9
Chapter 3 Equations
Test Yourself 3
1.
Solve
(a) 8 = 3b  22
a a+2
(b) =9
4
3
(c) 4 (3x + 1) = 11x  3
(d) 3p + 1 # p + 9
2.
3.
4.
5.
Solve
(a) 3 x + 2 = 81
(b) 16 y = 2
6.
Solve
(a) 3b  1 = 5
(b) 5g  3 = 3g + 1
(c) 2x  7 $ 1
7.
8.
9.
x3 3
 2 9.
7
4
3
4
=x
x+1
^ x ! 0, 1 h .
133
134
20. Solve 9 2x + 1 = 27 x .
(h) 8 x + 1 = 4 x
(i) y 2  4 2 0
(j) 1  x 2 # 0
(k) 27 2x  1 = 9
(l) 4b  3 # 5
(m) 3x + 2 = 2x  3
(n) 4t  5 = t + 2
(o) x 2 1 2x + 3
(p) m 2 + m $ 6
21. Solve
(a) 2 ^ 3y  5 h 2 y + 5
(b) n 2 + 3n # 0
(c) 3 2x  1 = 27
(d) 5x 3  1 = 39
(e) 5x  4 = 11
(f) 2t + 1 $ 3
(g) x 2 + 2x  8 # 0
Challenge Exercise 3
1
.
a2
1.
2.
Solve x 2 2 a 2 .
3.
11. Solve x 2 =
4.
Solve
9. Solve t + 2 + 3t  1 1 5.
2
1
= 1 correct to 3
x1 x+1
signicant gures. (x ! ! 1)
5.
6.
7.
8.
1
.
8
13. Solve x  3 + x + 4 = x  2 .
2
15. Given A = P c 1 +
Geometry 1
TERMINOLOGY
Altitude: Height. Any line segment from a vertex to the
opposite side of a polygon that is perpendicular to that side
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
INTRODUCTION
GEOMETRY IS USED IN many areas, including surveying, building and graphics.
These elds all require a knowledge of angles, parallel lines and so on, and
how to measure them. In this chapter, you will study angles, parallel lines,
triangles, types of quadrilaterals and general polygons.
Many exercises in this chapter on geometry need you to prove something
or give reasons for your answers. The solutions to geometry proofs only give
one method, but other methods are also acceptable.
Notation
In order to show reasons for exercises, you must know how to name gures
correctly.
B
The point is called B.
BAC
137
138
To name a quadrilateral,
go around it: for example,
BCDA is correct, but ACBD
is not.
Line AB is produced to C.
DB bisects +ABC.
AM is a median of D ABC.
AP is an altitude of D ABC.
Types of Angles
Acute angle
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
Right angle
Obtuse angle
90c1 xc1180c
Straight angle
Reex angle
Angle of revolution
+AEC and +DEB are called vertically opposite angles. +AED and +CEB are
also vertically opposite angles.
139
140
Proof
Let +AEC = xc
Then +AED = 180c  xc
(+CED straight angle, 180c)
Now +DEB = 180c  (180c  xc)
(+AEB straight angle, 180c)
= xc
Also +CEB = 180c  xc
(+CED straight angle, 180c)
`
+AEC = +DEB and +AED =+CEB
EXAMPLES
Find the values of all pronumerals, giving reasons.
1.
Solution
x + 154 = 180
(+ABC is a straight angle, 180c)
x + 154  154 = 180  154
`
x = 26
2.
Solution
2x + 142 + 90
2x + 232
2x + 232  232
2x
2x
2
x
= 360
(angle of revolution, 360c )
= 360
= 360  232
= 128
128
=
2
= 64
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
3.
Solution
y + 2y + 30 = 90
3y + 30
3y + 30  30
3y
3y
3
y
= 90
= 90  30
= 60
60
3
= 20
=
4.
Solution
x + 50 = 165
x + 50  50 = 165  50
x = 115
y = 180  165
= 15
w = 15
5.
CONTINUED
141
142
Solution
a = 90
b + 53 + 90 = 180
b + 143 = 180
b + 143  143 = 180  143
b = 37
d = 37
c = 53
Solution
Supplementary angles add up to 180c.
So the supplement of 57c 12l is
180c  57c 12l = 122c 48l.
7. Prove that AB and CD are straight lines.
A
(x + 30)c
C
(6x + 10)c
(2x
2 + 10)c
E
(5x + 30)c
B
Solution
6x + 10 + x + 30 + 5x + 30 + 2x + 10 = 360
^ angle of revolution h
14x + 80  80 = 360  80
14x = 280
14x
280
=
14
14
x = 20
+AEC = (20 + 30)c
= 50c
+DEB = (2 # 20 + 10)c
= 50c
These are equal vertically opposite angles.
` AB and CD are straight lines
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
4.1 Exercises
1.
yc
(i)
133c
(b)
(j)
(c)
2.
3.
4.
5.
(a) Evaluate x.
(b) Find the complement of x.
(c) Find the supplement of x.
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(2x + 30)c
142c
143
144
6.
8.
(a)
Prove that CD bisects +AFE.
Prove that AC is a straight line.
9.
D
C
(b)
(3x + 70)c
(110  3x)c
B
(c)
A
(d)
(50  8y)c
(e)
(5y  20)c
(f)
7.
(3y + 60)c
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
145
Parallel Lines
When a transversal cuts two lines, it forms pairs of angles. When the two
lines are parallel, these pairs of angles have special properties.
Alternate angles
Corresponding angles
146
Cointerior angles
Cointerior angles form
a U shape. Can you nd
another pair?
If the lines are parallel, cointerior angles are supplementary (i.e. their sum
is 180c).
If +AEF = +EFD,
then AB < CD.
If +BEF = +DFG,
then AB < CD.
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
If 2 lines are both parallel to a third line, then the 3 lines are parallel to
each other. That is, if AB < CD and EF < CD, then AB < EF.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of y, giving reasons for each step of your working.
Solution
+AGF = 180c  125c
= 55c
y = 55c
Solution
+CBF = 180c  120c (+ABC is a straight angle)
= 60c
` +CBF = +HCD = 60c
But +CBF and +HCD are corresponding angles
` EF < GH
147
148
4.2 Exercises
1.
(h)
(i)
(b)
(j)
(c)
2.
(d)
(b)
(e)
(c)
(f)
(g)
104c
C 76c
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
(d)
(e)
B
138c
52c
E
C
E
128c
23c
F
115c
Types of Triangles
Names of triangles
A scalene triangle has no two sides or angles equal.
The side opposite the right angle (the longest side) is called the
hypotenuse.
An isosceles triangle has two equal sides.
The angles (called the base angles) opposite the equal sides in an
isosceles triangle are equal.
A
D
149
150
Proof
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
Class Investigation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Could you prove the base angles in an isosceles triangle are equal?
Can there be more than one obtuse angle in a triangle?
Could you prove that each angle in an equilateral triangle is 60c?
Can a rightangled triangle be an obtuseangled triangle?
Can you nd an isosceles triangle with a right angle in it?
The exterior angle in any triangle is equal to the sum of the two opposite
interior angles. That is,
x+y=z
Proof
EXAMPLES
Find the values of all pronumerals, giving reasons for each step.
1.
CONTINUED
151
152
Solution
x + 53 + 82 = 180
(angle sum of D 180c)
x + 135 = 180
x + 135  135 = 180  135
x = 45
2.
Solution
+A = +C = x
x + x + 48 = 180
2x + 48 = 180
2x + 48  48 = 180  48
2x = 132
132
2x
=
2
2
x = 66
3.
Solution
y + 35 = 141
(exterior angle of D)
y + 35  35 = 141  35
`
y = 106
This example can be done using the interior sum of angles.
+BCA = 180c  141c
= 39c
y + 39 + 35 = 180
y + 74 = 180
y + 74  74 = 180  74
`
y = 106
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
4.3 Exercises
1.
(h)
(b)
(i)
(j)
(c)
(d)
(k)
(e)
(f)
(g)
153
2.
3.
154
4.
5.
6.
(d)
8.
9.
A
B
C
46c
E
88c
7.
(b)
75c
73c
(c)
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
Congruent Triangles
Two triangles are congruent if they are the same shape and size. All pairs of
corresponding sides and angles are equal.
For example:
Tests
To prove that two triangles are congruent, we only need to prove that certain
combinations of sides or angles are equal.
EXAMPLES
1. Prove that DOTS / DOQP where O is the centre of the circle.
CONTINUED
155
156
Solution
S:
A:
S:
OS = OQ
+TOS = +QOP
OT = OP
(equal radii)
(vertically opposite angles)
(equal radii)
Solution
To nd corresponding sides, look at each side in relation to the angles.
For example, one set of corresponding sides is AB, DF, GH and JL.
D ABC / D JKL (by SAS)
3. Show that triangles ABC and DEC are congruent. Hence prove that
AB = ED.
Solution
A: +BAC = +CDE
A: +ABC = +CED
S:
AC = CD
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
4.4 Exercises
1.
2.
(b)
Y
4.7
110c
2.3
4.7
110
c
C
A
2
.3 m
(b)
(c)
(c)
(d)
(d)
(e)
(e)
157
158
3.
Prove that
(a) ABD is congruent to ACD
(b) AB bisects BC, given D ABC is
isosceles with AB = AC.
4.
7.
5.
B
O
8.
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
9.
C
O
B
Investigation
The triangle is used in many
structures, for example trestle
tables, stepladders and roofs.
Find out how many different ways
the triangle is used in the building
industry. Visit a building site, or
interview a carpenter. Write a
report on what you nd.
Similar Triangles
Triangles, for example ABC and XYZ, are similar if they are the same shape but
different sizes.
As in the example, all three pairs of corresponding angles are equal.
All three pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion (in the same ratio).
159
160
Application
Similar figures are used in many areas, including maps, scale drawings, models
and enlargements.
EXAMPLE
1. Find the values of x and y in similar triangles CBA and XYZ.
Solution
First check which sides correspond to one another (by looking at their
relationships to the angles).
YZ and BA, XZ and CA, and XY and CB are corresponding sides.
`
XZ
XY
=
CA
CB
y
5.4
=
4.9
3.6
3.6y = 4.9 # 5.4
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
161
4 . 9 # 5 .4
3 .6
= 7.35
XY
=
CB
5 .4
=
3.6
= 2 . 3 # 5 .4
2 . 3 # 5 .4
=
3 .6
= 3.45
y=
YZ
BA
x
2 .3
3 .6x
x
Tests
There are three tests for similar triangles.
Two triangles are similar if:
three pairs of corresponding angles are equal
three pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion
two pairs of sides are in proportion and their included angles
are equal
EXAMPLES
1.
(a) Prove that triangles ABC and ADE are similar.
(b) Hence nd the value of y, to 1 decimal place.
Solution
(a) +A is common
+ABC = +ADE
+ACB = +AED
` D ABC <; D ADE
(b)
CONTINUED
162
AE = 2.4 + 1.9
= 4 .3
DE
AE
=
BC
AC
y
4 .3
=
3 .7
2.4
2 .4 y = 3 . 7 # 4. 3
3 .7 # 4 .3
y=
2 .4
= 6 .6
2. Prove D XYZ <; DWVZ.
Solution
XZ
ZV
YZ
ZW
XZ
`
ZV
+XZY
3
15
=
7
35
3
6
=
=
7
14
YZ
=
ZW
= +WZV
=
` since two pairs of sides are in proportion and their included angles are
equal the triangles are similar
Ratio of intercepts
The following result comes from similar triangles.
When two (or more) transversals cut a series of parallel lines, the
ratios of their intercepts are equal.
That is, AB : BC = DE : EF
AB
DE
or
=
EF
BC
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
Proof
Draw DG and EH parallel to AC.
Then
Also
`
DG = AB
EH = BC
DG
AB
=
EH
BC
+GDE = +HEF
+DEG = +EFH
+DGE = +EHF
(2)
AB
DE
=
EF
BC
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of x, to 3 signicant gures.
Solution
x
1.5
=
^ ratios of intercepts on parallel lines h
8.9
9.3
9.3x = 8.9 # 1.5
8.9 # 1.5
x=
9.3
= 1.44
CONTINUED
163
164
Solution
Use either similar triangles or ratios of intercepts to nd x. You must use
similar triangles to nd y.
Why?
x
2.7
=
5.8
3. 4
2.7 # 5.8
x=
3.4
= 4.6
y
2.7 + 3.4
=
7.1
3.4
6.1 # 7.1
y=
3.4
= 12.7
4.5 Exercises
1.
(c)
(d)
(e)
(b)
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
(f)
46 c
xc
11
8.9
25.7
9.1
1.3
5c
1.82
E
14.3
19
4.
52c
4.2
4.9
5.88
yc
6.86
7.
8.
6.
(g)
3.
D
87c
46
2.
5.
165
166
9.
(e)
(b)
(d)
15. Evaluate x and y correct to
2 decimal places.
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
Pythagoras Theorem
DID YOU KNOW?
The triangle with sides in the
proportion 3:4:5 was known to be
right angled as far back as ancient
Egyptian times. Egyptian surveyors
used to measure right angles by
stretching out a rope with knots tied
in it at regular intervals.
They used the rope for forming
right angles while building and
dividing fields into rectangular plots.
It was Pythagoras (572495 BC)
who actually discovered the
relationship between the sides of the
rightangled triangle. He was able to
generalise the rule to all rightangled triangles.
Pythagoras was a Greek mathematician,
philosopher and mystic. He founded the Pythagorean
School, where mathematics, science and philosophy
were studied. The school developed a brotherhood and
performed secret rituals. He and his followers believed
that the whole universe was based on numbers.
Pythagoras was murdered when he was 77, and the
brotherhood was disbanded.
c=
a2 + b2
167
168
Proof
Draw CD perpendicular to AB
Let AD = x, DB = y
Then x + y = c
In D ADC and D ABC,
+A is common
+ADC = +ACB = 90c
`
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of x, correct to 2 decimal places.
Solution
c2 = a2 + b2
x2 = 72 + 42
= 49 + 16
= 65
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
169
x = 65
= 8.06 to 2 decimal places
2. Find the exact value of y.
Solution
c2 = a2 + b2
82 = y2 + 42
64 = y 2 + 16
48 = y 2
`
y = 48
= 16 # 3
=4 3
3. Find the length of the diagonal in a square with sides 6 cm. Answer to
1 decimal place.
Solution
6 cm
6 cm
c =a +b
= 62 + 62
= 72
2
c = 72
= 8 .5
So the length of the diagonal is 8.5 cm.
CONTINUED
170
4. A triangle has sides 5.1 cm, 6.8 cm and 8.5 cm. Prove that the triangle
is right angled.
Solution
5.1 cm
8.5 cm
6.8 cm
Let c = 8.5 (largest side) and a and b the other two smaller sides.
a 2 + b 2 = 5 . 1 2 + 6. 8 2
= 72.25
c 2 = 8. 5 2
= 72.25
` c2 = a2 + b2
So the triangle is right angled.
4.6 Exercises
1.
2.
(b)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(d)
(d)
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
XY
in
YZ
terms of x and y in D XYZ.
171
172
4.5 m
1.3 m
1.5 km
1.3 km
1.1 km
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
O
A
4 cm
6 cm
C
B
Types of Quadrilaterals
A quadrilateral is any foursided gure
Proof
Draw in diagonal AC
+ADC + +DCA + +CAD = 180c
(angle sum of D)
+ABC + +BCA + +CAB = 180c
(similarly)
` +ADC + +DCA + +CAD + +ABC + +BCA + +CAB = 360c
That is,
+ADC + +DCB + +CBA + +BAD = 360c
173
174
EXAMPLE
Find the value of i.
Solution
i + 120 + 56 + 90 = 360 ^ angle sum of quadrilateral h
i + 266 = 360
i = 94
Parallelogram
TESTS
A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if:
both pairs of opposite sides are equal
both pairs of opposite angles are equal
one pair of sides is both equal and parallel
the diagonals bisect each other
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
175
Rectangle
PROPERTIES
the same as for a parallelogram, and also
diagonals are equal
TEST
A quadrilateral is a rectangle if its diagonals are equal
Application
Builders use the property of equal diagonals to check if a rectangle is accurate.
For example, a timber frame may look rectangular, but may be slightly slanting.
Checking the diagonals makes sure that a building does not end up like the
Leaning Tower of Pisa!
Rhombus
176
TESTS
Square
Trapezium
Kite
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
EXAMPLES
1. Find the values of i, x and y, giving reasons.
Solution
i = 83c
x = 6.7 cm
y = 2.3 cm
Solution
Let AB = x
Since ABCD is a square, AB = AD = x (adjacent sides equal)
Also, +A = 90c
(by definition)
By Pythagoras theorem:
c2 = a2 + b2
62 = x2 + x2
36 = 2x 2
18 = x 2
` x = 18
= 3 2 cm
CONTINUED
177
178
3.
(a) Two equal circles have centres O and P respectively. Prove that OAPB
is a rhombus.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, show that AB is the perpendicular bisector
of OP.
Solution
OA = OB
(equal radii)
PA = PB
(similarly)
Since the circles are equal, OA = OB = PA = PB
` since all sides are equal, OAPB is a rhombus
(b) The diagonals in any rhombus are perpendicular bisectors.
Since OAPB is a rhombus, with diagonals AB and OP, AB is the
perpendicular bisector of OP.
(a)
4.7 Exercises
1.
(e)
(f)
(b)
(g)
(c)
(d)
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
2.
(c)
(d)
3.
(e)
(f)
4.
5.
3x
x+
6.
7.
(a)
(b)
(b)
179
180
(c)
(d)
(e)
(d)
8.
9.
(c)
ABCD is a kite
Polygons
A polygon is a closed plane gure with straight sides
A regular polygon has all sides and all interior angles equal
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
EXAMPLES
3sided
(equilateral
triangle)
4sided
(square)
5sided
(pentagon)
6sided
(hexagon)
8sided
(octagon)
10sided
(decagon)
Proof
Draw any nsided polygon and divide it into n triangles as
shown. Then the total sum of angles is n # 180c or 180n.
But this sum includes all the angles at O. So the sum of
interior angles is 180n  360c .
That is, S = 180n  360
= ] n  2 g #180c
Proof
Draw any nsided polygon. Then the sum of both the
exterior and interior angles is n #180c.
Sum of exterior angles = n #180c  sum of interior angles
= 180n  ] 180n  360c g
= 180n  180n + 360c
= 360c
181
182
EXAMPLES
1. Find the sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon with 15 sides.
How large is each angle?
Solution
n = 15
S = (n  2)#180c
= (15  2)#180c
= 13#180c
= 2340c
Each angle has size 2340c' 15 = 156c.
2. Find the number of sides in a regular polygon whose interior angles
are 140c.
Solution
Let n be the number of sides
Then the sum of interior angles is 140n
But
S = (n  2)#180c
So 140n = (n  2)#180c
= 180n  360
360 = 40n
9=n
So the polygon has 9 sides.
4.8 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
6.
7.
8.
9.
B
D
183
184
Areas
Most areas of plane gures come from the area of a rectangle.
Rectangle
A = lb
Square
A square is a
special rectangle.
A = x2
Triangle
A=
1
bh
2
Proof
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
185
area = bh
1
1
area AEFD and area DCEF = area EBCF
2
2
1
area DCDE =
area ABCD
2
1
That is, A = bh
2
Area D DEF =
`
Parallelogram
A = bh
Proof
In parallelogram ABCD, produce DC to E and draw BE perpendicular to CE.
Then ABEF is a rectangle.
Area ABEF = bh
In D ADF and D BCE,
+AFD = +BEC = 90c
AF = BE = h
(opposite sides of a rectangle)
AD = BC
(opposite sides of a parallelogram)
` by RHS, D ADF / D BCE
`
area D ADF = area D BCE
So
area ABCD = area ABEF
= bh
Rhombus
1
xy
2
(x and y are lengths of diagonals)
A=
The area of a
parallelogram is the
same as the area of
two triangles.
186
Proof
Let AC = x and BD = y
By properties of a rhombus,
1
1
AE = EC = x and DE = EB = y
2
2
Also +AEB = 90c
Area D ABC =
=
Area D ADC =
=
` total area of rhombus =
=
1
1
x: y
2
2
1
xy
4
1
1
x: y
2
2
1
xy
4
1
1
xy + xy
4
4
1
xy
2
Trapezium
A=
Proof
Let
DE = x
Then DF = x + a
`
FC = b  ] x + a g
=bxa
1
h ( a + b)
2
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
Circle
A = rr 2
EXAMPLES
1. Find the area of this trapezium.
Solution
1
h ( a + b)
2
1
= ( 4) ( 7 + 5)
2
= 2 # 12
A=
= 24 m 2
4.2 cm
8.9 cm
3.7 cm
12.1 cm
CONTINUED
187
Solution
Area large rectangle = lb
= 8.9 #12.1
= 107.69 cm 2
Area small rectangle = lb
= 3 . 7 # 4 .2
`
= 15.54 cm 2
shaded area = 107.69  15.54
= 92.15 cm 2
3. A park with straight sides of length 126 m and width 54 m has semicircular ends as shown. Find its area, correct to 2 decimal places.
126 m
54 m
188
Solution
Area of 2 semicircles = area of 1 circle
54
r =
2
= 27
A = rr 2
= r (27) 2
= 2290.22 m2
Area rectangle = 126 # 54
= 6804
Total area = 2290.22 + 6804
= 9094.22 m2
4.9 Exercises
1.
(b)
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
(c)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(d)
(e)
(f)
cm
2 cm
(g)
4.
2.
3.
(b)
189
190
(c)
(d)
8.
9.
(e)
5.
6.
7.
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
191
Test Yourself 4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(O is the centre
of the circle.)
(f)
(g)
The perimeter
is the distance
around the outside
of the figure.
192
8.
9.
11. Prove
AF
AB
.
=
AG
AC
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
2 cm
10 cm
Challenge Exercise 4
1.
4.
2.
Evaluate x, y and z.
5.
3.
6.
193
194
7.
8.
9.
10. Evaluate x.
Functions and
Graphs
TERMINOLOGY
Arc of a curve: Part or a section of a curve between two
points
INTRODUCTION
FUNCTIONS AND THEIR GRAPHS are used in many areas, such as mathematics,
science and economics. In this chapter you will study functions, function
notation and how to sketch graphs. Some of these graphs will be studied in
more detail in later chapters.
Functions
Denition of a function
Many examples of functions exist both in mathematics and in real life. These
occur when we compare two different quantities. These quantities are called
variables since they vary or take on different values according to some pattern.
We put these two variables into a grouping called an ordered pair.
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202
EXAMPLES
1. Eye colour
Name
Anne
Colour Blue
Marco
Russell
Trang
Brown
Green
Brown
Brown
Grey
Brown
Ordered pairs are (Anne, Blue), (Jacquie, Brown), (Donna, Grey), (Hien,
Brown), (Marco, Green), (Russell, Brown) and (Trang, Brown).
2. y = x + 1
x
The ordered pairs are (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4) and (4, 5).
3.
A
C
3
D
4
The ordered pairs are (A, 1), (B, 1), (C, 4), (D, 3) and (E, 2).
Notice that in all the examples, there was only one ordered pair for each
variable. For example, it would not make sense for Anne to have both blue
and brown eyes! (Although in rare cases some people have one eye thats a
different colour from the other.)
A relation is a set of ordered points (x, y) where the variables x and y are
related according to some rule.
A function is a special type of relation. It is like a machine where for
every INPUT there is only one OUTPUT.
INPUT
PROCESS
OUTPUT
The rst variable (INPUT) is called the independent variable and the
second (OUTPUT) the dependent variable. The process is a rule or pattern.
Investigation
When we graph functions in mathematics, the independent variable
(usually the xvalue) is on the horizontal axis while the dependent
variable (usually the yvalue) is on the vertical axis.
In other areas, the dependent variable goes on the horizontal axis. Find
out in which subjects this happens at school by surveying teachers or
students in different subjects. Research different types of graphs on the
Internet to nd some examples.
Here is an example of a relationship that is NOT a function. Can you see the
difference between this example and the previous ones?
A
B
1
2
C
3
D
E
In this example the ordered pairs are (A, 1), (A, 2), (B, 1), (C, 4), (D, 3)
and (E, 2).
Notice that A has two dependent variables, 1 and 2. This means that it is
NOT a function.
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204
2.
There is a very simple test to see if these graphs are functions. Notice that
in the rst example, there are two values of y when x = 0. The yaxis passes
through both these points.
y
There are also other x values that give two y values around the curve. If
we drew a vertical line anywhere along the curve, it would cross the curve in
two places everywhere except one point. Can you see where this is?
In the second graph, a vertical line would only ever cross the curve in one
place.
So when a vertical line cuts a graph in more than one place, it shows that
it is not a function.
If a vertical line cuts a graph only once anywhere along the graph, the
graph is a function.
y
If a vertical line cuts a graph in more than one place anywhere along the
graph, the graph is not a function.
y
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206
EXAMPLES
1. Is this graph a function?
Solution
A vertical line only cuts the graph once. So the graph is a function.
2. Is this circle a function?
Solution
A vertical line can cut the curve in more than one place. So the circle is
not a function.
Solution
For each x value there is only one y value, so this set of ordered pairs is a
function.
4. Is this a function?
y
Solution
y
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208
5.1 Exercises
Which of these curves are functions?
1.
6.
2.
7.
3.
8.
4.
9.
^ 1, 3 h, ^ 2, 1 h, ^ 3, 3 h, ^ 4, 0 h
10. ^ 1, 3 h, ^ 2, 1 h, ^ 2, 7 h, ^ 4, 0 h
11.
5.
12.
13.
Function notation
If y depends on what value we give x in a function, then we can say that y is a
function of x. We can write this as y = f ] x g.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of y when x = 3 in the equation y = x + 1.
Solution
When x = 3:
y = x +1
= 3+1
=4
2. If f ] x g = x + 1, evaluate f (3).
Solution
f ]x g = x + 1
f ]3 g = 3 + 1
=4
Notice that these two examples are asking for the same value and f (3) is
the value of the function when x = 3.
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EXAMPLES
1. If f ] x g = x 2 + 3x + 1, nd f ]  2 g .
Solution
This is the same as finding y
when x =  2.
f (  2) = ]  2 g 2 + 3 ( 2) + 1
=46+1
= 1
2. If f ] x g = x 3  x 2, nd the value of f ]  1 g .
Solution
f (x) = x 3  x 2
f ( 1) = ]  1 g 3  ]  1 g 2
= 1  1
= 2
3. Find the values of x for which f ] x g = 0, given that f ] x g = x 2 + 3x  10.
Solution
f (x) = 0
Putting f (x) = 0 is different
from finding f (0) . Follow
this example carefully.
i.e.
x + 3x  10 = 0
( x + 5 ) ( x  2) = 0
x + 5 = 0,
x2=0
x = 5
x=2
2
Solution
f (3 ) = 3 ( 3) + 4
= 13
f (2 ) = 3 ( 2) + 4
= 10
f (0) =  2 (0)
=0
f ( 4) =  2 (  4)
=8
5. Find the value of
x2
g ] x g = * 2x  1
5
since
3$2
since
2$2
since
012
since 4 1 2
g ] 1 g + g ]  2 g  g ] 3 g if
when x 2 2
when  1 # x # 2
when x 1  1
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Solution
g (1 ) = 2 ( 1)  1
=1
g ( 2) = 5
since 1 # 1 # 2
since  2 1  1
g (3) = 3
since 3 2 2
=9
So g (1) + g ( 2)  g (3) = 1 + 5  9
= 3
2
5.2 Exercises
1.
Given f ] x g = x + 3, nd f ] 1 g and
f ]3 g.
10. If f ] x g = 2x  9, nd f ^ p h and
f ]x + h g.
2.
If h ] x g = x 2  2, nd h ] 0 g, h ] 2 g
and h ]  4 g .
3.
If f ] x g =  x 2, nd f ] 5 g, f ]  1 g, f ] 3 g
and f ]  2 g .
12. If f ] x g = x 3  1, nd f ] k g as a
product of factors.
4.
5.
Find f ]  3 g if f ] x g = 2x 3  5x + 4.
13. Given f ] t g = t 2 + 2t + 1, nd
t when f ] t g = 0. Also nd any
values of t for which f ] t g = 9.
6.
If f ] x g = 2x  5, nd x when
f ] x g = 13.
7.
Given f ] x g = x + 3, nd any
values of x for which f ] x g = 28.
15. f ] x g = )
8.
If f ] x g = 3 x, nd x when
1
f ]x g =
.
27
9.
Z 2x  4 if x $ 1
]
16. f ] x g = [x + 3
if 1 1 x 1 1
] 2
x
if x # 1
\
Find the values of
f ] 2 g  f ]  2 g + f ] 1 g .
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17. Find g ] 3 g + g ] 0 g + g ]  2 g if
x+1
when x $ 0
g ]x g = )
 2x + 1 when x 1 0
18. Find the value of
f ] 3 g  f ] 2 g + 2f ]  3 g when
x
for x 2 2
f ]x g = * x
4
for 2 # x # 2
for x 1 2
x3  1
2x 2 + 3x  1
for x $ 2
for x 1 2
x 2  2x  3
x3
21. If f ] x g = x 2 5x + 4, nd
f ] x + h g  f ] x g in its simplest
form.
f ]x + h g  f ]x g
22. Simplify
where
h
f ] x g = 2x 2 + x
23. If f ] x g = 5x  4, nd f ] x g  f ] c g
in its simplest form.
24. Find the value of f ^ k 2 h if
3x + 5
for x $ 0
f ]x g = * 2
x
for x 1 0
Z 3
25. If
when x $ 3
]x
f ] x g = [5
when 0 1 x 1 3
] 2
x  x + 2 when x # 0
\
evaluate
(a) f (0)
(b) f ] 2 g  f ] 1 g
(c) f ^  n 2 h
Graphing Techniques
You may have previously learned how to draw graphs by completing a table
of values and then plotting points. In this course, you will learn some other
techniques that will allow you to sketch graphs by showing their important
features.
Intercepts
One of the most useful techniques is to nd the x and yintercepts.
For xintercept, y = 0
For yintercept, x = 0
213
EXAMPLE
Find the x and yintercepts of the function f ] x g = x 2 + 7x  8.
Solution
For xintercept: y = 0
0 = x 2 + 7x  8
= ]x + 8 g]x  1 g
x + 8 = 0,
x1=0
x =  8,
x=1
For yintercept: x = 0
y = ] 0 g2 + 7 ] 0 g  8
= 8
EXAMPLE
Find the domain and range of f ] x g = x 2 .
Solution
You can see the domain and range from the graph, which is the parabola y = x 2 .
y
CONTINUED
214
Notice that the parabola curves outwards gradually, and will take on any
real value for x. However, it is always on or above the xaxis.
Domain: {all real x}
Range: {y: y $ 0}
You can also nd the domain and range from the equation y = x 2. Notice
that you can substitute any value for x and you will nd a value of y.
However, all the yvalues are positive or zero since squaring any number
will give a positive answer (except zero).
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EXAMPLES
1. State the domain over which each curve is increasing and decreasing.
y
x2
x1
x3
Solution
The lefthand side of the parabola is decreasing and the right side is
increasing.
So the curve is increasing for x 2 x2 and the curve is decreasing when
x 1 x2.
2.
y
x1
x2
x3
Solution
The lefthand side of the curve is increasing until it reaches the yaxis
(where x = 0). It then turns around and decreases until x3 and then
increases again.
So the curve is increasing for x 1 0, x 2 x 3 and the curve is
decreasing for 0 1 x 1 x 3 .
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217
EXAMPLES
1. Show that f ] x g = x 2 + 3 is an even function.
Solution
f ]  x g = ]  x g2 + 3
= x2 + 3
= f ]x g
` f ] x g = x 2 + 3 is an even function
2. Show that f ] x g = x 3  x is an odd function.
Solution
f ]  x g = ]  x g3  ]  x g
= x3 + x
=  ^ x3  x h
= f ]x g
` f ] x g = x 3  x is an odd function
Investigation
Explore the family of graphs of f ] x g = x n.
For what values of n is the function even?
For what values of n is the function odd?
Which families of functions are still even or odd given k? Let k take on
different values, both positive and negative.
1. f ] x g = kx n
2. f ] x g = x n + k
3. f ] x g = ] x + k gn
5.3 Exercises
1.
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
f ] x g = x 2 + 3x
f ] x g = x2  4
p ] x g = x 2 + 5x + 6
y = x 2  8x + 15
p ] x g = x3 + 5
k is called a parameter.
Some graphics calculators
and computer programs use
parameters to show how
changing values of k change the
shape of graphs.
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x+3
]x ! 0 g
x
2
(j) g ] x g = 9  x
(i) y =
2.
3.
If f ] x g = x 3 + 1, nd
(a) f ^ x 2 h
(b) 6 f (x) @ 2
(c) f ]  x g
(d) Is it an even or odd function?
4.
Show that g ] x g = x 8 + 3x 4  2x 2 is
an even function.
5.
6.
7.
Show that f ] x g = 4x  x 3 is an
odd function.
8.
Prove that f ] x g = x 4 + x 2 is an
even function and hence nd
f ]x g  f ]x g.
9.
(b)
(c)
2
(d)
(e)
4
2
2
1
2
4
Investigation
Use a graphics calculator or a computer with graphing software to sketch
graphs and explore what effect different constants have on each type of
graph.
If your calculator or computer does not have the ability to use parameters
(this may be called dynamic graphing), simply draw different graphs by
choosing several values for k. Make sure you include positive and negative
numbers and fractions for k.
Alternatively, you may sketch these by hand.
1. Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k.
(a) y = kx
(b) y = kx 2
(c) y = kx 3
(d) y = kx 4
k
(e) y = x
What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs? Could you give a
general comment about y = k f ] x g?
2. Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k.
(a) y = ] x + k g 2
(b) y = x 2 + k
(c) y = x 3 + k
(d) y = x 4 + k
1
(e) y = x + k
What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs? Could you give a
general comment about y = f ] x g + k?
CONTINUED
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220
Linear Function
A linear function is a function whose graph is a straight line.
Gradient form:
y = mx + b has gradient m and yintercept b
General form:
ax + by + c = 0
Investigation
Are straight line graphs always functions? Can you nd an example of a
straight line that is not a function?
Are there any odd or even straight lines? What are their equations?
221
EXAMPLE
Sketch the function f ] x g = 3x  5 and state its domain and range.
Solution
This is a linear function. It could be written as y = 3x  5.
Find the intercepts
y
For xintercept: y = 0
6
0 = 3x  5
5
5 = 3x
4
2
=x
3
For yintercept: x = 0
1
y = 3 ]0 g  5
= 5
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
1 23
1
2
3
4
5
Notice that the line extends over the whole of the number plane, so that
it covers all real numbers for both the domain and range.
Domain: {all real x}
Range: {all real y}
Special lines
Horizontal and vertical lines have special equations.
222
EXAMPLES
1. Sketch y = 2 on a number plane. What is its domain and range?
Solution
x can be any value and y is always 2.
Some of the points on the line will be (0, 2), (1, 2) and (2, 2).
This gives a horizontal line with yintercept 2.
y
5
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1 1
2
3
4
5
Solution
y can be any value and x is always  1.
Some of the points on the line will be ^  1, 0 h, ^  1, 1 h and ^  1, 2 h .
This gives a vertical line with xintercept  1.
y
5
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Domain: " x: x =  1 ,
Range: " all real y ,
5.4 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
By sketching x  y  4 = 0 and
2x + 3y  3 = 0 on the same set
of axes, nd the point where they
meet.
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224
Quadratic Function
The quadratic function gives the graph of a parabola.
The pronumeral
a is called the
coefficient of x 2.
Applications
The parabola shape is used in many different applications as it has special
properties that are very useful. For example if a light is placed inside the parabola
at a special place (called the focus), then all light rays coming from this light and
bouncing off the parabola shape will radiate out parallel to each other, giving a
strong light. This is how car headlights work. Satellite dishes also use this property
of the parabola, as sound coming in to the dish will bounce back to the focus.
The lens in a camera and glasses are also parabola shaped. Some bridges look
like they are shaped like a parabola, but they are often based on the catenary.
Research the parabola and catenary on the Internet for further information.
Investigation
Is the parabola always a function? Can you nd an example of a parabola
that is not a function?
Use a graphics calculator or a computer with dynamic graphing capability
to explore the effect of a parameter on a quadratic function, or choose
different values of k (both positive and negative).
Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k.
1. y = kx 2
2. y = x 2 + k
3. y = ] x + k g2
4. y = x 2 + kx
What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs?
Which of these families are even functions? Are there any odd quadratic
functions?
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226
EXAMPLES
1. (a) Sketch the graph of y = x 2  1, showing intercepts.
(b) State the domain and range.
Solution
(a) This is the graph of a parabola. Since a 2 0, it is concave upward
For xintercept: y = 0
0=x 1
1 = x2
!1 = x
For yintercept: x = 0
2
y = 02  1
= 1
y
5
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
(b) From the graph, the curve is moving outwards and will extend
to all real x values. The minimum y value is  1.
Domain: " all real x ,
Range: " y: y $ 1 ,
2. Sketch f ] x g = ] x + 1 g 2.
Solution
This is a quadratic function. We nd the intercepts to see where the
parabola will lie.
Alternatively, you may know from your work on parameters that
f ] x g = ] x + a g 2 will move the function f ] x g = x 2 horizontally a units to the
left.
So f ] x g = ] x + 1 g 2 moves the parabola f ] x g = x 2 1 unit to the left.
For xintercept: y = 0
0 = ]x + 1 g2
x+1=0
x = 1
For yintercept: x = 0
y = ]0 + 1 g2
=1
227
y
5
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Solution
(a) For xintercept: y = 0
This means f ] x g = 0
0 = x2 + x  6
= ]x + 3 g]x  2 g
x + 3 = 0, x  2 = 0
x =  3, x = 2
For yintercept: x = 0
f ] 0 g = ] 0 g2 + ] 0 g  6
= 6
(b) Since a 2 0, the quadratic function has a minimum value.
Since the parabola is symmetrical, this will lie halfway between the
xintercepts.
Halfway between x =  3 and x = 2:
3 + 2
1
=2
2
1
Minimum value is f c  m
2
1
1 2
1
f c m = c m + c m  6
2
2
2
1 1
=  6
4 2
1
= 6
4
1
So the minimum value is  6 .
4
CONTINUED
228
2
3
4
5
6
1 , 6 14
2
From the graph, notice that the parabola is gradually going outwards and
will include all real x values.
Since the minimum value is  6 1 , all y values are greater than this.
4
Domain: " all real x ,
1
Range: ' y: y $ 6 1
4
(d) The curve decreases down to the minimum point and then
1
increases. So the curve is decreasing for all x 1  .
2
4. (a) Find the x and yintercepts and the maximum value of the
quadratic function f ] x g =  x 2 + 4x + 5.
(b) Sketch the function and state the domain and range.
(c) For what values of x is the curve increasing?
Solution
(a) For xintercept: y = 0
So
f ]x g = 0
0 =  x 2 + 4x + 5
x 2  4x  5 = 0
]x  5 g]x + 1 g = 0
x  5 = 0, x + 1 = 0
x = 5,
x = 1
For yintercept: x = 0
f ] 0 g =  ] 0 g2 + 4 ] 0 g + 5
=5
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1 1
2
3
4
5
From the graph, the function can take on all real numbers for x, but the
maximum value for y is 9.
Domain: " all real x ,
Range: " y: y # 9 ,
(c) From the graph, the function is increasing on the left of the
maximum point and decreasing on the right.
So the function is increasing when x 1 2.
5.5 Exercises
1.
2.
Sketch
(a) y = x 2 + 2
(b) y =  x 2 + 1
(c) f ] x g = x 2  4
2
(d) y = x + 2x
(e) y =  x 2  x
(f) f ] x g = ] x  3 g 2
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230
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
3.
f ] x g = ] x + 1 g2
y = x 2 + 3x  4
y = 2x 2  5 x + 3
f ] x g =  x 2 + 3x  2
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
EXAMPLES
1. Sketch f ] x g = x  1 and state its domain and range.
Solution
Method 1: Table of values
When sketching any new graph for the rst time, you can use a table of
values. A good selection of values is 3 # x # 3 but if these dont give
enough information, you can nd other values.
3
2
1
1
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
5
y=x1
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
CONTINUED
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232
y = x  1 ] x 1 0 g
y
y=x1
5
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Draw these on the same number plane and then disregard the dotted
lines to get the graph shown in method 1.
y
y = x  1
y=x1
4
3
2
1
4 3
2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Method 3: If you know the shape of the absolute value functions, nd the
intercepts.
For xintercept: y = 0
So f ] x g = 0
0 =  x  1
1 = x 
` x = !1
For yintercept: x = 0
f (0) =  0   1
= 1
2 1
1
x
If you already know how
to sketch the graph of
y =  x  , translate the
graph of y =  x   1
down 1 unit, giving it a
yintercept of 1.
2
3
4
5
From the graph, notice that x values can be any real number while the
minimum value of y is  1.
Domain: {all real x}
Range: {y: y $ 1}
2. Sketch y =  x + 2  .
Solution
Method 1: Use the denition of absolute value.
+2
when x + 2 $ 0
y =  x + 2  = 'x
 (x + 2) when x + 2 1 0
This gives 2 straight lines:
y = x + 2 when x + 2 $ 0
x $ 2
y
5
y=x+2
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
CONTINUED
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234
y =  ] x + 2 g when x + 2 1 0
i.e. y =  x  2 when
x 1 2
y
5
4
y = x  2
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
Draw these on the same number plane and then disregard the dotted lines.
y
5
y = x  2
y=x+2
4
3
2
1
4 3
2 1
1
2
3
4
5
0 = x + 2 
0=x+2
2 = x
For yintercept: x = 0
f (0) =  0 + 2 
=2
3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
Investigation
Are graphs that involve absolute value always functions? Can you nd an
example of one that is not a function?
Can you nd any odd or even functions involving absolute values? What
are their equations?
Use a graphics calculator or a computer with dynamic graphing capability
to explore the effect of a parameter on an absolute value function, or
choose different values of k (both positive and negative).
Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k
1. f ] x g = k  x 
2. f ] x g =  x  + k
3. f ] x g =  x + k 
What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs?
The equations and inequations involving absolute values that you studied in
Chapter 3 can be solved graphically.
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236
EXAMPLES
Solve
1.  2x  1  = 3
Solution
Sketch y =  2x  1  and y = 3 on the same number plane.
Solution
Sketch y =  2x + 1  and y = 3x  2 on the same number plane.
The solution is x = 3.
3.  x + 1  1 2
Solution
Sketch y =  x + 1  and y = 2 on the same number plane.
5.6 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
(c)
(d)
(e)
f ] x g =  2x + 5 
y = 2  x  3
f ] x g =  x  3 
4.
5.
6.
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238
7.
(k)  2x + 3  # 5
(l)  2x  1  $ 1
(m)  3x  1  = x + 3
(n)  3x  2  = x  4
(o)  x  1  = x + 1
(p)  x + 3  = 2x + 2
(q)  2x + 1  = 1  x
(r)  2x  5  = x  3
(s)  x  1  = 2x
(t)  2x  3  = x + 3
Solve graphically
(a)  x  = 3
(b)  x  2 1
(c)  x  # 2
(d)  x + 2  = 1
(e)  x  3  = 0
(f)  2x  3  = 1
(g)  x  1  1 4
(h)  x + 1  # 3
(i)  x  2  2 2
(j)  x  3  $ 1
The Hyperbola
a
A hyperbola is a function with its equation in the form xy = a or y = x .
EXAMPLE
1
Sketch y = x .
Solution
1
y = x is a discontinuous curve since the function is undened at x = 0.
Drawing up a table of values gives:
x
3
1
3
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
4
1
4
1
2
4
1
2
1
3
Class Discussion
What happens to the graph as x becomes closer to 0? What happens as x
becomes very large in both positive and negative directions? The value of
y is never 0. Why?
To sketch the graph of a more general hyperbola, we can use the domain and
range to help nd the asymptotes (lines towards which the curve approaches
but never touches).
The hyperbola is an example of a discontinuous graph, since it has a gap
in it and is in two separate parts.
Investigation
Is the hyperbola always a function? Can you nd an example of a
hyperbola that is not a function?
Are there any families of odd or even hyperbolas? What are their
equations?
Use a graphics calculator or a computer with dynamic graphing capability
to explore the effect of a parameter on a hyperbola, or choose different
values of k (both positive and negative).
Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k
k
1. y = x
1
2. y = x + k
3. y =
1
x+k
EXAMPLES
3
.
x3
(b) Hence sketch the graph of the function.
Solution
This is the equation of a hyperbola.
To nd the domain, we notice that x  3 ! 0.
So x ! 3
Also y cannot be zero (see example on page 238).
Domain: {all real x: x ! 3}
Range: {all real y: y ! 0}
The lines x = 3 and y = 0 (the xaxis) are called asymptotes.
CONTINUED
239
240
To make the graph more accurate we can nd another point or two. The
easiest one to nd is the yintercept.
For yintercept, x = 0
3
y=
03
= 1
y
5
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
y=0
Asymptotes
x=3
4
5
2. Sketch y = 
1
.
2x + 4
Solution
This is the equation of a hyperbola. The negative sign turns the hyperbola
around so that it will be in the opposite quadrants. If you are not sure
where it will be, you can nd two or three points on the curve.
To nd the domain, we notice that 2x + 4 ! 0.
2x !  4
x ! 2
For the range, y can never be zero.
Domain: {all real x: x ! 2}
Range: {all real y: y ! 0}
So there are asymptotes at x = 2 and y = 0 (the xaxis).
To make the graph more accurate we can nd the yintercept.
For yintercept, x = 0
1
2 ( 0) + 4
1
=4
y=
2
 14
a
is a hyperbola with
bx + c
c
domain & all real x: x !  0 and
b
The function f ] x g =
5.7 Exercises
1.
2
x+1
2
(i) f ] x g =
6x  3
6
(j) y = x+2
(h) y = 
2.
3.
2
Show that f ] x g = x is an odd
function.
Find the range of each function
over the given domain.
1
(a) f ] x g =
for 2 # x # 2
2x + 5
1
(b) y =
for 2 # x # 0
x+3
5
(c) f ] x g =
for  3 # x # 1
2x  4
241
242
3
for  3 # x # 3
x4
2
for 0 # x # 5
(e) y = 3x + 1
1
1
for 1 # y # 7
x1
3
for
(d) f ] x g = 2x + 1
1
1 # y # 3
6
1
(e) y =
for 1 # y # 6
3x  2
2
(c) f ] x g =
(d) f ] x g = 
4.
Circle gate
Proof
y
(x, y)
r
x
y
x
243
EXAMPLE
(a) Sketch the graph of x 2 + y 2 = 4. Is it a function?
(b) State its domain and range.
Solution
The radius is
2
2
The circle is not a function since a vertical line will cut it in more than
one place.
y
2
2
CONTINUED
4.
244
(b) Notice that the xvalues for this graph lie between  2 and 2 and
the yvalues also lie between  2 and 2.
Domain: {x: 2 # x # 2}
Range: {y: 2 # y # 2}
Proof
Take a general point on the circle, (x, y) and draw a rightangled triangle as
shown.
y
(x, y)
y
r
b
yb
xa
(a, b)
a
Notice that the small sides of the triangle are x a and y b and the
hypotenuse is r, the radius.
By Pythagoras theorem:
c2 = a2 + b2
r 2 = ] x a g2 + ^ y b h2
EXAMPLES
1. (a) Sketch the graph of x 2 + y 2 = 81.
(b) State its domain and range.
Solution
(a) The equation is in the form x 2 + y 2 = r 2.
This is a circle, centre (0, 0) and radius 9.
y
9
9
(b) From the graph, we can see all the values that are possible for x
and y for the circle.
Domain: {x: 9 # x # 9}
Range: {y: 9 # y # 9}
2. (a) Sketch the circle ] x 1 g2 + ^ y + 2 h2 = 4.
(b) State its domain and range.
Solution
(a) The equation is in the form ] x a g2 + ^ y b h2 = r 2.
] x 1 g 2 + ^ y + 2 h2 = 4
] x 1 g 2 + _ y ]  2 g i2 = 2 2
So a = 1, b =  2 and r = 2
CONTINUED
245
246
4 3 2
1
1
2
3
(1, 2)
4
5
(b) From the graph, we can see all the values that are possible for x
and y for the circle.
Domain: {x: 1 # x # 3}
Range: {y: 4 # y # 0}
3. Find the equation of a circle with radius 3 and centre ^ 2, 1 h in
expanded form.
Solution
This is a general circle with equation ] x a g2 + ^ y b h2 = r 2 where
a =  2, b = 1 and r = 3.
Substituting:
] x a g2 + ^ y b h2 = r 2
You may need to revise this
in Chapter 2.
] x  ]  2 g g2 + ^ y 1 h2 = 3 2
] x + 2 g2 + ^ y 1 h2 = 9
Remove the grouping symbols.
] a + b g2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
So ] x + 2 g2 = x 2 + 2 ] x g ] 2 g + 2 2
= x 2 + 4x + 4
2
] a b g = a 2  2ab + b 2
So ^ y 1 h2 = y 2  2 ^ y h ] 1 g + 1 2
= y 2  2y + 1
The equation of the circle is:
x 2 + 4x + 4 + y  2y + 1 = 9
x 2 + 4 x + y  2y + 5 = 9
x 2 + 4 x + y 2y + 5  9 = 9  9
x 2 + 4x + y  2y  4 = 0
Investigation
The circle is not a function. Could you break the circle up into
two functions?
Change the subject of this equation to y.
What do you notice when you change the subject to y? Do you get two
functions? What are their domains and ranges?
If you have a graphics calculator, how could you draw the graph of a
circle?
Proof
x2 + y2 = r2
y2 = r2 x2
y = ! r2  x2
This gives two functions:
r
247
248
r
r
EXAMPLES
Sketch each function and state the domain and range.
1. f ] x g =
9  x2
Solution
This is in the form f ] x g = r 2  x 2 where r = 3.
It is a semicircle above the xaxis with centre (0, 0) and radius 3.
y
3
Domain: {x: 3 # x # 3}
Range: {y: 0 # y # 3}
2. y =  4  x 2
Solution
This is in the form y =  r 2  x 2 where r = 2.
It is a semicircle below the xaxis with centre (0, 0) and radius 2.
y
2
2
Domain: {x: 2 # x # 2}
Range: {y: 2 # y # 0}
5.8 Exercises
1.
2.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
3.
y =  25  x 2
y = 1  x2
y = 36  x 2
y =  64  x 2
y =  7  x2
249
250
4.
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
Other Graphs
There are many other different types of graphs. We will look at some of these
graphs and explore their domain and range.
You will meet these
graphs again in the
HSC Course.
Solution
If you do not know what this graph looks like, draw up a table of values.
You may need to revise the indices that you studied in Chapter 1.
e.g. When x = 0:
y = 3c
=1
When x = 1:
y = 31
1
= 1
3
1
=
3
x
y
3
1
27
2
1
9
1
1
3
27
If you already know what the shape of the graph is, you can draw it
just using 2 or 3 points to make it more accurate.
3
2
1
x
From the graph, x can be any real value (the equation shows this as well
since any x value substituted into the equation will give a value for y).
From the graph, y is always positive, which can be conrmed by
substituting different values of x into the equation.
Domain: " all real x ,
Range: " y: y 2 0 ,
2. Sketch f ] x g = log x and state the domain and range.
Solution
Use the LOG key on your calculator to complete the table of values.
Notice that you cant nd the log of 0 or a negative number.
x
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.6
2
1
1
From the graph and by trying different values on the calculator, y can be
any real number while x is always positive.
Domain: ! x: x 2 0 +
Range: " all real y ,
251
252
Cubic function
A cubic function has an equation where the highest power of x is x 3 .
EXAMPLE
1. Sketch the function f ] x g = x 3 + 2 and state its domain and range.
Solution
Draw up a table of values.
x
25
10
29
y
5
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
1
2
If you already
know the shape of
y = x 3, f (x) = x 3 + 2 has
the same shape as f (x) = x 3
but it is translated 2 units up
(this gives a yintercept of 2).
3
4
5
EXAMPLE
1. Find the range of f ] x g = x 3 + 2 over the given domain of 1 # x # 4.
Solution
The graph of f ] x g = x 3 + 2 is the cubic function in the previous example.
From the graph, the range is {all real y}. However, with a restricted
domain of 1 # x # 4 we need to see where the endpoints of this
function are.
f ] 1 g = ] 1 g3 + 2
= 1 + 2
=1
f ] 4 g = ] 4 g3 + 2
= 64 + 2
= 66
Sketching the graph, we can see that the values of y all lie between
these points.
y
(4, 66)
(1, 1)
x
Range: " y: 1 # y # 66 ,
253
254
You may not know what a function looks like on a graph, but you can still
nd its domain and range by looking at its equation.
When nding the domain, we look for values of x that are impossible.
For example, with the hyperbola you have already seen that the denominator
of a fraction cannot be zero.
For the range, we look for the results when different values of x are
substituted into the equation. For example, x2 will always give zero or a
positive number.
EXAMPLE
Find the domain and range of f ] x g =
x  4.
Solution
We can only nd the square root of a positive number or zero.
So x 4 $ 0
x$4
When you take the square root of a number, the answer is always positive
(or zero). So y $ 0
Domain: ! x: x $ 4 +
Range: " y: y $ 0 ,
5.9 Exercises
1.
(c) f ] x g =  2x  3 
(d) y =  x   2
(e) f ] x g =  2x + 5
(c) x = 3
(d) f ] x g = 4x 2 1
(e) p ] x g = x 3 2
(f) y = 5   x 
(g) y = 2 x
(h) y = 5 x
x+1
(i) f ] x g = x
4x  3
(j) y =
2x
(f) f ] x g = 12  x  x 2
(g) x 2 + y 2 = 64
3
t4
2
(i) g (z) = + 5
z
(j) f ] x g =  x 
(h) f ] t g =
2.
x2
3.
4.
(a) Solve 1  x 2 $ 0.
(b) Find the domain of
f ] x g = 1  x2 .
5.
6.
9.
x
Given the function f ] x g = x
(a) nd the domain of the
function
(b) nd its range.
Draw each graph on a number
plane
(a) f ] x g = x 4
(b) y =  x 3
(c) y = x 4  3
(d) p ] x g = 2x 3
(e) g ] x g = x 3 + 1
(f) x 2 + y 2 = 100
(g) y = 2 x + 1
2 # x # 1
1
(d) y = x in the domain
1# x #5
8.
255
256
The exponential function and the hyperbola are examples of functions that
approach a limit. The curve y = a x approaches the xaxis when x approaches
very large negative numbers, but never touches it.
That is, when x "  3, a x " 0.
Putting a  3 into index form gives
1
a3 = 3
a
1
=3
Z0
We say that the limit of a x as x approaches 3 is 0. In symbols, we write
lim a x = 0.
x " 3
EXAMPLES
1. Find lim
x "0
x 2 + 5x
.
x
Solution
0
, which is undened.
0
Factorising and cancelling help us nd the limit.
x 1 ]x + 5 g
x 2 + 5x
lim
lim
=
x
x "0
x "0
x1
= lim (x + 5)
Substituting x = 0 into the function gives
x "0
=5
2. Find lim
x "2
x2
.
x2  4
Solution
Substituting x = 2 into the function gives
0
, which is undened.
0
x2
x2
= lim
2
1
x
"
2
x 4
^x + 2h _x  2i
1
= lim
x "2 x + 2
1
=
4
1
lim
x "2
3. Find lim
h "0
2h 2 x + hx 2  7h
.
h
Solution
lim
h "0
h ^ 2hx + x 2  7 h
2h 2 x + hx 2  7h
= lim
h "0
h
h
= lim 2hx + x 2  7
h "0
= x2  7
Continuity
Many functions are continuous. That is, they have a smooth, unbroken curve
(or line). However, there are some discontinuous functions that have gaps in
their graphs. The hyperbola is an example.
If a curve is discontinuous at a certain point, we can use limits to nd the
value that the curve approaches at that point.
EXAMPLES
1. Find lim
x "1
y=
x2  1
and hence describe the domain and range of the curve
x1
x 1
. Sketch the curve.
x1
2
Solution
Substituting x = 1 into
x2  1
0
gives
x1
0
CONTINUED
257
258
lim
x "1
]x + 1 g]x  1 g
x2  1
= lim
x1
x1
x1
= lim (x + 1)
x "1
=2
y=
x2  1
is discontinuous at x = 1 since y is undened at that point.
x1
This leaves a gap in the curve. The limit tells us that y " 2 as x " 1, so
the gap is at ^ 1, 2 h .
Domain: " x: all real x, x ! 1 ,
Range: " y: all real y, y ! 2 ,
y=
=
x2  1
x1
^x + 1h ^x  1h
x1
=x+1
the graph is y = x + 1 where x ! 1
Remember that x ! 1.
2. Find lim
x " 2
x2 + x  2
x2 + x  2
and hence sketch the curve y =
.
x+2
x+2
Solution
Substituting x = 2 into
lim
x " 2
x2 + x  2
0
gives
x+2
0
^x  1h ^x + 2h
x2 + x  2
= lim
x
"
2
x+2
^x + 2h
= lim ^ x  1 h
x " 2
= 3
y=
y=
x2 + x  2
is discontinuous at x =  2
x+2
^x + 2h ^x  1h
x+2
=x1
So the function is y = x  1 where x ! 2. It is discontinuous at ^ 2, 3 h .
5.10 Exercises
1.
Find
(a) lim x 2 + 5
2.
x "4
(b) lim t  7
t " 3
(c) lim x 3 + 2x  4
x "2
(d) lim
x 2 + 3x
x
(e) lim
h2  h  2
h2
(f) lim
y 3  125
y5
(g) lim
x 2 + 2x + 1
x+1
(h) lim
x 2 + 2x  8
x+4
x "0
h "2
y "5
x "1
x " 4
x1
1
(d) y = 2
x +4
1
(e) y = 2
x 4
3.
x 2 + 3x
x
(i) lim
c2
c2  4
(b) y =
(j) lim
x1
x2  x
x 2 + 3x
x+3
(c) y =
x 2 + 5x + 4
x+1
(k) lim
h 3 + 2h 2  7h
h
(l) lim
hx 2  3hx + h 2
h
(m) lim
2hx 3  h 2 x 2 + 3hx  5h
h
c "2
x "1
h "0
h "0
h "0
x3  c3
(n) lim
x "c x  c
259
260
Regions
Class Investigation
How many solutions are there for y $ x + 2? How would you record
them all?
EXAMPLE
Sketch the region x # 3.
Solution
Remember that x = 3 is a
vertical line with xintercept 3.
1
1
2
3
4
5
x=3
261
An unbounded region means that the line or curve is not included in the
region.
EXAMPLE
Sketch the region y 2 1.
Solution
y 2 1 doesnt include y = 1. When this happens, it is an unbounded
region and we draw the line y = 1 as a broken line to show it is not
included.
Sketch y = 1 as a broken line and shade in all points where y 2 1 as
shown.
y
5
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
y = 1
1
2
3
4
5
For lines that are not horizontal or vertical, or for curves, we need to
check a point to see if it lies in the region.
Remember that y = 1 is a
horizontal line with
yintercept 1.
262
EXAMPLES
Find the region dened by
1. y $ x + 2
Solution
First sketch y = x + 2 as an unbroken line.
On one side of the line, y 2 x + 2 and on the other side, y 1 x + 2.
To nd which side gives y 2 x + 2, test a point on one side of the
line (not on the line).
For example, choose ^ 0, 0 h and substitute into
y$x+2
0$0+2
0$2
(false)
This means that ^ 0, 0 h does not lie in the region y $ x + 2. The
region is on the other side of the line.
2. 2x  3y 1 6
Solution
First sketch 2x  3y = 6 as a broken line, as it is not included in the
region.
To nd which side of the line gives 2x  3y 1 6, test a point on one
side of the line.
For example, choose ^ 0, 1 h and substitute into
2x  3y 1 6
2 ] 0 g  3 (1 ) 1 6
3 1 6 (true)
2x  3y = 6
3. x 2 + y 2 2 1
Solution
The equation x 2 + y 2 = 1 is a circle, radius 1 and centre ^ 0, 0 h .
Draw x 2 + y 2 = 1 as a broken line, since the region does not include
the curve.
Choose a point inside the circle, say ^ 0, 0 h
x2 + y2 2 1
02 + 02 2 1
0 2 1 (false)
So the region lies outside the circle.
4. y $ x 2
Solution
The equation y = x 2 is a parabola. Sketch this as an unbroken line, as it is
included in the region.
CONTINUED
263
264
EXAMPLE
Sketch the region x # 4, y 2 2 and y # x 2 .
Solution
Draw the three regions, either separately or on the same set of axes, and
see where they overlap.
EXAMPLES
Describe each region.
1.
6
5
4
3
2
1
4 3 2
1
1
2
3
4
Solution
The shaded area is below and including y = 6 so can be described as
y # 6.
It is also to the left of, but not including the line x = 4, which can be
described as x 1 4.
The region is the intersection of these two regions:
y # 6 and x 1 4
CONTINUED
265
266
2.
2
2
2
Solution
The shaded area is the interior of the circle, centre (0, 0) and radius 2 but
it does not include the circle.
The equation of the circle is x 2 + y 2 = 2 2 or x 2 + y 2 = 4.
You may know (or guess) the inequality for the inside of the circle.
If you are unsure, choose a point inside the circle and substitute into the
equation e.g. (0, 0).
LHS = x 2 + y 2
= 02 + 02
=0
1 4 ] RHS g
So the region is x 2 + y 2 1 4.
5.11 Exercises
1.
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
y $ 2x  3
x+y21
3x  y  6 1 0
x + 2y  2 $ 0
2x  1 1 0
2.
(d)
y
5
y = x2  4
4
3
4 3 2 1
1
3
2
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
3
4
5
2
3
(e)
4
y
y = 2x
(b)
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
3.
4.
Describe as an inequality
(a) the set of points that lie
below the line y = 3x  2
(b) the set of points that lie
inside the parabola y = x 2 + 2
(c) the interior of a circle with
radius 7 and centre (0, 0)
(d) the exterior of a circle with
radius 9 and centre (0, 0)
(e) the set of points that lie to
the left of the line x = 5 and
above the line y = 2
4
(c)
6
5
y=x+1
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
267
268
5.
6.
7.
Application
Regions are used in business applications to find optimum profit. Two (or more)
equations are graphed together, and the region where a profit is made is shaded.
The optimum profit occurs at the endpoints (or vertices) of the region.
EXAMPLE
A company makes both roller skates (X ) and ice skates (Y ). Roller skates make a
$25 profit, while ice skates make a profit of $21. Each pair of roller skates spends
2 hours on machine A (available 12 hours per day) and 2 hours on machine B
(available 8 hours per day). Each pair of ice skates spends 3 hours on machine A
and 1 hour on machine B.
How many skates of each type should be made each day to give the greatest
profit while making the most efficient use of the machines?
SOLUTION
Profit P = $25 X + $21Y
Machine A: 2X + 3Y # 12
Machine B: 2X + Y # 8
Sketch the regions and find the
point of intersection of the lines.
The shaded area shows all possible ways of making a profit. Optimum profit
occurs at one of the endpoints of the regions.
(0, 4): P = $25 ] 0 g + $21 ] 4 g = $84
(4, 0): P = $25 ] 4 g + $21 ] 0 g = $100
(3, 2): P = $25 ] 3 g + $21 ] 2 g = $117
^ 3, 2 h gives the greatest profit, so 3 pairs of roller skates and 2 pairs of ice
skates each day gives optimum profit.
269
270
Test Yourself 5
1.
If f ] x g = x 2  3x  4, nd
(a) f ] 2 g
(b) f ] a g
(c) x when f ] x g = 0
2.
(b)
3.
4.
If f ] x g = *
2x
if x $ 1
x 3
if x 1 1
nd f ] 5 g  f ] 0 g + f ] 1 g
3
5.
if x 2 3
Given f ] x g = * x
if 1 # x # 3
2  x if x 1 1
nd
(a) f ] 2 g
(b) f ] 3 g
(c) f ] 3 g
(d) f ] 5 g
(e) f ] 0 g
2
6.
7.
8.
9.
(c)
17. Find
(a) lim
x 2  2x  3
x3
(b) lim
2x
x + 5x
(c) lim
x3 + 1
x2  1
x "3
x "0
14. If f ] x g = 3x  4, nd
(a) f ] 2 g
(b) x when f ] x g = 7
(c) x when f ] x g = 0
x " 1
(d) lim
h "0
2xh 2 + 3h
h
Challenge Exercise 5
1.
2.
6.
7.
3.
8.
4.
9.
If f ] x g = 2x 3  2x 2  12x, nd x when
f ] x g = 0.
5.
4  x 2 in the rst
Z 2x + 3 when x 2 2
]
f ] x g = [1
when 2 # x # 2
] 2
x
when x 1 2
\
Find f ] 3 g, f ] 4 g, f ] 0 g and sketch the
curve.
1
10. Sketch the region dened by y 2
x+2
in the rst quadrant.
271
272
11. If h ] t g = )
1  t2
t2  1
if t 2 1
if t # 1
y=
2x + 7
1
=2+
.
x+3
x+3
2x + 7
.
x+3
2x + 7
.
x+3
17. Sketch y = 2 x  1 .
18. Sketch y =
x 
.
x2
19. Find the domain and range of
f ] x g = 2x  6 .
20. What is the domain of y =
21. Sketch f ] x g = 1 
1
.
x2
1
4  x2
Trigonometry
TERMINOLOGY
Angle of depression: The angle between the horizontal
and the line of sight when looking down to an object
below
Angle of elevation: The angle between the horizontal and
the line of sight when looking up to an object above
Angles of any magnitude: Angles can be measured around
a circle at the centre to find the trigonometric ratios of
angles of any size from 0c to 360c and beyond
Bearing: The direction relative to north. Bearings may
be written as true bearings (clockwise from North) or as
compass bearings (using N, S, E and W)
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
275
INTRODUCTION
TRIGONOMETRY IS USED IN many elds, such as building, surveying and
navigating. Wave theory also uses trigonometry.
This chapter revises basic rightangled triangle problems and applies them
to reallife situations. Some properties of trigonometric ratios, angles greater
than 90c and trigonometric equations are introduced. You will also study
trigonometry in nonrightangled triangles.
Trigonometric Ratios
In similar triangles, pairs of corresponding angles are equal and sides are in
proportion. For example:
276
The opposite and adjacent sides vary according to where the angle is
marked. For example:
Sine
sin i =
Cosine
cos i =
Tangent tan i =
opposite
hypotenuse
adjacent
hypotenuse
opposite
adjacent
Cosecant cosec i =
1
sin i
sec i =
1
cos i
Cotangent cot i =
1
tan i
Secant
hypotenuse
p
opposite
hypotenuse
f=
p
adjacent
adjacent
f=
p
opposite
f=
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
277
EXAMPLES
1. Find sin a, tan a and sec a.
Solution
AB = hypotenuse = 5
BC = opposite side = 3
AC = adjacent side = 4
opposite
sin a =
hypotenuse
3
=
5
opposite
tan a =
adjacent
3
=
4
1
sec a =
cos a
hypotenuse
=
adjacent
5
=
4
2. If sin i =
2
, nd the exact ratios of cos i, tan i and cot i.
7
Solution
To find the other ratios
you need to find the
adjacent side.
By Pythagoras theorem:
c2 = a2 + b2
72 = a2 + 22
49 = a 2 + 4
45 = a 2
`a=
45
CONTINUED
278
cos i =
=
tan i =
adjacent
hypotenuse
45
7
opposite
adjacent
2
=
45
1
cot i =
tan i
45
=
2
Complementary angles
(angle sum of a )
a
(90c  i) = c
b
cos (90c  i) = c
a
tan (90c  i) =
b
c
sec (90c  i) =
b
c
cosec (90c  i) = a
b
cot (90c  i) = a
b
i= c
a
cos i = c
b
tan i = a
c
sec i = a
c
cosec i =
b
a
cot i =
b
sin
sin
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
279
EXAMPLES
1. Simplify tan 50c  cot 40c.
Solution
tan 50c = cot ] 90c  50c g
= cot 40c
` tan 50c  cot 40c = tan 50c  tan 50c
=0
Solution
sec 55c = cosec ] 90c  55c g
= cosec 35c
` 2m  15 = 35
2m = 50
m = 25
6.1 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
280
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
4
, nd cos i and sin i.
3
2
If cos i = , nd exact values for
3
tan i, sec i and sin i.
If tan i =
1
If sin i = , nd the exact ratios
6
of cos i and tan i.
If cos i = 0.7, nd exact values
for tan i and sin i.
D ABC is a rightangled isosceles
triangle with +ABC = 90c and
AB = BC = 1.
(a) Find the exact length of AC.
(b) Find +BAC.
(c) From the triangle, write down
the exact ratios of sin 45c, cos 45c
and tan 45c.
10.
sin 55c
cos 35c
(e)
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
281
EXAMPLES
Round off to the nearest minute.
1. 23c 12l 22m
Solution
23c 12l 22m = 23c 12l
2. 59c 34l 41m
Solution
59c 34l 41m = 59c 35l
3. 16c 54l 30m
Because 30 seconds is
half a minute, we round
up to the next minute.
Solution
16c 54l 30m = 16c 55l
% , ,,
KEY
Some calculators have
This key changes decimal angles into degrees, minutes and seconds
EXAMPLES
1. Change 58c 19l into a decimal.
Solution
Press 58 % , ,, 19 % , ,, = % , ,,
So 58c 19l = 58.31666667
2. Change 45.236c into degrees and minutes.
Solution
Press 45.236 = SHIFT % , ,,
So 45.236c = 45c14l
282
EXAMPLES
1. Find cos 58c 19l, correct to 3 decimal places.
Solution
If your calculator
doesn't give this
answer, check that it
is in degree mode.
Press COS 58 % , ,, 19 % , ,, =
So cos 58c19l = 0.525
2. Find sin 38c14l, correct to 3 decimal places.
Solution
Press SIN 38 % , ,, 14 % , ,, =
So sin 38c 14l = 0.619
3. If tani = 0.348, nd i in degrees and minutes.
Solution
This is the reverse of nding trigonometric ratios.
To nd the angle, given the ratio, use the inverse key ^ tan  1 h .
Press SHIFT TAN  1 0.348 = SHIFT % , ,,
tan i = 0.348
i = tan  1 (0.348)
= 19c11l
4. Find i in degrees and minutes if cos i = 0.675.
Solution
Press SHIFT COS  1 0.675 = SHIFT % , ,,
cos i = 0.675
i = cos  1 (0.675)
= 47c 33l
6.2 Exercises
1.
2.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
3.
Change to a decimal.
(a) 77c45l
(b) 65c30l
(c) 24c51l
(d) 68c21l
(e) 82c31l
5.
4.
6.
Finding a side
We can use trigonometry to nd a side of a rightangled triangle.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of x, correct to 1 decimal place.
Solution
cos i =
adjacent
hypotenuse
x
cos 23 49l =
11.8
x
11.8 # cos 23 49l = 11.8 #
11.8
11.8 cos 23 49l = x
`
283
284
Solution
sin i =
opposite
hypotenuse
9.7
sin 41c 15l = y
9.7
y # sin 41c 15l = y # y
y sin 41c 15l = 9.7
y sin 41c 15l
9.7
=
sin 41c 15l
sin 41c 15l
9.7
y=
sin 41c 15l
= 14.7 m ^ to 3 significant figures h
6.3 Exercises
1.
(c)
(b)
(d)
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
(e)
(l)
4.7 cm
(f)
37c22l
72c18l
(m)
x
6.3 cm
(g)
(n)
63c14l
23 mm
(o)
39c47l
(h)
3.7 m
(i)
(p)
k
(j)
46c5l
14.3 cm
(q)
5.4 cm
(k)
31c12l
4.8 m
74c29l
285
286
68c41l
(r)
0.45 m
6.2 cm
73c
4.
(s)
5.75 cm
19c17l
17.3 m
(t)
12.8 m
67c
b
5.
6c3l
2.
2.7 m
60c
3.
6.
6 cm
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
7.
8.
9.
57c29l
72c51l
15.8 cm
Finding an angle
Trigonometry can also be used to nd one of the angles in a rightangled
triangle.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of i, in degrees and minutes.
CONTINUED
287
288
Solution
cos i =
adjacent
hypotenuse
5.8
=
7.3
5.8
` i = cos  1 c
m
7.3
= 37c 23l
Solution
tan a =
opposite
adjacent
4
= .9
2 .1
4 .9
` a = tan  1 c
m
2 .1
= 66c 48l
6.4 Exercises
1.
(b)
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
(c)
(i)
(j)
(d)
(e)
3.8 cm
(k)
2.4 cm
(l)
(f)
8.3 cm
5.7 cm
(m)
i
6.9 mm
(g)
11.3 mm
(n)
(h)
3m
7m
289
290
(o)
b
20 m
5.1 cm
11.6 cm
3.
(p)
15 m
Andre
13 m
(q)
4.4 cm
12.3 m
7.6 cm
13.7 m
(r)
5.6 m
14.3 cm
8.4 cm
(s)
4.
Gate
3m
18 m
5m
(t)
i
18.9 cm
10.3 cm
2.
5.
60 m
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
6.
7.
5 cm
D
1 cm
74.5 m
16c
52 m
9 cm
8.
i
6m
9.
15 m
41c
w
A
39c
7.4 m
i
15.9 m
291
292
Applications
DID YOU KNOW?
The Leaning Tower of Pisa was built as a belfry for the cathedral nearby. Work started on the
tower in 1174, but when it was only half completed the soil underneath one side of it subsided.
This made the tower lean to one side. Work stopped, and it wasnt until 100 years later that
architects found a way of completing the tower. The third and fifth storeys were built close to
the vertical to compensate for the lean. Later a vertical top storey was added.
The tower is about 55 m tall and 16 m in diameter. It is tilted about 5 m from the vertical, and
tilts by an extra 0.6 cm each year.
Class Investigation
Discuss some of the problems with the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
Find the angle at which it is tilted from the vertical.
Work out how far it will be tilted in 10 years.
Use research to nd out if the tower will fall over, and if so, when.
Angle of elevation
The angle of elevation is used to measure the
height of tall objects that cannot be measured
directly, for example a tree, cliff, tower or
building.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
Class Exercise
Stand outside the school building and look up to the top of the building.
Think about which angle your eyes pass through to look up to the top of
the building.
EXAMPLE
The angle of elevation of a tree from a point 50 m out from its base is
38c 14l. Find the height of the tree, to the nearest metre.
Solution
We assume that the tree is vertical!
A clinometer is used to
measure the angle of
elevation or depression.
h
50
h
50
293
294
Angle of depression
The angle of depression is the angle
formed when looking down from a high
place to an object below.
Class Exercise
If your classroom is high enough, stand at the window and look down to
something below the window. If the classroom is not high enough, nd
a hill or other high place. Through which angle do your eyes pass as you
look down?
EXAMPLES
1. The angle of depression from the top of a 20 m building to a boy
below is 61c 39l. How far is the boy from the building, to 1 decimal place?
Solution
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
+DAC = +ACB
= 61c 39l
20
tan 61c 39l = x
20
x # tan 61c 39l = x # x
x tan 61c 39l = 20
x tan 61c 39l
20
=
tan 61c 39l
tan 61c 39l
20
x=
tan 61c 39l
Z 10.8
Solution
B
8m
3.5 m
8
3.5
8
m
3 .5
= 66c 22l
` i = tan  1 c
] horizontal lines g
^ alternate angles h
295
296
Bearings
Bearings can be described in different ways:
For example, N70c W:
EXAMPLES
We could write
315o T for true bearings.
Solution
Measure clockwise,
starting at north.
Solution
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
Solution
The diagram below shows the bearing of the house from the school.
North
House
School
305c
To nd the bearing of the school from the house, draw in North from the
house and use geometry to nd the bearing as follows:
N2
N1
H
S
305c
^ angle of revolution h
+N 2 HS = 180c  55c
= 125c
CONTINUED
297
298
Solution
125
100
= 1.25
tan x =
x = tan  1 (1.25)
(to the nearest degree)
= 51c
i = 90c  xc
= 90c  51c
= 39c
So the bearing of the plane from Sydney is 039.
5. A ship sails on a bearing of 140 from Sydney for 250 km. How far
east of Sydney is the ship now, to the nearest km?
Solution
A navigator on a ship
uses a sextant to
measure angles.
i = 140c  90c
= 50c
x
cos 50c =
250
x
250 # cos 50c = 250 #
250
250 cos 50c = x
161 Z x
So the ship is 161 km east of Sydney, to the nearest kilometre.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
6.5 Exercises
1.
2.
North
(b)
West
East
35c
X
South
(c)
North
X
10c
West
East
South
(d)
X
North
23c
West
East
South
(e)
112c
North
West
X
X
South
East
299
300
3.
4.
5.
Tamworth is on a bearing of
340c from Newcastle. What is
the bearing of Newcastle from
Tamworth?
6.
7.
8.
9.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
20 m
15.8 m
301
302
Exact Ratios
A rightangled triangle with one angle of 45 is isosceles. The exact length of
its hypotenuse can be found.
c2 = a2 + b2
AC 2 = 1 2 + 1 2
=2
AC =
This means that the trigonometric ratios of 45c can be written as exact ratios.
1
2
1
cos 45c =
2
tan 45c = 1
sin 45c =
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
303
This angle is commonly used; for example, 45 is often used for the pitch of
a roof. The triangle with angles of 60 and 30 can also be written with exact
sides.
AD 2 = 2 2  1 2
=3
AD =
3
2
1
cos 60 =
2
tan 60 = 3
sin 30c =
sin 60 =
1
2
3
2
1
tan 30c =
3
It may be easier to
remember the triangle
rather than all these ratios.
cos 30c =
0c
30c
45c
60c
90c
120c
135c
150c
sin A
0
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
cos A
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
2
 1
2
 2
2
 3
2
304
EXAMPLES
1. Find the exact value of sec 45.
Solution
1
cos 45
1
=
1
2
= 2
sec 45 =
Solution
5
cos 30c = x
x cos 30c = 5
5
cos 30c
5
=
3
2
2
=5#
3
10
=
3
10 3
=
3
x=
10 3
m.
3
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
305
6.6 Exercises
Find the exact value in all questions,
with rational denominator where
relevant.
1.
(b)
Evaluate
(a) sin 60c + cos 60c
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(c)
3.
(p)
1  cos 45c
1 + cos 45c
(q)
cot 30c
sec 60c
(a)
5.
6.
2  tan 60c
sec 2 45c
306
7.
9.
Investigation
1. (a) Copy and complete the table for these acute angles
(between 0c and 90c).
x
0c
10c
20c
30c
40c
50c
60c
70c
80c
90c
sin x
cos x
tan x
(b) Copy and complete the table for these obtuse angles
(between 90c and 180c).
x
sin x
cos x
tan x
100c
110c
120c
130c
140c
150c
160c
170c
180c
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
(c) Copy and complete the table for these reex angles
(between 180c and 270c).
x
190c
200c
210c
220c
230c
240c
250c
260c
270c
350c
360c
sin x
cos x
tan x
(d) Copy and complete the table for these reex angles
(between 270c and 360c).
x
280c
290c
300c
310c
320c
330c
340c
sin x
cos x
tan x
2. What do you notice about their signs? Can you see any patterns?
Could you write down any rules for the sign of sin, cos and tan for
different angle sizes?
3. Draw the graphs of y = sin x, y = cos x and y = tan x for
0c # x # 360c. For y = tan x, you may need to nd the ratios of
angle close to and either side of 90c and 270c.
Drawing the graphs of the trigonometric ratios can help us to see the
change in signs as angles increase.
We divide the domain 0c to 360c into 4 quadrants:
1st quadrant:
0c to 90c
2nd quadrant: 90c to 180c
3rd quadrant: 180c to 270c
4th quadrant: 270c to 360c
EXAMPLES
1. Describe the sign of sin x in each section (quadrant) of the graph y = sin x.
Solution
We can sketch the graph using the table below or using the values from
the tables in the investigation above for more accuracy.
x
0c
90c
180c
270c
1
360c
0
CONTINUED
307
308
1
y = sin x
90c
180c
270c
360c
1
The graph is above the xaxis for the rst 2 quadrants, then below for the
3rd and 4th quadrants.
This means that sin x is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants and
negative in the 3rd and 4th quadrants.
2. Describe the sign of cos x in each section (quadrant) of the graph of
y = cos x.
Solution
We can sketch the graph using the table below or using the values from
the tables in the investigation above for more accuracy.
x
0c
90c
180c
1
270c
360c
y = cos x
90c
180c
270c
360c
1
The graph is above the xaxis in the 1st quadrant, then below for the 2nd
and 3rd quadrants and above again for the 4th quadrant.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
309
This means that cos x is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants and
negative in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants.
3. Describe the sign of tan x in each section (quadrant) of the
graph y = tan x.
Solution
We can sketch the graph using the table below or using the values from
the tables in the investigation above for more accuracy.
x
0c
90c
180c
270c
360c
No result
No result
Neither tan 90c nor tan 270c exists (we say that they are undened).
Find the tan of angles close to these angles, for example tan 89c 59l and
tan 90c 01l, tan 279c 59l and tan 270c 01l.
There are asymptotes at 90c and 270c. On the left of 90c and 270c,
tan x is positive and on the right, the ratio is negative.
y
90c
180c
270c
360c
y = tan x
The graph is above the xaxis in the 1st quadrant, below for the 2nd,
above for the 3rd and below for the 4th quadrant.
This means that tan x is positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants and
negative in the 2nd and 4th quadrants.
310
1 unit
1 unit
20c
20c
20c
20c
1 unit
1 unit
If we divide the circle into 4 quadrants, we notice that the x and yvalues
have different signs in different quadrants. This is crucial to notice when
looking at angles of any magnitude and explains the different signs you get
when nding sin, cos and tan for angles greater than 90c.
Quadrant 1
Looking at the rst quadrant (see diagram below), notice that x and y are both
positive and that angle i is turning anticlockwise from the xaxis.
y
First quadrant
The angle at the xaxis is 0 and
the angle at the yaxis is 90c,
with all other angles in this
quadrant between these two
angles.
(x, y)
1 unit
i
x
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
311
y
1
=y
sin i =
x
1
=x
cos i =
y
tan i = x
Investigation
Since cos i = x and sin i = y, we can write the point (x, y) as (cos i, sin i).
The polar coordinates (cos i, sin i) give a circle.
The polar coordinates 6 A sin ] ai + c g, B sin ] bi g @ form a shape called a
Lissajous gure. These are sometimes called a Bowditch curve and they
are often used as logos, for example the ABC logo.
Use the Internet to research these and other similar shapes.
Use a graphics calculator or a computer program such as Autograph to draw
other graphs with polar coordinates using variations of sin i and cos i.
Quadrant 2
In the second quadrant, angles are between 90c and 180c.
If we take the 1st quadrant coordinates (x, y), where x 2 0 and y 2 0 and
put them in the 2nd quadrant, we notice that all x values are negative in the
second quadrant and y values are positive.
So the point in the 2nd quadrant will be (x, y)
y
90c
Second quadrant
(x, y)
y
180c
1 unit
180c i
0c
312
Quadrant 3
In the third quadrant, angles are between 180c and 270c.
y
90c
180c
180c + i
x
y
0c
1 unit
(x, y)
Third quadrant
270c
Notice that x and y are both negative in the third quadrant, so cos i and
sin i will be both negative.
y
tan i = x so will be positive (a negative divided by a negative number).
To have an angle of i in the triangle, the angle around the circle is 180c + i.
Quadrant 4
In the fourth quadrant, angles are between 270c and 360c.
y
90c
180c
i
360c  i
0c
1 unit
360c
(x, y)
270c
Fourth quadrant
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
313
ASTC rule
Putting all of these results together gives a rule for all four quadrants that we
usually call the ASTC rule.
y
90c
2nd quadrant
1st quadrant
180c  i
A
0c
180c
360c
180c + i
3rd quadrant
360c  i
4th quadrant
270c
First quadrant:
Angle i:
sin i is positive
cos i is positive
tan i is positive
314
Second quadrant:
Angle 180c  i:
sin ] 180c  i g = sin i
cos ] 180c  i g =  cos i
tan ] 180c  i g =  tan i
Third quadrant:
Angle 180c + i:
sin ] 180c + i g =  sin i
cos ] 180c + i g =  cos i
tan ] 180c + i g = tan i
Fourth quadrant:
Angle 360c  i:
sin ] 360c  i g =  sin i
cos ] 360c  i g = cos i
tan ] 360c  i g =  tan i
EXAMPLES
1. Find all quadrants where
(a) sin i 2 0
(b) cos i 1 0
(c) tan i 1 0 and cos i 2 0
Solution
(a) sin i 2 0 means sin i is positive.
Using the ASTC rule, sin i is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants.
(b) cos i is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants, so cos i is negative in
the 2nd and 3rd quadrants.
(c) tan i is positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants so tan i is negative
in the 2nd and 4th quadrants. Also cos i is positive in the 1st and 4th
quadrants.
So tan i 1 0 and cos i 2 0 in the 4th quadrant.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
315
Solution
First we nd the quadrant that 330c is in. It is in the 4th quadrant.
y
330c
30c
The angle inside the triangle in the 4th quadrant is 30c and tan is
negative in the 4th quadrant.
Notice that
360c  30c = 330c.
30c
:3
60c
Solution
The angle in the triangle in the 3rd quadrant is 45c and sin is negative in
the 3rd quadrant.
CONTINUED
Notice that
180c + 45c = 225c.
316
225c
45c
45c
:2
45c
Solution
To nd cos 510c, we move around the circle more than once.
y
30c
150c
510c
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
30c
317
3
2
:3
60c
Notice that
180c  30c = 150c.
Solution
180c + x is an angle in the 3rd quadrant where cos is negative.
So cos ] 180c + x g =  cos x
6. If sin x = 
3
and cos x 2 0, nd the value of tan x and sec x.
5
Solution
sin x 1 0 in the 3rd and 4th quadrants and cos x 2 0 in the 1st and 4th
quadrants.
So sin x 1 0 and cos x 2 0 in the 4th quadrant.
This means that tan x 1 0 and sec x 2 0.
sin x =
opposite
hypotenuse
x
5
318
3
4
1
sec x = cos x
5
=
4
So tan x = 
The ASTC rule also works for negative angles. These are measured in the
opposite way (clockwise) from positive angles as shown.
y
270c
2nd quadrant
(180c+ i )
1st quadrant
360c
0
180c
(180c i )
(360c i )
3rd quadrant
i
4th quadrant
90c
The only difference with this rule is that the angles are labelled differently.
EXAMPLE
Find the exact value of tan (120c).
Solution
Notice that
 (180c  60c) = 120c.
Moving around the circle the opposite way, the angle is in the 3rd
quadrant, with 60c in the triangle.
y
60c
120c
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
3
30c
:3
60c
6.7 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
319
320
9.
10. If tan i =
4
11. Given sin i = and tan i 1 0,
7
nd the exact value of cos i and
tan i.
5
12. If sin x 1 0 and tan x =  , nd
8
the exact value of cos x and cosec x.
2
and tan x 1 0,
5
nd the exact value of cosec x,
cot x and tan x.
4
and
9
270c 1 i 1 360c, nd the exact
15. If sin i = 
16. If cos i = 
tan ^ 180c + b h
sin ] 180c + a g
tan ] 360c  i g
sin ]  i g
cos ]  a g
tan ]  x g
Trigonometric Equations
This is called the principle
solution.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
321
EXAMPLES
1. Solve cos x =
3
in the domain 0 # x # 360.
2
Solution
3
is a positive ratio and cos is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants.
2
So there are two possible answers.
In the 1st quadrant, angles are in the form of i and in the 4th quadrant
angles are in the form of 360c  i.
cos 30c =
3
2
30c
:3
For cos x =
60c
Solution
2 sin 2 x  1 = 0
2 sin 2 x = 1
1
sin 2 x =
2
sin x = !
2
1
=!
2
Since the ratio could be positive or negative, there are solutions in all
4 quadrants.
1st quadrant: angle i
2nd quadrant: angle 180c  i
3rd quadrant: angle 180c + i
4th quadrant: angle 360c  i
CONTINUED
322
1
2
x = 45c , 180c  45c , 180c + 45c , 360c  45c
= 45c , 135c , 225c , 315c
sin 45c =
45c
:2
45c
3. Solve tan x =
Solution
3 is a positive ratio and tan is positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants.
So there are two possible answers.
In the domain  180c # x # 180c, we use positive angles for
0c # x # 180c and negative angles for  180c # x # 0c.
y
90c
2nd quadrant
1st quadrant
180c  i
180c
0c
180c
(180c  i)
0c
3rd quadrant
i
4th quadrant
90c
In the 1st quadrant, angles are in the form of i and in the 3rd quadrant
angles are in the form of  ^ 180c  i h .
tan 60c = 3
But there is also a solution in the 3rd quadrant where the angle is
 ^ 180c  i h .
For tan x = 3
x = 60c ,  ] 180c  60c g
= 30c , 120c
30c
:3
60c
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
323
Solution
Notice that the angle is 2x but the domain is for x.
If 0c # x # 360c then we multiply each part by 2 to get the domain for 2x.
0c # 2x # 720c
This means that we can nd the solutions by going
around the circle twice!
30c
2 sin 2x  1 = 0
2 sin 2x = 1
:3
1
2
1
sin 30c =
2
sin 2x =
60c
The trigonometric graphs can also help solve some trigonometric equations.
EXAMPLE
Solve cos x = 0 for 0c # x # 360c.
cos 90c = 0
However, looking at the graph of y = cos x shows that there is another
solution in the domain 0c # x # 360c.
y
90c
1
For cos x = 0
x = 90c, 270c
180c
270c 360c
324
Investigation
Here are the 3 trigonometric graphs that you explored earlier in the chapter.
y = sin x
y = cos x
y = tan x
Use the values in the sin, cos and tan graphs to nd values for the inverse
trigonometric functions in the tables below and then sketch the inverse
trigonometric functions.
For example sin 270 = 1
1
So cosec 270c =
1
= 1
Some values will be undened, so you will need to nd values near them
in order to see where the graph goes.
y = cosec x
x
sin x
cosec x
0c
90c
180c
270c
360c
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
y = sec x
x
0c
90c
180c
270c
360c
0c
90c
180c
270c
360c
cos x
sec x
y = cot x
x
tan x
cot x
y = sec x
y = cot x
y = cotx
1
0
1
90c
180c 270c
360c
x
360c
325
326
6.8 Exercises
1.
(h) 2 sin 3i =  1
(i) 2 cos 2i  1 = 0
(j) tan 2 3i = 1
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Trigonometric Identities
Trigonometric identities are statements about the relationships of
trigonometric ratios. You have already met some of thesethe reciprocal
ratios, complementary angles and the rules for the angle of any magnitude.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
Reciprocal ratios
1
sin i
1
sec i =
cos i
1
cot i =
tan i
cosec i =
Complementary angles
In this section you will learn some other identities, based on the unit circle.
In the work on angles of any magnitude, we dened
sin i as the ycoordinate of P and cos i as the xcoordinate of P.
327
328
y
tan i = x
sin i
=
cos i
tan i =
sin i
cos i
cot i =
cos i
sin i
1
tan i
cos i
=
sin i
cot i =
Pythagorean identities
The circle has equation x 2 + y 2 = 1.
Substituting x = cos i and y = sin i into x 2 + y 2 = 1 gives
Remeber that cos 2 i
means (cos i) 2.
cos 2 i + sin 2 i = 1
1 + tan 2 i = sec 2 i
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
329
Proof
cos 2 i + sin 2 i = 1
cos 2 i sin 2 i
1
+
=
cos 2 i cos 2 i
cos 2 i
1 + tan 2 i = sec 2 i
This identity can be rearranged to give
tan 2 i = sec 2 i  1
1 = sec 2 i  tan 2 i
cot 2 i + 1 = cosec 2 i
Proof
cos 2 i + sin 2 i = 1
cos 2 i sin 2 i
1
+
=
2
2
sin i sin i
sin 2 i
2
cot i + 1 = cosec 2 i
This identity can be rearranged to give
cot 2 i = cosec 2 i  1
1 = cosec 2 i  cot 2 i
EXAMPLES
1. Simplify sin i cot i.
Solution
sin i cot i = sin i #
= cos i
cos i
sin i
Solution
sin ^ 90c  b h sec b = cos b #
=1
1
cos b
CONTINUED
330
3. Simplify
Solution
sin 4 i + sin 2 i cos 2 i = sin 2 i ^ sin 2 i + cos 2 i h
= sin 2 i ] 1 g
= sin 2 i
= sin i
4. Prove cot x + tan x = cosec x sec x.
Solution
LHS = cot x + tan x
cos x sin x
=
+
sin x cos x
cos 2 x + sin 2 x
sin x cos x
1
=
sin x cos x
1
1
=
# cos x
sin x
= cosec x sec x
= RHS
=
1  cos x
1
=
.
1 + cos x
sin 2 x
Solution
1  cos x
sin 2 x
1  cos x
=
1  cos 2 x
1  cos x
=
] 1 + cos x g ] 1  cos x g
1
=
1 + cos x
= RHS
LHS =
1  cos x
1
=
2
1
cos x
+
sin x
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
6.9 Exercises
1.
2.
Simplify
(a) sin ] 90c  i g
(b) tan ] 360c  i g
(c) cos ]  i g
(d) cot ] 90c  i g
(e) sec ] 180c + a g
= cosec 2 x  cot 2 x
(e) ] sin x  cos x g3
= sin x  cos x  2 sin 2 x cos x
+2 sin x cos 2 x
(f) cot i + 2 sec i
1  sin 2 i + 2 sin i
sin i cos i
(g) cos 2 ] 90c  i g cot i
Simplify
(a) tan i cos i
(b) tan i cosec i
(c) sec x cot x
(d) 1  sin 2 x
1  cos a
cot 2 x + 1
1 + tan 2 x
sec 2 i  1
5 cot 2 i + 5
1
(j)
cosec 2 x
(k) sin 2 a cosec 2 a
(l) cot i  cot i cos 2 i
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
3.
= sin i cos i
(h) (cosec x + cot x) (cosec x  cot x) = 1
Prove that
(a) cos 2 x  1 =  sin 2 x
1 + sin i
(b) sec i + tan i =
cos i
3
2
(c) 3 + 3 tan a =
1  sin 2 a
1  sin 2 i cos 2 i
cos 2 i
2
= tan i + cos 2 i
1 + cot b
(j)
 cos b
cosec b
sec b
=
tan b + cot b
(i)
4.
5.
Show that x 2 + y 2 = 81 if
x = 9 cos i and y = 9 sin i.
331
332
Sine rule
sin A
sin B
sin C
a = b = c
a
c
b
=
=
sin A
sin B
sin C
or
Proof
(1)
From TACD,
h
b
h = b sin C
sin C =
`
(2)
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
333
EXAMPLES
The sine rule uses 2 sides
and 2 angles, with 1
unknown.
Solution
Name the sides a and b, and angles A and B.
a
b
=
sin A
sin B
10.7
x
=
sin 43c 21l
sin 79c 12l
10.7
x
sin 43c 21l #
= sin 43c 21l #
sin 43c 21l
sin 79c 12l
10.7 sin 43c 21l
x=
sin 79c 12l
Z 7.5 cm
2. Find the value of y, to the nearest whole number.
You can rename the
triangle ABC or just make
sure you put sides with
their opposite angles
together.
Solution
+Y = 180c  (53c + 24c )
= 103c
a
b
=
sin A
sin B
y
8
=
sin 103c
sin 53c
y
8
= sin 103c #
sin 103c #
sin 103c
sin 53c
8 sin 103c
y=
sin 53c
Z 10
CONTINUED
334
Solution
sin A
sin B
a = b
sin i
sin 86c 11l
=
6.7
8.3
sin i
sin 86c 11l
= 6.7 #
6.7 #
6 .7
8 .3
6.7 sin 86c 11l
sin i =
8 .3
 1 6.7 sin 86c 11l
i = sin c
m
8.3
Z 53c39l
Since sin x is positive in the rst 2 quadrants, both acute angles (between 0c
and 90c) and obtuse angles (between 90c and 180c) give positive sin ratios.
e.g. sin 50c = 0.766
and sin 130c = 0.766
This affects the sine rule, since there is no way of distinguishing between an
acute angle and an obtuse angle. When doing a question involving an obtuse
angle, we need to use the 2nd quadrant angle of 180c  i rather than relying
on the calculator to give the correct answer.
EXAMPLE
Angle i is obtuse. Find the value of i, in degrees and minutes.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
Solution
sin A
sin B
a = b
sin i
sin 15c 49l
=
5.4
11.9
sin i
sin 15c 49l
= 11.9 #
11.9 #
5.4
11.9
11.9 sin 15c 49l
sin i =
5.4
 1 11.9 sin 15c 49l
m
i = sin c
5.4
= 36c 55l
^ acute angle h
But i is obtuse
`
i = 180c  36c 55l
= 143c 05l
6.10
1.
Exercises
(c)
(a)
(d)
(b)
(e)
335
336
2.
BC = 4.6 cm and
+ACB = 33c 47l.
4.
5.
6.
7.
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e) (i is obtuse)
9.
53c
3.7
3.
12.7 m
8.
4.9
21c31l
47c
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
(a) AD
(b) BD.
A
52c
8.3 cm
32c
Cosine rule
c 2 = a 2 + b 2  2ab cos C
Similarly
a 2 = b 2 + c 2  2bc cos A
b 2 = a 2 + c 2  2ac cos B
Proof
A
ax
(1)
(2)
(3)
337
338
(4)
EXAMPLE
Find the value of x, correct to the nearest whole number.
The cosine rule uses 3 sides
and 1 angle, with 1 unknown.
Solution
c 2 = a 2 + b 2  2ab cos C
x 2 = 5.6 2 + 6.4 2  2 (5.6) (6.4) cos 112c 32l
Z 99.79
x = 99.79
Z 10
Press 5.6 x 2 + 6.4 x 2  2 # 5.6 # 6.4
# cos 112 % , ,, 32 % , ,, =
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
339
a2 + b2  c2
2ab
Similarly
cos A =
b2 + c2  a2
2bc
cos B =
a +c b
2ac
2
EXAMPLES
1. Find i, in degrees and minutes.
Solution
a2 + b2  c2
2ab
52 + 62  32
cos i =
2 ]5 g]6 g
52
=
60
52
m
i = cos  1 c
60
Z 29c 56l
cos C =
4.5 cm
B
8.4 cm
CONTINUED
340
Solution
a2 + b2  c2
2ab
4.5 2 + 6.1 2  8.4 2
cos +BAC =
2 ] 4. 5 g ] 6 .1 g
=  0.2386
cos C =
6.11
1.
Exercises
(e)
(a)
2.
(b)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(d)
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
(d)
7.
8.
(e)
3.
42 c8 l
8.4 cm
B
12.9 mm
125 c
101 c38 l
3.7 cm
23.8 mm
9.9 cm
4.
5.
6.
9.
341
342
Applications
The sine and cosine rules can be used in solving problems.
EXAMPLES
1. The angle of elevation of a tower from point A is 72c. From point B,
50 m further away from the tower than A, the angle of elevation is 47c.
(a) Find the exact length of AT.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, nd the height h of the tower to 1 decimal place.
Solution
^ straight angle h
(angle sum of T)
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
h
AT
h = AT sin 72c
50 sin 47c
=
# sin 72c
sin 25c
Z 82.3 m
343
2. A ship sails from Sydney for 200 km on a bearing of 040c , then sails
on a bearing of 157c for 345 km.
(a) How far from Sydney is the ship, to the nearest km?
(b) What is the bearing of the ship from Sydney, to the nearest degree?
Solution
^ cointerior angles h
^ angle of revolution h
c 2 = a 2 + b 2  2ab cos C
x 2 = 200 2 + 345 2  2 (200) (345) cos 63c
Z 96374.3
x = 96374.3
Z 310
So the ship is 310 km from Sydney.
sin A
sin B
a = b
sin i
sin 63c
=
345
310
345 sin 63c
` sin i =
310
Z 0.99
i Z 82c
( b)
344
6.12
Exercises
1.
2.
3.
7.
8.
9.
54 c37 l
4.
12.8 m
85c58 l
5.
6.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
125 c
16.8 m
23.4 m
13.9 m
58 c1l
11.4 m
14.3 m
132 c31l
345
346
Area
To nd the area of a triangle, you need to know its perpendicular height.
Trigonometry allows us to nd this height in terms of one of the angles in the
triangle.
A=
Similarly,
1
ac sin B
2
1
A = bc sin A
2
A=
Proof
From D BCD,
h
sin C = a
` h = a sin C
1
bh
2
1
= ba sin C
2
A=
1
ab sin C
2
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
347
EXAMPLE
Find the area of D ABC correct to 2 decimal places.
Solution
1
ab sin C
2
1
= (4.3) (5.8) sin 112c 34l
2
Z 11.52 units 2
A=
6.13
1.
Exercises
(c)
(d)
(b)
(e)
348
2.
3.
7.
8.
9.
4.
5.
14.3 cm
10.5 cm
6.
44c
9.4 cm
36c
6.7 cm
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
Test Yourself 6
1.
2.
Simplify
1 + cot 2 A
3.
4.
5.
Prove that
6.
7.
2 cos 2 i
= 2 + 2 sin i.
1  sin i
9.
(b)
(b)
(c)
349
350
Challenge Exercise 6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
6.
7.
8.
9.
351
Linear Functions
TERMINOLOGY
Collinear points: Two or more points that lie on the same
straight line
INTRODUCTION
IN CHAPTER 5, YOU STUDIED functions and their graphs. This chapter
looks at the linear function, or straightline graph, in more detail.
Here you will study the gradient and equation of a straight line, the
intersection of two or more lines, parallel and perpendicular lines,
the midpoint, distance and the perpendicular distance from a point
to a line.
Class Assignment
Find as many examples as you can of straightline graphs in newspapers
and magazines.
Distance
The distance between two points (or the length of the interval between two
points) is easy to nd when the points form a vertical or horizontal line.
353
354
EXAMPLES
Find the distance between
1. ^ 1, 4 h and ^ 1, 2 h
Solution
Solution
When the two points are not lined up horizontally or vertically, we use
Pythagoras theorem to nd the distance.
355
EXAMPLE
Find the distance between points ^ 3, 1 h and ^ 2, 5 h.
Solution
BC = 5 and AC = 6
By Pythagoras theorem,
c =a +b
AB 2 = 5 2 + 6 2
= 25 + 36
= 61
2
` AB = 61
Z 7.81
2
2
_ x2  x1 i + _ y2  y1 i
356
Proof
(x 1  x 2 ) + (y 1  y 2 ) ,
2
Let A = _ x 1, y 1 i and B = _ x 2, y 2 i
Length AC = x 2  x 1 and length BC = y 2  y 1
By Pythagoras theorem
AB 2 = AC 2 + BC 2
d 2 = _ x 2  x 1 i2 + _ y 2  y 1 i2
`d=
2
2
_ x2  x1 i + _ y2  y1 i
EXAMPLES
1. Find the distance between the points ^ 1, 3 h and ^ 3, 0 h.
Solution
Let ^ 1, 3 h be _ x 1, y 1 i and ^ 3, 0 h be _ x 2, y 2 i
d=
2
2
_ x2  x1 i + _ y2  y1 i
= ] 3  1 g2 + ] 0  3 g2
= ] 4 g2 + ] 3 g2
= 16 + 9
= 25
=5
So the distance is 5 units.
2. Find the exact length of AB given that A = ^ 2, 4 h and B = ^ 1, 5 h .
Solution
Let ^ 2, 4 h be _ x 1, y 1 i and ^ 1, 5 h be _ x 2, y 2 i
d=
2
2
_ x2  x1 i + _ y2  y1 i
6 1  ^ 2 h @ 2 + 6 5  ^ 4 h @ 2
=
=
=
12 + 92
1 + 81
82
7.1 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
357
358
Midpoint
The midpoint is the point halfway between two other points.
x1 + x2 y1 + y2
o
,
2
2
Proof
EXAMPLES
1. Find the midpoint of ^ 1, 4 h and ^ 5, 2 h.
Solution
x=
x1 + x2
2
1 + 5
2
4
=
2
=2
y1 + y2
y=
2
4+2
=
2
6
=
2
=3
So M = (2, 3) .
=
Solution
x=
x1 + x2
2
7 + a
2=
2
4 = 7 + a
11 = a
y1 + y2
y=
2
8 + b
3 =
2
6 = 8 + b
2=b
So a = 11 and b = 2.
PROBLEM
A timekeeper worked out the average time for 8 nalists in a race. The
average was 30.55, but the timekeeper lost one of the nalists times.
The other 7 times were 30.3, 31.1, 30.9, 30.7, 29.9, 31.0 and 30.3.
Can you nd out the missing time?
359
360
7.2 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The locus is the path
that P (x, y) follows.
6.
7.
8.
The points A ^ 3, 5 h, B ^ 9, 3 h,
C ^ 5, 6 h and D ^ 1, 2 h form a
quadrilateral. Prove that the
diagonals are equal and bisect
one another. What type of
quadrilateral is ABCD?
9.
Gradient
The gradient of a straight line measures its slope. The gradient compares the
vertical rise with the horizontal run.
361
rise
Gradient = run
EXAMPLES
Find the gradient of each interval.
1.
You will study the
gradient at different
points on a curve in
the next chapter.
Solution
rise
Gradient = run
2
=
3
CONTINUED
362
2.
Solution
In this case, x is  3 (the run is measured towards the left).
rise
Gradient = run
2
=
3
2
=3
Proof
363
BC = y 2  y 1 and AC = x 2  x 1
rise
Gradient = run
y2  y1
= x x
2
1
EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the line between points ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 3, 4 h .
Solution
y2  y1
Gradient: m = x  x
2
1
43
=
3  2
1
=
5
1
=5
2. Prove that points ^ 2, 3 h, ^ 2, 5 h and ^ 0, 1 h are collinear.
Solution
To prove points are collinear, we show that they have the same gradient
(slope).
CONTINUED
364
Proof
rise
m = run
opposite
=
adjacent
= tan i
365
Class Discussion
1. Which angles give a positive gradient?
2. Which angles give a negative gradient? Why?
3. What is the gradient of a horizontal line? What angle does it make
with the xaxis?
4. What angle does a vertical line make with the xaxis? Can you nd
its gradient?
EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the line that makes an angle of 135c with the
xaxis in the positive direction.
Solution
m = tan i
= tan 135c
= 1
2. Find the angle, in degrees and minutes, that a straight line makes
with the xaxis in the positive direction if its gradient is 0.5.
Solution
m = tan i
` tan i = 0.5
i = 26c34l
366
7.3 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
7.
8.
9.
Investigation
1. (i) Draw the graph of each linear function.
(ii) By selecting two points on the line, nd its gradient.
(a) y = x
(b) y = 2x
(c) y = 3x
(d) y =  x
(e) y =  2x
Can you nd a pattern for the gradient of each line? Can you predict
what the gradient of y = 5x and y =  9x would be?
2. (i) Draw the graph of each linear function.
(ii) Find the yintercept.
(a) y = x
(b) y = x + 1
(c) y = x + 2
(d) y = x  2
(e) y = x  3
Can you nd a pattern for the yintercept of each line? Can you predict
what the yintercept of y = x + 11 and y = x  6 would be?
y = mx + b has
m = gradient
b = yintercept
367
368
EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient and yintercept of the linear function y = 7x  5.
Solution
The equation is in the form y = mx + b where m = 7 and b =  5.
Gradient = 7
yintercept =  5
2. Find the gradient of the straight line with equation 2x + 3y  6 = 0.
Solution
First, we change the equation into the form y = mx + b.
2x + 3y  6 = 0
2x + 3y  6 + 6 = 0 + 6
2x + 3y = 6
2x  2x + 3y = 6  2x
3y = 6  2x
=  2x + 6
3y
 2x + 6
=
3
3
 2x 6
y=
+
3
3
2
=  x +2
3
2
m=3
2
So the gradient is  .
3
Proof
ax + by + c = 0
by =  ax  c
ax c
y=b
b
a
`
m=b
a
b
EXAMPLE
Find the gradient of 3x  y = 2.
Solution
3x  y = 2
3x  y  2 = 0
a = 3, b =  1
a
m=b
3
=1
=3
` gradient is 3
7.4 Exercises
1.
Find
(i) the gradient and
(ii) the yintercept of each linear
function.
(a) y = 3x + 5
(b) f ] x g = 2x + 1
(c) y = 6x  7
(d) y =  x
(e) y =  4x + 3
(f) y = x  2
(g) f ] x g = 6  2x
(h) y = 1  x
(i) y = 9x
(j) y = 5x  2
2.
Find
(i) the gradient and
(ii) the yintercept of each linear
function.
(a) 2x + y  3 = 0
(b) 5x + y + 6 = 0
(c) 6x  y  1 = 0
(d) x  y + 4 = 0
(e) 4x + 2y  1 = 0
(f) 6x  2y + 3 = 0
(g) x + 3y + 6 = 0
(h) 4x + 5y  10 = 0
(i) 7x  2y  1 = 0
(j) 5x  3y + 2 = 0
3.
369
370
General form
ax + by + c = 0
Gradient form
y = mx + b
where m = gradient and b = yintercept
Intercept form
x y
a+b =1
where a and b are the xintercept and yintercept respectively
Proof
b
m =  a, b = b
`
b
y = ax + b
y
`
b
y
x
= a + 1
x
a+b =1
Pointgradient formula
There are two formulae for nding the equation of a straight line. One of these
uses a point and the gradient of the line.
371
Proof
Given point _ x 1, y 1 i on the line with gradient m
Let P = ^ x, y h
Then line AP has gradient
y2  y1
m= x x
2
1
y  y1
`
m= xx
1
m _ x  x1 i = y  y1
Twopoint formula
The equation of a straight line is given by
y  y1
y2  y1
=
x  x1
x2  x1
This formula is
optional as you can
use the pointgradient
formula for any
question.
Proof
Let P = ^ x, y h
D APQ <; D ABR
PQ
BR
So
=
AR
AQ
y  y1
y2  y1
i.e. x  x = x  x
1
2
1
The twopoint formula is not essential. The righthand side of it is the gradient
of the line. Replacing this by m gives the pointgradient formula.
372
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the straight line with gradient 4 and passing
through the point ^ 2, 3 h .
Solution
m = 4, x 1 = 2 and y 1 = 3
Equation: y  y 1 = m (x  x 1)
y  3 =  4 [x  (2)]
=  4 (x + 2)
=  4x  8
`
y =  4x  5
or 4x + y + 5 = 0
(gradient form)
(general form)
2. Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the points
^ 2, 3 h and ^ 4, 7 h .
Solution
By twopoint formula:
y  y1
y2  y1
=
x  x1
x2  x1
y  ] 7 g
3  ] 7 g
=
x  ] 4 g
2  ] 4 g
y+7
3 + 7
=
x+4
2+4
y+7
2
=
x+4
3
3 ^ y + 7 h = 2 ]x + 4 g
3y + 21 = 2x + 8
2x + 3y + 13 = 0
or 2x  3y  13 = 0
By pointgradient method:
y2  y1
m= x x
2
1
3  ] 7 g
=
2  ] 4 g
3 + 7
=
2+4
2
=
3
Use one of the points, say ^ 4, 7 h .
2
m = , x 1 = 4 and y 1 = 7
3
Equation:
y  y 1 = m ( x  x 1)
y  (7) =
2
6 x  (  4) @
3
2
( x + 4)
3
= 2 ]x + 4 g
= 2x + 8
=0
=0
y+7=
3^ y + 7h
3y + 21
` 2x + 3y + 13
or 2x  3y  13
Solution
x y
Intercept form is a + = 1, where a and b are the xintercept and
b
yintercept respectively.
x y
`
+ =1
3 2
2x + 3y = 6
` 2x + 3y  6 = 0
Again, the pointgradient formula can be used. The xintercept and
yintercept are the points ^ 3, 0 h and ^ 0, 2 h .
7.5 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
373
374
6.
7.
8.
9.
Class Investigation
Sketch the following straight lines on the same number plane.
1. y = 2x
2. y = 2x + 1
3. y = 2x  3
4. y = 2x + 5
What do you notice about these lines?
If two lines are parallel, then they have the same gradient. That is,
m1 = m2
375
Proof
a
b
a
ax + by + c 2 = 0 has gradient m 2 = b
Since m 1 = m 2, the two lines are parallel.
ax + by + c 1 = 0 has gradient m 1 = 
EXAMPLES
1. Prove that the straight lines 5x  2y  1 = 0 and 5x  2y + 7 = 0 are
parallel.
Solution
5x  2y  1 = 0
5x  1 = 2y
5
1
x =y
2
2
5
`
m1 =
2
5x  2y + 7 = 0
5x + 7 = 2y
5
7
x+ =y
2
2
5
`
m2 =
2
5
m1 = m2 =
2
` the lines are parallel.
2. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to the line 2x  y  3 = 0
and passing through ^ 1, 5 h .
Solution
2x  y  3 = 0
2x  3 = y
`
m1 = 2
For parallel lines m 1 = m 2
` m2 = 2
Equation:
y  y 1 = m (x  x 1)
y  (5) = 2 (x  1)
y + 5 = 2x  2
0 = 2x  y  7
376
Perpendicular lines
Class Investigation
Sketch the following pairs of straight lines on the same number plane.
1. (a) 3x  4y + 12 = 0
2. (a) 2x + y + 4 = 0
(b) 4x + 3y  8 = 0
(b) x  2y + 2 = 0
Proof
^ straight angle h
So
or
Proof
a
b
b
bx  ay + c 2 = 0 has gradient m 2 =   a
b
=a
a
b
m1 m2 =  # a
b
= 1
ax + by + c 1 = 0 has gradient m 1 = 
EXAMPLES
1. Show that the lines 3x + y  11 = 0 and x  3y + 1 = 0 are
perpendicular.
Solution
3x + y  11 = 0
y = 3x + 11
m 1 = 3
`
x  3y + 1 = 0
x + 1 = 3y
1
1
x+ =y
3
3
1
`
m2 =
3
1
m 1 m 2 =  3#
3
= 1
CONTINUED
377
378
Solution
Line through ^ 1, 7 h and ^ 3, 3 h:
y2  y1
m= x x
2
1
73
m1 =
1  3
4
=
4
= 1
For perpendicular lines, m 1 m 2 =  1
i.e.
1m 2 =  1
m2 = 1
Equation through ^ 2, 3 h:
y  y 1 = m (x  x 1)
y  3 = 1 (x  2 )
=x2
0=xy+1
7.6 Exercises
1.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
379
Intersection of Lines
Two straight lines intersect at a single point ^ x, y h . The point satises the
equations of both lines. We nd this point by solving simultaneous equations.
380
EXAMPLES
1. Find the point of intersection between lines 2x  3y  3 = 0 and
5x  2y  13 = 0.
Solution
Solve simultaneous equations:
2x  3y  3 = 0
5x  2y  13 = 0
4x  6y  6 = 0
^ 1 h # 2:
15x  6y  39 = 0
^ 2 h # 3:
+ 33 = 0
^ 3 h  ^ 4 h: 11x
33 = 11x
3=x
^1h
^2h
^3h
^4h
Substitute x = 3 into ^ 1 h:
You could use a
computer spreadsheet to
solve these simultaneous
equations.
2 ^ 3 h  3y  3 = 0
 3y + 3 = 0
3 = 3y
1=y
So the point of intersection is ^ 3, 1 h .
2. Show that the lines 3x  y + 1 = 0, x + 2y + 12 = 0 and
4x  3y  7 = 0 are concurrent.
Solution
Solve any two simultaneous equations:
3x  y + 1 = 0
x + 2y + 12 = 0
4x  3y  7 = 0
6x  2y + 2 = 0
^ 1 h # 2:
2
+
4
:
7
x
+ 14 = 0
^ h ^ h
^1h
^2h
^3h
^4h
7x = 14
x = 2
Substitute x = 2 into ^ 1 h:
3 ^ 2 h  y + 1 = 0
y  5 = 0
5 = y
So the point of intersection of (1) and (2) is ^ 2, 5 h .
Substitute ^ 2, 5 h into (3): 4x  3y  7 = 0
LHS = 4 ^ 2 h  3 ^  5 h  7
= 8 + 15  7
=0
= RHS
So the point lies on line (3)
` all three lines are concurrent.
Proof
Let l 1 have equation a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 = 0.
Let l 2 have equation a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 = 0.
Let the point of intersection of l 1 and l 2 be P ^ x 1, y 1 h .
Then P satises l 1
i.e. a 1 x 1 + b 1 y 1 + c 1 = 0
P also satises l2
i.e. a 2 x 1 + b 2 y 1 + c 2 = 0
Substitute P into (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1) + k (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2) = 0
(a 1 x 1 + b 1 y 1 + c 1) + k (a 2 x 1 + b 2 y 1 + c 2) = 0
0 + k ^0h = 0
0=0
` if point P satises both equations l 1 and l 2 then it satises l 1 + kl 2 = 0.
381
382
EXAMPLE
Find the equation of the line through ^ 1, 2 h that passes through the
intersection of lines 2x + y  5 = 0 and x  3y + 1 = 0.
Solution
Using the formula:
a 1 = 2, b 1 = 1, c 1 = 5
a 2 = 1, b 2 = 3, c 2 = 1
^ a1 x + b1 y + c1 h + k ^ a2 x + b2 y + c2 h = 0
^ 2x + y  5 h + k ^ x  3y + 1 h = 0
Since this line passes through ^ 1, 2 h, substitute the point into the
equation:
^ 2 + 2  5 h + k ^ 1  6 + 1 h = 0
5  6k = 0
5 = 6k
5
 =k
6
So the equation becomes:
5
^ 2x + y  5 h  ^ x  3y + 1 h = 0
6
6 ^ 2x + y  5 h  5 ^ x  3 y + 1 h = 0
12x + 6y  30  5x + 15y  5 = 0
7x + 21y  35 = 0
x + 3y  5 = 0
Another way to do this example is to nd the point of intersection, then
use both points to nd the equation.
7.7 Exercises
1.
(h) 3x + 7y = 12 and
4x  y  1 6 = 0
(i) 3x  5y =  7 and
2x  3y = 4
(j) 8x  7y  3 = 0 and
5x  2y  1 = 0
2.
3.
A triangle is formed by 3
straight lines with equations
2 x  y + 1 = 0, 2 x + y  9 = 0
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
383
384
Perpendicular Distance
The distance formula d = _ x 2  x 1 i2 + _ y 2  y 1 i2 is used to nd the distance
between two points.
Perpendicular distance is used to nd the distance between a point and
a line. If we look at the distance between a point and a line, there could be
many distances.
given by d =
Proof
 ax 1 + by 1 + c 
a2 + b2
In D ACO, AC =
c2 b2 + c2 a2
a2 b2
=
=
PR = y 1  e
=
c a2 + b2
ab
 ax 1  c
b
ax 1 + by 1 + c
b
Why?
PQ
PR
=
AO
AC
AO . PR
PQ =
AC
ax 1 + by 1 + c
c a2 + b2
c
d=a#
'
b
ab
c _ ax 1 + by 1 + c i
ab
=
#
ab
c a2 + b2
ax 1 + by 1 + c
=
a2 + b2
EXAMPLES
1. Find the perpendicular distance of ^ 4,  3 h from the line 3x  4y  1 = 0.
Solution
x 1 = 4, y 1 =  3, a = 3, b =  4, c =  1
 ax 1 + by 1 + c 
d=
a2 + b2
 3 ] 4 g + ]  4 g ] 3 g + ] 1 g 
=
3 2 + ] 4 g2
CONTINUED
385
386
 12 + 12  1 
25
23
=
5
= 4 .6
So the perpendicular distance is 4.6 units.
2. Prove that the line 6x + 8y + 20 = 0 is a tangent to the circle
x 2 + y 2 = 4.
Solution
There are three possibilities for the intersection of a circle and a straight line.
Solution
To show that points lie on the same side of a line, their perpendicular
distance must have the same sign. We use the formula without the
absolute value sign.
d=
ax 1 + by 1 + c
a2 + b2
^  1, 3 h :
2 ]1 g  3 ]3 g + 4
d=
22 + ]  3 g 2
2  9 + 4
=
4+9
7
=
13
^ 2, 7 h :
2 ]2 g  3 ]7 g + 4
d=
2 2 + ] 3 g 2
4  21 + 4
=
4+9
 13
=
13
Since the perpendicular distance for both points has the same sign, the
points lie on the same side of the line.
7.8 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
387
388
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Test Yourself 7
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
389
390
Challenge Exercise 7
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
13. If ax  y  2 = 0 and bx  5y + 11 = 0
intersect at the point ^ 3, 4 h, nd the
values of a and b.
Introduction to
Calculus
TERMINOLOGY
Composite function: A function of a function. One
function, f (x), is a composite of one function to another
function, for example g(x)
Continuity: Describing a line or curve that is unbroken
over its domain
Continuous function: A function is continuous over an
interval if it has no break in its graph. For every x value
on the graph the limit exists and equals the function
value
393
INTRODUCTION
CALCULUS IS A VERY IMPORTANT part of mathematics and involves the
Isaac Newton
394
In this chapter you will learn about differentiation, which measures the rate of
change of one variable with respect to another.
Gradient
Gradient of a straight line
The gradient of a straight line measures its slope. You studied gradient in the
last chapter.
rise
m = run
Class Discussion
Remember that an increasing line has a positive gradient and a
decreasing line has a negative gradient.
positive
negative
Gradient plays an important part, not just in mathematics, but in many areas
including science, business, medicine and engineering. It is used everywhere
we want to nd rates.
On a graph, the gradient measures the rate of change of the dependent
variable with respect to the change in the independent variable.
EXAMPLES
1. The graph shows the average distance travelled by a car over time.
Find the gradient and describe it as a rate.
d
km
400
5
Hours
Solution
The line is increasing so it will have a positive gradient.
rise
m = run
400
=
5
80
=
1
= 80
This means that the car is travelling at the rate of 80 km/hour.
2. The graph shows the number of cases of u reported in a town over
several weeks.
N
Number of
cases (100s)
15
Weeks
10
395
Solution
The line is decreasing so it will have a negative gradient.
rise
m = run
1500
=10
150
=1
=  150
This means that the rate is 150 cases/week, or the number of cases
reported is decreasing by 150 cases/week.
When nding the gradient of a straight line in the number plane, we think of
a change in y values as x changes. The gradients in the examples above show
rates of change.
However, in most examples in real life, the rate of change will vary. For
example, a car would speed up and slow down depending on where it is in
relation to other cars, trafc light signals and changing speed limits.
Gradient of a curve
Class Discussion
The two graphs show the distance that a bicycle travels over time. One is
a straight line and the other is a curve.
d
20
20
15
15
km
km
396
10
5
10
5
3
Hours
t
1
3
Hours
Is the average speed of the bicycle the same in both cases? What is
different about the speed in the two graphs?
How could you measure the speed in the second graph at any one
time? Does it change? If so, how does it change?
Here is a more general curve. What could you say about its gradient?
How does it change along the curve?
y
Copy the graph and mark on it where the gradient is positive, negative
and zero.
Using what we know about the gradient of a straight line, we can see where
the gradient of a curve is positive, negative or zero by drawing tangents to the
curve in different places around the curve.
y
+
x
Notice that when the curve increases it has a positive gradient, when it
decreases it has a negative gradient and when it turns around the gradient is zero.
Investigation
There are some excellent computer programs that will draw tangents to
a curve and then sketch the gradient curve. One of these is Geometer
Sketchpad.
Explore how to sketch gradient functions using this or a similar
program as you look at the examples below.
397
398
EXAMPLES
Describe the gradient of each curve.
1.
Solution
Where the curve increases, the gradient is positive. Where it decreases, it
is negative. Where it turns around, it has a zero gradient.
2.
Solution
399
Since we have a formula for nding the gradient of a straight line, we nd the
gradient of a curve by measuring the gradient of a tangent to the curve.
EXAMPLE
(a) Make an accurate sketch of y = x 2 on graph paper.
(b) Draw tangents to this curve at the points where
x =  3, x =  2, x =  1, x = 0, x = 1, x = 2 and x = 3.
(c) Find the gradient of each of these tangents.
(d) Draw the graph of the gradients (the gradient function) on a
number plane.
Solution
(a) and (b)
y
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
3 2
(c) At x =  3, m =  6
At x =  2, m =  4
At x =  1, m =  2
At x = 0, m = 0
At x = 1, m = 2
At x = 2, m = 4
At x = 3, m = 6
(d)
400
EXAMPLES
Sketch the gradient function of each curve.
1.
Solution
First we mark in where the gradient is positive, negative and zero.
Now on the gradient graph, place the points where m = 0 on the xaxis.
These are at x 1, x 2 and x 3 .
To the left of x 1, the gradient is negative, so this part of the graph will
be below the xaxis. Between x 1 and x 2, the gradient is positive, so the
graph will be above the xaxis. Between x 2 and x 3, the gradient is negative,
so the graph will be below the xaxis. To the right of x 3, the gradient is
positive, so this part of the graph will be above the xaxis.
2.
Solution
First mark in where the gradient is positive, negative and zero.
CONTINUED
401
402
The gradient is zero at x 1 and x 2 . These points will be on the xaxis. To the
left of x 1, the gradient is positive, so this part of the graph will be above
the xaxis. Between x 1 and x 2, the gradient is negative, so the graph will
be below the xaxis. To the right of x 2, the gradient is positive, so this part
of the graph will be above the xaxis.
8.1 Exercises
Sketch the gradient function for each graph.
1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
6.
7.
9.
8.
10.
Differentiability
A function is called a differentiable function if the gradient of the tangent
can be found.
There are some graphs that are not differentiable in places.
Most functions are continuous, which means that they have a smooth
unbroken line or curve. However, some have a gap, or discontinuity, in the
graph (e.g. hyperbola). This can be shown by an asymptote or a hole in the
graph. We cannot nd the gradient of a tangent to the curve at a point that
doesnt exist! So the function is not differentiable at the point of discontinuity.
y
403
404
EXAMPLES
1. Find all points where the function below is not differentiable.
y
x
C
Solution
The function is not differentiable at points A and B since there are sharp
corners and the curve is not smooth at these points.
It is not differentiable at point C since the function is discontinuous
at this point.
x2
3x  2
for x $ 1
differentiable at all points?
for x 1 1
Solution
The functions f (x) = x 2 and f (x) = 3x  2 are both differentiable at all
points.
However, we need to look at where one nishes and the other starts, at f (1).
For f (x) = x 2
f ] 1 g = 12
=1
For f (x) = 3x  2
f ]1 g = 3 ]1 g  2
=1
This means that both pieces of this function join up (the function is
continuous). However, to be differentiable, the curve must be smooth at
this point.
CONTINUED
405
406
Sketching this function shows that it is not smooth (it has a sharp
corner) so it is not differentiable at x = 1.
y
y = x2
1
1
2
y = 3x  2
8.2 Exercises
For each function, state whether it has any points at which it is not
differentiable.
1.
4.
x1
x1
2.
3.
5.
407
10.
5
4
3
2
x1
x2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
6.
4
f (x) = x
7.
y=
8.
9.
4
5
1
x+3
x3
if x 2 2
f (x) = )
x + 1 if x # 2
Z 2x
for x 2 3
]
f (x) = [3
for  2 # x # 3
]
2
\1  x for x 1  2
x
12. f (x) = x
13. f (i) = 3 cos 2i
14. g (z) = sin 2 z
15. y =
x3
x2  9
Limits
To differentiate from rst principles, we need to look more closely at the
concept of a limit.
A limit is used when we want to move as close as we can to something.
Often this is to nd out where a function is near a gap or discontinuous point.
You saw this in Chapter 5 when looking at discontinuous graphs. In this topic,
it is used when we want to move from a gradient of a line between two points
to a gradient of a tangent.
EXAMPLES
1. Find lim
x "2
x2  x  2
.
x2
Solution
(x + 1) (x  2)
x2  x  2
= lim
x "2
x "2
x2
(x  2 )
= lim (x + 1)
lim
x "2
=2+1
=3
CONTINUED
408
2xh  h 2  3h
.
h
Solution
h (2 x  h  3)
2xh  h 2  3h
= lim
h "0
h "0
h
h
= lim (2x  h  3)
lim
h "0
= 2x  3
3. Find an expression in terms of x for lim
dx " 0
3x 2 dx + dx 2  5dx
.
dx
Solution
d x ( 3x 2 + d x  5 )
3x 2 d x + d x 2  5 d x
= lim
dx " 0
dx " 0
dx
dx
2
= lim (3x + dx  5)
lim
dx " 0
2
= 3x  5
8.3 Exercises
1.
Evaluate
2.
x + 3x
x
x "0
5x 3  2x 2  7x
lim
x
x "0
x 2  3x
lim
x "3 x  3
t 2  16
lim
t "4
t4
g2  1
lim
g "1 g  1
x2 + x  2
lim
x " 2
x+2
h 5 + 2h
lim
h "0
h
2
x  7x + 12
lim
x "3
x3
n 2  25
lim
n "5 n  5
x 2 + 4x + 3
lim
x " 1
x2  1
x 2 h  2xh  4h
h "0
h
2x 3 h + xh  h
lim
h "0
h
3x 2 h 2  7xh + 4h 2  h
lim
h "0
h
4x 4 h  x 2 h  4xh 2
lim
h "0
h
x 2 h 2 + 3xh 2  4xh + 3h
lim
h "0
h
2x 2 h + 5xh 2 + 6h
lim
h "0
h
x 2 dx 2  2xdx
lim
dx " 0
dx
4 x 2 dx  2 dx 2
lim
dx " 0
dx
x 3 dx 2 + 3xdx  dx
lim
dx " 0
dx
x 2 dx  2xdx + 9dx
lim
dx " 0
dx
(a) lim
(a) lim
(b)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
Differentiation as a limit
y2  y1
The formula m = x  x is used to nd the gradient of a straight line when we
2
1
know two points on the line. However, when the line is a tangent to a curve,
we only know one point on the linethe point of contact with the curve.
To differentiate from rst principles, we rst use the point of contact
and another point close to it on the curve (this line is called a secant) and then
we move the second point closer and closer to the point of contact until they
overlap and the line is at single point (the tangent). To do this, we use a limit.
If you look at a close up of a graph, you can get some idea of this concept.
When the curve is magnied, two points appear to be joined by a straight line.
We say the curve is locally straight.
Investigation
Use a graphics calculator or a computer program to sketch a curve and
then zoom in on a section of the curve to see that it is locally straight.
For example, here is a parabola.
10
f 1(x) = x2
2
20
x
20
10
2.99
f 1(x) = x2
Use technology to sketch other curves and zoom in to show that they are
locally straight.
409
410
(3.01, f (3.01))
(3, f (3))
x
EXAMPLES
1. For the function f ] x g = x 3, nd the gradient of the secant PQ where P
is the point on the function where x = 2 and Q is another point on the
curve close to P. Choose different values for Q and use these results to
estimate the gradient of the curve at P.
y
Q
P
(2.1, f(2.1))
(2, f(2))
411
Solution
P = ^ 2, f (2) h
Take different values of x for point Q, for example x = 2.1
Using different values of x for point Q gives the results in the table.
Point Q
_ 2 .1 , f ] 2 .1 g i
_ 2.01, f ] 2.01 g i
_ 2.001, f ] 2.001 g i
_ 1 .9 , f ] 1 .9 g i
_ 1.99, f ] 1.99 g i
_ 1.999, f ] 1.999 g i
Gradient of secant PQ
y2  y1
to find
x2  x1
the gradient of the secant.
Use m =
f ( 2 . 1 )  f (2 )
m=
2 .1  2
2 .1 3  2 3
=
2 .1  2
= 12.61
f (2.01)  f (2)
2.01  2
2.01 3  2 3
=
2.01  2
= 12.0601
m=
f (2.001)  f (2)
2.001  2
2.001 3  2 3
=
2.001  2
= 12.006001
m=
f ( 1 . 9 )  f (2 )
1 .9  2
1 .9 3  2 3
=
1 .9  2
= 11.41
m=
f (1.99)  f (2)
1.99  2
1.99 3  2 3
=
1.99  2
= 11.9401
m=
f (1.999)  f (2)
1.999  2
1.999 3  2 3
=
1.999  2
= 11.994001
m=
CONTINUED
412
Solution
A = ^ 5, f (5) h
Take three different values of x for point B, for example x = 4.9, x = 5.1
and x = 5.01.
(a) B = ^ 4.9, f (4.9) h
y2  y1
m= x x
2
1
f ( 4 . 9 )  f (5 )
=
4 .9  5
4 .9 2  5 2
=
4 .9  5
= 9 .9
(b) B = ^ 5.1, f (5.1) h
y2  y1
m= x x
2
1
f ( 5 . 1 )  f (5 )
=
5 .1  5
5 .1 2  5 2
=
5 .1  5
= 10.1
(c) B = ^ 5.01, f (5.01) h
y2  y1
m= x x
2
1
f (5.01)  f (5)
=
5.01  5
5.01 2  5 2
=
5.01  5
= 10.01
From these results, a good estimate for the gradient at A is 10.
We can say that as x approaches 5, the gradient approaches 10.
We can write lim
x "5
f (x)  f (5)
= 10.
x5
413
f l(c) = lim
x "c
f (x)  f (c)
xc
(x + h, f(x + h))
(x , f(x))
x
(x + h, f(x + h))
Q
Q
P
(x, f (x))
x
414
fl(x) = lim
f (x + h)  f (x)
h
h "0
The symbol d is a
Greek letter called
delta.
f (x + h)  f (x)
dy
dx
= lim
dx " 0
dy
dx
All of these different notations stand for the derivative, or the gradient of
the tangent:
dy
d
d
,
(y),
^ f (x) h, f l(x), yl
dx dx
dx
These occur because Newton, Leibniz and other mathematicians over the
years have used different notation.
Investigation
Leibniz used
dy
dx
415
The three formulae for differentiating from rst principles all work in a
similar way.
EXAMPLE
Differentiate from rst principles to nd the gradient of the tangent to
the curve y = x 2 + 3 at the point where x = 1.
Remember that y = x 2  3
is the same as f (x) = x 2  3.
Solution
Method 1:
f (x)  f (c)
xc
2
f ]x g = x + 3
f ] 1 g = 12 + 3
=4
f (x)  f (c)
f l(c) = lim
x "c
xc
f (x)  f (1)
f l(1) = lim
x "1
x1
(x 2 + 3)  4
= lim
x "1
x1
x2  1
= lim
x "1 x  1
(x + 1) (x  1)
= lim
x "1
x1
= lim (x + 1)
f l(c) = lim
x "c
x "1
=1+1
=2
Method 2:
f l(x) = lim
f (x + h )  f ( x )
h "0
f ] x g = x2 + 3
f ] 1 g = 12 + 3
=4
f ] x + h g = ] x + h g2 + 3
When x = 1
f ] 1 + h g = ] 1 + h g2 + 3
= 1 + 2h + h 2 + 3
= 2h + h 2 + 4
CONTINUED
416
f l(x) = lim
h "0
f l(1) = lim
f (x + h)  f (x)
h
f (1 + h)  f (1)
h
(2h + h 2 + 4)  4
= lim
h "0
h
2h + h 2
= lim
h "0
h
h (2 + h)
= lim
h "0
h
= lim (2 + h)
h "0
h "0
=2+0
=2
Method 3:
dy
= lim
dy
dx
dx
y = x2 + 3
dx " 0
When x = 1
y = 12 + 3
=4
So point ^ 1, 4 h lies on the curve.
Substitute point (1 + dx, 4 + dy):
4 + dy = (1 + dx) 2 + 3
= 1 + 2d x + d x 2 + 3
= 2d x + d x 2 + 4
d y = 2d x + d x 2
dy
2d x + d x 2
=
dx
dx
dx(2 + dx)
=
dx
= 2 + dx
dy
dy
= lim
d
x
"
0
dx
dx
= lim (2 + dx)
dx " 0
=2+0
=2
417
EXAMPLE
Differentiate f ] x g = 2x 2 + 7x  3 from rst principles.
Solution
f ] x g = 2x + 7x  3
f ] x + h g = 2 ] x + h g2 + 7 ] x + h g  3
2
= 2 ^ x 2 + 2xh + h 2 h + 7x + 7h  3
= 2x 2 + 4xh + 2h 2 + 7x + 7h  3
f ] x + h g  f ] x g = ^ 2x 2 + 4xh + 2h 2 + 7x + 7h  3 h  ^ 2x 2 + 7x  3 h
= 2x 2 + 4xh + 2h 2 + 7x + 7h  3  2x 2  7x + 3
= 4xh + 2h 2 + 7h
f l(x) = lim
f (x + h)  f (x)
h
4xh + 2h 2 + 7h
= lim
h "0
h
h ( 4 x + 2h + 7 )
= lim
h "0
h
= lim (4x + 2h + 7)
h "0
h "0
= 4x + 0 + 7
= 4x + 7
8.4 Exercises
1.
2.
f (x)  f (2)
x2
when x = 2.01.
f (x)  f (2)
(c) Evaluate
when
x2
x = 1.99.
(d) Hence nd the gradient of the
tangent at the point ^ 2, 10 h .
3.
4.
If f (x) = x 2,
(a) nd f (x + h)
(b) show that
f (x + h)  f (x) = 2xh + h 2
418
5.
6.
= 2x + h
A function is given by
f (x) = 2x 2  7x + 3.
(a) Show that f (x + h) =
2x 2 + 4xh + 2h 2  7x  7h + 3.
(b) Show that
f (x + h)  f (x) = 4xh + 2h 2  7h.
(c) Show that
f (x + h)  f (x)
= 4x + 2h  7 .
h
(d) Find fl(x) .
(c) nd
A function is given by
f (x) = x 2 + x + 5.
(a) Find f ] 2 g.
(b) Find f ] 2 + h g.
(c) Find f ] 2 + h g  f ] 2 g.
(d) Show that
f (2 + h)  f ( 2)
= 5 + h.
h
(e) Find fl(2).
7.
8.
9.
Remember that
1
1
=
x
dy
dx
dy
dx
= 2x + dx + 2
f (x)  f (4)
when
x4
x = 3 .9 .
f (x)  f (4)
(b) Evaluate
when
x4
x = 3.999.
f (x)  f (4)
when
(c) Evaluate
x4
x = 4.01.
14. For the function f (x) = x  1,
f (x)  f (5)
(a) evaluate
when
x5
x = 4.99.
f (x)  f (5)
(b) evaluate
when
x5
x = 5.01.
(c) Use these results to nd the
derivative of the function at the
point where x = 5.
y = mx + b
So if y = mx,
dy
dx
=m
d ] g
kx = k
dx
y=k
So if y = k,
dy
dx
=0
d ] g
k =0
dx
419
420
Investigation
Differentiate from rst principles:
y = x2
y = x3
y = x4
Can you nd a pattern? Could you predict what the result would be for xn?
Alternatively, you could nd an approximation to the derivative of a
f (x + 0.01)  f (x)
function at any point by drawing the graph of y =
.
0.01
Use a graphics calculator or graphing computer software to sketch the
derivative for these functions and nd the equation of the derivative.
d ^ nh
x = nx n  1
dx
Proof
You do not need to know
this proof.
f (x) = x n
f (x + h) = (x + h) n
f (x + h)  f (x) = (x + h) n  x n
= ^ (x + h)  x h [(x + h) n  1 + (x + h) n  2 x + (x + h) n  3 x 2 + (x + h) n  4 x 3
+ . . . + (x + h) x n  2 + x n  1]
= h [(x + h) n  1 + (x + h) n  2 x + (x + h) n  3 x 2 + (x + h) n  4 x 3
+ . . . + (x + h) x n  2 + x n  1]
f l(x) = lim
f (x + h)  f (x)
h
h [(x + h) n  1 + (x + h) n  2 x + (x + h) n  3 x 2 + (x + h) n  4 x 3 + . . . + (x + h) x n  2 + x n  1]
= lim
h "0
h
n1
n2
n3 2
= lim [(x + h)
+ (x + h )
x + (x + h)
x + (x + h) n  4 x 3 + . . . + (x + h) x n  2 + x n  1]
h "0
h "0
421
EXAMPLE
Differentiate f (x) = x 7.
Solution
f l(x) = 7x 6
There are some more rules that give us short ways to differentiate functions.
The rst one says that if there is a constant in front of the x (we call this a
coefcient), then it is just multiplied with the derivative.
d ^ nh
kx = knx n  1
dx
d
^ kf (x) h = kf l(x)
dx
Proof
kf (x + h)  kf (x)
d
^ kf (x) h = lim
0
h
"
dx
h
k [f (x + h)  f (x)]
= lim
h "0
h
f (x + h)  f (x)
= k lim
h "0
h
= kf l(x)
EXAMPLE
Find the derivative of 3x8.
Solution
If y = 3x 8
dy
= 3 # 8x 7
dx
= 24x 7
422
d
^ f (x) + g (x) h = f l(x) + g (x)
dx
Proof
You do not need to
know this proof.
EXAMPLE
Differentiate x 3 + x 4.
Solution
d 3
(x + x 4) = 3x 2 + 4x 3
dx
EXAMPLES
Differentiate
1. 7x
Solution
d ] g
7x = 7
dx
2. f (x) = x 4  x 3 + 5
Solution
f l(x) = 4x 3  3x 2 + 0
= 4x 3  3x 2
3. y = 4x 7
Solution
dy
dx
= 4 # 7x 6
= 28x 6
Solution
f l(x) = 10x 4  21x 2 + 5
f l(1) = 10(1) 4  21(1) 2 + 5
= 6
5. Differentiate
3x 2 + 5x
2x
Solution
Divide by 2x before differentiating.
3x 2 + 5x
3x 2 5x
=
+
2x
2x
2x
3
5
= x+
2
2
dy
3
=
2
dx
1
=1
2
6. Differentiate S = 2rr 2 + 2rrh with respect to r.
Solution
We are differentiating with respect to r, so r is the variable and r and h
are constants.
dS
= 2r(2r) + 2rh
dr
= 4r r + 2r h
423
424
8.5 Exercises
1.
Expand brackets
before differentiating.
2.
3.
Simplify by dividing
before differentiating.
Differentiate
(a) x + 2
(b) 5x  9
(c) x 2 + 3x + 4
(d) 5x 2  x  8
(e) x 3 + 2x 2  7x  3
(f) 2x 3  7x 2 + 7x  1
(g) 3x 4  2x 2 + 5x
(h) x 6  5x 5  2x 4
(i) 2x 5  4x 3 + x 2  2x + 4
(j) 4x 10  7x 9
Find the derivative of
(a) x ] 2x + 1 g
(b) ] 2x  3 g2
(c) ] x + 4 g ] x  4 g
2
(d) ^ 2x 2  3 h
(e) ] 2x + 5 g ^ x 2  x + 1 h
Differentiate
(a)
x2
x
6
(b)
x4 x3
+4
2
3
(c)
1 6 2
x ( x  3)
3
(d)
2x 3 + 5x
x
(e)
x 2 + 2x
4x
(f)
2x 5  3x 4 + 6x 3  2x 2
3x 2
4.
5.
6.
7.
If s = 5t 2  20t , nd
8.
dv
when v = 15t 2  9.
dt
dh
10. If h = 40t  2t 2, nd
.
dt
9.
Find
11. Given V =
dV
4 3
rr , nd
.
3
dr
12. If f (x) = 2x 3  3x + 4,
evaluate f l(1).
13. Given f (x) = x 2  x + 5, evaluate
(a) f l(3)
(b) f l(2)
(c) x when f l(x) = 7
14. If y = x 3  7, evaluate
dy
(a)
when x = 2
dx
dy
(b) x when
= 12
dx
15. Evaluate gl(2) when
g (t) = 3t 3  4t 2  2t + 1.
425
However, a tangent to a curve could intersect the curve more than once.
Remember from earlier in the chapter that the derivative is the gradient of the
tangent to a curve.
dy
dx
426
EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the tangent to the parabola y = x 2 + 1 at the
point ^ 1, 2 h .
Solution
dy
dx
At ^ 1, 2 h
dy
dx
= 2x + 0
= 2x
= 2 (1 )
=2
Solution
dy
dx
dy
dx
= 6x 2  12x
is the gradient of the tangent, so substitute
dy
dx
= 18.
18 = 6x 2  12x
0 = 6x 2  12x  18
= x 2  2x  3
= ]x  3 g]x + 1 g
x  3 = 0, x + 1 = 0
` x = 3,
x = 1
3. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 4  3x 3 + 7x  2
at the point ^ 2, 4 h .
Solution
dy
At ^ 2, 4 h
dx
dy
dx
= 4x 3  9x 2 + 7
= 4 ] 2 g3  9 ] 2 g2 + 7
=3
So the gradient of the tangent at ^ 2, 4 h is 3.
Equation of the tangent:
y  y1 = m _ x  x1 i
y  4 = 3 ]x  2 g
427
= 3x  6
y = 3x  2
or 0 = 3x  y  2
The normal is a straight line perpendicular to the tangent at the same point of
contact with the curve.
y
Tangent
Normal
EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the normal to the curve y = 2x 2  3x + 5 at the
point where x = 4.
Solution
dy
dx
= 4x  3
dx
When x = 4
dy
=4#43
dx
= 13
So m 1 = 13
The normal is perpendicular to the tangent.
So m 1 m 2 = 1
CONTINUED
428
13m 2 = 1
1
m2 = 13
1
So the gradient of the normal is  .
13
Solution
dy
dx
= 3x 2 + 6x  2
dx
When x = 1
dy
= 3 ] 1 g2 + 6 ] 1 g  2
dx
= 5
So m 1 =  5
The normal is perpendicular to the tangent.
So m 1 m 2 = 1
5m 2 = 1
1
m2 =
5
1
So the gradient of the normal is .
5
Equation of the normal:
y  y1 = m _ x  x1 i
1
y  3 = ] x  ] 1 g g
5
5y  15 = x + 1
0 = x  5y + 16
8.6 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
A function f (x) = x 2 + 4x  12
has a tangent with a gradient of
6 at point P on the curve. Find
the coordinates of the point P.
429
430
Investigation
1. (a) Show that
h
1
1
 =
.
x+h x
x (x + h)
1
(b) Hence differentiate y = x from rst principles.
(c) Differentiate y = x  1 using a short method. Do you get the same
answer as 1(b)?
2. (a) Show that ( x + h  x ) ( x + h + x ) = h.
(b) Hence differentiate y =
1
2
(c) Differentiate y = x and show that this gives the same answer as 2(b).
EXAMPLES
1. Differentiate 7 3 x .
Solution
1
7 3 x = 7x 3
dy
1 11
= 7$ x 3
3
dx
2
7 3
= x
3
7
1
= # 2
3
x3
=
=
7
1
#
3
3
x2
7
3 3 x2
4
2. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = 2 at the point
x
where x = 2.
Solution
4
x2
= 4x  2
y=
dy
dx
=  8x  3
=
8
x3
When x = 2
4
y= 2
2
=1
Gradient of the tangent at ^ 2, 1 h:
dy
8
= 3
dx
2
= 1
Equation of the tangent:
y  y1 = m _ x  x1 i
y  1 = 1 ] x  2 g
= x + 2
y = x + 3
or x + y  3 = 0
8.7 Exercises
1.
Differentiate
(a) x  3
(b) x 1.4
(c) 6x 0.2
1
(d) x 2
1
(e) 2x 2  3x  1
1
(f) 3x 3
3
(g) 8x 4
(h)  2x
1
2
2.
431
432
Note that
1
2x 6
1
1
# .
2
x6
(g)
1
2x 6
(h) x x
x
11. (a) Differentiate x .
2
(i)
3x
3
1
(j)
+
4x 2 x 4
3.
dx
12
, nd
when t = 2.
t
dt
4.
If x =
5.
6.
if y = ^ x + x h .
2
7.
Find
8.
A function f (x) =
9.
dx
x
has a
2
tangent at ^ 4, 1 h . Find the
gradient of the tangent.
dy
dx
dy
du
du
dx
Proof
Let dx, dy and du be small changes in x, y and u where dx " 0, dy " 0, du " 0.
dy
dy
du
=
#
Then
dx
du
dx
As dx " 0, du " 0
dy
dy
du
= lim
# lim
So lim
dx " 0 d x
du " 0 d u
dx " 0 d x
433
Using the denition of the derivative from rst principles, this gives
dy
dx
dy
du
du
.
dx
EXAMPLES
Differentiate
1. (5x + 4) 7
Solution
u = 5x + 4
du
Then
=5
dx
y = u7
dy
`
= 7u 6
du
dy
dy
du
=
#
dx
du
dx
= 7u 6 # 5
= 35 (5x + 4) 6
Let
2. (3x 2 + 2x  1) 9
Solution
u = 3x 2 + 2x  1
du
Then
= 6x + 2
dx
y = u9
dy
`
= 9u 8
du
dy
dy
du
=
#
dx
du
dx
8
= 9u (6x + 2)
= 9(6x + 2) (3x 2 + 2x  1) 8
Let
CONTINUED
434
3.
3x
Solution
1
3  x = (3  x) 2
Let u = 3  x
du
= 1
dx
1
y = u2
dy
1 1
= u 2
2
du
dy
dy
du
=
#
dx
du
dx
1  12
= u (1)
2
1
1
=  (3  x) 2
2
1
=2 3x
d
[ f (x)] n = f l(x) n [ f (x)] n  1
dx
Proof
u = f (x)
du
= f l(x)
Then
dx
y = un
dy
`
= nu n  1
du
dy
dy
du
=
#
dx
du
dx
= nu n  1 # f l(x)
= f l(x) n [ f (x)] n  1
Let
EXAMPLES
Differentiate
1. (8x 3  1) 5
Solution
dy
dx
= f l(x) $ n [ f (x)] n  1
= 24x 2 $ 5 (8x 3  1) 4
= 120x 2 (8x 3  1) 4
2. (3x + 8) 11
Solution
yl = f l(x) . n [ f (x)] n  1
= 3 # 11 (3x + 8) 10
= 33 (3x + 8) 10
3.
1
(6x + 1) 2
Solution
1
= (6x + 1)  2
(6x + 1) 2
y l = f l(x) $ n [ f (x)] n  1
= 6 # 2 (6x + 1)  3
= 12 (6x + 1)  3
12
=(6x + 1) 3
8.8 Exercises
1.
Differentiate
(a) (x + 3) 4
(b) (2x  1) 3
(c) (5x 2  4) 7
(d) (8x + 3) 6
(e) (1  x) 5
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
3 (5x + 9) 9
2 (x  4) 2
(2x 3 + 3x) 4
(x 2 + 5x  1) 8
(x 6  2x 2 + 3) 6
1
(k) (3x  1) 2
435
436
2.
(o) (x 3  7x 2 + x) 4
3.
3x + 4
1
(q)
5x  2
1
(r)
(x 2 + 1) 4
4.
The curve y =
5.
6.
(l) (4  x)  2
(m) (x 2  9)  3
1
(n) (5x + 4) 3
(p)
(s)
(t)
(u)
(v)
(w)
(x)
(y)
(7  3x) 2
5
4+x
1
2 3x  1
3
4 (2x + 7) 9
1
x 4  3x 3 + 3x
(4x + 1) 4
1
( 7  x) 5
x  3 has a
1
tangent with gradient at point
2
N. Find the coordinates of N.
Product Rule
Differentiating the product of two functions y = uv gives the result
dy
dx
=u
dv
du
+v
dx
dx
Proof
y = uv
Given that dy, du and dv are small changes in y, u and v.
y + dy = (u + du) (v + dv)
= uv + udv + vdu + dudv
`
As dx " 0, du " 0
dy
dv
du
dv
F
lim
= lim < u
+v
+ du
dx " 0 d x
dx " 0
dx
dx
dx
dv
du
dv
F + lim < v
F + lim < du
F
= lim < u
dx " 0
d
x
"
0
d
x
"
0
dx
dx
dx
dy
dv
du
=u
+v
dx
dx
dx
437
EXAMPLES
Differentiate
1. ] 3x + 1 g ] x  5 g
Solution
You could expand the brackets and then differentiate:
] 3x + 1 g ] x  5 g = 3x 2  15x + x  5
= 3x 2  14x  5
dy
= 6x  14
dx
Using the product rule:
y = uv where u = 3x + 1 and v = x  5
ul = 3
vl = 1
y l = u lv + v l u
= 3 ] x  5 g + 1 ] 3x + 1 g
= 3x  15 + 3x + 1
= 6x  14
2. 2x 5 ] 5x + 3 g3
Solution
y = uv where u = 2x 5 and v = ] 5x + 3 g 3
u l = 10x 4 v l = 5.3 ] 5x + 3 g 2
CONTINUED
438
y l = u lv + v l u
= 10x 4 ] 5x + 3 g3 + 5.3 ] 5x + 3 g2 $ 2x 5
= 10x 4 ] 5x + 3 g3 + 30x 5 ] 5x + 3 g2
= 10x 4 ] 5x + 3 g2 6 ] 5x + 3 g + 3x @
= 10x 4 ] 5x + 3 g2 ] 8x + 3 g
3. (3x  4) 5  2x
Solution
1
Remember
5  2x = ] 5  2x g 2
y = uv where u = 3x  4 and v = ] 5  2x g 2
1
1
ul = 3
v l =  2 $ (5  2 x ) 2
2
y l = u lv + v lu
1
1
1]
5  2x g 2 ] 3x  4 g
2
1
5  2x  (3x  4) ] 5  2x g 2
3x  4
5  2x 1
(5  2x) 2
3x  4
5  2x 5  2x
5  2x $ 5  2x  (3x  4)
= 3 ] 5  2x g 2 + 2 $
=3
=3
=3
=
=
5  2x
3(5  2x)  (3x  4)
5  2x
15  6x  3x + 4
=
5  2x
19  9x
=
5  2x
8.9 Exercises
1.
Differentiate
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
x 3 ] 2x + 3 g
] 3x  2 g ] 2x + 1 g
3x ] 5x + 7 g
4x 4 ^ 3x 2  1 h
2x ^ 3x 4  x h
x 2 ] x + 1 g3
4x ] 3x  2 g5
3x 4 ] 4  x g3
] x + 1 g ] 2x + 5 g4
^ x 3 + 5x 2  3 h ^ x 2 + 1 h 5
x 2x
5x + 3
(l)
2x  1
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
2.
7.
3.
8.
4.
9.
5.
6.
Quotient Rule
u
Differentiating the quotient of two functions y = v gives the result.
dy
dx
du
dv
u
dx
dx
v2
Proof
u
y= v
Given that dy, du and dv are small changes in y, u and v.
u + du
y + dy =
v + dv
u + du u
u
` dy =
 v a since y = v k
v + dv
v (u + du) u (v + dv)
=
v (v + dv)
v (v + dv)
v (u + du)  u (v + dv)
=
v (v + dv)
vu + vdu  uv  udv
=
v (v + dv)
vdu  udv
=
v (v + dv)
du
dv
u
v
dy
dx
dx
=
v (v + dv)
dx
As dx " 0, dv " 0
439
440
lim
dx " 0
dy
dx
dy
dx
R
S v du  u dv
S dx
dx
= lim S
dx " 0
v ( v + d v)
T
du
dv
v
u
dx
dx
=
v2
V
W
W
W
X
u lv  v lu
.
v2
u
u lv  v lu
If y = v , y l =
v2
EXAMPLES
Differentiate
1. 3x  5
5x + 2
Solution
u
y = v where u = 3x  5 and v = 5x + 2
ul = 3
vl = 5
yl =
=
u lv  v lu
v2
3 (5x + 2)  5 (3x  5)
(5x + 2) 2
15x + 6  15x + 25
=
(5x + 2) 2
31
=
(5x + 2) 2
2. 4x 3  5x + 2
x3  1
Solution
u
y = v where u = 4x 3  5x + 2 and v = x 3  1
u l = 12x 2  5
v l = 3x 2
u l v  v lu
yl =
v2
(12x 2  5) (x 3  1)  3x 2 (4x 3  5x + 2)
=
(x 3  1 ) 2
5
2
12x  12x  5x 3 + 5  12x 5 + 15x 3  6x 2
=
(x 3  1 ) 2
10x 3  18x 2 + 5
=
(x 3  1) 2
8.10
1.
Exercises
Differentiate
1
2x  1
(b) 3x
x+5
x3
(c)
2
x 4
(d) x  3
5x + 1
(e) x  7
x2
(f) 5x + 4
x+3
x
(g)
2
2x  x
(h) x + 4
x2
(i) 2x + 7
4x  3
(j) x + 5
3x + 1
(k) x + 1
3x 2  7
2x 2
(l)
2x  3
2
(m) x + 4
x2  5
3
(n) x
x+4
3
(o) x + 2x  1
x+3
2
(p) x  2x  1
3x + 4
3
x
+x
(q)
2
x x1
2x
(r)
1
(x + 5) 2
3
(s) (2x  9)
5x + 1
x1
(t)
(7x + 2) 4
5
(u) (3x + 4)
(a)
(2x  5) 3
(v) 3x + 1
x+1
(w)
x1
2x  3
(x)
x2 + 1
(x  9) 2
2.
3.
If f (x) =
4.
5.
Given f (x) =
f l(x) =
4x + 5
evaluate f l(2).
2x  1
2x
nd x if
x+3
1
.
6
6.
7.
441
442
Test Yourself 8
1.
6.
7.
8.
(b)
(b)
5
4
3
2
1
2.
3.
Differentiate
(a) 7x 6  3x 3 + x 2  8x  4
(b) 3x  4
2x + 1
(c)
4 3 2 11
5.
1 2 3 4
2
3
4
5
dv
if v = 2t 2  3t  4.
dt
Find
5
4
3
2
1
(c) (x 2 + 4x  2) 9
(d) 5x(2x  1) 4
(e) x 2 x
5
(f) 2
x
4.
44 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
y
9.
Differentiate
(a) f ] x g = 2 ] 4x + 9 g4
5
(b) y =
x3
(c) y = x ] 3x  1 g2
4
(d) y = x
(e) f (x) = 5 x
19. Differentiate s = ut +
11. Find the equation of the tangent to
the curve y = x 2 + 5x  3 at the point
^ 2, 11 h .
12. Find the point on the curve
y = x 2  x + 1 at which the tangent has a
gradient of 3.
13. Find
dS
if S = 4rr 2.
dr
Challenge Exercise 8
1.
2.
If A =
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Differentiate (5x + 1) 3 (x  9) 5 .
8.
9.
dA
5h + 3
, nd
when h = 1.
7h  1
dh
dx
Given x = 2t 4 + 100t 3, nd
and nd
dt
dx
values of t when
= 0.
dt
Find the equations of the tangents to the
curve y = x (x  1) (x + 2) at the points
where the curve cuts the xaxis.
3x  2 .
2x + 1
.
(4x  9) 4
443
444
90c
180c 270c
360c
3x  2
.
2x 3
28. Find
445
The Quadratic
Function
TERMINOLOGY
Axis of symmetry: A line about which two parts of
a graph are symmetrical. One half of the graph is a
reflection of the other
Coefcient: A constant multiplied by a pronumeral in an
algebraic term e.g. in ax3 the a is the coefficient
Discriminant: Part of the quadratic formula, the algebraic
expression b 2  4ac is called the discriminant as its value
determines the number and nature of the roots of a
quadratic equation
Equations reducible to quadratics: Equations that can be
reduced to the form: ax 2 + bx + c = 0
Indenite: A quadratic function where f(x) can be both
positive and negative for varying values of x
451
INTRODUCTION
THE SOLUTION OF QUADRATIC equations is important in many elds,
Solution
(a) For the yintercept, x = 0
i.e. y = 0 2  4 (0)
=0
For the xintercept, y = 0
i.e. 0 = x 2  4x
= x (x  4)
` x = 0 or x  4 = 0
x=4
CONTINUED
452
Class Investigation
1. How would you nd the axis of symmetry for a graph with no
xintercepts?
Proof
The axis of symmetry lies midway between the xintercepts.
For the xintercepts, y = 0
i.e. ax 2 + bx + c = 0
x=
 b ! b 2  4ac
2a
i.e.
 b  b 2  4ac
 b + b 2  4ac
+
2a
2a
x=
2
 2b
2a
=
2
 2b
=
4a
b
=2a
Minimum value
453
454
b
m
2a
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the minimum value of
the quadratic function y = x 2  5x + 1.
Solution
The equation of the axis of symmetry is given by
b
2a
( 5 )
x=i.e.
2 ( 1)
5
=
2
1
` Equation is x = 2
2
5 2
5
Minimum value: y = c m  5 c m + 1
2
2
25 25
=
+1
4
2
1
= 5
4
x=
a 2 0 gives a minimum
value.
1
So minimum value is  5 .
4
2. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the maximum value of
the quadratic function y =  3x 2 + x  5.
Solution
The equation of the axis of symmetry is given by
b
2a
1
x=i.e.
2 ( 3 )
1
=
6
1
` Equation is x =
6
1 2
1
Maximum value: y =  3 c m + c m  5
6
6
1
1
=+ 5
12 6
11
= 4
12
x=
a 1 0 gives a maximum
value.
So maximum value is  4
11
.
12
Class Investigation
Examine the graph of y =  3x 2 + x  5 from the above example. Are
there any solutions for the quadratic equation  3x 2 + x  5 = 0?
EXAMPLE
(a) Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the coordinates of the
vertex of the parabola y = 2x 2  12x + 7.
(b) Find the yintercept and sketch the graph.
Solution
(a) Axis of symmetry:
b
x=2a
 12
=2#2
=3
When x = 3
y = 2 ] 3 g 2  12 ] 3 g + 7
=  11
y = 2 ] 0 g 2  12 ] 0 g + 7
=7
(3, 11)
9.1 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
455
456
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
f ] x g = x 2 + 4x  3
y = x 2  2x
f ] x g = x 2  4x  7
f ] x g = 2x 2 + x  3
y =  x 2  2x + 5
y =  2x 2 + 8x + 3
f ] x g =  3x 2 + 3x + 7
f ] x g =  x 2 + 2x  4
457
20. By sketching f ] x g = x 2 + x + 2,
show that x 2 + x + 2 2 0 for all x.
21. Show by a sketch that
 x 2 + 2x  7 1 0 for all x.
22. Sketch y =  5x 2 + 4x  1 and
show that 5x 2 + 4x  1 1 0 for
all x.
Investigation
Could you tell without sketching the function y = x 2  x + 5 if
x 2  x + 5 2 0 for all x? How could you do this?
How could you know that  x 2 + 2x  7 1 0 for all x without sketching
the graph of f ] x g =  x 2 + 2x  7?
Quadratic Inequalities
You looked at solving quadratic inequations in Chapter 3 using the number
line. You can also solve them using the graph of a parabola.
458
y
a20
ax2 + bx + c 2 0
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
ax 2 + bx + c 1 0
y
a10
ax 2 + bx + c 2 0
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
ax 2 + bx + c 1 0
EXAMPLES
1. Solve x 2  3x + 2 $ 0.
Solution
First sketch y = x 2  3x + 2 showing xintercepts (a 2 0 so it is concave
upwards).
For xintercepts, y = 0
0 = x 2  3x + 2
= ]x  2g]x  1g
x  2 = 0, x  1 = 0
x = 2,
x=1
Solution
First sketch y = 4x  x 2 showing xintercepts (a 1 0 so it is concave
downwards).
For xintercepts, y = 0
0 = 4x  x 2
= x ]4  x g
x = 0,
4x=0
x = 0,
4=x
y
CONTINUED
459
460
3. Solve x 2  25 1 0.
Solution
First sketch y = x 2  25 showing xintercepts (a 2 0 so it is concave
upwards).
For xintercepts, y = 0
0 = x 2  25
= ]x + 5 g]x  5 g
x + 5 = 0, x  5 = 0
x =  5,
x=5
y
5
9.2 Exercises
Solve
1.
x2  9 2 0
6.
2t  t 2 2 0
2.
n2 + n # 0
7.
x 2 + 2x  8 2 0
3.
a 2  2a $ 0
8.
p 2 + 4p + 3 $ 0
4.
4  x2 1 0
9.
m 2  6m + 8 2 0
5.
y 2  6y # 0
10. 6  x  x 2 # 0
11. 2h 2  7h + 6 1 0
16. 12  n  n 2 # 0
12. x 2  x  20 # 0
17. x 2  2x 1 15
13. 35 + 9k  2k 2 $ 0
18.  t 2 $ 4t  12
14. q 2  9q + 18 2 0
19. 3y 2 2 14y + 5
15. ] x + 2 g2 $ 0
20. ] x  3 g ] x + 1 g $ 5
The Discriminant
The values of x that satisfy a quadratic equation are called the roots of the
equation.
The roots of ax 2 + bx + c = 0 are the xintercepts of the graph
y = ax 2 + bx + c
a20
a10
x
a20
a10
x
461
462
a20
a10
x
Investigation
1. Solve the following quadratic equations using the quadratic formula
(a) x 2  3x + 2 = 0
(b) x 2 + 4x  7 = 0
(c) x 2 + x + 5 = 0
(d) x 2  6x + 9 = 0
2. Without solving a quadratic equation, can you predict how many
roots it has by looking at the quadratic formula?
b 2  4ac
, the expression b 2  4ac is called
2a
the discriminant. It gives us information about the roots of the quadratic
equation ax 2 + bx + x = 0.
In the quadratic formula x =
b !
EXAMPLES
Use the quadratic formula to nd how many real roots each quadratic
equation has.
1. x 2 + 5x  3 = 0
Solution
 b ! b 2  4ac
2a
 5 ! 5 2  4 #1#  3
=
2 #1
 5 ! 25 + 12
=
2
 5 ! 37
=
2
There are 2 real roots:
x=
x=
 5 + 37  5  37
,
2
2
2. x 2  x + 4 = 0
Solution
 b ! b 2  4ac
2a
 (1) ! (1) 2  4 #1# 4
=
2 #1
1 ! 15
=
2
x=
3. x 2  2x + 1 = 0
Solution
 b ! b 2  4ac
2a
 ( 2) ! ( 2) 2  4 #1#1
=
2 #1
2! 0
=
2
x=
CONTINUED
463
464
x=
Notice that when there are 2 real roots, the discriminant b 2  4ac 2 0.
When there are 2 equal roots (or just 1 real root), b 2  4ac = 0.
When there are no real roots, b 2  4ac 1 0.
We often use D = b 2  4ac.
a20
a10
x
a20
a10
x
a10
a20
x
If T1 0 and a 2 0, it is positive
denite and ax 2 + bx + c 2 0
for all x.
If T1 0 and a 1 0, it is
negative denite and
ax 2 + bx + c 1 0 for all x.
EXAMPLES
1. Show that the equation 2x 2 + x + 4 = 0 has no real roots.
Solution
T = b 2  4ac
= 12  4 ] 2 g ] 4 g
= 1  32
=  31
10
So the equation has no real roots.
2. Find the values of k for which the quadratic equation 5x 2  2x + k = 0
has real roots.
Solution
For real unequal roots, T 2 0.
For real equal roots, T = 0.
So for real roots, T $ 0.
CONTINUED
465
466
T $0
b  4ac $ 0
2
] 2 g 2  4 ] 5 g ] k g $ 0
4  20k $ 0
4 $ 20k
1
$k
5
3. Show that x 2  2x + 4 2 0 for all x.
Solution
If a 2 0 and T1 0, then ax 2 + bx + c 2 0 for all x.
y
a20
x
a =1
20
T = b 2  4ac
= ] 2 g 2  4 ] 1 g ] 4 g
= 4  16
= 12
10
Since a 2 0 and T1 0, x 2  2x + 4 2 0 for all x.
4. Show that the line 4x + y + 4 = 0 is a tangent to the parabola y = x 2.
Solution
For the line to be a tangent, it must intersect with the curve in only
1 point.
y
5
4
3
2
1
x
4 3 2
11
2
3
4
5
6
It is too hard to tell from the graph if the line is a tangent, so we solve
simultaneous equations to nd any points of intersection.
]1 g
]2 g
y = x2
4x + y + 4 = 0
Substitute (1) into (2):
4x + x 2 + 4 = 0
x 2 + 4x + 4 = 0
We dont need to nd the roots of the equation as the question only asks
how many roots there are. We nd the discriminant.
D = b 2  4ac
= 42  4 ] 1 g ] 4 g
= 16  16
=0
` the equation has 1 real root (equal roots) so there is only one point of
intersection.
So the line is a tangent to the parabola.
9.3 Exercises
1.
(i)  2x 2 + x + 2 = 0
(j)  x 2 + 4x  4 = 0
2.
467
468
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
x2  x  4 = 0
2x 2 + 3x + 6 = 0
x 2  9x + 20 = 0
x 2 + 6x + 9 = 0
2x 2  5x  1 = 0
 x 2 + 2x  5 = 0
 2x 2  5x + 3 = 0
 5x 2 + 2x  6 = 0
x2 + x = 0
 2x 2 + 8x  2 = 0
3.
4.
5.
6.
Evaluate p if px 2 + 4x + 2 = 0 has
no real roots.
7.
8.
9.
Quadratic Identities
When you use the quadratic formula to solve an equation, you compare a
quadratic, say, 3x 2  2x + 5 = 0 with the general quadratic ax 2 + bx + c = 0.
469
Proof
If a 1 x 2 + b 1 x + c 1 = a 2 x 2 + b 2 x + c 2 for more than two values of x, then
(a 1  a 2) x 2 + (b 1  b 2) x + (c 1  c 2) = 0.
That is, a 1 = a 2, b 1 = b 2 and c 1 = c 2 .
EXAMPLES
1. Write 2x 2  3x + 5 in the form A (x  1)2 + B (x  1) + C.
Solution
A ] x  1 g2 + B (x  1) + C = A (x 2  2x + 1) + Bx  B + C
= Ax 2  2Ax + A + Bx  B + C
= Ax 2 + ( 2A + B) x + A  B + C
2
For 2x  3x + 5 / Ax 2 + ( 2A + B) x + A  B + C
A=2
 2A + B =  3
AB+C=5
Substitute (1) into (2):
 2 ( 2) + B =  3
 4 + B = 3
B=1
Substitute A = 2 and B = 1 into (3):
21+C=5
1+C=5
C=4
( 1)
(2)
( 3)
` 2x 2  3x + 5 / 2 (x  1) 2 + (x  1) + 4
CONTINUED
470
Solution
a ] x + 3 g2 + bx + c  1 = a (x 2 + 6x + 9) + bx + c  1
= ax 2 + 6ax + 9a + bx + c  1
= ax 2 + (6a + b) x + 9a + c  1
2
For x  x / ax 2 + (6a + b) x + 9a + c  1
a =1
6a + b = 1
9a + c  1 = 0
Substitute (1) into (2):
6 (1) + b = 1
6 + b = 1
b = 7
Substitute (1) into (3):
9 (1) + c  1 = 0
8+c=0
c = 8
` a = 1, b = 7, c =  8
( 1)
( 2)
( 3)
3. Find the equation of the parabola that passes through the points
(1, 3), (0, 3) and (2, 21) .
Solution
The parabola has equation in the form y = ax 2 + bx + c. Substitute the
points into the equation:
^ 1, 3 h:
3 = a ] 1 g 2 + b ] 1 g + c
=ab+c
a  b + c = 3
^ 0, 3 h :
3 = a ]0 g2 + b ]0 g + c
=c
]1 g
]2 g
^ 2, 21 h:
c =3
21 = a ] 2 g 2 + b ] 2 g + c
= 4a + 2b + c
`
4a + 2b + c = 21
Solve simultaneous equations to nd a, b and c.
Substitute (2) into (1):
a  b + 3 = 3
a  b = 6
]3 g
( 4)
(5 )
(6 )
9.4 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Evaluate K, L and M if
x 2 / K ] x  3 g 2 + L ] x + 1 g  2M.
471
472
8.
9.
EXAMPLE
(a) Solve x 2  9x + 20 = 0.
(b) Find the sum of the roots.
(c) Find the product of the roots.
Solution
(a)
x 2  9x + 20 = 0
(x  4) (x  5) = 0
x  4 = 0, x  5 = 0
` x = 4,
x=5
(b) Sum = 4 + 5
=9
(c) Product = 4 # 5
= 20
This relationship with the sum and product of the roots works for any
quadratic equation.
Proof
Suppose the general quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has roots a and b.
Then this equation can be written in the form
473
(x  a ) (x  b) = 0
i.e. x  bx  a x + ab = 0
x 2  (a + b) x + ab = 0
2
EXAMPLES
1. Find the quadratic equation that has roots 6 and  1.
Solution
Method 1: Using the general formula
x 2  (a + b) x + ab = 0 where a = 6 and b = 1
a + b = 6 + 1
=5
ab = 6 # 1
= 6
Substituting into x 2  (a + b ) x + ab = 0 gives
x 2  5x  6 = 0
Method 2:
If 6 and 1 are the roots of the equation then it can be written as
]x  6 g]x + 1 g = 0
x 2 + x  6x  6 = 0
x 2  5x  6 = 0
2. Find the quadratic equation that has roots 3 + 2 and 3  2 .
Solution
Method 1: Using the general formula
a+b=3+ 2+3 2
=6
ab = (3 + 2 ) # (3  2 )
= 3 2  ( 2 )2
=92
=7
Substituting into x 2  (a + b ) x + ab = 0 gives
x 2  6x + 7 = 0
Method 2:
If 3 + 2 and 3  2 are the roots of the equation then it can be
written as
_x  "3 + 2 ,i_x  "3  2 ,i = 0
^x  3  2 h^x  3 + 2 h = 0
x 2  3x + 2 x  3x + 9  3 2  2 x + 3 2  2 = 0
x 2  6x + 7 = 0
It doesnt matter
which way around we
name these roots.
474
Proof
If an equation has roots a and b, it can be written as x 2  (a + b )x + ab = 0.
But we know that a and b are the roots of the quadratic equation
ax 2 + bx + c = 0.
Using quadratic identities, we can compare the two forms of the
equation.
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
ax 2 bx c
0
a + a +a=a
c
b
x2 + a x + a = 0
c
b
For x 2  (a + b ) x + ab / x 2 + a x + a
b
 (a + b ) = a
b
`
a + b = a
c
Also
ab = a
EXAMPLES
1. Find (a) a + b (b) ab (c) a2 + b2 if a and b are the roots of
2x 2  6x + 1 = 0.
Solution
b
(a) a + b =  a
==3
(6)
2
475
c
(b) ab = a
1
=
2
(c)
a 2 + b 2 ! (a + b ) 2
^ a + b h2 = a 2 + 2ab + b2
^ a + b h2  2ab = a 2 + b2
] 3 g 2  2 c 1 m = a2 + b2
2
9  1 = a 2 + b2
8 = a 2 + b2
2. Find the value of k if one root of kx 2 7x + k + 1 = 0 is  2.
Solution
If  2 is a root of the equation then x = 2 satises the equation.
Substitute x =  2 into the equation:
k ] 2 g 2  7 ] 2 g + k + 1 = 0
4k + 14 + k + 1 = 0
5k + 15 = 0
5k =  15
k = 3
3. Evaluate p if one root of x 2 + 2x  5p = 0 is double the other root.
You could use b
and 2b instead.
Solution
If one root is a then the other root is 2a .
Sum of roots:
b
a + b = a
2
1
3a =  2
2
a=3
a + 2a = 
CONTINUED
476
Product of roots:
c
ab = a
 5p
a # 2a =
1
2
2a =  5p
2 2
2 c  m =  5p
3
4
2 c m =  5p
9
8
=  5p
9
8
=p
45
9.5 Exercises
1.
2.
4.
5.
6.
One root of
3x 2  2 (3b + 1) x + 4b = 0 is 8.
Find the value of b.
7.
8.
9.
(d) a2 + b2
3.
1
.
n
Consecutive numbers
are numbers that
follow each other
in order, such as
3 and 4.
477
478
EXAMPLES
1. Solve ] x + 2 g 2  3 ] x + 2 g  4 = 0.
Solution
u=x+2
Let
Then u  3u  4
]u  4 g]u + 1 g
u  4 = 0, u + 1
u = 4,
u
2
But
=0
=0
=0
= 1
u=x+2
So x + 2 = 4,
x = 2,
x + 2 = 1
x = 3
2
2. Solve x + x = 3 where x ! 0.
Solution
2
x+ x =3
2
x#x+x#x =3#x
x 2 + 2 = 3x
x 2  3x + 2 = 0
]x  2 g]x  1 g = 0
x  2 = 0, x  1 = 0
x = 2,
x=1
3. Solve 9 x  4.3 x + 3 = 0.
Solution
x
2
9x = ^ 32 h = ^ 3x h
So 9 x  4.3 x + 3 = 0 can be written as
^ 3 x h2  4.3 x + 3 = 0
Let
k = 3x
k 2  4k + 3 = 0
]k  3 g]k  1 g = 0
k  3 = 0, k  1 = 0
k = 1,
k=3
But k = 3 x
So 3 x = 1,
x = 0,
3x = 3
x=1
479
Solution
sin x = u
Let
Then 2u + u  1 = 0
] 2u  1 g ] u + 1 g = 0
2u  1 = 0 or u + 1 = 0
u = 1
2u = 1
2
u=
1
2
But u = sin x
1
So sin x = or sin x = 1
2
1
sin x = has solutions in the 1st and 2nd quadrants
2
1
sin 30c =
2
So x = 30c, 180c  30c
= 30c, 150c
30c
600c
90c
180c
1
270c
360c
480
9.6 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
Solve
(a) ] x  1 g 2 + 7 ] x  1 g + 10 = 0
(b) ^ y  3 h 2  ^ y  3 h  2 = 0
(c) ] x + 2 g 2  2 ] x + 2 g  8 = 0
(d) ] n  5 g 2 + 7 ] n  5 g + 6 = 0
(e) ] a  4 g 2 + 6 ] a  4 g  7 = 0
(f) ^ p + 1 h 2  9 ^ p + 1 h + 20 = 0
(g) ] x + 3 g 2  4 ] x + 3 g  5 = 0
(h) ] k  8 g 2  ] k  8 g  12 = 0
(i) ] t  2 g 2 + 2 ] t  2 g  24 = 0
(j) ] b + 9 g 2  2 ] b + 9 g  15 = 0
Solve (x ! 0) .
6
(a) x  x = 1
6
(b) x + x = 5
20
(c) x + x  9 = 0
15
(d) x + x = 8
12
(e) 2x + x = 11
(c) 5 2x  5 x  20 = 0
(d) 9 x + 3 x  12 = 0
(e) 4 x  10.2 x + 16 = 0
5.
6.
7.
4
= 5 (x ! 0 ) .
x2
1 2
1
Solve b x + x l + b x + x l  2 = 0
(x ! 0) .
Solve
1 2
1
n  9 d x 2 + 2 n + 20 = 0
x2
x
correct to 2 decimal places
(x ! 0) .
d x2 +
8.
Solve
(a) x 4  7x 2  18 = 0
9.
(b) y 4  6y 2 + 8 = 0, giving exact
values
2
(c) ^ x 2  x h + ^ x 2  x h  2 = 0
giving exact values
(d)
^ x 2 + 3x 1 h2  7 ^ x 2 + 3x 1 h +10 = 0
correct to 2 decimal places
10.
2
(e) ^ a 2 + 4a h + 2 ^ a 2 + 4a h  8 = 0
giving exact values.
Solve
(a) 2 2x  9.2 x + 8 = 0
(b) 3 2p + 3 p  12 = 0
Solve x 2 +
Test Yourself 9
1.
Solve
(a) x 2  3x # 0
(b) n 2  9 2 0
(c) 4  y 2 $ 0
2.
Evaluate a, b and c if 2x 2  5x + 7
= 2a(x + 1) 2 + b (x + 1) + c.
3.
Find
(a) the equation of the axis of
symmetry and
(b) the minimum value of the parabola
y = x 2  4x + 1.
4.
5.
9.
Find
(a) the equation of the axis of
symmetry and
(b) the maximum value of the quadratic
function y =  2x 2  x + 6.
(x ! 0) .
6.
7.
8.
481
482
(d)
(c)
Challenge Exercise 9
1.
2.
3.
25
= 10.
x2 + 1
4.
Solve x 2 + 1 +
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Solve 2 2x + 1  5.2 x + 2 = 0.
1 2
1
14. Solve b x + x l  5 b x + x l + 6 = 0.
11. Express
483
10
INTRODUCTION
THIS CHAPTER EXPANDS THE work on functions that you have already learned.
Circle
Locus
A relation can be described in two different ways. It can be a set of points that
obey certain conditions, or a single point that moves along a path according
to certain conditions.
A locus is the term used to describe the path of a single moving point
that obeys certain conditions.
485
486
EXAMPLES
Describe the locus of the following.
1. A pencil on the end of compasses.
Solution
The path of the pencil is a circle with centre at the point of the
compasses.
Solution
The body travels along a straight line parallel to the escalator.
Solution
If the door could swing right around it would follow a circle. So a door
closing swings through an arc of a circle.
Solution
Solution
The locus is 2 vertical lines with equations x = !3.
Class Discussion
Describe the path of a person abseiling down a cliff.
10.1 Exercises
Describe the locus of the following:
1.
2.
3.
a child on a swing
4.
5.
487
488
6.
7.
8.
9.
A locus describes a single point P ^ x, y h that moves along a certain path. The
equation of a locus can often be found by using P ^ x, y h together with the
information given about the locus.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the locus of a point P ^ x, y h that moves so that it
is always 3 units from the origin.
Solution
You may recognise this locus as a circle, centre ^ 0, 0 h radius 3 units. Its
equation is given by x 2 + y 2 = 9.
Alternatively, use the distance formula.
d=
2
2
_ x2  x1 i + _ y2  y1 i
or d 2 = _ x 2  x 1 i2 + _ y 2  y 1 i2
489
Place P anywhere on
the number plane.
Solution
2
PA
=
PB
1
PA = 2PB
PA 2 = ] 2PB g 2
= 4PB 2
[x  ^  3 h] 2 + ^ y  1 h2 = 4 $ ^ x  2 h 2 + [y  ^  2 h] 2 .
^ x + 3 h 2 + ^ y  1 h2 = 4 [^ x  2 h 2 + ^ y + 2 h 2 ]
2
x + 6x + 9 + y 2  2y + 1 = 4 ^ x 2  4x + 4 + y 2 + 4x + 4 h
= 4x 2  16x + 16 + 4y 2 + 16y + 16
0 = 3x 2  22x + 3y 2 + 18y + 22
or 3x 2  22x + 3y 2 + 18y + 22 = 0
i.e.
490
Solution
Solution
10.2 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
491
492
PROBLEM
Can you see 2 mistakes in the solution to this question?
Find the locus of point P ^ x, y h that moves so that its perpendicular
distance from the line 12x + 5y  1 = 0 is always 3 units.
Solution
Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus.
d=
3=
=
=
 ax 1 + by 1 + c 
a2 + b2
 5x + 12y  1
5 2 + 12 2
 5x + 12y  1
25 + 144
 5x + 12y  1
169
 5x + 12y  1
=
13
` 39 = 5x + 12y  1
0 = 5x + 12y  40
Can you nd the correct locus?
Circle as a Locus
The locus of point P (x, y) that is always a constant distance from a xed
point is a circle.
Proof
Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that is always r units from the
origin.
Proof
Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that is always r units from point
A ^ a, b h .
493
494
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the locus of a point that is always 2 units from
the point ^ 1, 0 h .
Solution
This is a circle with radius 2 and centre ^ 1, 0 h . Its equation is in the form
^ x  a h 2 + ^ y  b h 2 = r2
i.e. [x  ^ 1 h] 2 + ^ y  0 h 2 = 2 2
^ x + 1 h 2 + y2 = 4
x 2 + 2x + 1 + y 2 = 4
x 2 + 2x + y 2  3 = 0
2. Find the radius and the coordinates of the centre of the circle
x 2 + 2x + y 2  6y  15 = 0.
Solution
You learned how to
complete the square in
Chapter 3.
6 2
To complete the square on y 2  6y, we add c m = 9.
2
x 2 + 2x + y 2  6y  15 = 0
x 2 + 2x + y 2  6y = 15
2
x + 2x + 1 + y 2  6y + 9 = 15 + 1 + 9
^ x + 1 h 2 + ^ y  3 h 2 = 25
^ x  ]  1 g h 2 + ^ y  3 h 2 = 52
The equation is in the form ^ x  a h 2 + ^ y  b h 2 = r 2 .
This is a circle, centre ^ 1, 3 h and radius 5.
10.3 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
495
496
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
x2 x2 +
x2 x2 +
x2 +
x2 x2 +
10x + y 2 + 6y  2 = 0
2x + y 2  2y + 1 = 0
12x + y 2 = 0
6x + y 2  8y = 0
20x + y 2  4y + 40 = 0
14x + y 2 + 2y + 25 = 0
2x + y 2 + 4y  5 = 0
Parabola as a Locus
The locus of a point that is equidistant from a xed point and a xed line
is always a parabola. The xed point is called the focus and the xed line is
called the directrix.
497
498
The locus of a point that is equidistant from a xed point and a xed line
is always in the shape of a parabola.
If the xed point is (0, a) and the xed line is y =  a (where a 2 0), then
one of the equidistant points is the origin (0, 0). The distance between the
points (0, 0) and (0, a) is a units.
The point on y =  a directly below the origin is ^ 0,  a h and the distance
from (0, 0) to ^ 0,  a h is also a units.
y
(0, a)
a
x
a
(0, a)
y = a
499
PARABOLA x 2 = 4 ay
The locus of point P ^ x, y h moving so that it is equidistant from the point
^ 0, a h and the line y =  a is a parabola with equation
x 2 = 4ay
Proof
Class Investigation
Find the equation of the locus if point P ^ x, y h is equidistant from ^ 0,  a h
and y = a.
500
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola whose focus has coordinates ^ 0, 2 h
and whose directrix has equation y =  2.
Solution
The focus has coordinates in the form ^ 0, a h and the directrix has
equation in the form y =  a, where a = 2.
` the parabola is in the form x 2 = 4ay where a = 2
i.e. x 2 = 4 (2) y
x 2 = 8y
2.
(a) Find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix of
the parabola x 2 = 20y.
(b) Find the points on the parabola at the endpoints of the latus rectum
and nd its length.
Solution
(a) The parabola x 2 = 20y is in the form x 2 = 4ay
4a = 20
` a=5
The focal length is 5 units.
We can nd the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the
directrix in two ways.
Method 1:
Draw the graph x 2 = 20y and count 5 units up and down from the
origin as shown.
y
x2 = 20y
(0, 5)
5
x
5
(0, 5) y = 5
501
Method 2:
The focus is in the form (0, a) where a = 5.
So the focus is (0, 5).
The directrix is in the form y =  a where a = 5.
So the directrix is y =  5.
(b) The latus rectum is a focal chord that is perpendicular to the axis of
the parabola as shown
y
x2 = 20 y
(0, 5)
x
The endpoints of the latus rectum will be where the line y = 5 and the
parabola intersect.
Substitute y = 5 into the parabola.
x 2 = 20y
= 20 ] 5 g
= 100
x = ! 100
= !10
So the endpoints are (10, 5) and (10, 5).
y
x2 = 20 y
(10, 5)
(0, 5)
(10, 5)
x
CONTINUED
502
Solution
The parabola x 2 = 4y is in the form x 2 = 4ay.
4a = 4
`a=1
The focal length is 1 unit.
The focus is 1 unit up from the origin at (0, 1) and the focal chord also
passes through ( 4, 4).
y
(4, 4)
x2 = 4y
(0, 1)
x
Proof
y
B(x, a)
y=a
x
P(x, y)
A(0, a)
PA 2 = PB 2
2
^ x  0 h 2 + 7 y  ^  a h A = ^ x  x h 2 + ^ y  a h2
x 2 + ^ y + a h2 = ^ y  a h2
2
x + y 2 + 2ay + a 2 = y 2  2ay + a 2
x 2 =  4ay
503
504
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ^ 0,  4 h and directrix
y = 4.
Solution
If we draw this information, the focus is below the directrix as shown. So
the parabola will be concave downwards (the parabola always turns away
from the directrix).
y
y=4
4
x
4
(0, 4)
Solution
The parabola x 2 = 12y is in the form x 2 =  4ay.
4a = 12
`a=3
The focal length is 3 units.
The vertex is (0, 0).
We can nd the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix
in two ways.
Method 1:
Draw the graph x 2 = 12y and count 3 units up and down from the
origin as shown. (The parabola is concave downward.)
y=3
3
x
3
(0, 3)
x2 = 12y
Solution
Vertex ^ 0, 0 h and axis given by x = 0 give a parabola in the form
x 2 = !4ay, since there is not enough information to tell whether it is
concave upwards or downwards.
This gives two possible parabolas.
CONTINUED
505
506
10.4 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
x 2 = 36y
x 2 = 40y
x 2 = 44y
x 2 = 12y
x 2 = 6y
x 2 = 10y
x 2 = 15y
4.
Find
(i) the coordinates of the
focus and
(ii) the equation of the
directrix of
(a) x 2 =  4y
(b) x 2 =  24y
(c) x 2 =  8y
(d) x 2 =  48y
(e) x 2 =  20y
(f) x 2 =  16y
(g) x 2 =  32y
(h) x 2 =  40y
(i) x 2 =  2y
(j) x 2 =  22y
5.
7.
8.
9.
507
508
Investigation
Sketch the parabola x = y 2. You may like to complete the table below to
help you with its sketch.
x
y
3
2
1
Proof
Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h, which moves so that it is
equidistant from the point ^ a, 0 h and the line x =  a.
Coordinates of B are ^  a, y h .
We want
PA = PB
i.e.
PA 2 = PB 2
^ x  a h 2 + ^ y  0 h 2 = [x  ^  a h 2 ] 2 + ^ y  y h 2
^ x  a h 2 + y2 = ^ x + a h 2
x 2  2ax + a 2 + y 2 = x 2 + 2ax + a 2
y 2 = 4ax
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus (7, 0) and directrix
x =  7.
Solution
If we draw this information, the focus is to the right of the directrix
as shown (the parabola always turns away from the directrix). So the
parabola turns to the right.
y
x=7
7
(7, 0)
CONTINUED
509
510
Solution
The parabola y 2 = 32x is in the form y 2 = 4ax.
4a = 32
` a=8
The focal length is 8 units.
Method 1:
Draw the graph y 2 = 32x and count 8 units to the left and right from the
origin as shown. (The parabola turns to the right.)
y
x=8
8
(8, 0)
y2 = 32x
2
PARABOLA y 2 =  4 ax
The locus of a point P(x, y) moving so that it is equidistant from
the point ^  a, 0 h and the line x = a is a parabola with equation
y 2 =  4ax
Proof
y
P(x, y)
B(a, y)
A(  a, 0)
x=a
7 x  ^  a h A + ^ y  0 h2 = ^ x  a h 2 + ^ y  y h 2
^ x + a h 2 + y2 = ^ x  a h 2
2
x 2 + 2ax + a 2 + y 2 = x 2  2ax + a 2
y 2 =  4ax
511
512
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ( 4, 0) and directrix
x = 4.
Solution
Drawing this information shows that the parabola turns to the left.
y
4
x
(  4, 0)
x=4
Solution
The parabola y 2 =  2x is in the form y 2 =  4ax.
4a = 2
` a=
1
2
1
unit.
2
Method 1:
1
Draw the graph y 2 =  2x and count unit to the left and right from the
2
origin as shown. (The parabola turns to the left.)
y
1
2
 1, 0
2
1
2
x
)
x=
1
2
1
1
units to the left, the focus is c  , 0 m .
2
2
1
1
Counting units to the right, the directrix has equation x = .
2
2
Counting
Method 2:
1
The focus is in the form ( a, 0) where a = .
2
1
So the focus is c  , 0 m .
2
1
The directrix is in the form x = a where a = .
2
1
So the directrix is x = .
2
10.5 Exercises
1.
2.
513
514
3.
4.
5.
Find
(i) the coordinates of the
focus and
(ii) the equation of the
directrix of
(a) y 2 = 8x
(b) y 2 = 12x
(c) y 2 = 16x
(d) y 2 = 4x
(e) y 2 = 28x
(f) y 2 = 32x
(g) y 2 = 24x
(h) y 2 = 36x
(i) y 2 = x
(j) y 2 = 18x
Find
(i) the coordinates of the
focus and
(ii) the equation of the
directrix of
(a) y 2 =  8x
(b) y 2 = 12x
(c) y 2 =  28x
(d) y 2 =  4x
(e) y 2 =  24x
(f) y 2 =  52x
(g) y 2 =  60x
(h) y 2 =  2x
(i) y 2 =  26x
(j) y 2 =  5x
Find the equation of the parabola
with
(a) coordinates of the focus ^ 5, 0 h
and equation of the directrix
x = 5
(b) coordinates of the focus ^ 1, 0 h
and equation of the directrix
x = 1
(c) coordinates of the focus
^  4, 0 h and equation of the
directrix x = 4
(d) coordinates of the focus ^ 3, 0 h
and coordinates of the vertex
^ 0, 0 h
(e) coordinates of the vertex
^ 0, 0 h equation of the axis y = 0
and focal length 9
7.
8.
9.
1
10. Let R c ,  2 m be a point on the
5
parabola y 2 = 20x.
(a) Find the equation of the focal
chord passing through R.
(b) Find the coordinates of the
point Q where this chord cuts the
directrix.
(c) Find the area of DOFQ where
O is the origin and F is the focus.
(d) Find the perpendicular
distance from the chord to the
point P ^ 1, 7 h .
(e) Hence nd the area of DPQR.
515
Application
A parabolic satellite dish receives its signals through the focus. If the dish has
height 12 m and a span of 20 m, find where the focus should be placed, to the
nearest mm.
SOLUTION
The parabola is of the form x 2 = 4ay and passes through (10, 12) and (10, 12)
Substituting (10, 12) gives
2
10 = 4a (12)
100 = 48a
2.083 = a
So the focus should be placed 2.083 m from the vertex.
1. x 2 = 4ay
y
x2 = 4ay
Focus
(0, a)
x
Directrix
y = a
This is 2083 mm to
the nearest millimetre.
516
2. x 2 =  4ay
y
Directrix
y=a
x
Focus
(0, a)
x 2 = 4ay
3. y 2 = 4ax
y
Directrix
x = a
Focus
(a, 0)
y 2 = 4a x
4. y 2 =  4ax
y
Directrix
x=a
Focus
(a, 0)
y2 = 4ax
General Parabola
When the parabola does not have its vertex at the origin, there is a more
general formula.
Since we use a to mean the focal length, we cannot use (a, b) as the
vertex. We use (h, k) instead.
Proof
Find the equation of the parabola with vertex ^ h, k h and focal length a.
B has coordinates ^ x, k  a h .
We want
PF = PB
i.e.
PF 2 = PB 2
^ x  h h 2 + [ y  ^ k + a h] 2 = ^ x  x h 2 + [ y  ^ k + a h] 2
^x  hh2 + ^ y  k  ah2 = ^ y  k + ah2
^x  hh2 = ^ y  k + ah2 ^ y  k  ah2
= [^ y  k + a h + ^ y  k  a h ] # [^ y  k + a h  ^ y  k  a h ]
^ difference of two squares h
= ^ 2y  2k h ^ 2a h
= 4ay  4ak
= 4a ^ y  k h
517
518
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ^ 2, 3 h and directrix with
equation y =  7.
Solution
Coordinates of B are ^ 2, 7 h .
The vertex is the midpoint of ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 2, 7 h .
` vertex = ^ 2,  2 h
Focal length is the distance from the focus to the vertex.
`
a=5
From the diagram the parabola is concave upwards.
The equation is in the form
^ x  h h 2 = 4a ^ y  k h
i.e.
^ x  2 h 2 = 4 ^ 5 h [ y  ^  2 h]
= 20 ^ y + 2 h
x 2  4x + 4 = 20y + 40
x 2  4x  20y  36 = 0
2. Find the coordinates of the vertex and the focus, and the equation of
the directrix, of the parabola with equation x 2 + 6x  12y  3 = 0.
519
Solution
Complete the square on x.
x 2 + 6x  12y  3 = 0
x 2 + 6x = 12y + 3
x 2 + 6x + 9 = 12y + 3 + 9
^ x + 3 h2 = 12y + 12
= 12 (y + 1)
So the parabola has equation ^ x + 3 h2 = 12 ^ y + 1 h .
Its vertex has coordinates ^  3, 1 h .
4a = 12
` a=3
The parabola is concave upwards as it is in the form ^ x  h h 2 = 4a ^ y  k h .
Proof
Find the equation of the concave downwards parabola with vertex (h, k) and
focal length a.
It is easy to find
the focus and the
directrix by counting
along the yaxis.
520
y=k+a
P (x, y)
F (h , k  a)
B has coordinates ^ x, k + a h .
We want
PF = PB
PF 2 = PB 2
2
2
^x  hh2 + 7y  ^k  ahA = ^x  xh2 + 7y  ^k + ahA
2
2
2
^x  hh + ^y  k + ah = ^y  k  ah
^x  hh2 = ^y  k  ah2 ^y  k + ah2
= 7^y  k  ah + ^y  k + ahA7^y  k  ah  ^y  k + ahA
(difference of two squares)
= ^ 2y  2k h ^  2a h
=  4ay + 4ak
=  4a ^ y  k h
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ( 2, 1) and directrix
y = 3.
Solution
y
1
1
(2, 1)
y=3
2
1
2 1
2
7x  ^ 2 h A = 4 ]1 g^ y  2 h
^ x + 2h 2 = 4^ y  2h
x 2 + 4x + 4 =  4y + 8
x 2 + 4x + 4y  4 = 0.
2. Find the coordinates of the vertex and focus, and the equation of the
directrix of the parabola x 2  8x + 8y  16 = 0.
CONTINUED
521
522
Solution
Complete the square on x.
x 2  8x + 8y  16 = 0
x 2  8x =  8y + 16
x 2  8x + 16 =  8y + 16 + 16
^ x  4 h2 =  8y + 32
= 8^ y  4h
So the parabola has equation ^ x  4 h 2 =  8 ^ y  4 h .
Its vertex has coordinates (4, 4).
4a = 8
`a=2
The parabola is concave downwards as it is in the form
^ x  h h 2 =  4a ^ y  k h .
y
y=6
(4, 4)
4
3
2
(4, 2)
2
1
1
Proof
Find the equation of the parabola that turns to the right with vertex (h, k) and
focal length a.
Counting a units to the right from the vertex V gives the focus F = ^ h + a, k h .
Counting a units to the left from the vertex V gives the point on the directrix
D = ^ h  a, k h .
So the equation of the directrix is given by x = h  a.
We nd the equation of the locus of P(x, y) that is equidistant from point
F ^ h + a, k h and line x = h  a.
x=ha
P (x, y)
F (h +a, k)
B has coordinates ^ h  a, y h .
We want
PF = PB
PF 2 = PB 2
2
2
7x  ^h + ahA + ^y  kh2 = 7x  ^h  ahA + ^y  y h2
^x  h  ah2+ ^y  kh2 = ^x  h  ah2
^y  kh2 = ^x  h + ah2 ]x  h  ag2
523
524
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus (1, 1) and directrix
x =  5.
Solution
y
x = 5
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5
(1, 1)
5 4 3 2 1
B
2
3
2
7 y  ^ 1 h A = 4 ] 3 g 7 x  ^  2 h A
^ y + 1 h 2 = 12 ] x + 2 g
y 2 + 2y + 1 = 12x + 24
y 2 + 2y  12x  23 = 0
2. Find the coordinates of the vertex and focus, and the equation of the
directrix of the parabola y 2 + 12y  4x  8 = 0.
Solution
Complete the square on y.
y 2 + 12y  4x  8 = 0
y 2 + 12y = 4x + 8
y 2 + 12y + 36 = 4x + 8 + 36
^ y + 6 h 2 = 4x + 44
= 4 ^ x + 11 h
So the parabola has equation ^ y + 6 h2 = 4 ^ x + 11 h
or 7 y  ]  6 g A 2 = 4 6 x  ] 11 g @ .
Its vertex has coordinates (11,  6).
4a = 4
` a=1
The parabola turns to the right as it is in the form ^ y  k h 2 = 4a ^ x  h h .
y
x = 12
x
(11, 6)
1
(10, 6)
525
526
Proof
Find the equation of the parabola that turns to the left with vertex (h, k) and
focal length a.
Counting a units to the left from the vertex V gives the focus F = ^ h  a, k h.
Counting a units to the right from the vertex V gives the point on the directrix
D = ^ h + a, k h.
So the equation of the directrix is given by x = h + a.
We nd the equation of the locus of P(x, y) that is equidistant from point
F ^ h  a, k h and line x = h + a.
y
x=h+a
B
P (x, y)
F (h a, k)
B has coordinates ^ h + a, y h .
We want
PF = PB
PF 2 = PB 2
2
7x  ^h  ahA + ^y  kh2 = 7x  ^h + ahA + ^y  y h2
^x  h + ah2+ ^y  kh2 = ^x  h  ah2
2
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus (2, 1) and directrix x = 3.
Solution
y
x=3
1 1
2 2
1
(2, 1)
1
(2 2x, 1)
^ y  k h 2 =  4a ^ x  h h
1
1
i.e.
^y  1h2 = 4c m cx  2 m
2
2
1
2
^y  1h = 2cx  2 m
2
y 2  2y + 1 =  2x + 5
y 2  2y + 2x  4 = 0
2. Find the coordinates of the vertex and focus, and the equation of the
directrix of the parabola y 2 + 4y + 8x  4 = 0.
CONTINUED
527
528
Solution
Complete the square on y.
y 2 + 4y + 8x  4 = 0
y 2 + 4y =  8 x + 4
y 2 + 4y + 4 =  8x + 4 + 4
^ y + 2 h 2 =  8x + 8
= 8 ]x  1 g
So the parabola has equation ^ y + 2 h2 =  8 ] x  1 g
or 7 y  ]  2 g A 2 =  8 ] x  1 g .
Its vertex has coordinates ^ 1,  2 h .
4a = 8
` a=2
The parabola turns to the left as it is in the form ^ y  k h 2 =  4a ^ x  h h
y
x=3
1
3 2 1
1
1
(1, 2)
22
(1, 2)
10.6 Exercises
1.
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
x 2  12x  8y  20 = 0
x 2 + 14x + 16y + 1 = 0
x 2  4x + 4y  16 = 0
x 2 + 18x  12y + 9 = 0
x 2 + 2x  8y  7 = 0
x 2  6 x + 4y + 1 = 0
2.
3.
4.
y 2  8y  4x = 0
y 2  2y  8x  15 = 0
y 2 + 4y  12x  8 = 0
y 2  20y + 4x  16 = 0
y 2 + 6y + 16x  7 = 0
y 2  12y  8x + 4 = 0
y 2 + 10y + 24x  23 = 0
y 2 + 24y  4x = 0
y 2  4y + 20x  16 = 0
y 2 + 8y + 8x = 0
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
x2
x2
x2
x2
+ 2x + 8y  15 = 0
 4 x + 4y = 0
 8x + 12y + 4 = 0
+ 4x + 16y  12 = 0
5.
Find
(i) the coordinates of the focus and
(ii) the equation of the directrix of
(a) y 2 + 2y  4x  3 = 0
(b) y 2  8y  12x + 4 = 0
(c) y 2  6y  8x  7 = 0
(d) y 2 + 4y  16x  12 = 0
(e) y 2  2y  24x + 25 = 0
(f) y 2 + 10y + 8x + 1 = 0
(g) y 2 + 14y + 4x + 1 = 0
(h) y 2  12y + 20x  4 = 0
(i) y 2  4y + 32x  28 = 0
(j) y 2 + 6y + 40x + 29 = 0
6.
7.
8.
9.
529
530
De Witt was well known as the Grand Pensionary of Holland. He took part in the politics
and wars of his time, opposing Louis XIV. When the French invaded Holland in 1672, De Witt
was seized and killed.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 8y at the point
^ 4, 2 h .
Solution
x 2 = 8y
x2
y=
8
dy
2x
=
8
dx
x
=
4
CONTINUED
531
532
dy
4
4
=1
So the gradient of the tangent at ^ 4, 2 h is 1.
At ^ 4, 2 h,
dx
Solution
x 2 = 4y
dy
dx
At ( 8, 16):
x2
4
2x
=
4
x
=
2
8
=
2
= 4
=  4.
y=
So
dy
dx
]  4 g m 2 = 1
m2 =
1
4
1
[x  ( 8)]
4
1
= (x + 8 )
4
4y  64 = x + 8
0 = x  4y + 72.
y  16 =
10.7 Exercises
1.
3.
2.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
533
534
Test Yourself 10
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Find
(a) the equation of the directrix and
(b) the coordinates of the focus of the
parabola x 2 =  8y.
7.
8.
9.
Challenge Exercise 10
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
535
INTRODUCTION
THIS CHAPTER GIVES A review of basic arithmetic skills, including knowing the
correct order of operations, rounding off, and working with fractions, decimals
and percentages. Work on significant figures, scientific notation and indices is
also included, as are the concepts of absolute values. Basic calculator skills are
also covered in this chapter.
Real Numbers
Types of numbers
Unreal or imaginary
numbers
Real numbers
Rational
numbers
Irrational
numbers
Integers
3
where a and b are integers, b ! 0. e.g. 1 , 3.7, 0. 5,  5
4
a
Irrational numbers cannot be written in the form of a fraction (that
b
is, they are not rational) e.g. 2 , r
EXAMPLE
Which of these numbers are rational and which are irrational?
3
r
3 , 1. 3, , 9 , ,  2.65
4
5
Solution
r
are irrational as they cannot be written as fractions (r is irrational).
4
3
13
1
1. 3 = 1 , 9 = and  2.65 =  2
so they are all rational.
3
1
20
3 and
Order of operations
1. Brackets: do calculations inside grouping symbols rst. (For example,
a fraction line, square root sign or absolute value sign can act as a
grouping symbol.)
2. Multiply or divide from left to right.
3. Add or subtract from left to right.
EXAMPLE
Evaluate 40  3 ] 5 + 4 g .
Solution
40  3 (5 + 4) = 40  3# 9
= 40  27
= 13
BRACKETS KEYS
Use ( and ) to open and close brackets. Always use them in pairs.
For example, to evaluate 40  3 ] 5 + 4 g
press 40  3 # ( 5 + 4 ) =
= 13
5.67  3.49
correct to 1 decimal place
To evaluate
1.69 + 2.77
press :
( 5.67  3.49 )
'
( 1.69 + 2.77 )
= 0.7
correct to 1 decimal place
PROBLEM
What is wrong with this calculation?
19  4
1+2
Press 19  4 ' 1 + 2 = 19  4 '1 + 2
Evaluate
17
MEMORY KEYS
Use STO to store a number in memory.
There are several memories that you can use at the same timeany letter from
A to F, or X, Y and M on the keypad.
To store the number 50 in, say, A press 50 STO A
To recall this number, press ALPHA A =
To clear all memories press SHIFT CLR
X 1 KEY
Use this key to find the reciprocal of x. For example, to evaluate
1
 7.6 # 2.1
1
=
press ( () 7.6 # 2.1 ) x
=  0.063 (correct to 3 decimal places)
Rounding off
Rounding off is often done in everyday life. A quick look at a newspaper will
give plenty of examples. For example in the sports section, a newspaper may
report that 50 000 fans attended a football match.
An accurate number is not always necessary. There may have been exactly
49 976 people at the football game, but 50 000 gives an idea of the size of the
crowd.
EXAMPLES
1. Round off 24 629 to the nearest thousand.
Solution
This number is between 24 000 and 25 000, but it is closer to 25 000.
CONTINUED
Solution
This number is exactly halfway between 800 and 900. When a number is
halfway, we round it off to the larger number.
` 850 = 900 to the nearest hundred
In this course you will need to round off decimals, especially when using
trigonometry or logarithms.
To round a number off to a certain number of decimal places, look at the
next digit to the right. If this digit is 5 or more, add 1 to the digit before it and
drop all the other digits after it. If the digit to the right is less than 5, leave the
digit before it and drop all the digits to the right.
EXAMPLES
1. Round off 0.6825371 correct to 1 decimal place.
Add 1 to the 6 as the 8 is
greater than 5.
Solution
0.6825371
#
` 0.6825371 = 0.7 correct to 1 decimal place
2. Round off 0.6825371 correct to 2 decimal places.
Solution
0.6825371
#
` 0.6825371 = 0.68 correct to 2 decimal places
3. Evaluate 3.56 ' 2.1 correct to 2 decimal places.
Solution
3.56 ' 2.1 = 1.69 #
5238095
FIX KEY
Use MODE or SET UP to fix the number of decimal places (see the
instructions for your calculator). This will cause all answers to have a fixed number
of decimal places until the calculator is turned off or switched back to normal.
EXAMPLE
Calculate 3.25 ' 1.72 # 5.97 + 7.32 correct to 2 decimal places.
Solution
3.25 ' 1.72 # 5.97 + 7.32 = 1.889534884 # 5.97 + 7.32
= 11.28052326 + 7.32
= 18.60052326
= 18.60 correct to 2 decimal places
If the FIX key is set to 2 decimal places, then the display will show
2 decimal places at each step.
3.25 ' 1.72 # 5.97 + 7.32 = 1.89 # 5.97 + 7.32
= 11.28 + 7.32
= 18.60
If you then set the calculator back to normal, the display will show the
full answer of 18.60052326.
The calculator does not round off at each step. If it did, the answer might
not be as accurate. This is an important point, since some students round
off each step in calculations and then wonder why they do not get the same
answer as other students and the textbook.
1.1 Exercises
1.
(e) 0.34
(f)
218
(g) 2 2
1
(h)
27
(i) 17.4%
1
(j)
5
2.
3.
Evaluate
(a) 20  8 ' 4
(b) 3 # 7  2 # 5
(c) 4 # ] 27 ' 3 g ' 6
(d) 17 + 3 #  2
(e) 1.9  2 # 3.1
14 ' 7
(f)
1 + 3
3
1 2
(g) 2  #
5
5 3
3
1
1 4
8
(h)
5
6
5
5
'
8
6
(i)
1
1
+
4
8
1
7
3 5
10
(j)
1
1
1 4
2
7.
8.
9.
0.9 + 1.4
(h)
5.2  3.6
5.33 + 2.87
(i)
1.23  3.15
(j)
4.
5.
6.
19. Evaluate
3.5 + 9.8
5.6 + 4.35
15.9 + 6.3  7.8
(d)
7.63  5.12
1
(e)
6.87  3.21
(c)
25. Evaluate
Directed Numbers
Many students use the calculator with work on directed numbers (numbers
that can be positive or negative). Directed numbers occur in algebra and
other topics, where you will need to remember how to use them. A good
understanding of directed numbers will make your algebra skills much better.
^  h KEY
Use this key to enter negative numbers. For example,
press () 3
10
3
2
1
Subtract
Add
EXAMPLES
You can also do these on a
calculator, or you may have
a different way of working
these out.
Evaluate
1.  4 + 3
Solution
Start at  4 and move 3 places to the right.
4
3
2
1
 4 + 3 = 1
2. 1  2
Solution
Start at 1 and move 2 places to the left.
4
3
2
1
1  2 = 3
Same signs = +
+ + =+
  =+
Different signs = +  = + =
11
EXAMPLES
Evaluate
1.  2 #7
Solution
Different signs ( 2 and + 7) give a negative answer.
 2 # 7 = 14
2. 12 '  4
Solution
Same signs (12 and  4) give a positive answer.
12 '  4 = 3
3. 1   3
Solution
The signs together are the same (both negative) so give a positive answer.

1  3 = 1 + 3
=2
1.2 Exercises
Evaluate
1.
2 + 3
11. 5  3 # 4
2.
7  4
12.  2 + 7 #  3
3.
8 # 7
13. 4  3 #  2
4.
7  ]3 g
14. 1  2
5.
28 ' 7
15. 7 +  2
6.
 4.9 + 3.7
16. 2  ] 1 g
7.
 2.14  5.37
17.  2 + 15 ' 5
8.
4.8 # 7.4
18.  2 # 6 #  5
9.
1.7  ]  4.87 g
19.  28 ' 7 #  5
10. 
3
2
1
5
3
20. ]  3 g2
12
EXAMPLES
1. Write 0.45 as a fraction in its simplest form.
Solution
45
5
'
5
100
9
=
20
0.45 =
3
means 3 ' 8.
8
2. Convert
3
to a decimal.
8
Solution
0.375
8 g 3.000
3
So
= 0.375
8
3. Change 35.5% to a fraction.
Solution
35.5 2
#
100
2
71
=
200
35.5% =
Solution
Multiply by 100% to
change a fraction or
decimal to a percentage.
Solution
1 kg = 1000 g
20 g
20 g
=
1000 g
1 kg
1
=
50
13
Solution
24 100%
#
= 80%
30
1
1
= 0.33333333 f = 0. 3
3
There are different methods that can be used to change a recurring
decimal into a fraction. Here is one way of doing it. Later you will discover
another method when studying series. (See HSC Course book, Chapter 8.)
EXAMPLES
A rational number is
any number that can be
written as a fraction.
Solution
Let
n = 0.44444 f
Then
10n = 4.44444 f
(2)  (1): 9n = 4
4
n=
9
(1 )
(2 )
Solution
n = 1.3292929 f
Let
Then 100n = 132.9292929 f
(2)  (1): 99n = 131.6
131.6
10
n=
#
99
10
1316
=
990
163
=1
495
(1 )
(2 )
CONTINUED
14
Another method
Let
n = 1.3292929 f
Then
10n = 13.2929292 f
and
1000n = 1329.292929 f
(2)  (1): 990n = 1316
1316
n=
990
163
=1
495
(1 )
(2 )
1.3 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
4
15
1
(d)
1000
(c) 2
6.
7.
8.
5
33
1
(g)
7
2
(h) 1
11
31
99
13 + 6
(e)
7+4
(d) 1 
(f)
9.
(a) 0. 8
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
0. 2
1. 5
3. 7
0. 67
0. 54
0.15
(h) 0.216
(i) 0.2 19
(j) 1.074
10. Evaluate and express as a decimal.
5
(a)
3+6
(b) 8  3 ' 5
4+7
(c)
12 + 3
Investigation
Explore patterns in recurring decimals by dividing numbers by 3, 6, 9, 11,
and so on.
Can you predict what the recurring decimal will be if a fraction has 3 in
the denominator? What about 9 in the denominator? What about 11?
Can you predict what fraction certain recurring decimals will be? What
denominator would 1 digit recurring give? What denominator would you
have for 2 digits recurring?
15
16
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate 1
3
2
 .
5
4
Solution
1
3
3
2
7
 = 5
4
5
4
28
15
=
20
20
13
=
20
2. Evaluate 2
1
' 3.
2
Solution
2
3
5
1
'3 = '
2
2
1
5 1
= #
2 3
5
=
6
Solution
0.056 #100 = 5.6
17
Solution
0.02 # 0.3 = 0.006
5. Evaluate
8.753
.
10
Solution
Solution
1
5 % = 0.055
2
1
` 5 % of $75 = 0.055#$75
2
= $4.13
1
or 105 % of $75 = 1.055#$75
2
= $79.13
Solution
The new price is 112% (old price 100%, plus 12%)
$18.00
` 1% =
112
$18.00 100
100% =
#
112
1
= $16.07
So the old price was $16.07.
1.4 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
Evaluate
3
1
(a)
+
5
4
2
7
2
5
10
3
2
(c) #1
5
4
3
(d) ' 4
7
3
2
(e) 1 ' 2
5
3
(b) 3
18
4.
5.
6.
Find
3
of $912.60.
5
5
Find of 1 kg, in grams correct
7
to 1 decimal place.
Trinh spends
sleeping,
1
of her day
3
7
1
at work and
24
12
8.
John grew by
9.
17
of his height
200
this year. If he was 165 cm tall
last year, what is his height now,
to the nearest cm?
Evaluate
(a) 8.9 + 3
(b) 9  3.7
(c) 1.9 #10
(d) 0.032 #100
(e) 0.7 # 5
(f) 0.8 # 0.3
(g) 0.02 # 0.009
(h) 5.72 #1000
8.74
(i)
100
(j) 3.76 # 0.1
19
PROBLEM
If both the hour hand and minute hand start at the same position at
12 oclock, when is the first time, correct to a fraction of a minute, that
the two hands will be together again?
EXAMPLES
1. 4 3 = 4 # 4 # 4 = 64
2. 2 5 = 2 # 2 # 2 # 2 # 2 = 32
EXAMPLES
36 = 6 since 6 2 = 36
1.
2.
8 = 2 since 2 3 = 8
3.
64 = 2 since 2 6 = 64
(x 2  x 1) + (y 2  y 1)
20
Use the
Use the
Use the
Index laws
There are some general laws that simplify calculations with indices.
am # an = am + n
Proof
a m # a n = (a # a #f# a) # (a # a #f# a)
14444244443 14444244443
m times
n times
=a
#
#
f
#
a
a
14444244443
m + n times
= am + n
am ' an = am  n
Proof
am
an
a # a #f# a (m times)
=
a # a #f# a (n times)
a # a #f# a (m  n times)
=
1
= am  n
am ' an =
(a m)n = a mn
Proof
(a m) n = a m # a m # a m #f# a m
= am + m + m + f + m
= a mn
(n times)
(n times)
(ab) n = a n b n
Proof
(ab) n = ab # ab # ab #f# ab (n times)
= (a # a #f# a) # (b # b #f# b)
14444244443 14444244443
n times
n times
= an bn
a n an
c m = n
b
b
Proof
a n a a a
a
c m = # # #f#
b
b b b
b
a # a # a #f # a
=
b # b # b #f # b
an
= n
b
(n times)
(n times)
(n times)
EXAMPLES
Simplify
1. m 9 # m 7 ' m 2
Solution
m9 #m7 ' m2 = m9 + 7  2
= m 14
2. (2y 4)3
Solution
(2y 4) 3 = 2 3 (y 4) 3
= 23 y4 # 3
= 8y 12
CONTINUED
21
22
3.
(y 6) 3 # y  4
y5
Solution
(y 6) 3 # y  4
y5
=
=
=
y 18 # y  4
y5
y 18 + ( 4)
y5
y
14
y5
= y9
1.5 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
3
4
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
Simplify
(a) a 6 # a 9 # a 2
(b) y 3 # y  8 # y 5
(c) a 1 # a 3
1
(d) w 2 # w 2
(e) x 6 ' x
(f) p 3 ' p  7
y 11
(g) 5
y
x2
p
y9
w6 # w7
(m)
w3
2
p #(p 3) 4
(n)
p9
6
x ' x7
(o)
x2
2
a # ( b 2) 6
(p)
a4 # b9
(x 2)  3 #(y 3) 2
(q)
x 1 # y 4
(l) f
27
16
(x 7) 3
(2x 5) 2
(3y  2) 4
a3 #a5 ' a7
4.
Simplify
(a) x 5 # x 9
(b) a 1 # a  6
m7
(c)
m3
(d) k 13 # k 6 ' k 9
(e) a  5 # a 4 # a  7
2
(f) x 5 # x 5
m5 # n4
(g) 4
m # n2
p2 # p2
(h)
p
(i) (3x 11) 2
(x 4) 6
(j)
x3
5.
2 6
11. Evaluate (a ) when a = c m .
3
12. Evaluate
b=
(2m 7) 3
m4
xy 3 #(xy 2) 4
(f)
xy
8 4
(2k )
(g)
(6k 3) 3
y 12
7
(h) _ 2y 5 i #
8
y=
7.
If x =
of
8.
2
1
and y = , find the value
3
9
x3 y2
xy 5
1
1
1
, b = and c = ,
4
2
3
a2 b3
evaluate 4 as a fraction.
c
If a =
11
9.
(a) Simplify
a b
.
a8 b7
a 11 b 8
when
a8 b7
5
2
and b = as a fraction.
5
8
x5 y5
when x =
1
and
3
14. Evaluate
k5
1
when k = .
3
k9
15. Evaluate
a4 b6
3
when a = and
3
2 2
4
a (b )
b=
6.
x4 y7
2
.
9
3
a3 b6
1
when a = and
2
b4
2
.
3
13. Evaluate
a6 # a4
o
a 11
3
5xy 9
x8 # y3
p5 q8 r4
4 3
(d) (7a5b)2
(j) f
as a
p4 q6 r2
7
2
fraction when p = , q = and
8
3
3
r= .
4
a 8
(b) c m
b
4a 3
(c) d 4 n
b
(i) e
p4 q6 r2
Simplify
(a) (pq 3) 5
(e)
p5 q8 r4
1
.
9
a6 # b3
as a fraction
a5 # b2
3
1
when a = and b = .
4
9
16. Evaluate
a2 b7
as a fraction in
a3 b
2 4
index form when a = c m and
5
5 3
b=c m.
8
17. Evaluate
18. Evaluate
(a 3) 2 b 4 c
as a fraction
a (b 2) 4 c 3
6
1
7
when a = , b = and c = .
7
3
9
23
24
Class Investigation
Explore zero and negative indices by looking at these questions.
For example simplify x 3 ' x 5 using (i) index laws and (ii) cancelling.
(i) x 3 ' x 5 = x  2 by index laws
3
x# x# x
(ii) x =
5
x
x# x# x# x
#
x
1
= 2
x
1
So x  2 = 2
x
Now simplify these questions by (i) index laws and (ii) cancelling.
(a) x 2 ' x 3
(b) x 2 ' x 4
(c) x 2 ' x 5
(d) x 3 ' x 6
(e) x 3 ' x 3
(f) x 2 ' x 2
(g) x ' x 2
(h) x 5 ' x 6
(i) x 4 ' x 7
(j) x ' x 3
Use your results to complete:
x0 =
xn =
x0 = 1
Proof
xn ' xn = xn  n
= x0
xn
xn ' xn = n
x
=1
`
x0 = 1
xn =
1
xn
Proof
x0 ' xn = x0  n
= xn
x0
x0 ' xn = n
x
1
= n
x
1
` xn = n
x
EXAMPLES
1. Simplify e
Solution
e
ab 5 c
o .
abc 4
ab 5 c
o =1
abc 4
2. Evaluate 2  3 .
Solution
1
23
1
=
8
23 =
CONTINUED
25
26
Solution
1
= x2
x2
3
(b) 5 = 3# 15
x
x
5
= 3x
1
1 1
= #x
(c)
5x
5
1 1
= x
5
1
1
=
(d)
x +1
(x + 1) 1
= ] x + 1 g1
(a)
Solution
a3 =
1
a3
1.6 Exercises
1.
2.
Evaluate
(a) 2 0
1 4
(b) c m
2
2 1
(c) c m
3
5 2
(d) c m
6
x + 2y 0
p
(e) f
3x  y
1 3
(f) c m
5
3 1
(g) c m
4
1 2
(h) c m
7
2 3
(i) c m
3
1 5
(j) c m
2
3 1
(k) c m
7
8 0
(l) c m
9
6 2
(m)c m
7
9 2
(n) c m
10
6 0
(o) c m
11
1 2
(p) c  m
4
2 3
(q) c  m
5
2 1
(r) c  3 m
7
3 0
(s) c  m
8
1 2
(t) c  1 m
4
3.
1
m3
1
x
1
p7
1
d9
1
k5
1
x2
2
x4
3
y2
1
2z 6
3
5t 8
2
7x
5
2m 6
2
(m) 7
3y
(l)
1
(3x + 4) 2
1
(o)
( a + b) 8
1
(p)
x2
(n)
1
(5p + 1) 3
2
(r)
(4t  9) 5
1
(s)
4 (x + 1) 11
5
(t)
9 ( a + 3 b) 7
(q)
4.
(i) ]2xg 3
(j) ] 4n g1
(k) ] x + 1 g 6
(l) ^ 8y + z h1
(m) ]k  3g 2
(n) ^ 3x + 2y h 9
1 5
(o) b x l
1 10
(p) c y m
2 1
(q) d n
p
1 2
m
a+b
x + y 1
(s) e x  y o
(r) c
(t) e
2w  z  7
o
3x + y
27
28
Fractional indices
Class Investigation
Explore fractional indices by looking at these questions.
For example simplify (i) ` x 2 j and (ii) ^ x h .
1 2
1 2
(i) ` x 2 j = x 1
=x
2
(ii) ^ x h = x
^ by index laws h
So ` x 2 j = ^ x h = x
1 2
x2 =
(a) ^ x 2 h 2
x2
(b)
1 3
(c) ` x 3 j
(d) ^ x 3 h 3
3
(e) ^ 3 x h
(f)
x3
1 4
4
(g) ` x j
(h) ^ x 4 h 4
1
4
(i) ^ 4 x h
(j)
x4
xn =
1
n
a =n a
Proof
1 n
`an j = a
^ n a hn = a
1
n
` a =n a
^ by index laws h
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate
(a) 49
1
2
1
(b) 27 3
Solution
1
2
(a) 49 = 49
=7
1
3
(b) 27 = 3 27
=3
2. Write
3x  2 in index form.
Solution
1
3x  2 = (3x  2) 2
1
Solution
1
( a + b) 7 = 7 a + b
Putting the fractional and negative indices together gives this rule.
1
n
1
a
m
n
a = n am
= (n a ) m
Proof
m
1 m
m
n
1
n
n
n
a = `a j
m
= ^n a h
a = ^ am h
= n am
29
30
a n
b n
c m = bal
b
Proof
a n
1
c m =
b
a n
c m
b
1
= n
a
bn
an
bn
bn
=1# n
a
bn
= n
a
b n
= bal
=1'
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate
4
(a) 8 3
(b) 125
1
3
2 3
(c) c m
3
Solution
4
(a) 8 3 = (3 8 ) 4 (or 3 8 4 )
= 24
= 16
(b) 125
1
3
1
1
125 3
1
=3
125
1
=
5
3
(c) c 2 m
3
3 3
=c m
2
27
=
8
3
=3
8
(a)
(b)
1
(4x  1) 2
2
Solution
5
x5 = x 2
1
(a)
(b)
(4x  1)
2
1
2
(4x 2  1) 3

= (4x 2  1)
3. Write r
3
5
2
3
Solution
r
3
5
=
=
1
3
r5
1
5
r3
31
32
1.7 Exercises
1.
Evaluate
(a) 81
3.
1
2
(a) y 3
(b) 27 3
(b) y 3
(c) 16 2
(c) x
1
2
1
(d) (2x + 5) 2
(d) 8 3
1
(e) (3x  1)
(e) 49 2
1
1
2
(f) (6q + r) 3
(f) 1000 3
1
(g) (x + 7)
(g) 16 4
2
5
(h) 64 2
(i) 64
(j) 1
4.
1
3
(a)
1
7
(k) 81
(l) 32
t
5
x3
(c)
1
4
(d)
(e)
1
5
(m) 0 8
(f)
(n) 125
1
3
(g)
1
1
1
(r) 9
(s) 8
(i)
(t) 64
2.
(x  2) 2
1
(j)
2 y+7
5
(k) 3
x+4
2
(l)
3 y2  1
3
(m)
5 4 (x 2 + 2) 3
3
2

1
3

2
3
(a) 23 4
(b) 4 45.8
(c)
(d)
(e)
5 .9 # 3 .7
8.79  1.4
(f)
1.24 + 4.3 2
1
12.9
3 .6  1 .4
1 .5 + 3 .7
(3x + 1) 5
1
(h)
(q) 256 4
9x
4s + 1
1
2t + 3
1
(5x  y) 3
(o) 343 3
(p) 128 7
5.
6.
7.
(a) ( x + x) 2
(b) (3 a + 3 b ) (3 a  3 b )
1 2
(c) f p +
p
p
1 2
)
x
x ( x 2  3x + 1 )
(d) ( x +
(e)
x3
33
1
3
2
3
4
7
2
9
(c) 4 (6a + 1)
( x + y)
(d)
3
5
4
6 (3 x + 8 )
(e)
7
EXAMPLES
1. Write 320 000 000 in scientic notation.
Solution
320 000 000 = 3.2 #10 8
Solution
7.1#10
5
= 7.1 ' 10
= 0.000 071
5
Count 5 places to
the left.
34
15.4 # 10
6
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
The concept of signicant gures is related to rounding off. When we look
at very large (or very small) numbers, some of the smaller digits are not
signicant.
For example, in a football crowd of 49 976, the 6 people are not really
signicant in terms of a crowd of about 50 000! Even the 76 people are not
signicant.
When a company makes a prot of $5 012 342.87, the amount of
87 cents is not exactly a signicant sum! Nor is the sum of $342.87.
To round off to a certain number of signicant gures, we count from the
rst nonzero digit.
In any number, nonzero digits are always signicant. Zeros are not
signicant, except between two nonzero digits or at the end of a decimal
number.
Even though zeros may not be signicant, they are still necessary. For
example 31, 310, 3100, 31 000 and 310 000 all have 2 signicant gures but
are very different numbers!
Scientic notation uses the signicant gures in a number.
EXAMPLES
12 000 = 1.2 #10 4
0.000 043 5 = 4.35#10  5
0.020 7 = 2.07 #10  2
(2 significant figures)
(3 significant figures)
(3 significant figures)
When rounding off to signicant gures, use the usual rules for rounding off.
35
EXAMPLES
1. Round off 4 592 170 to 3 significant figures.
Solution
4 592 170 = 4 590 000 to 3 significant figures
2. Round off 0.248 391 to 2 significant figures.
Solution
0.248 391 = 0.25 to 2 significant figures
3. Round off 1.396 794 to 3 significant figures.
Solution
1.396 794 = 1.40 to 3 significant figures
1.8 Exercises
1.
3.
2.
4.
Remember to put
the 0s in!
36
5.
6.
7.
Calculate
8.72 #10  3
and write
1.34 #10 7
your answer in standard form
correct to 3 significant figures.
Investigation
A logarithm is an index. It is a way of finding the power (or index) to
which a base number is raised. For example, when solving 3 x = 9, the
solution is x = 2.
The 3 is called the base number and the x is the index or power.
You will learn about logarithms in the HSC course.
The a is called the base
number and the x is the
index or power.
If a x = y then log a y = x
37
Absolute Value
Negative numbers are used in maths and science, to show opposite directions.
For example, temperatures can be positive or negative.
x =)
x when x $ 0
 x when x 1 0
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate 4 .
Solution
4 = 4 since 4 $ 0
CONTINUED
38
2. Evaluate  3 .
Solution
3 =  ]  3 g since  3 1 0
=3
 ab  =  a # b 
e.g.  2 #  3  =  2 #  3  = 6
a  = a
e.g.   3  2 = ]  3 g2 = 9
a2 =  a 
 a  =  a 
a  b  =  b  a 
 a + b # a  +  b 
e.g. 5 2 =  5  = 5
e.g.  7  =  7  = 7
e.g.  2  3  =  3  2  = 1
e.g.  2 + 3  =  2  +  3  but   3 + 4  1   3  +  4 
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate 2  1 +  3 2.
Solution
2  1 +  3 2 = 2  1 + 3 2
=2 1 + 9
= 10
2. Show that a + b # a + b when a =  2 and b = 3.
Solution
LHS means Left Hand Side.
LHS = a + b
= 2 + 3
= 1
=1
RHS = a + b
= 2 + 3
= 2+3
=5
Since 11 5
a+b # a + b
3. Write expressions for 2x  4 without the absolute value signs.
Solution
2x  4 = 2x  4 when 2x  4 $ 0
i.e.
2x $ 4
x$2
2x  4 =  ] 2x  4 g when 2x  4 1 0
=  2x + 4 i.e.
2x 1 4
x12
Class Discussion
Are these statements true? If so, are there some values for which the
expression is undefined (values of x or y that the expression cannot
have)?
2.
x
=1
x
2x = 2x
3.
2x = 2 x
4.
x + y = x+y
5.
2
x = x2
6.
7.
3
x = x3
x +1 = x +1
1.
3x  2
=1
3x  2
x
9.
=1
x2
10. x $ 0
8.
39
40
1.9 Exercises
1.
2.
3.
Evaluate
(a) 7
(b)  5
(c)  6
(d) 0
(e) 2
(f) 11
(g)  2 3
(h) 3  8
2
(i)  5
(j)  5 3
Evaluate
(a) 3 +  2
(b)  3  4
(c)  5 + 3
(d) 2 #7
(e)  3 + 1
2
(f) 5   2 # 6
(g)  2 + 5# 1
(h) 3  4
(i) 2  3  3  4
(j) 5  7 + 4  2
(i)
(j)
Show that a + b # a + b
when
(a) a = 2 and b = 4
(b) a = 1 and b =  2
(c) a =  2 and b = 3
(d) a =  4 and b = 5
(e) a = 7 and b =  3.
6.
7.
8.
9.
n
Simplify n where n ! 0.
a = 5 and b = 2
a = 1 and b = 2
a =  2 and b =  3
a = 4 and b = 7
a = 1 and b =  2.
a when a 1 0
a when a = 0
3a when a 2 0
3a when a 1 0
3a when a = 0
a + 1 when a 2 1
x  2 when x 2 2
x  2 when x 1 2.
5.
Evaluate a  b if
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
4.
(h) a + 1 when a 1 1
x2
and state which
x2
value x cannot be.
10. Simplify
Test Yourself 1
1.
2.
Convert
(a) 0.45 to a fraction
(b) 14% to a decimal
5
(c)
to a decimal
8
(d) 78.5% to a fraction
(e) 0.012 to a percentage
11
(f)
to a percentage
15
6.
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(a) 7  2
(b) 5 1
3.
7.
1
2
(b) 36 2
(c)  5 2  2 3
(d) 4  3 as fraction
4.5 2 + 7.6 2
(e) 6
4.
5.
(e) 8 3
(f)  2  1
1.3#10 9
3.8 #10 6

(g) 49
2
3
1
2
as a fraction
1
4
Evaluate
(a) 3   2 
(b)  4  5 
(c) 7 + 4 # 8
(d) [(3 + 2)#(5  1)  4] ' 8
(e)  4 + 3  9
(f)  2  1
(g)  24 '  6
(h) 16
(i) ] 3 g0
(j) 4  7 2  2  3
8.
(a) x 5 # x 7 ' x 3
(b) (5y 3) 2
(a 5) 4 b 7
(c)
a9 b
3
2x 6 n
(d) d
3
0
ab 4
o
a5 b6
Simplify
(a) a 14 ' a 9
6
(b) _ x 5 y 3 i
(c) p 6 # p 5 ' p 2
4
(d) ^ 2b 9h
(2x 7) 3 y 2
(e)
x 10 y
Simplify
(e) e
Evaluate
(a)  4
1
3
7
5
8
6
2
#3
7
3
3
9'
4
2
1
+2
5
10
5
15#
6
(a) 1
Evaluate as a fraction.
(c) 9
Evaluate
9.
n
1
(b) 5
x
1
(c)
x+y
(d)
x +1
41
42
(e)
a+b
2
(f) x
1
(g)
2x 3
(h)
x4
(i)
(5x + 3) 9
1
m3
(j)
(b) n 4
(c) (x + 1) 2
(d) (x  y) 1
(e) (4t  7)  4
1
(f) (a + b) 5
(g) x
(i) (2x + 3)

1
3
(h) b 4
(j) x
4
3
3
2
(c)
(e)
y7
3
1 4
13. If a = c m and b = , evaluate ab 3 as a
4
3
fraction.
14. Increase 650 mL by 6%.
1
of his 24hour day
3
1
sleeping and at work.
4
(a) How many hours does Johan spend
at work?
(b) What fraction of his day is spent at
work or sleeping?
(a) 0. 7
(b) 0.124
22. Write without the negative index.
(a) x  3
(b) (2a + 5) 1
a 5
(c) c m
b
23. The number of people attending a
football match increased by 4% from last
week. If there were 15 080 people at the
match this week, how many attended
last week?
24. Show that  a + b  # a + b when
a =  2 and b =  5.
Challenge Exercise 1
3
2
2
7
+ 3 m ' c4  1 m.
4
5
3
8
1.
Simplify c 8
2.
3
5
149
7
Simplify +
+
.
5
12
180
30
3.
4.
2
3
5.
Write 64
6.
7.
as a rational number.
3 2
2 4
1 3
a = c m , b = c  m and c = c m .
5
5
3
13. Which of the following are rational
3
numbers: 3 ,  0.34, 2, 3r, 1. 5, 0, ?
7
14. The percentage of salt in 1 L of water is
10%. If 500 mL of water is added to this
mixture, what percentage of salt is there
now?
15. Simplify
25
1
out of 20 for a maths
2
1
test, 19 out of 23 for English and 55
2
out of 70 for physics. Find his average
score as a percentage, to the nearest
whole percentage.
Vinh scored 17
a
in index form if
b3 c2
x + 1 
x2  1
for x ! !1.
16. Evaluate 6
8.
19. Evaluate
9.
8.3# 4.1
correct to
0.2 + 5.4 ' 1.3
3 significant figures.
10. Evaluate 3
43