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Department of Mechanical &

Manufacturing
Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, UPM

Course: Strength of Materials 1


Course Code: EMM 3108
Session: Semester 2 (2014/2015)
Report Title: Tensile Test

Group Members:
Name
Matric No.
Muhammad Asyraf Bin Muhammad
180732
Rizal
Vinod Raj A/L Senivasagam
Muhammad
Kamaruddin

Redzuan

Signature

180720
Bin

180590

Date: 3/4/2015
Date Submitted: 9/4/2015
Lecturer Name: Dr. Che Nor Aiza Jaafar
Demonstrator Name: Riadatul Akmal Binti Mohamad Rushdi

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Tensile test or extension test is one of the fundamental that used in engineering materials to
describe the properties and behaviour of materials which a sample is subjected to a
controlled tension until failure. From the tensile experiment, the results are commonly used
to select a material for an application, a quality control, and to predict the behaviour and how
a material will react under other types of forces. Properties that are directly measured via a
tensile test are ultimate tensile strength, maximum elongation and reduction in area.
Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield strength, and strain-hardening characteristics are the
values and measurements used to determine the properties of materials. The mechanical
characteristics of isotropic is determined based on uniaxial tensile testing which is the most
commonly used. For anisotropic materials, such as composite materials and textiles, biaxial
tensile testing is required.
A tensile specimen is a standardized sample cross-section of specimen. It has two shoulders
and a gauge section which is in between shoulders. The shoulders are large so they can be
readily gripped, whereas the gauge section has a smaller cross-section so that the
deformation and failure can occur in this area.
The shoulders of the test specimen can be manufactured in various ways to mate to various
grips in the testing machine in the Figure 1. Threaded shoulders and grips also assure good
alignment, but the thread each shoulder need to grip at least one diameter's length,
otherwise the threads can strip before the specimen fractures[1].

Figure 1: Tensile Specimens

2.0 OBJECTIVES
The experiment is carried out:
1. To develop a knowledge about stressstrain curves.
2. To determine the various mechanical properties of engineering material by doing tensile
test.

3.0 PROCEDURES
1. A Vernier calliper is used to measure the original diameter of the specimen based
Figure 2. The measurements is taken at least three different locations and average is
calculated.

Original
Gauge length
L0

Plastic
Deformation

Gauge length at failure L


Original diameter d0

Reduction in diameter Diameter at failure d

Figure 2: Tensile test specimen for before and after testing.


2.

The value
of gauge length is calculated and two marks on the parallel part of the specimens are
made to register the gauge length and the specimen is gripped in the gripping heads
of the machine.

3. The required parameters is set on the control panel.

4. The load recorder is adjusted on the front panel controller to zero, the load applied is
read.
5. The start button is pressed to start the tensile test.
6. The sample is observed and noted when constriction begins.
7. The tested specimen is removed from the gripping heads, and the dimensions of
tested specimen is measured. The broken parts ae fitted together and reduced
diameter and final gauge length are calculated. (Figure 2).

4.0 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

SPECIMEN
BRASS
ALUMINIUM
STEEL

DIAMETER, d (mm)
ORIGINAL
FINAL
5
4.94
5
3.72
5
3.54

GAUGE LENGTH,
ORGINAL
20
20
20

L (mm)
FINAL
22.34
23.40
23.42

ALUMINIUM

BRASS

STEEL

5.0 DISCUSSION
The stress-strain graph obtained for steel shows that it has a very high ultimate
tensile strength (UTS). From the graph also the elongation of the specimen during testing is
low which indicates steel is brittle material. We can say the steel also low in toughness as
the area under the graph is low. Meanwhile, brass has lower ultimate tensile strength, longer
specimens elongation, and wider area under the graph[2]. For aluminum, the UTS,
elongation, and area under the graph are the lowest among the specimens.
An approximation without conducting an experiment is a good theory, but the testing
and conducting an experiment gives out better result regarding the material properties.
Table below shows the difference between Engineering Stress and True Stress:
Engineering Stress
Engineering stress, E, is calculated using

True Stress
True stress, T, is calculated using the

the original cross-sectinal area of the

actual cross-sectional area throughout the

specimen although there is decrease in the

elongation of the specimen during the

measurement throughout the experiment.


E = F/Ao ;

experiment.
E = F/A ;

where Ao constant with time.

where A decreases with time due to necking


process. Thus, the value of stress obtained
is higher than the engineering stress.

Theres is an absolute difference regarding the stress and strain graph obtained among all
specimens, but all material tested show a little plastic deformation from the testing. In
engineering, materials are design to support stress within their elastic limit. Hence, it is
acceptable to use engineering stress because the difference in the value of stress and strain
obtained would be very small and not significant. However, at failure the difference between
these values is very significant where the true stress would become higher and higher
because of the decreasing value of cross-sectional area. Where, the engineering stress
would be decreasing towards failure because of the constant cross-sectional area.
The cross-sectional area of the specimens decrease in a localized region during
testing is calling necking. In the graph, the necking process occurs after the stress reaches
the maximum value, also known as ultimate tensile strength (UTS). After UTS, the graph
curve downwards until the specimen breaks at fracture stress[3].
Based to the stress-strain graph obtained, steel is the strongest material among the
specimen tested. But, it is very brittle and has low toughness. Meanwhile, brass is strong
and ductile. The least strong, brittle and tough material is Aluminum
The factor that may affect the result during test are zero error, improper placing the
specimens and room temperature. These errors can be reduced by checking the zero error
before taking the readings, taking repeated readings and calculate the average value,
conducting the experiment with care and follow the guidelines of the instruments used.

6.0 CONCLUSION
The shape of stress-strain graph is important as they give an important values and
information for material that being tested. One of the example is by knowing the ultimate
tensile strength (UTS). Meanwhile the area under the graph indicates the toughness of the
material. From the graph, we can conclude that the steel is the best material among the
aluminum and brass. As its shows the higher values of UTS.

7.0 REFERENCES
[1] Davis, Joseph R. (2004). Tensile testing (2nd ed.). ASM International. ISBN 978-0-87170806-9.
[2] R. C. Hibbeler (2013) Mechanics of Materials, Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd,
Ninth Edition
[3] Video of Tensile test, accessed on 4th April 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=D8U4G5kcpcM